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  • 351.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro Universitet.
    Towards reflexive responsibility in a textile supply chain2018In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 230-239Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 352.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Knowledge challenges for responsible supply chain management of chemicals in textiles - as experienced by procuring organisations2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, p. 130-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great number of chemicals - many of which are hazardous to human health and the environment - are used along the complex supply chains of textiles. These complexities and hazards make knowledge for understanding chemical properties and management practices at multiple nodes central to the responsible management of textile supply chains. This study investigates the knowledge requirements of, and the knowledge strategies used by, textile procuring organisations in response to both external stakeholders and internal pressure. Based on a qualitative study of small and medium-sized Swedish textile procuring organisations, the paper describes these knowledge challenges and analyses how efforts to meet them relate to expressed commitments and capabilities for responsible supply chain management (RSCM), as well as to organisational characteristics (i.e. whether the organisation is private or public, small or large, and whether textiles is a core or peripheral activity). It was found that several textile procuring organisations expressed commitment towards achieving RSCM. However, most organisations felt that they lacked capacity to rise to the challenge. There was a poor state of knowledge regarding many chemical substances and inherent difficulties in gaining knowledge of chemical risks and how to manage these. Moreover, the input of knowledge was limited and based on only a few key sources. Such factors proved to be obstacles for procuring organisations when attempting to facilitate responsible management upstream in complex supply chains.

  • 353.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    KTH.
    Green Chemistry, the REACH Regulation and Textile CompaniesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 354.
    Börjesson, Hannah
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Miljömärkning av logianläggningar: En studie av effekterna på Green Key-märkta hotell och vandrarhems miljöprestanda2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The accommodation sector accounts for a significant proportion of resource consumption and environmental impact of the tourism industry. Today, there are a growing number of ecolabels in the accommodation sector to help establishments become more sustainable. One of them is the international eco-label Green Key. Lodging establishments have different motives for joining an eco-label in addition to an internal commitment to the environment; cost savings, competitive advantages, more guests and increased profitability.

    This study investigated if there is any difference when it comes to the effects of Green Key depending on the type of facility, and if the number of ‘scoring criteria’ affect environmental performance. The purpose was mainly to find out whether Green Key reduces the environmental impact over time, and if the label leads to an increased number of guests, depending on the type of guests.

    A quantitative method was chosen and longitudinal data over Green Key hotel and hostel's annual water, electricity and energy consumption was collected. Data on the number of guest nights per year, type of guests and total indoor area was also collected. Statistical tests were conducted and they showed that there was no correlation between the number of ‘scoring criteria’ and environmental impact. Only hotel and hostel's electricity consumption differed - hotels had a significantly higher electricity consumption/m2 than hostels. The results showed that there was an effect of Green Key on the establishments' resource consumption over time, although the effect differed. However, the majority of the establishments had reduced their resource consumption over time. The results also showed that there was a significant difference in water consumption per guest night from the starting year with Green Key in comparison with 2015. There was no difference in the increase of guest nights, depending on the type of guests. Although, the number of guest nights in total had significantly increased after the establishments had been rewarded with Green Key. However, it is difficult to demonstrate that the effect depends on Green Key.

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  • 355.
    Bös, Julian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Collective learning in the multilevel governance project Civitas Dyn@mo: A case of knowledge management2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reflexive approaches to (multilevel) governance are currently discussed as essential for sustainable outcomes of decision-making. A key element of reflexive governance has been called collective learning. Collective learning has been argued to be a necessary tool or safeguard against the misuse of power in the context of sustainable decision-making. Though being named a key element, the effects of collective learning processes on power and conflict dynamics have been defined very vaguely in reflexive governance approaches. If at all, collective learning is described as an excursive debate that - given the choice of experienced actors and a set of rules – will automatically lead to balanced power distribution. This work contributes to the scientific discourse on reflexive governance by conceptualizing the process of collective learning in two steps. The first involves a conceptual claim whereby it is shown that collective learning, in addition to a discursive debate, consists of three ‘aspects’, communication, participation, knowledge implementation. This claim is exemplified via the investigation of a case of knowledge management in the sustainable governance project Civitas Dyn@mo, as it reflects the suggested aspects of collective learning.

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    Collective learning in the multilevel governance project Civitas Dyn@mo_a case of knoledge management
  • 356.
    Bürglin, Thomas R.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif2008In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 9, p. 127-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results: We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion: In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have arisen in very early eukaryotic evolution, and gave rise eventually to hh and hh-related genes in animals. The results indicate a hitherto unsuspected ability of Hog domain encoding genes to evolve new N-termini. In one instance in Cnidaria, the Hh N-terminal signaling domain is associated with a VWA domain and lacks a Hog domain, suggesting a modular mode of evolution also for the N-terminal domain. The Hog domain proteins, the inteins and VWA-Vint proteins are three families of Hint domain proteins that evolved in parallel in eukaryotes.

  • 357.
    Bürglin, Thomas R.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    The Hedgehog protein family2008In: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 241-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is one of the fundamental signal transduction pathways in animal development and is also involved in stem-cell maintenance and carcinogenesis. The hedgehog (hh) gene was first discovered in Drosophila, and members of the family have since been found in most metazoa. Hh proteins are composed of two domains, an amino-terminal domain HhN, which has the biological signal activity, and a carboxy-terminal autocatalytic domain HhC, which cleaves Hh into two parts in an intramolecular reaction and adds a cholesterol moiety to HhN. HhC has sequence similarity to the self-splicing inteins, and the shared region is termed Hint. New classes of proteins containing the Hint domain have been discovered recently in bacteria and eukaryotes, and the Hog class, of which Hh proteins comprise one family, is widespread throughout eukaryotes. The non-Hh Hog proteins have carboxy-terminal domains ( the Hog domain) highly similar to HhC, although they lack the HhN domain, and instead have other amino-terminal domains. Hog proteins are found in many protists, but the Hh family emerged only in early metazoan evolution. HhN is modified by cholesterol at its carboxyl terminus and by palmitate at its amino terminus in both flies and mammals. The modified HhN is released from the cell and travels through the extracellular space. On binding its receptor Patched, it relieves the inhibition that Patched exerts on Smoothened, a G-protein-coupled receptor. The resulting signaling cascade converges on the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci), or its mammalian counterparts, the Gli proteins, which activate or repress target genes.

  • 358.
    Bürglin, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Kuwabara, P. E.
    Homologs of the Hh signalling network in C. elegans2006In: WormBook : the online review of C. elegans biology, ISSN 1551-8507, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Drosophila and vertebrates, Hedgehog (Hh) signalling is mediated by a cascade of genes, which play essential roles in cell proliferation and survival, and in patterning of the embryo, limb buds and organs. In C. elegans, this pathway has undergone considerable evolutionary divergence; genes encoding homologues of key pathway members, including Hh, Smoothened, Cos2, Fused and Suppressor of Fused, are absent. Surprisingly, over sixty proteins (i.e. WRT, GRD, GRL, and QUA), encoded by a set of genes collectively referred to as the Hh-related genes, and two co-orthologs (PTC-1,-3) of fly Patched, a Hh receptor, are present in C. elegans. Several of the Hh-related proteins are bipartite and all can potentially generate peptides with signalling activity, although none of these peptides shares obvious sequence similarity with Hh. In addition, the ptc-related (ptr) genes, which are present in a single copy in Drosophila and vertebrates and encode proteins closely related to Patched, have undergone an expansion in number in nematodes. A number of functions, including roles in molting, have been attributed to the C. elegans Hh-related, PTC and PTR proteins; most of these functions involve processes that are associated with the trafficking of proteins, sterols or sterol-modified proteins. Genes encoding other components of the Hh signalling pathway are also found in C. elegans, but their functions remain to be elucidated.

  • 359. Caballero-Herrera, A
    et al.
    Nordstrand, Kerstin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Berndt, Kurt D
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, L
    Effect of urea on peptide conformation in water: Molecular dynamics and experimental characterization2005In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 842-857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a ribonuclease A C-peptide analog and a sequence variant were performed in water at 277 and 300 K and in 8 M urea to clarify the molecular denaturation mechanism induced by urea and the early events in protein unfolding. Spectroscopic characterization of the peptides showed that the C-peptide analog had a high alpha-helical content, which was not the case for the variant. In the simulations, interdependent side-chain interactions were responsible for the high stability of the alpha-helical C-peptide analog in the different solvents. The other peptide displayed alpha-helical unwinding that propagated cooperatively toward the N-terminal. The conformations sampled by the peptides depended on their sequence and on the solvent. The ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds to the peptide as well as the hydrogen bond lifetimes increased in the presence of urea, whereas water mobility was reduced near the peptide. Urea accumulated in excess around the peptide, to which it formed long-lived hydrogen bonds. The unfolding mechanisms induced by thermal denaturation and by urea are of a different nature, with urea-aqueous solutions providing a better peptide solvation than pure water. Our results suggest that the effect of urea on the chemical denaturation process involves both the direct and indirect mechanisms.

  • 360. Cao, Renhai
    et al.
    Jensen, Lasse Dahl Ejby
    Söll, Iris
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Cao, Yihai
    Hypoxia-Induced Retinal Angiogenesis in Zebrafish as a Model to Study Retinopathy2008In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3, no 7, p. e2748-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic understanding and defining novel therapeutic targets of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been hampered by a lack of appropriate adult animal models. Here we describe a simple and highly reproducible adult fli-EGFP transgenic zebrafish model to study retinal angiogenesis. The retinal vasculature in the adult zebrafish is highly organized and hypoxia-induced neovascularization occurs in a predictable area of capillary plexuses. New retinal vessels and vascular sprouts can be accurately measured and quantified. Orally active anti-VEGF agents including sunitinib and ZM323881 effectively block hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization. Intriguingly, blockage of the Notch signaling pathway by the inhibitor DAPT under hypoxia, results in a high density of arterial sprouting in all optical arteries. The Notch suppression-induced arterial sprouting is dependent on tissue hypoxia. However, in the presence of DAPT substantial endothelial tip cell formation was detected only in optic capillary plexuses under normoxia. These findings suggest that hypoxia shifts the vascular targets of Notch inhibitors. Our findings for the first time show a clinically relevant retinal angiogenesis model in adult zebrafish, which might serve as a platform for studying mechanisms of retinal angiogenesis, for defining novel therapeutic targets, and for screening of novel antiangiogenic drugs.

  • 361.
    Carlson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Dissipation in rapid dynamic wetting2011In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 682, p. 213-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present a modelling approach for rapid dynamic wetting based on the phase field theory. We show that in order to model this accurately, it is important to allow for a non-equilibrium wetting boundary condition. Using a condition of this type, we obtain a direct match with experimental results reported in the literature for rapid spreading of liquid droplets on dry surfaces. By extracting the dissipation of energy and the rate of change of kinetic energy in the flow simulation, we identify a new wetting regime during the rapid phase of spreading. This is characterized by the main dissipation to be due to a re-organization of molecules at the contact line, in a diffusive or active process. This regime serves as an addition to the other wetting regimes that have previously been reported in the literature.

  • 362.
    Carlson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH / Harvard University, Cambridge, United States / Princeton University, Princeton, United States.
    Kim, P.
    Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea / Princeton University, Princeton, United States.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Stone, H. A.
    Princeton University, Princeton, United States.
    Short and long time drop dynamics on lubricated substrates2013In: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 104, no 3, article id 34008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid infiltrated solids have been proposed as functional solvent-phobic surfaces for handling single and multiphase flows. Implementation of such surfaces alters the interfacial transport phenomenon as compared to a dry substrate. To better understand the interface characteristics in such systems we study experimentally the dynamics of a pendant water drop in air that contacts a substrate coated by thin oil films. At short times the water drop is deformed by the oil that spreads onto the water-air interface, and the dynamics are characterized by inertial and viscous regimes. At late times, the the oil film under the drop relaxes either to a stable thin film or ruptures. In the thin film rupture regime, we measure the waiting time for the rupture as a function of the drop equilibrium contact angle on a dry substrate and the initial film height. The waiting time is rationalized by lubrication theory, which indicates that long-range intermolecular forces destabilize the oil-water interface and is the primary mechanism for the film drainage.

  • 363.
    Carlson, Tomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Skorupinska-Tudek, K
    Hertel, J
    Chojnacki, T
    Olsson, J M
    Swiezewska, E
    Single polyprenol and dolichol isolation by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography technique2000In: Journal of Lipid Research, ISSN 0022-2275, E-ISSN 1539-7262, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 1177-1180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method of separation of single polyprenols (or dolichols) from a mixture of isoprenoid alcohols is described. Application of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) apparatus equipped with a semipreparative ODS column resulted in preparation of long-chain (dihydro)polyprenols of high purity (>95%). This approach substantially decreases the time scale of the conventional chromatographical preparative procedure. The method can be widely used in chemical and biochemical projects, where single polyprenols or dolichols are required.

  • 364.
    Carlson, Veronica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Konsten att göra digitalt socialt till normalt: En undersökning med mål att presentera ett nytt verktyg för sociala medier på TV42016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    TV4-Gruppen är en av Sveriges största medieföretag som på kort tid upplevt betydande strukturella förändringar för att kunna anpassa sig efter den pågående digitaliserade marknaden.  I takt med den digitala transformationen har användares beteenden och behov förändrats, något som därmed ökat kravet på närvaron på sociala medier. Idag är TV4-Gruppen oerhört aktiva på olika sociala plattformar och når en bred publik med sina över 30 olika sociala kanaler. Bristen av ett verktyg som enar publicering, moderering och analysering av data, gör det emellertid svårt att kunna utnyttja alla resurser som finns tillgängliga.

    Denna undersökning syftar till att finna och presentera ett verktyg för sociala medier som möter TV4-Gruppens behov vad gäller tekniska lösningar, men som även kan underlätta och förbättra interna arbetsprocesser över alla kanaler och därmed säkra den digitala affären. Genom att kartlägga ett antal leverantörer baserat på en tidigare genomförd kravspecifikation, samt en mer detaljerad undersökning i form av en poängmatris där två av leverantörerna jämförts, Spredfast och Sprinklr, kunde resultaten konstatera att Sprinklr är det mest lämpade verktyget som kan uppfylla företagets krav, behov och önskemål.

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    Konsten att göra digitalt socialt till normalt
  • 365. Carlsson, Christer
    et al.
    Jää-Aro, Kai-Mikael
    The DIVE Laboratory1995In: Presence - Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, ISSN 1054-7460, E-ISSN 1531-3263, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 431-440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 366.
    Carlsson, Isabella
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Technology and Design.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Technology and Design.
    Perspectives on digital divide: Internet usage and attitudes in Arusha, Tanzania, a minor field study2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the current situation of Internet usage and attitudes towards the Internet among ordinary people in Arusha, Tanzania, and examines the views of ordinary citizens on the effects of the arrival of Internet and the possible digital divide.

    Using qualitative interviews with equal groups of ordinary Internet users and ordinary non- Internet users in Arusha, the authors found varying levels of awareness about Internet services and facilities and their availability. There was also a widespread concern about immoral western influences communicated by the Internet and how it may affect the domestic culture. It was clearly shown that Internet usage and the possibility to utilize the information found is dependent on education levels and the economic situation of the users, two closely related factors. To get additional views on the subject interviews were also carried out with representatives for Radio and TV stations as well as newspapers located in Arusha, institutions for higher education in the ICT field, Internet providers, and Arusha Municipal Council. To examine the actual Internet usage we extracted random samples of visited websites in several of the Internet cafés, which most of the Arushans use to access the Internet.

    It was found that government action is necessary that the in order to bridge the digital divide, but as a result of systematic censorship of media government efforts meet a profound distrust among people, neither does the government consider this to be any of their responsibilities.

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  • 367. Carlsson, J
    et al.
    Carlsson, J E L
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Hansen, M M
    Eriksson, T
    Nilsson, J
    Kin-biased distribution in brown trout: an effect of redd location or kin recognition?2004In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of animals have been reported to show kin-biased behaviours, such as reduced aggressiveness and increased food sharing among relatives. However, less is known about whether wild animals also associate with relatives under natural conditions, which is a prerequisite to facilitate kin-biased behaviours and hence kin selection. We tested, by means of microsatellite polymorphism, correlations between pair-wise relatedness and pair-wise metric distance in wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) under natural conditions in two streams. Our data show that young-of-the-year as well as older trout found close together also had a higher genetic relatedness in one of the two streams, whereas no relationship was found in the other stream. Very few half and full siblings were found in the second stream and under these conditions it is unlikely that kin-biased behaviours will receive positive selection. We discuss the underlying mechanisms for the observed structure and we specifically address the issue of whether the grouping of related individuals could reflect dispersal from the same spawning redds, or if it reflects active association with relatives, possibly conferring kin-selected advantages.

  • 368.
    Carlsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Wallbäck, Andreas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Viktiga värdeskapande faktorer i digitala tjänsteerbjudanden: En studie riktad mot användare av tjänster i ett digitaliserat samhälle2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett allt mer digitaliserat och tjänstebaserat samhälle ter det sig viktigt att se över på vilket sätt olika typer av produkter framförs och används. Världens framtida ekonomi beräknas ligga inom tjänstesektorn, och då främst den digitala, vilket gör att tjänstelogiken verkligen är att ta på allvar. Denna studie syftar till att bidra med en ökad kunskap kring utvecklandet av främst digitala tjänster genom att påvisa de viktigaste faktorerna vid utvecklandet av dessa. För att påvisa detta genomfördes en enkätstudie samt en intervjustudie. Resultatet som påvisades är att tillgänglighet, bekvämlighet och tillit uppfattas som de viktigaste faktorerna. Dessa faktorer tenderar sedermera att vara vitala vid utvecklandet av digitala tjänster för att tjänsten skall upplevas som värd att nyttja. Dock så dras slutsatsen att de resurser som innefattas inom dessa faktorer är kontextbaserade och sedermera att samskapande mellan olika aktörer likväl är nödvändigt.

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    fulltext
  • 369.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Framgångsrik UI-design inom e-handel: En jämförelse mellan två B2C e-handelssidor utifrån ett UI-perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how successful B2C e-commerce companies and UI-design are interconnected. The survey has its starting point in which elements and features of an e- commerce page that users consider relevant. Relevant meaning that it is important for users to think that e-commerce is professional and visually appealing, to make users stay on the page and hopefully become paying customers.

    The study was conducted alongside six respondents and it compares two e-commerce pages. The two e-commerce pages have been selected based on the fact that one of them meets the criteria formulated, in the form of a basic assumption, and the other because it does not meet these criteria. The moments and methods of interview, interaction recording, retrospective think-aloud and questionnaire are included in the study and act as data collection. The result of this data collection is then set against the theoretical explanatory models presented in the report. The result shows clear results about which elements and functions are considered relevant and along with the theoretical explanatory models, the result shows an advantage for the e-commerce that meets the criteria. The results presented are analyzed and discussed to conclude a conclusion. In conclusion, the results of the study are based on the original research question and provide suggestions for further research. 

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    fulltext
  • 370.
    Carlsson, Michaela
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Vegetation succession in savanna determined by interaction of grazing, browsing and fire; a comparison between hypotheses.2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies in tropical regions have shown that trees and grasses respond differently to fire, grazing and browsing. In African savannas, the responses to fire, grazing and browsing are different, determined by negative or positive correlations. Browsing may have other consequences than grazing because instead of increasing woody biomass it reduces it, causing increase in grass growth, leading to increase in fuel that results in more intense fires and decrease in woody biomass. Fire and herbivory are an important interactive disturbance factors affecting vegetation succession and the tree-grass dynamics in savanna environment. Several of the fire-herbivory interactions are landscape level effects, which is shown in 2 models. My hypothesis is that the tree-grass balances are determined by interactions of both grazing and fire. There have come new scientific data about fire and herbivory and the interaction effects on tree-grass dynamic and succession in the savanna. By analyzing my hypothesis through a comparison between hypotheses, Intermediate disturbance hypothesis, Janzen-Connell hypothesis and the Huston hypothesis, I propose several scenarios of the savanna tree-grass dynamics in East Africa, as a result of this comparison.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 371. Carmichael, J B
    et al.
    Provost, P
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Hobman, T C
    Ago1 and Dcr1, two core components of the RNA interference pathway, functionally diverge from Rdp1 in regulating cell cycle events in Schizosaccharomyces pombe2004In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1425-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, three genes that function in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, ago1(+), dcr1(+), and rdp1(+), have recently been shown to be important for timely formation of heterochromatin and accurate chromosome segregation. In the present study, we present evidence that null mutants for ago1(+) and dcr1(+) but not rdp1(+), exhibit abnormal cytokinesis, cell cycle arrest deficiencies, and mating defects. Subsequent analyses showed that ago1(+) and dcr1(+) are required for regulated hyperphosphorylation of Cdc2 when encountering genotoxic insults. Because rdp1(+) is dispensable for this process, the functions of ago1(+) and dcr1(+) in this pathway are presumably independent of their roles in RNAi-mediated heterochromatin formation and chromosome segregation. This was further supported by the finding that ago1(+) is a multicopy suppressor of the S-M checkpoint deficiency and cytokinesis defects associated with loss of Dcr1 function, but not for the chromosome segregation defects of this mutant. Accordingly, we conclude that Dcr1-dependent production of small interfering RNAs is not required for enactment and/or maintenance of certain cell cycle checkpoints and that Ago1 and Dcr1 functionally diverge from Rdp1 to control cell cycle events in fission yeast. Finally, exogenous expression of hGERp95/EIF2C2/hAgo2, a human Ago1 homolog implicated in posttranscriptional gene silencing, compensated for the loss of ago1(+) function in S. pombe. This suggests that PPD proteins may also be important for regulation of cell cycle events in higher eukaryotes.

  • 372.
    Carvajal, Sandra
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Olsson von Koch, Ebba
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Onlinedejting via lokaliseringsapplikation: En studie om hur mobilapplikationen Badoo används ute på krogen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online dating and “People nearby applications” (PNA) has become more popular in today’s society. With PNA you can easily find people who are nearby you that you can socialize with and maybe even meet. In this paper we study the mobile application Badoo and explore how it is used for dating in clubs in Stockholm through observations that we participated in. We also had a group interview with five Badoo users about their usage of the application. It turned out that they mostly used Badoo during daytime to socialize with other people. Our observations in this study showed that Badoo is used by some people for dating when out in nightclubs but many people are more likely to use it when they are at home for other types of dates, such as meeting for sexual activities etc, at this time of the day.

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  • 373.
    Caspillo, Nasim Reyhanian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Hitting the mark: Studies of alterations in behaviour and fertility in ethinyl estradiol-exposed zebrafish and search related biomarkers2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we have analysed the effects of EE2 on non-reproductive behaviours and fertility. We have showed that two doses of EE2 in male adult short-term exposures evokes opposite behaviours in the novel tank test. A lower dose induced increased bottom-dwelling, a sign of increased anxiety and a higher dose increased surface-dwelling, which would likely expose themselves to predation in a natural environment. Increased shoaling was observed in both exposures, possibly affecting feeding and reproduction opportunities. Fertility analysis of these fish demonstrated a complete inhibition of spawning in the highest dose group. To investigate mechanisms behind the spawning failure, we examined expression levels of genes involved in zebrafish sex differentiation and maintenance of gonadal function. We found downregulated transcription levels of male-predominant genes, suggesting a demasculinization of the testes contributing to functional sterility in these fish. We have demonstrated that non-reproductive behaviour in zebrafish is highly sensitive to EE2 exposure during development. After exposing male and female zebrafish to low doses of EE2 followed by remediation in clean water until adulthood, the fish displayed increased anxiety and shoaling behaviour, demonstrating persistent effects of EE2. Furthermore, behavioural effects were transferred to their progeny. Decreased fertilisation success of the developmentally exposed fish was observed in both sexes when mated to untreated animals of the opposite sex. These fertility effects persisted although the fish had a long remediation period, implying likely reduced fitness of fish populations in aquatic environments. Based on our findings on non-reproductive behaviours and fertility, we performed RNAsequencing analysis of the brain and testes in order to investigate possible biological mechanisms behind the persistent effects. There is a need for biomarkers allowing detection of both reversible and irreversible effects in animals exposed to estrogenic substances, hopefully contributing to better risk assessments for EDCs. Results from RNA-sequencing would serve as a basis for continued studies in pursuit of potential biomarkers.

  • 374. Castillo, Luisa Eugenia
    et al.
    Martinez, Eduardo
    Ruepert, Clemens
    Savage, Candida
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Pinnock, Margareth
    Solis, Efrain
    Water quality and macroinvertebrate community response following pesticide applications in a banana plantation, Limon, Costa Rica2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 1, p. 418-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pesticides used in banana production may enter watercourses and pose ecological risks for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and effects of pesticides in a stream draining a banana plantation was evaluated using chemical characterization, toxicity testing and macrobenthic community composition. All nematicides studied were detected in the surface waters of the banana plantation during application periods, with peak concentrations following applications. Toxicity tests were limited to the carbofuran application and no toxicity was observed with the acute tests used. However, since pesticide concentrations were generally below the lowest LC50 value for crustaceans but above calculated aquatic quality criteria, there remains a risk of chronic toxicity. Accurate ecological assessments of pesticide use in banana plantations are currently limited by the lack of local short-term chronic toxicity tests and tests using sensitive native species. Relatively constant levels of four pesticides (imazalil, thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos and propiconazole), which had toxic effects according to the 96h hydra and 21d daphnia chronic test, were recorded in the effluent of the packing plant throughout the study, indicating that the solid waste trap used in this facility was not effective in eliminating toxic chemicals. Certain taxa, such as Heterelmis sp. (Elmidae), Heteragrion sp. (Megapodagrionidae, Odonata), Caenis sp. (Caenidae, Ephemerotera), and Smicridea sp. (Hidropsychidae, Trichoptera), were more abundant at reference sites than in the banana farm waters, and may be good candidates for toxicity testing. Multivariate analyses of the macroinvertebrate communities clearly showed that the banana plantation sites were significantly different from the reference sites. Moreover, following the pesticide applications, all the banana plantation sites showed significant changes in community composition, with the same genera being affected at all sites and for all pesticides (terbufas, cadusafos and carbofuran). Consequently, the results presented here show that multivariate analysis of community composition was more sensitive in distinguishing pesticide effects than the toxicity tests and richness and composition measures used. We conclude that monitoring macroinvertebrate communities can be a powerful tool in the assessment of ecological effects of banana production.

  • 375.
    Cautin, Stefan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Holmström, Mia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Uppfattning av karaktärsroller genom visuell design: Tolkning av associationer, utrustning och kroppsattribut i MOBA-spel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study analyses how gamers perceive and visually interpret characters from two MOBA games: League of Legends, and Defense of the Ancients 2, to broaden the research of visual character design. Subjects were randomly presented with an image and a video of one of six characters from either game. Interviews and thematic analysis reveal that gamers are able to explain a character’s personality and role in the game with help from visual attributes, shapes, animations and abilities, despite the lack of a presented backstory. The top-down view and the absence of a traditional narrative forced gamers to pay attention to the characters’ abilities, body attributes, visual expressions and movement patterns. Gamers perceived characters in the video differently from the image because of their in-game presentation, which also influenced believability of the character.

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  • 376.
    Cedergren, Daniel
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Technology and Design.
    Terning, Gustaf
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Technology and Design.
    SMS i TV: ett sätt att skapa interaktion i TV?2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this essay is to examine the phenomenon SMS in TV. Partly by identify the communication process behind the phenomenon and partly by describing it in a editorial and technical point of view. We have analysed the communication process regarding scientific theories in communication, interaction and convergence. With a qualitive approach we have fulfilled four interviews and two small ethnographical field observations. Objects for the interviews and observations have been two Swedish produced debate-programs, broadcasted in TV; Diskus in TV4 and Debatt in SVT2. Our conclusions shows that the phenomenon SMS in TV provides the traditional one-way communicative medium TV a new opportunity to create a feedback-channel between the TV-viewer and the TV-producer. The main purpose with SMS in TV from a TV-producers point of view is to let the TV-viewer have the possibility to send a SMS-message with his or her thoughts or questions to the TV-producer and by that affect the TV-program. Our conclusions also describes how the phenomenon is used in a editorial way and how it’s produced and used in a technical point of view. Further discussions are made regarding problems connected to the phenomenon and it’s future possibilities.

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  • 377.
    Cederholm, Alexej
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Technology and Design.
    Clefberg, Jessica
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Technology and Design.
    Enkla ingångar: Design av interaktiva stationer på utställningar2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this case study is to find out what a good hands-on-artifact made for museums is and how it should be designed. The study is made at the Marvels of the human body located at the Swedish museum of Natural history. The empirical material has been collected trough short interviews and observations with visitors at the museum and extended interviews with people working in the field. The results have then been analyzed individually but also together, after this the results have been categorized. The conclusion of this study showed that there is a lot of aspect to have in mind when creating interactive stations, one of the most important aspects is distinctiveness about the purpose of the station and how it should be carried out.

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  • 378. Ceron, Julian
    et al.
    Swoboda, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Caenorhabditis elegans comes of age2008In: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 312-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 379. Chamakuri, Srinivas
    et al.
    Guduru, Shiva Krishna Reddy
    Pamu, Sreedhar
    Chandrasekar, Gayathri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Kitambi, Satish Srinivas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska institutet.
    Arya, Prabhat
    A Modular Approach to Build Macrocyclic Diversity in Aminoindoline Scaffolds Identifies Antiangiogenesis Agents from a Zebrafish Assay2013In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-193X, E-ISSN 1099-0690, no 19, p. 3959-3964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modular approach to explore the macrocyclic chemical space around an aminoindoline scaffold is developed. This is achieved by incorporating an amino acid moiety and subsequent stitching technology. Through screening of a zebrafish assay, several antiangiogenesis agents are identified.

  • 380.
    Chan, Ronny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Plym, Linnéa
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Att leva med AutoCorrect: en studie om uppfattningen om AutoCorrects inverkan2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The smartphone is part of our daily life. Smartphone users type on a screen area that is no larger than the palm of a hand. To help with this endeavor the software known as AutoCorrect was created. However little is known about how AutoCorrect actually change the language and if AutoCorrect users at all perceive the impact it has. This study aims to find out if our test subjects are aware of AutoCorrect’s presence and how much it influences them. To do this our test subjects had to use smartphones to type two different texts. After categorizing the spelling errors according to AutoCorrect’s algorithm weights we compared the test data with the information from the interviews to determine problematic areas caused by AutoCorrect when typing. Our research show that using AutoCorrect makes the process of typing faster since there is no need for a high accuracy. However it does not necessarily make a user finish typing a text faster since they frequently have to pause to process AutoCorrect’s suggestions and words that are marked as erroneous. If AutoCorrect marked a word as wrong but did not offer a suggestion the test subjects would doubt their own spelling and try different versions of the word until they found one they were satisfied with. This would significantly slow them down compared to if they had typed the text without AutoCorrect. 

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  • 381.
    Chandrasekar, Gayathri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Lauter, Gilbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Distribution of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the developing zebrafish brain2007In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 505, no 4, p. 337-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in the physiological regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis mediating endocrine, behavioral, autonomic, and immune responses to stress. Despite the wealth of knowledge about the physiological roles of CRH, the genetic mechanisms by which CRH neurons arise during development are poorly understood. As a first step toward analyzing the molecular and genetic pathways involved in CRH lineage specification, we describe the developmental distribution of CRH neurons in the embryonic zebrafish, a model organism for functional genomics and developmental biology. We searched available zebrafish expressed sequence tag (EST) databases for CRH-like sequences and identified one EST that contained the complete zebrafish CRH open reading frame (ORF). The CRH precursor sequence contained a signal peptide, the CRH peptide, and a cryptic peptide with a conserved sequence motif. RT-PCR analysis showed crh expression in a wide range of adult tissues as well as during embryonic and larval stages. By whole-mount in situ hybridization histochemistry, discrete crh-expressing cell clusters were found in different parts of the embryonic zebrafish brain, including telencephalon, preoptic region, hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum, thalamus, epiphysis, midbrain tegmentum, and rostral hindbrain and in the neural retina. The localization of crh mRNA within the preoptic region is consistent with the central role of CRH in the teleost stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis. The widespread distribution of CRH-synthesizing cells outside the preoptic region suggests additional functions of CRH in the embryonic zebrafish brain.

  • 382. Chen, Nansheng
    et al.
    Mah, Allan
    Blacque, Oliver E.
    Chu, Jeffrey
    Phgora, Kiran
    Bakhoum, Mathieu W.
    Newbury, C. Rebecca Hunt
    Khattra, Jaswinder
    Chan, Susanna
    Go, Anne
    Efimenko, Evgeni
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Johnsen, Robert
    Phirke, Prasad
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Swoboda, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Marra, Marco
    Moerman, Donald G.
    Leroux, Michel R.
    Baillie, David L.
    Stein, Lincoln D.
    Identification of ciliary and ciliopathy genes in Caenorhabditis elegans through comparative genomics2006In: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 7, no 12, p. R126-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The recent availability of genome sequences of multiple related Caenorhabditis species has made it possible to identify, using comparative genomics, similarly transcribed genes in Caenorhabditis elegans and its sister species. Taking this approach, we have identified numerous novel ciliary genes in C. elegans, some of which may be orthologs of unidentified human ciliopathy genes. Results: By screening for genes possessing canonical X-box sequences in promoters of three Caenorhabditis species, namely C. elegans, C. briggsae and C. remanei, we identified 93 genes ( including known X-box regulated genes) that encode putative components of ciliated neurons in C. elegans and are subject to the same regulatory control. For many of these genes, restricted anatomical expression in ciliated cells was confirmed, and control of transcription by the ciliogenic DAF-19 RFX transcription factor was demonstrated by comparative transcriptional profiling of different tissue types and of daf-19(+) and daf-19(-) animals. Finally, we demonstrate that the dye-filling defect of dyf-5( mn400) animals, which is indicative of compromised exposure of cilia to the environment, is caused by a nonsense mutation in the serine/threonine protein kinase gene M04C9.5. Conclusion: Our comparative genomics-based predictions may be useful for identifying genes involved in human ciliopathies, including Bardet-Biedl Syndrome ( BBS), since the C. elegans orthologs of known human BBS genes contain X-box motifs and are required for normal dye filling in C. elegans ciliated neurons.

  • 383. Cheng, Kimberley
    et al.
    Koeck, Philip J. B.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Elmlund, Hans
    Idakieva, Krassimira
    Parvanova, Katja
    Schwarz, Heinz
    Ternström, Tomas
    Hebert, Hans
    Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH): Comparison of the two isoforms, RtH1 and RtH2, at 19 angstrom 16 angstrom resolution2006In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 566-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the two 8.4 MDa Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin isoforms, RtH1 and RtH2, have been obtained by cryoelectron microscopy of molecules embedded in vitreous ice and single particle image processing. The final 3D structures of the RtH1 and RtH2 didecamers at 19 angstrom and 16 angstrom resolution, respectively, are very similar to earlier reconstructions of gastropodan hemocyanins, revealing structural features such as the obliquely oriented subunits, the five- and two-fold symmetrical axes. Three new interactions are defined; two of them connecting the arch and the wall while the third is formed between the collar and the wall. The collar-wall connection and one of the arch-wall connections are positioned between two individual subunit dimers, while the second arch-wall connection is located between two subunits within the subunit dimer. All three interactions establish connections to the first tier of the wall. Furthermore, for each interaction we have allocated two first tier functional units most likely involved in forming the connections.

  • 384. Chin, T M
    et al.
    Berndt, Kurt D
    Universtity of Chicago, USA.
    Yang, N C C
    Self-Assembling Hexameric Helical Bundle Forming Peptides1992In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 114, no 6, p. 2279-2280Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 385.
    Christner, Gabriel
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Aiducate.se: Hur man skapar en modern webbsida2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the creative process of the website aiducate.se, which purpose is to support, motivate and guide high school students in their education. The project was conducted independently without any employers and lasted for a period of ten weeks. The basis of the project was a prior study that showed a lack of motivation among high school students. A supplementary survey showed that the students wanted to modernize the education with contemporary teaching methods. As a complement to high school education, the innovation Aiducate was made which in the future will include various tools for the studies. Everything from how to write a report to how to get inspiration. Within the framework of this thesis a simpler beta version of the website was presented. This included a complete graphic profile, responsive design and some features such as a forum and user account. The report also follows the development of the website in the popular CMS tool WordPress. Theoretical background has anchored all final decisions for the website’s design and function, which also reconnects through user testing.

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  • 386.
    Christner, Gabriel
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Utas, André
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Matematik är roligt! En undersökning av attityder gentemot animation som läromedel inom matematik2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to international measures, it is clear that the Swedish students have lagged behind concerning their results in mathematics compared to numerous other countries in the world. As it is noticed that learners general interest in the subject is weakened, the search for alternative methods of teaching mathematics has become increasingly important in order to turn this development around. This study examines how Swedish high school students and a teacher's attitudes look like in terms of multimedia animation and its learning potential. Furthermore, the study also addresses how animations can be designed for the purpose of improved learning. In the study, a questionnaire, an interview and an observation were conducted in order to measure attitudes towards the selected media. Numerous theories have also been collected and then applied to the creation of an animation. Results from the study concluded that both the high school students and the teacher's attitudes were positive regarding the use of animations in the teaching of mathematics. Regarding the literature that was collected, numerous pedagogical techniques and theories were identified and applied to the animation that was included in the study.

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  • 387.
    Cierlik, Izabela Anna
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Regulation of callose synthases and beta-1,3-glucanases during aphid infestation on barley cv. Clipper2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Plant resistance hypothesis says that under a period of time when a plant is exposed to powerful herbivore attack it will prioritise defence as a major metabolic function. In theory, induced plant defence (resistance) will provide opportunities for this organism to “invest” in other functions, in example growth when attackers are absent.

    One of the compounds taking part in plant defence is callose. This β-1,3-glucan is synthesised by callose synthase and broken down by β-1,3-glucanase. Deposition of callose occurs as a reaction to aphid attack an varies, depending on cultivars, and aphid species. In this experiment barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Clipper is being infested with two types of aphids: Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia) and bird cherry-oat aphid (BCA, Rhopalosiphium padi) over a time period. Infestation by those two insects results in different callose formation and deposition level.

    Six sequences encoding for putative callose synthase genes and nine sequences encoding for β-1,3-glucanase were examined by RT-PCR and Real – Time PCR methods for different expression patterns.

    The results did not show any significant regulation of gene expression during RWA and BCA attack for any of these genes. Thus the pathway regulating aphid – induced callose deposition in barley reminds unresolved.

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  • 388. Clarke, A. L.
    et al.
    Weckström, K.
    Conley, D. J.
    Anderson, N. J.
    Adser, F.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Jonge, V. N. de
    Ellegaard, M.
    Juggins, S.
    Kauppila, P.
    Korhola, A.
    Reuss, N.
    Telford, R. J.
    Vaalgamaa, S.
    Long-Term Trends in Eutrophication and Nutrients in the Coastal Zone2006In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 385-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used high-resolution paleoecological records of environmental change to study the rate and magnitude of eutrophication over the last century in two contrasting coastal ecosystems. A multiproxy approach using geochemical and biological indicators and diatom-based transfer functions provides a long-term perspective on changes in nutrient concentrations and the corresponding biological and sedimentary responses. In Roskilde Fjord, Denmark, total nitrogen (TN) increased 85% during the last century, with the most rapid increase occurring after the 1950s, corresponding to the postwar increase in N fertilizer use. In Laajalahti Bay, an urban embayment near Helsinki, Finland, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) increased with growing wastewater inputs and decreased with the remedial actions taken to reduce these discharges. These changes are small relative to the order of magnitude increases in nutrient loading that have occurred in northwestern Europe, where the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) load has increased more than threefold in certain areas.

  • 389. Collao, J. Aviles
    et al.
    Diaz-Kommonen, L.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Pietarila, J.
    Soft Ontologies and Similarity Cluster Tools to Facilitate Exploration and Discovery of Cultural Heritage Resources2003In: Fourteenth International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications: 1-5 September 2003, Prague, Czech Republic: Proceedings, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society , 2003, Vol. 0, p. 75-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 390.
    Collman, Clara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Utvecklingen av Panoramica.se: Ett utforskande av en normkreativ designpraktik i ett webbutvecklingsprojekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the work commissioned by design bureau Spektra Design. The task was to create a website for the Latin American Film Festival Panoramica, organized for the first time in Stockholm in September 2015. I have created the design for the website and developed the site from scratch in Wordpress. Panoramica has a vision to form a basis for a distribution and marketing network spreading Latin American film in Sweden. They want the festival to become a public face for Latin American film in Sweden and works to "promote exchanges and dialogue between different ethnic groups in Sweden by updating the range of stories from Latin America."

    A large portion of the website is its design. The design contributes to the overall impression of the site, but also if it is perceived as easy to understand or complicated. This paper examines how one can apply critical theory in a practical design process. The outcome of the work is a complete website where the focus is on film. It's easy to read about each movie, watch trailers, and create your own program. The colors and the typography is strong and distinctive and is allowed to take place, in an effort to break the Western minimalist design trend and highlight the Latin American aspects of the design.

    During the work I have come to the conclusion that breaking norms or conventions of how a web page should look like is not necessarily a must. The key is to keep asking yourself: Who is represented, who is the norm and who is the design for? These are important issues to bring into a design process even if they are difficult to answer.

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  • 391.
    Cooper, Katarina
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Technology and Design.
    Klebe, Robert
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Technology and Design.
    On demandradio, nya lyssnarmönster: En c-uppsats om radio när man vill2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to study if new radio listening patterns have been created since Swedish public radio Sveriges Radio (SR) began offering radio repeats on demand via its website.

    Communication theories written by John Fiske have been used and theories by Walter Benjamin concerning how things change when reproduced. Marshall McLuhan and Tony Schwartz historic theories have also been utilized.

    The method used has been divided into three sections, where a comparison has been made between various secondary data from SR, Radioundersökningar AB (RUAB), the Nordic Information Center for Media and Communication Research (NORDICOM), the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and Radio Joint Audience Research Limited (RAJAR). Quantitative data was collected via a questionnaire that was published on the SR website and through emailing the questionnaire to a reference group. The authors have carried out 35-45 minute telephone interviews which were recorded and partly transcribed to collect more qualitative data.

    Results from the questionnaires and interviews suggest that listeners to on demand radio services use a new, more active way of listening to the radio. People listen to on demand radio when they have time, listen when they have missed something in a programme, or choose to listen to a programme again.

    It is however difficult to see if the time for listening has changed, but the time for listening to radio programmes that require more concentration seems to have moved to evenings, and when listeners have an available “window” for concentrated on demand radio listening. It is nevertheless clear from the BBC figures and the growth in on demand radio listening at the BBC that this growth is also likely to take place in Sweden once the public becomes more aware of the availability of this service.

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  • 392. Coppelstone, David
    et al.
    Björk, Mikael
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Ecological Risk Characterisation: An Interim Method for the ERICA Integrated Approach: ERICA deliverable D4a2005Report (Other academic)
  • 393.
    Cortobius Fredriksson, Moa
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Involvement without Influence?: Theoretical and Organisational Premises for Women´s Empowerment in Development Programmes2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the thesis is to discuss how the theoretical and organisational premises of the gender approaches of development programmes affect their possibilities to empower women and to enhance gender equality. This will be done through a study of the gender approaches of six development programmes for democratic and economic governance in the water and sanitation sector located in Angola, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay and Philippines respectively. The programmes strive towards the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals and are financed by the Spanish Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund. The programmes‟ gender approaches are defined as: the way the programmes interpret the concepts of women‟s empowerment and gender equality; the way they incorporate the concepts into their programme design and organisational structure, and; the activities and strategies implemented to enhance women‟s empowerment and gender equality in the programme areas. The analysis of the gender approaches of the programmes will be centred on the five theoretical assumptions which together state that a) a gender approach based on a collective postulation, with; b) adequate mechanisms for women‟s influence and; c) a purposeful involvement of men, backed-up by; d) adequate resource and responsibility allocation, and; e) a gender integrated design enabling evaluation and monitoring, is more probable to empower women. The main findings of the thesis are that: 1) all of the six gender approaches of the programmes are fundamentally individualistic and driven by efficiency rationales; 2) women‟s possible influence is generally limited and partial because of inadequate scope of participatory spaces; 3) men are not considered in any of the gender approaches; 4) the responsibility allocation for gender issues is the most important organisational feature for the implementation of the approaches, but it is weak in the majority of the programmes; 5) the integration of gender in the programme design and the funding mechanisms appear to not affect the implementation directly. Based on the results of the thesis it is concluded that both the theoretical and organisational premises of the gender approaches create small possibilities for the programmes to empower women and to enhance gender equality. The results also point to what appears to be fundamental structural weaknesses in the present gender interpretation, integration and implementation of international development agencies.

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    Involvement without Influence? Theoretical and Organisational Premises for Women’s Empowerment in Development Programmes
  • 394.
    Cortobius Fredriksson, Moa
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    ProBenefit: Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity in the Ecuadorian Amazon2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Legislation on benefit sharing dates back to 1992 and the commandment of the UNConvention on Biological Diversity, hence implementation still has few cases to fall back on(CBD, 1992). The case study of the project ProBenefit presented by the thesis highlights howlack of deliberation can undermine a democratic process. The objective of the thesis is thatProBenefit’s attempt to implement the standards of the CBD on access and benefit sharingwill highlight not only problems met by this specific project, but difficulties that generallymeet democratic processes in contexts of high inequality. To define if the project ProBenefitsucceeded in carrying out a deliberative process the project will be analyzed by the criteria:access to information, representation, legitimacy and involvement.The population in the project area of ProBenefit had a long history of social marginalization,which made it hard for foreign projects to gain legitimacy. The lack of independentorganizations and the late establishment of the project, which resulted in time shortage, madeit impossible to prevent the distrust of the local population. The failure of the projectcoordinators to ensure active participation of all stakeholders resulted in a late and lowinvolvement of the local participants. The absence of independent organization also madedemocratic legitimacy of the process questionable. Even if ProBenefit had a vision ofdemocratic deliberation the project was unable to break down the prevailing unequal powerdistribution which resulted in an unsustainable process and failure. The conclusion of thethesis is that the attainment of deliberation foremost depends on how a project deals with theexisting distribution of power and how it succeeds in involving all stakeholders.

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  • 395.
    Cowley, Benjamin
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland / Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kosunen, Ilkka
    University of Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland.
    Lankoski, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology. Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kivikangas, J Matias
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Järvelä, Simo
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ekman, Inger
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland / University of Tampere, Finland.
    Kemppainen, Jaakko
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ravaja, Niklas
    University of Helsinki, Finland / Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland.
    Experience Assessment and Design in the Analysis of Gameplay2014In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 41-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report research on player modeling using psychophysiology and machine learning, conducted through interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers of computer science, psychology, and game design at Aalto University, Helsinki. First, we propose the Play Patterns And eXperience (PPAX) framework to connect three levels of game experience that previously had remained largely unconnected: game design patterns, the interplay of game context with player personality or tendencies, and state-of-the-art measures of experience (both subjective and non-subjective). Second, we describe our methodology for using machine learning to categorize game events to reveal corresponding patterns, culminating in an example experiment. We discuss the relation between automatically detected event clusters and game design patterns, and provide indications on how to incorporate personality profiles of players in the analysis. This novel interdisciplinary collaboration combines basic psychophysiology research with game design patterns and machine learning, and generates new knowledge about the interplay between game experience and design.

  • 396. Craven, Mike
    et al.
    Taylor, Ian
    Drozd, Adam
    Purbrick, Jim
    Greenhalgh, Chris
    Benford, Steve
    Fraser, Mike
    Bowers, John
    Jää-Aro, Kai-Mikael
    KTH.
    Lintermann, Bernd
    Hoch, Michael
    Exploiting interactivity, influence, space and time to explore non-linear drama in virtual worlds2001In: CHI '01 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2001, p. 30-37Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 397. Crespo, Ana
    et al.
    Kauff, Frank
    Divakar, Pradeep K.
    del Prado, Ruth
    Perez-Ortega, Sergio
    Amo de Paz, Guillermo
    Ferencova, Zuzana
    Blanco, Oscar
    Roca-Valiente, Beatriz
    Nunez-Zapata, Jano
    Cubas, Paloma
    Argueello, Arturo
    Elix, John A.
    Esslinger, Theodore L.
    Hawksworth, David L.
    Millanes, Ana
    Carmen Molina, M.
    Wedin, Mats
    Ahti, Teuvo
    Aptroot, Andre
    Barreno, Eva
    Bungartz, Frank
    Calvelo, Susana
    Candan, Mehmet
    Cole, Mariette
    Ertz, Damien
    Goffinet, Bernard
    Lindblom, Louise
    Luecking, Robert
    Lutzoni, Francois
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Ines Messuti, Maria
    Miadlikowska, Jolanta
    Piercey-Normore, Michele
    Rico, Victor J.
    Sipman, Harrie J. M.
    Schmitt, Imke
    Spribille, Toby
    Thell, Arne
    Thor, Goran
    Upreti, Dalip K.
    Lumbsch, H. Thorsten
    Phylogenetic generic classification of parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) based on molecular, morphological and chemical evidence2010In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 1735-1753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parmelioid lichens are a diverse and ubiquitous group of foliose lichens. Generic delimitation in parmelioid lichens has been in a state of flux since the late 1960s with the segregation of the large, heterogeneous genus Parmelia into numerous smaller genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that some of these new genera were monophyletic, some were not, and others, previously believed to be unrelated, fell within single monophyletic groups, indicating the need for a revision of the generic delimitations. This study aims to give an overview of current knowledge of the major clades of all parmelioid lichens. For this, we assembled a dataset of 762 specimens, including 31 of 33 currently accepted parmelioid genera (and 63 of 84 accepted genera of Parmeliaceae). We performed maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined datasets including two, three and four loci. Based on these phylogenies and the correlation of morphological and chemical characters that characterize monophyletic groups, we accept 27 genera within nine main clades. We re-circumscribe several genera and reduce Parmelaria to synonymy with Parmotrema. Emodomelanelia Divakar & A. Crespo is described as a new genus (type: E. masonii). Nipponoparmelia (Kurok.) K.H. Moon, Y. Ohmura & Kashiw. ex A. Crespo & al. is elevated to generic rank and 15 new combinations are proposed (in the genera Flavoparmelia, Parmotrema, Myelochroa, Melanelixia and Nipponoparmelia). A short discussion of the accepted genera is provided and remaining challenges and areas requiring additional taxon sampling are identified.

  • 398. Crespo, Ana
    et al.
    Lumbsch, H. Thorsten
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Blanco, Oscar
    Divakar, Pradeep K.
    Articus, Kristina
    Wiklund, Elisabeth
    Bawingan, Paulina A.
    Wedin, Mats
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Testing morphology-based hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships in Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) using three ribosomal markers and the nuclear RPB1 gene2007In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 812-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parmeliaceae is the largest family of lichen-forming fungi with more than 2000 species and includes taxa with different growth forms. Morphology was widely employed to distinguish groups within this large, cosmopolitan family. In this study we test these morphology-based groupings using DNA sequence data from three nuclear and one mitochondrial marker from 1.20 taxa that include 59 genera and represent the morphological and chemical diversity in this lineage. Parmeliaceae is strongly supported as monophyletic and six well-supported main clades can be distinguished within the family. The relationships among them remain unresolved. The clades largely agree with the morphology-based groupings and only the placement of four of the genera studied is rejected by molecular data, while four other genera belong to clades previously unrecognised. The classification of these previously misplaced genera, however, has already been questioned by some authors based on morphological evidence. These results support morphological characters as important for the identification of monophyletic clades within Parmeliaceae.

  • 399.
    Creutz, Julia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Borgkvist, Isabelle
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Unga och Brand Content på sociala medier: En studier om hur unga personer förhåller sig till Brand Content på sociala medier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project contains an analysis about how young people relate to brand content on Social media. The findings of the study have contributed to two end products that have been delivered to two different customers. The target group is between 15-24 years old and are residents in Sweden. The analysis has also included if the target group follow brands on Social media, reasons why they do, and what kind of content interests them. The report shows that age and/or gender does not correlate to how young people relate to, or consume, brand content on social media. The consumption of and relation to social media content is more dependent on aspects like the consumer’s personality and individual behaviour. From the data collected during the project we have created two different end products, one to each of the different clients.

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    fulltext
  • 400. Crommentuijn, Koen
    et al.
    Winberg, Fredrik
    Designing auditory displays to facilitate object localization in virtual haptic 3D environments2006In: Proceedings of the 8th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility, New york: ACM , 2006, p. 255-256Conference paper (Other academic)
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