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  • 3401.
    Åkerhielm, Renate
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Felber, Hannes
    West, Shaun
    Playbook: real people managing projects2016Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3402.
    Åkerman, Hanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kan pensionsbolagen med sin marknadskommunikation få unga att börja pensionsspara?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how consumers in the age 25-35 years old perceive and interpret the communications of retirement savings. The study also examines if the communication feels important or if it needs to be imroved to get the consumers to start a retirement saving, if they not already have one.

    The study addresses the issue of Shannon and Weaver's basic communication model, Fiskes division of communications, and Lasswells approach to communications in order to gain an understanding of the communication today. Relationship marketing is also brought up to describe the modern way to market services. Retirement savings is a complex service, therefore is Ratchfords FCB Grid used in this study to show the low – and high – involvement products and how they should be marketed.

    The study is qualitative where focus groups were chosen as the method. A convenience sample was made where two focus group interviews with four respondents in each group were selected to participate in the study. A structured interview was conducted in which issues around retirement savings was to get an idea of ​​the respondents' knowledge of the subject. Commercials were shown to the respondents where they were asked to interpret, followed by more specific questions. The interviews were compiled and analyzed to create a discussion.

    The results showed that neither of the respondents had any great knowledge or interest in the subject. This shows that retirement savings is a service that requires high commitment. Emotions, such as anxiety emerged during the discussion. The respondents' reflections on the commercials were that the message is not always successfully conveyed and that the respondents were not aware that they actually belong to the target group. Even suggestions for improved communication was discussed, like a more easily understandable information. Also improved relationship with people more familiar with the subject was raised up as an important factor. The results of the focus group interviews shows that the communication of retirement savings in many cases does not reach the consumers.

     

  • 3403.
    Åkerström, Jessica
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Legitimitet genom jämställdhet: En fallstudie om den institutionaliserade jämställdheten som legitimitetsskapande faktor2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe today the wage gap between men and women and the low representation of women in top positions remains a major problem. Because of this, the EU has tabled a bill on quotas for listed companies' boards. The debate on gender equality is lively and topical.  In parallel with this act the enterprise companies is competing to attract the most competent employees and gender is considered an important component of being an attractive employer. As the study adopts a perspective of new institutionalism the assumption has been that the organizations adapts to ambient requirements to overcome social legitimacy and thus gender equality is an important factor of legitimacy in this process. This means that gender equality is moving towards a development whereby the institutionalized gender equality is becoming more loose coupled from the organization. In this context, the study has limited itself to two high-profile cases in which large companies in the industry worked together to publicly address the issues of gender equality. The aim has been to investigate how these organizations acted on surrounding equality requirements. This includes to examine the reports and texts that organizations themselves produced for its public appearance to find their purpose and underlying ideas of gender. Also, an interview was conducted with one of the initiators. Because of this a discourse analysis procedure were chosen for this study. The results shows that two distinct patterns can be detected throughout the various forms of institutional impact. The legitimacy formation mechanism lies in the quantitative discourse that includes participation of women. The organizations’ adaptation differs slightly. One clearly deduced to mainly protect members' autonomy while the second shows what is interpreted as an attempt at standardization of gender equality in the enterprise business. Maybe that the gender equality throughout these cases is following a development from a bill towards a standard.

  • 3404.
    Åkesson, Sofie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Troberg, Jenna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    People, Planet, Profit: En kvalitativ studie om företags CSR-arbete i relation till samhällsopinioner och varumärke2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter att ha uppmärksammat ett ökat engagemang i flyktingkrisen från företag under 2015 började vi intressera oss för vad som är bakomliggande de välgörande handlingar som företag gör. Samhället har ett högre tryck på företag att engagera sig i samhällsfrågor och CSR är ett verktyg som de senaste åren har ökat, vi ville undersöka hur företag arbetar med CSR-frågor i förhållande till samhällsopinioner. Vi reflekterade också över en rådande problematik för företag att kommunicera sitt CSR-arbete på ett trovärdigt sätt.

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att undersöka hur organisationer arbetar med CSR i förhållande till opinioner. Vi har även undersökt kommunikation av CSR och på vilket sätt det förstärker varumärkesidentiteten.

    Studien har visat på att organisationer arbetar med att driva opinioner utifrån deras egen verksamhet, men att den allmänna opinionen och framförallt media har större påverkan på organisationerna. Undersökningen har också visat på att det är viktigt att CSR är integrerat i hela verksamheten och inte enbart ett kommunikationsverktyg eller ett sidoprojekt. Detta kräver att kommunikationen om arbetet först sker internt och att det är viktigt att organisationerna är transparenta i sin kommunikation. CSR har kommit att bli en hygienfaktor i samhället för både interna som externa intressenter.

  • 3405.
    Ålund, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO.
    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO.
    Kings, Lisa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Home-making: Youth and urban unrest in multiethnic Sweden2017In: Reimagining Home in the 21st Century / [ed] Justine Lloyd, Ellie Vasta, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2017, p. 135-149Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3406.
    Ångström, Sofie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Winell, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Två branscher, en organisation & en identitet: En studie om organisationsidentitet utifrån medarbetarnas perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of identity is complex, as it is mainly associated with a person’s core values but can also be applied to today’s companies/organizations. The identity of companies/organizations is affected by both internal and external aspects. By being aware of its identity, a business/organization has the opportunity to answer the question “who are we and where do we come from?”. This study examines the company Zound Industries and how its internal identity is perceived by its employees. Zound Industries operates in both technology- and fashion industry.

    The aim of the study is to examine an organization’s internal identity and if that identity is supported by the organization’s vision and mission. To answer the purpose of the study and its research questions, focus has been put on aspects such as the organization’s vision and mission, culture, personality and characteristics. The study also examines whether or not the employees have experienced changes in the organization’s identity.

    The study has been conducted using qualitative research methods with data from semistructured interviews and Zound Industries’ own data. A total of 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted to get information from various employees. The results show that employees in the organization Zound Industries have a common picture of its identity, which is in line with the organization’s vision and mission. Through strong internal identity, Zound Industries has advantages in both technology- and fashion industry.

  • 3407.
    Åsling, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Lindgren, Liv
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kreditgivningsprocessen för småföretagare: En studie över hur emotionella värden påverkar beslutsfattande2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Kommunikation, informationsflöden samt individuella uppfattningar är några av de psykologiska förhållanden som påverkar beslutsfattanden. Småföretagare upplever en hård kreditmarknad med krav på höga säkerheter och bankerna är medvetna om att de stramat åt kreditgivningen på grund av konjunkturläget. Handelsbanken och SEB är två storbanker som funnits länge på marknaden och båda har fått utmärkelser för att vara framstående banker för småföretagare.

    Syfte: Att studera lånesituationen för småföretagare genom att angripa de psykologiska aspekter som kan vara av avgörande betydelse utöver hårda värden vid en kreditgivningsprocess.

    Metod: Genom en deduktiv ansats har semistrukturerade frågor ställts i kvalitativa intervjuer med två storbanker och tre småföretagare i olika branscher i Stockholm stad.

    Teorier: Behavioral Finance, Asymmetrisk information, Perception, Agentteorin, Imageteorin och Beslutstilsmodellen.

    Slutsatser: I kreditgivningsprocessen krävs en kombination av hårda och mjuka värden för att kunna fatta beslut på ett rättfärdigt sätt. Det fastställs att psykologiska faktorer såsom god kommunikation minskar det asymmetriska informationsflödet och ligger till grund för relationen mellan lånehandläggare och småföretagare.

  • 3408.
    Åslund, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Cederholm, Emilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Hårt och mjukt i valbevakningen: En kvantitativ studie om manliga och kvinnliga journalister inom den politiska bevakningen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Politik har under hela 1900-talet varit ett manligt bevakningsområde. Men kvinnliga journalister har, framför allt under de senaste tjugo åren, tagit sig an ämnet i lika hög grad. Men finns det inom den politiska journalistiken ändå skillnader i vad män respektive kvinnor bevakar och hur yttrar sig i så fall dessa skillnader? Det har undersökts i den här studien.

    Monica Löfgren Nilssons och Monika Djerf-Pierres teorier om journalistikens kön, könsmärkningen av bevakningsområden och deras definitioner av ”hårda” och ”mjuka” bevakningsområden, där de mjuka är typiskt kvinnliga och de hårda typiskt manliga, har legat till grund för den här undersökningen.

    Studien utfördes kvantitativt, där 579 politiska artiklar från tidningarna Svenska Dagbladet, Aftonbladet, Kristianstadsbladet och Dala-Demokraten har ingått. Undersökningen utfördes inför riksdags- och EU-valet 2014 och artiklarna är hämtade under perioden oktober 2013 till mars 2014.

    Studiens resultat visade att politik i sig fortfarande är ett manligt bevakningsområde i landsortspressen, men inte i storstadspressen. I resultatet för varje enskild tidning visade det sig att i Dala-Demokraten och Kristianstadsbladet skrev männen mer i både hårda och mjuka ämnen inom den politiska bevakningen. Skillnaden var dock mindre i mjuka ämnen, där kvinnorna skrev något mer än de gjorde i de hårda. I Aftonbladet skrev män och kvinnor nästan lika mycket i både hårda och mjuka ämnen, medan det i Svenska Dagbladet fanns en tydligare könsmärkning, där kvinnor skrev mjuka nyheter och män hårda.

    Den politiska sakfråga som manliga journalister totalt rapporterade mest om var ekonomi, medan kvinnliga journalister totalt rapporterade mest om mänskliga rättigheter och jämställdhet.

    En slutsats av detta arbete är att det fortfarande råder en könsuppdelning av bevakningsområdena inom den politiska journalistiken, trots en relativt jämn fördelning mellan manliga och kvinnliga journalister både på redaktionerna och i Svenska Journalistförbundet.

  • 3409.
    Åstenius Näslund, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kavianfard, Raheleh
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Verksamhetsstyrning på vårdcentraler: Hur nyckeltal används2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att jämföra tre vårdcentraler i Stockholms läns landsting med avseende på hur de arbetar med nyckeltal i sin verksamhetsstyrning.

    Uppsatsen är utförd genom en flerfallsstudie och är baserad på både primär- och sekundärdata. Underlaget till studien har samlats in genom tre intervjuer med antingen verksamhetschef eller ekonomichef på respektive vårdcentral. Våra sekundärdata innefattar artiklar, elektroniska och tryckta källor. 

    För att kunna besvara uppsatsens syfte och frågeställningar samt för att kunna bearbeta våra empiriska data har vi valt några teorier och modeller. Modellerna berör styrprocesser och verksamhetsstyrning medan teorierna bemöter fenomenet nyckeltal. Dessa modeller och teorier har sammankopplats till vår empiri som ligger till grund för vår analys.

    I analysen får utvalda teorier och sekundärdata möta empirisk data i form av intervjuer. Jämförelser görs med respondenternas svar samt med uppsatsens angivna teorier och modeller. Vår avsikt var att utgå från primärdata med teorihänvisningar, med syfte att se om vi har fått svar på frågeställningarna.

    Mål- och resultatstyrning är den typ av styrning som används på vårdcentralerna i vår studie. De använder sig av nyckeltal i sin verksamhet för att exempelvis mäta och öka sin effektivitet och produktivitet. Med hjälp av nyckeltal utför de uppföljningar och jämförelser i sina verksamheter. Nyckeltalsanvändning är beroende på typen av verksamheten.

  • 3410.
    Åström, Agnes
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Rutberg, Helena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Open innovation in large organizations: A multicase analysis of multinational Swedish companies2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes open innovation in large multinational organizations. The study has been applied to four organizations to examine how they work with open innovation in innovation networks.

    The purpose of this study is to render a knowledge inventory on experiences of an open innovation approach, with an emphasis on innovation networks, among product developing enterprises within different branches.

    The theoretical part and empirical outcomes of the study touch upon models and methods of using open innovation. The three main theoretical models are innovation networks, partnering and ecosystems. The study is a multicase analysis which builds on the experiences of four large anonymous organizations within different branches and fields. The experience-based knowledge of this essay is drawing on material from semi-structured interviews with twelve anonymous respondents, two from each organization.

    The conclusions of this study show that one of the most important parts in innovation cooperation is to be able to harness relationships because relations are quintessential in an open cooperation for either the success or failure of said cooperation. All organizations have differences and there exists no original blueprint in exactly how a company should work with innovation as they must adapt the open innovation strategy to the companies’ needs and organization culture. The study has found eight concrete points in how companies’ can succeed with open innovation cooperation.

  • 3411.
    Öberg, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    MOTIVATION BLAND LEDARE I ETT STÄDFÖRETAG: Fallstudie Städ AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The service sector in Sweden is growing. This fact, in combination with tax-reduction when buying household services has contributed to the growth of cleaning companies. Considering that the business of cleaning companies is growing makes it an interest sector to study closer. The purpose of this study is to investigate what motivates leaders within a cleaning company who are CEO´s and have ownership in the company. How does the ownership of the company affect their motivation? The methodology of this study is qualitative and resulted findings were thematically analyzed supported by the theoretic framework consisting of Maslows need hier-archy, Herzberg two-factor theory and McClellands theory on needs and motivation. During this assignment, two main themes were identified as sources of motivation among the leaders: flexibility and personal growth. The motivation of the leaders originates from what Maslow defines as need of self-esteem. Three of the leaders in the study found motivation with source in what McClelland defines as the need for achievement and one of the leaders showed a high degree of need of power and affiliation. The ownership of the company had a great impact on the motivation on the three leaders and affected the achievement in a positive direction. One reason is that the ownership in the company allows an entrepreneurial behavior, which satisfies the need for achievement among the leaders.

  • 3412.
    Öberg, Joachim
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Karlsson, Niclas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Köp- och säljrekommendationers pålitlighet: En eventstudie på den svenska aktiemarknaden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility to reach an abnormal return on the stock market by follow recommedations given by media.

    Research questions:

    ● Is it possible to use stock recommendations to achieve an abnormal return?

    ● Is it possible to see a significant correlation between the recommendations and the return on equities?

    ● Are there any differences in how the proceeds will react depending on whether it is a buy - or sell recommendation?

    Methods: This study is based on a quantitative approach and use an event study. The event study include 51 swedish stock companies. A hypotesis test is used to investigate if there is any connection between the recommendations in media and the return on the share price.

    Theoretical framework: This study is based on the efficient market hypothesis and behvioral finance (cognitive biases, arbitrage, cognitive dissonance theory och herding behavior).

    Results/Conclusion: The shares that have been recommended as "buy" on average had 2.32 percent of returns during the event window. For the shares that have been recommended as "sell" have on average had a negative return of 1.26 percent. The strongest reactions could be seen during the eventday. The shares adapted quickly to the new information.

    For the average cumulative abnormal return any significant relationship could not be confirmed.

  • 3413.
    Öberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Granséll, Moa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Jämförbarhet i hållbarhetsredovisning: En studie om jämförbarhet i redovisningen av miljömässig påverkan hos svenska industriföretag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important objectives with accounting is that the information is comparable, both from one year to another and also between companies. This enables stakeholders to make rational decisions. Today, the law requires all large companies to report sustainability data but the requirements are flexible which makes it hard to compare data. To develop sustainability reporting guidelines, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) was established in 1997. One of GRI’s principles to achieve high quality sustainability reporting is comparability. The aim of this study is to examine whether swedish industry companies’ reporting of their environmental impact is comparable from one year to another and between companies according to GRI’s principle of comparability.

    To examine this, an analytical model has been developed using previous research. According to this model there are four factors that affect the comparability of sustainability reports - the guidelines used, the reported indicators, the units of measurements, and absolute and relative numbers. The study was based on the stakeholder theory, which says that all stakeholder should be treated equally and that the managements should look to the best interest of the stakeholders. A content analysis of sustainability reports of seven companies over three years was made and the reports was encoded using a coding scheme and a coding manual that had been developed based on the analytical model.

    The data analysis showed that the sustainability reports partially is comparable from one year to another. The companies report the same indicators and with the same units of measurements from one year to another to a great extent, but often the reports lack relative number that describe the change from the previous year. The comparability between companies is slightly lower because the indicators reported and especially the units of measurements used vary.  

  • 3414.
    Öfors, Hanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Förutsättningar för inkorporation: upplevelse av möjlighet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions for incorporation – experience of possibility is a study written by Hanna Öfors. It focuses on immigrants and their experience of the possibility to be included as a part of the Swedish society. This is done, by interviewing four people who moved too Sweden as grownups and whom, relatively speaking, could be looked at as cases of satisfying incorporation,   about their experiences of incorporation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and understand how immigrants look at their incorporation process and the degree to which it is possible for them to be a part of the Swedish society. Moreover, it is meant to identify the components that are important for them to feel included in or excluded from the Swedish society.  The frame of reference that this study is based on is built on three components, capital theory, concentrated on social capital, and theories about participation, alienation and identity. The three latest terms has added as a complement to capital theory. Recent research says that partnership and marriage has a positive effect on incorporation.    The results show that an individual ought to have a large amount of social capital, in at least one field, for them to feel a part of the Swedish society.  Employment is pointed out to be an extra important factor for this possibility. It is also shown that a relationship, such as marriage, leads to an increase in social capital. The same results are also proved in earlier studies.  By finding what is needed, for an incorporation process to be satisfying, it could be possible to influence the discourse around immigration and incorporation in a positive way. Hopefully this could lead to more favorable conditions for immigrants in the future.   

  • 3415.
    Öhlund, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Thorsell, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Iögonfallande layout & känsloväckande stimuli: En studie om modebutikers fysiska upplägg och dess påverkan på konsumentbeteende och köpbeslut, ur ett företagsperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe and to give greater understanding of how selected companies in the fashion industry works with the physical layout of stores, including the use of atmosphere, sensory stimuli and visual merchandising. Also what impact the layout can have on consumers buying process and the perception of the brand. Six interviews with different companies gave qualitative data that was analyzed together and against each other, based on the theoretical framework of the study. The result shows that the selected companies do not plan the layout based on theories of consumer behavior or sensory marketing. Instead the layout is planned based on the brand and the positioning the company works for, which differentiates itself based on what company it is. To convey a feeling and to give an overall impression of the brand with the help of layout is important, and it is based on how the companies want the brand to be perceived. This then affects the buying process because it determines if the customers choses to consume in the store or not. A successful planning of the layout, for the companies in the study, is therefore not based on how well it matches with recent research in the field, but how well it is matched based on the brand only.

  • 3416.
    Öhman, Erika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Toll, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Love me tänder: En studie om offentliga och privata företags kundrelationer med exempel från tandvården2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 1990’s more and more companies of the Swedish public sector were exposed to competition, and this started the debate on how such actions might affect the business and even society.

    The first chapter examines how the public sector and especially health care, is financed and managed. We also explore what it means to be exposed to competition and find that there are many different ways of exposing the public sector to competition. The study examines dental care as an example of a market with both publicly and privately owned companies. The purpose of this paper is to explore how publicly and privately owned health care companies view their relationship with their consumers. The question that this paper seeks to answer is: "Are there any differences between publicly and privately owned dental care companies in how they communicate with their consumers?"

    Communication in this study refers to planned communication such as advertisement and websites, as well as the message the consumer receives when interacting with the product or service that is delivered. Two dental care companies in the city of Stockholm are examined in this comparative case study, one is owned by the public sector and one is a privately owned company.

    This paper concludes that publicly and privately owned dental care companies communicate with their consumers in slightly different ways. Privately owned dental care companies include their employees and use word of mouth in their communication to a higher extent than dental care companies owned by public sector. We suggest that this could mean that privately owned companies view their consumers as customers who need to be convinced, whereas publicly owned companies are more informative in their communication suggesting they view their consumers more like patients who need to be educated. Because unplanned communication was not examined in this study, this is suggested as a future field of research, to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between consumer and company.

  • 3417.
    Öhrming, Jan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Allt görs liksom baklänges: Verksamheten vid Nya Karolinska Solna2017 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggandet av Nya Karolinska Solna (NKS) är förknippat med en dröm från slutet av 1990-talet om ett sjukhus som ett nav i ett internationellt konkurrenskraftigt universitetssjukvårdssystem. Det skulle vara ett specialsjukhus för regionen och inta en central roll för utvecklingen av Stockholmsregionen till ett biomedicinskt kraftcentrum. 2008 fattades beslutet om att bygga det nya sjukhuset och fylla det med ett nytt verksamhetsinnehåll. Beslutsprocessen rörande verksamhetsinnehållet vid NKS har präglats av interimistiska beslut och utvecklats till en process som förändrat villkoren för andra beslutsprocesser med stora ekonomiska och praktiska återverkningar för hälso- och sjukvården i Stockholmsregionen.

    Här redovisas hur det gick till när besluten om vård, forskning och utbildning vid NKS fattades. Och framför allt diskuteras NKS-projektets otillräckliga beslutsunderlag och de utdragna beslutsprocessernas konsekvenser för det regionala vårdsystemet.

    Jan Öhrming är Senior professor i företagsekonomi vid Södertörns högskola.

  • 3418.
    Öhrn, Victor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Elfström, Oskar
    Beslutsprocessen för att stödja spelföretag genom Crowdfunding: En kvalitativ studie om varför människor väljer att stödja Crowdfundingprojekt på hemsidan Kickstarter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3419.
    Öhrström, Hannah
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Molin, Nathalie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Företagens närvaro i sociala medier: En studie om hur användare förhåller sig till företagssidor i sociala medier2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding of how social media users relate to and why they choose to follow business accounts in social media, what they expect from them and how they feel about businesses constant presence in social media. We have studied this through a qualitative approach and have collected our data through the use of focus groups. In order to capture as much of the subject as possible the interviews have been semi-structured as this is considered to allow the participants to discuss freely. The theoretical framework covers consumer attitudes, consumer behaviour, image creation through brands and word of mouth through social media.

    The results show that the participants mainly follow business accounts for information, inspiration and entertainment. The majority of the participants also follow business accounts to gain access to discounts, promotions and services. However, image is also a key factor as to why the participants choose not to follow business accounts. The most recurring expectation among the participants is that the business accounts enable two-way communication, that businesses respond to users' comments and that the responses are relevant. On the one hand the participants generally perceive businesses presence in social media as positive when it gives them the means to influence businesses, express opinions and criticism and learn from other users' comments. On the other hand the participants generally perceive businesses presence in social media as negative when content they have not actively chosen to take part of reaches them. That said, the majority of participants believe that businesses should be present in social media and would perceive it as somewhat strange if they where not.

  • 3420.
    Öman, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    En beslöjad debatt: En jämförande diskursanalys mellan den mediala och den politiska diskursen av burka i Sverige utifrån Köpenhamnsskolan2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The debate concerning face veiling has been brought in to view by several governments in Europe. Luca Mavelli studies the debate regarding the burqa using the concept of securitization and from that the objective of this study is to analyze the medial- and the political discourse in Sweden regarding the burqa. The formulated questions drawn from this is; who are the securitizing actors? According to the securitization actors, who can de defined as a referent object? Wherein is the threat according to the securitizing actors? Is it possible to recognize a difference between the medial and the political discourse?

    Furthermore the paper adopts the theoretical framework that is the concept of securitization, formulated by the Copenhagen School of security. The methodological foundation is based on a social constructivist approach and consequently uses Norman Faircloughs critical discourse analyzes as an analytical tool. Conclusions show that the two discourses often express similar results but a difference is apparent in how the debate is presented. Representatives of the political parties are defined as securitizing actors and to a certain degree so is the media. Furthermore, according to the securitizing actors the referent objects are Swedish traditions and culture, the threat lies in the values that are attached to the burqa.

  • 3421.
    Örnebro, Camilla
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Mobilbetalning: en studie om konsumenters förmåga att acceptera nya betalningsformer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Banks’ settlement of handling cash and the technological developments of our payment services, leaves us guessing at the outlooks of consumers’ payment systems. One of the new payment options arising from this development is mobile payment. With access to internet, mobile payment can take over the role as the primary method of payment, as it can be used on any occasion. Questions are raised about which factors that are affecting the future users’ attitude to use mobile payment, and if the service can be a threat to the traditional card payments.

    Method: This study is based on a quantitative method by the means of a survey design. Questionnaires are used in order to collect a considerable amount of data. A deductive approach is used to formulate hypotheses from existing theory, which is tested with various statistic methods.

    Result & Conclusions: The study results display a significant relationship between the users’ attitude to start using mobile payment and compatibility and usefulness. The variable that showed no significant relationship was ease of use. The results also showed that the method of card payment is accepted and is therefore main competitor for mobile payment.

    Suggestions for future research: To investigate which factors future users value between the variables compatibility and usefulness is a possible suggestion for future research. When these two were found to have a relationship with attitude, it can affect the future users’ acceptance to mobile payment. It would also be interesting to examine a merchant’s perspective to identify who intends to offer such services. This is an important aspect, as the study results showed that the respondents had lower response rates regarding whether mobile payment could be associated with the availability for use in the market.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study highlights future users’ acceptance of mobile payment and which factors that can be driving for increased spread. The result can provide ideas on what incentives are neccessary to be focused on, to get more of the younger generation to develop a positive attitude towards this service and then apply it. The study results also provide an insight for card companies, as they seek knowledge whether the mobile payment is a threat in the current situation.

  • 3422.
    Örnstad, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Lundin, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Underkapitalisering i privata välfärdsbolag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Denna uppsats studerar ämnet underkapitalisering. Med underkapitalisering menas sambandet mellan ett företags skulder och dess egna kapital. Underkapitalisering kan användas inom koncerner där moder- och dotterbolag har skatterättslig hemvist i olika länder och kan därmed använda sig av skillnader i skattelagstiftningen för att minska sina skattekostnader. Då moderbolaget finansierar dotterbolaget med lånat kapital istället för att skjuta till eget kapital uppstår räntekostnader som minskar dotterbolagets skattemässiga resultat och därmed sjunker skattekostnaderna. Koncerner kan alltså använda sig av underkapitalisering i syfte att skatteplanera. Uppsatsen kommer även att studera regleringen runt underkapitalisering och speciellt inkomstskattelagens 24e kapitel och hur den har reviderats för att undvika att företag använder sig av underkapitalisering.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om privata välfärdsbolag i Sverige är finansierade på sådant sätt att de går att klassificera som underkapitaliserade. Detta genom att studera företagens soliditet och deras interna räntekostnader för att sedan dra slutsatser av resultatet. Syftet är även att studera hur revideringen av inkomstskattelagens 24e kapitel har påverkat koncernernas kapitalstruktur.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Är svenska privata välfärdsbolag med ägare i länder med en lägre bolagsskatt underkapitaliserade?
    • Har revideringen av inkomstskattelagens 24e kapitel, angående begränsningen i avdragsrätten för räntekostnader gjort att koncernerna har ändrat sin kapitalstruktur?

    Metod: Författarna har genom att studera tio utvalda välfärdskoncerner ämnat att undersöka om underkapitalisering föreligger eller inte. Detta har gjorts genom att undersöka deras soliditet samt kapitalstrukturen i de utvalda koncernernas bolag.

    Urval: I undersökningen ingår tio välfärdskoncerner som ägs av utländska ägare som har sin hemvist i länder med lägre bolagsskatt än i Sverige.

    Resultat: Undersökningen visar att fem av de undersökta koncernerna hade en soliditet under minst ett av de tre år som undersökningen spann över som kvalificerade dem som underkapitaliserade enligt den danska lagstiftningen som säger att skulderna inte får överstiga det egna kapitalet i förhållandet 4:1. Uppsatsen visar även hur flera koncerner har minskat sina interna räntekostnader efter att revideringen av inkomstskattelagens 24e kapitel genomfördes 2013.

  • 3423.
    Öst, Eva
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Små delar av en stor värld: En undersökning av fyra lokaltidningars publicering om flykting-invandringen 20152016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet i den här kandidatuppsatsen var att ta reda på hur tre olika lokaltidningar samt en regionstidning valt att presentera artiklar med anknytning till ämnet flyktingar och asyl-sökande under september månad 2015, då antalet flyktingar som ankom till Sverige för att söka asyl ökade drastiskt.    För att undersöka detta formulerades frågeställningarna: Vilken genre dominerar i artiklarna? Hur beskrivs den ökade flyktinginvandringen i de utvalda artiklarna? Vilka får komma till tals i artiklarna och på vilket sätt? Hur beskrivs dessa personer? Ger artiklarna en saklig och opartisk bild av situationen? och Finns det några skillnader i rapporteringen beroende på tidningarnas geografiska läge och den struktur av invandring som finns inom de kommuner som ingår i tidningarnas spridningsområden? Undersökningen genomfördes genom att totalt 299 artiklar samlades in från tidningarna Sydvenskan, Jönköpingsposten, Norrbottenskuriren och Gefle Dagblad. För att besvara frågeställningarna användes sedan en kombination av kvantitativ och kvalitativ metod.

    De resultat som framkommit i undersökningen visar att en stor majoritet av artiklarna handlade om de ankommande flyktingarna och deras resa till Sverige samt mottagandet vid ankomstkommunerna. Vidare var ämnet politik, både inrikes och utrikes, vanligt eftersom det under periodens gång förekom ett stort antal möten mellan politiker angående ett förslag om kvotfördelning för medlemsländerna inom EU. De vanligaste källorna i artiklarna visade sig vara politiker och myndighetsrepresentanter. Flyktingar fick inte komma till tals i lika hög grad i artiklarna, men i vissa fall publicerades artiklar där flera flyktingar själva fick beskriva sin resa till Sverige samt hur de blivit mottagna vid ankomsten. Graden av saklighet och opartiskhet i artiklarna var i de undersökta artiklarna relativt hög. Dock förekom även en nämnvärd del partiska inslag i en del av materialet.

  • 3424.
    Österberg, Amanda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences. Södertörns högskola .
    Vem får ställa ut på den samtida konstscenen? Betydelsen av kön: En studie av jämställdhetsarbete inom utställningsproduktion2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker hur könsfördelningen ser ut på den samtida konstscenen i Sverige. I vilken utsträckning kön representeras på ett jämställt sätt inom utställningsproduktion antas kopplat till hur de delaktiga i beslutsprocessen förhåller sig till externt jämställdhetsarbete. Tre kategorier av organisationer studeras för att kunna avgöra om det finns skillnader i tillvägagångssätt. Officiella dokument från varje organisation undersöks för att förstå hur de formellt förhåller sig till jämställdhetsarbete. Statistik av den faktiska könsfördelningen för varje organisation tas fram från de två senaste årens utställningsarkiv. Studien innefattar även intervjuer med en beslutsfattande person från respektive organisation; två statliga konstinstitutioner, två privata konsthallar och två privata gallerier. Undersökningen syftar till att skapa förståelse för vad som ligger till grund för valet av konstnärer. Studien har sin teoretiska utgångspunkt i institutionell teori och använder en del av teorin som kallas lämplighetslogiken. Teorin förklarar individuellt beteende som beroende av sin kontext, utifrån de tre aspekterna identitet, regler och situation. Slutsatserna för undersökningen är att samtliga respondenter visar en stor medvetenhet kring könsfördelningen men att andra variabler tenderar att vara viktigare i valet av konstnärer. Hur organisationerna formellt förhåller sig till jämställdhetsarbete har en begränsad påverkan på det praktiska utfallet. Desto mer betydelsefullt är huruvida dessa värderingar finns implementerade i företagskulturen och hos de som är delaktiga i beslutsprocessen. 

  • 3425.
    Österberg, Jessica
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Dazzled to Invest: Are the funding masses falling for effects?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The issue investigated is the nature of reward-based crowdfunding being too influenced by visual media and the creator’s personalities rather than focusing on the creator’s ability to run a business and the business plan. Through Source Credibility Theory three sets of categories for the studied variables were developed in addition to one category concerning external actors. The variables aim to measure the visual elements, the honesty and personal credibility of the creator as well as the business plan. A sample of 150 campaigns was picked from the platform Kickstarter, which consisted of half successful and half failed campaigns. Each campaign was observed individually and the communicated elements were recorded and compiled for analysis. The variables were recorded as binary or continuous and were tested through chi-square, regression and correlation tests. The study concludes that some business plan variables are often communicated for both failed and successful projects, however rarely in detail. The campaigns are often utilising visual elements but the honesty and personal credibility of the creator is not as common. Generally the successful campaigns are communicating all variables to a greater extent than the failed projects.

  • 3426.
    Österberg, Svetlana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Stenberg, Tom
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kapitalstruktur, beskattning och effekten på aktiekursen: Panelstudie av svenska industrikoncerner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Modigliani and Miller theorem is regarded as a milestone and a paradigm shift in Corporate Finance. The research behind the theorem has given rise to the controversial conclusion that a company's capital structure is irrelevant in an equilibrium market, without taxation. In contrast, when taxation occurs firm value will increase equivalent to the deductible tax on interest expense when debt is issued. The theorem has not been without criticism. Several researchers have examined the theorem and criticised its assumptions.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the Modigliani and Miller theorem in respect of capital structure’s impact on companies' share prices.

    Literature Review: The Modigliani and Miller theorem with its assumptions is initially presented as the study’s main theorem. The presentation of the theorem is followed by a description of agency theory, signalling theory, trade-off theory and the efficient market hypothesis, along with previous studies on the theorem and its assumptions.

    Research Methodology: The study applies a quantitative approach, with three regression models. The random sample consists of ten companies in the industrial sector, that are listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange. The sample is based on panel data of the companies during the period 2005 to 2012. The study's empirical data consists of historical stock prices and annual reports.

    Empirical Results: The leverage ratio, i.e. debt to equity ratio, indicates a low and non-signif-icant correlation with the stock prices of the examined companies, in all three regression models. The tax shield indicates a higher and significant correlation with the stock price, while the control variable earnings per share EPS indicates the highest correlation with the stock prices, as the response variable.

    Conclusions: The study’s results show no empirical support for the Modigliani-Miller theorem in its entirety. The explanation for the findings may be that the assumptions are not satisfied in the empirical data. Agency theory, signalling theory, trade-off theory and the efficient market hypothesis may serve as explanations of the study’s results.

  • 3427.
    Östergren, Olof
    et al.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Artnik, Barbara
    University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Educational expansion and inequalities in mortality - A fixed-effects analysis using longitudinal data from 18 European populations2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 8, article id e0182526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively.

    RESULTS: The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion.

  • 3428.
    Östlund, Jenny-Louise
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Abubaker, Suad
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ungdomars handlingsstrategier inför framtiden: En kvalitativ jämförelse mellan fyra högstadieungdomar från bostadsområden med olika socioekonomisk status2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom denna studie ämnade vi besvara hur kapitaltillgångar och habitus påverkar ungdomars resonemang, sett till utbildning och karriär, baserat på bostadsområdestillhörighet. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur uppväxten i segregerade bostadsområden med olika socioekonomisk status påverkar ungdomars handlingsstrategier vad gäller utbildning och karriär. Vår tes var att ungdomars handlingsstrategier skiljer sig baserat på bostadsområdestillhörighet. Vi trodde att ungdomar från bostadsområden med högre socioekonomisk status är mer resursstarka och därigenom enklare kan navigera sig inom utbildningsfältet. Studien utgår från Lidingö och Botkyrka, två boendesegregerade områden i Stockholms län med olika socioekonomisk status, där Lidingö är mer resursstarkt. Vidare utgår denna studie från en kvalitativ metod i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer, där fyra högstadieungdomar i årskurs nio, två av dem är hemmahörande på Lidingö och två i Botkyrka, har intervjuats. Studiens teori grundar sig på Pierre Bourdieus teoretiska begrepp: symboliskt kapital, kulturellt kapital, utbildningskapital, socialt kapital samt habitus. Vi har kunnat urskilja att ungdomarna i denna studie har olika mått av kapitaltillgångar beroende på bostadsområdestillhörighet och att detta i sin tur lett fram till olika habitus. Lidingöungdomarna uppvisade både ett högre mått av socialt och kulturellt kapital än Botkyrkaungdomarna. Detta kan emellertid vara en avgörande faktor till att ungdomarnas resonemang och handlingsstrategier vad gäller utbildning och karriär skiljer sig områdena emellan. Till skillnad från Botkyrkaungdomarna, uppvisade Lidingöungdomarna både klara framtidsmål, sett till utbildning och karriär, samt genomtänkta handlingsstrategier kring hur de ska gå tillväga för att uppnå dessa mål. Genom studiens empiriska material har således vår tes kunnat styrkas.

  • 3429.
    Östman, Zacharias
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Strict Father Bush and Nurturant Parent Obama: An Ideology Analysis of Presidential Acceptance Speeches, Portraying Conservative and Liberal Metaphors in the Nation-as-Family Theory2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will show how conservatism and liberalism is established and maintained in American presidential rhetoric, by analyzing the speeches held by George W. Bush in 2000 and Barack Obama in 2008 at their respective party’s national convention, at the time when they accepted their party’s nomination for the presidency for the first time. By conducting an ideology analysis by examining the language used in the two speeches, and connect that to the metaphors of morality in George Lakoff’s (2002) theory of the Nation-as-Family, the essay will show examples of how the two presidential candidates establish themselves as bearers and protectors of their party’s ideological base and how this can be related to the view on moral in American politics.

    The Republican Party connects to conservative ideology and the Democratic Party to liberal ideology. The Nation-as-Family theory involves looking at the relationship between the government and its citizens as that between parents and their children. Connected to conservative ideology is the Strict Father who proclaims authority, obedience and character and connected to liberal ideology is the Nurturant Parent who proclaims nurturing, empathy and equal distribution of opportunities. Connected to Strict Father and Nurturant Parent there exists a number of metaphors of morality that helps organize the language being used.

    Although notions of the ‘wrong’ moralities appear in the ‘wrong’ speeches, the results from the analysis clearly indicates that the Nation-as-Family theory is highly valid in displaying the connections between political speeches and the ideological bases to which the speakers adhere.

  • 3430.
    Östskog, Ronja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ångnell, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Vuxnas syn på sin tid som familjehemsplacerade: En studie om anknytning till familjehemsföräldrar och upplevd kontakt med socialsekreteraren2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the connection with the foster parents and the contact with the social services affects a child during a foster care placement and later in life. Furthermore, it also examines how good connection favours a foster care placement and the contact with the social services. For the study, a qualitative method was used. Five interviews took place with adults who have, at some point during their childhood, been in foster care. Parts of Bowlbys attachment theory and Antonovskys (2010) idea of KASAM was used to analyze the study’s empirics. The result shows that all adults who got interviewed in this study felt they had good relations with the foster parents and felt safe in their presence during the time they spent in foster care. Four guidelines for a good relationship between a child and their foster parents has showed to be rules, structure, commitment and affinity. Children who feel insecure with their current relations have a harder time building new relations and will have a tough time creating good relations within the foster home. The Social Service Act demands that every child in foster care shall be assigned a social secretary (2015:982). Children who has been placed in foster care needs a social secretary that they feel they can trust, this will increase the possibility of good relations within the foster home.

  • 3431.
    Övelius, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Hur organiseras det oförutsägbara?: En kvalitativ studie om att hantera det plötsliga i jourverksamheter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A society handle on one hand uncertain, unpredictable and incalculable events and on the other hand planned, calculated and predictable occasions. In this essay, I will investigate how these events and situations that we do not know anything about are socially organized. Sweden, among other developed countries worldwide, may be an interesting field of a new upcoming discourse of security and safety. New agencies in the form of alarm centres with on-call and on-site services are popping up more often these days. Two of those agencies are analysed in this essay. Earlier research on this theme handle phenomenon such as rationality, crisis, chaos and catastrophes. Also, phenomenological sense-making studies of organizations working with these kinds of events have been gone through.

    The sociological theoretical framework of system and lifeworld, developed by Jürgen Habermas in his work of Theories of Communicative Action1 is the theoretical outset in this study. With mentioned organizations, at somewhat different domains, I have used the qualitative methodologies of semi-structural interviews and participant observations. Interpersonal verbal communication is here problematized together with technological and digital forms of communication. The result gave that some forms of systematic organized processes, but also reflexive and intuitive forms of action can explain the dichotomy of system and lifeworld in the structural middle level (meso) for investigated organizations.

    1 Jürgen Habermas 1987.

  • 3432.
    Öye, Veronica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ahl, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Inflytelserika kvinnor i musikbranschen: En studie i vad som krävs för att nå inflytelserika positioner2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s Swedish music industry, there is an uneven distribution of women and men among the influential positions. The male dominance in the industry has been highly debated in recent years, which brought the interest for this study. The study is therefore focused on females that have managed to occupy influential positions. The study aims to gain an understanding of the factors that enabled these women to obtain their influence in the music industry. Based on this purpose, our research question is "Is it possible to see similarities and differences among the respondents' backgrounds, and in their acquired knowledge, which has enabled their achieved power in the music industry?” The research takes a qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews with ten women who all hold influential positions in the music industry. The women interviewed are, in alphabetical order: Cecilia Ancker, My Blomgren, Emelie Bååth, Marie Dimberg, Karin Gunnarsson, Helen McLaughlin, Theodora Nordqvist, Hilda Sandgren, Anna Sjölund och Lena Åberg Frisk. Based on the study's purpose, Pierre Bourdieu's theory of field, capital and habitus is used as a theoretical framework to explore which capital is of most relevance when one is interested in acquiring an influential position in the music industry. The empirical data obtained shows that the capital considered most important for achieving an influential position is practical experience and social networking. Accumulating practical experience is a common trait among all respondents. The analysis of empirical data has led us to the conclusion that the importance of experience and execution is more important than formal education in the field. The respondents’ testimonials all conclude: The capital of social networking is an asset that is converted into knowledge; knowledge that is particularly important within the music industry, and can be considered an industry specific education. The capital of social networking, combined with practical experience, is the most relevant capital in order to obtain influence in the music industry. 

  • 3433.
    Öz, Mustafa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ali, Daoud Omar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Systematisk risk och avkastning på en volatil samt stabil marknad: En undersökning på den svenska aktiemarknaden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the early 60’s, the CAPM or Capital Asset Pricing Model, has been an invaluable tool for assessing an asset's expected return, assuming that the asset is added to an already well-diversified portfolio of assets. CAPM theory assume that the unsystematic risk can be diversified and that the systematic, market-specific, risk is determined by the Beta value, from the Greek β. An investor who takes big risks expect higher returns.

    One of the CAPM’s basic assumptions is that disruption in the market is not taken into account. This assumption may lead to results that do not correspond to reality.

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between systematic risk, and return on a stable and volatile market.

    Methodology: The study was performed using a quantitative research with secondary data, in which 30 companies listed on the OMX 30 on the Stockholm stock exchange was studied. The investigation period was from 2003 to 2012 and was divided into three parts. Using the statistics program SPSS and Excel the data required to answer the purpose of the essay was calculated.

    Results: The analysis of the first time period between 2003 and 2007 showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between beta value and the average return for the period.

    The second time period between 2008 and 2012, which was characterized by an extremely volatile stock market, showed different results. The result of this period showed no statistical relationship existed when the market was characterized by high volatility.

    The third and final period between 2003 and 2012, which was a combination of a stable and a volatile market. The results for this period showed no significant association between beta value and average returns.

    The conclusion of this study is therefore that the CAPM model to assess an asset's return fails when the market is unstable, e.g. due to a financial crisis. To compensate for this error that is built into the model, one should therefore use alternative models, or revised versions of the CAPM, if the aim is to produce data in a realistic way that can be used as basis for investment decisions.

  • 3434.
    Özalp, Murat Ozan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Torres, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Införandet av EU:s revisionspaket: En studie om obligatorisk byrårotation och revisionskvalité2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Innan rotationskrav för revisorer har hunnit cementeras och ge utslag, har Regeringen i ett nytt betänkande lagstadgat även krav för rotation för byråer. Krav på byrårotation uppkom som en proposition efter finanskrisen 2008, som ett led i att strama åt regelverket för revisionsbyråer. Den Europeiska kommissionen skriver i sitt betänkande att även om de huvudansvariga revisorerna byts ut med jämna mellanrum kvarstår risken för en jävsituation.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur revisionsbyråer, kunder och myndigheter förhåller sig till obligatorisk byrårotation. Vi kommer även att studera hur marknaden för revision ändras, samt studera hur en revisionsbyrå ur ”The Big Four” kommer att förbereda sig inför denna lagförändring.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Hur kommer byrårotation att inverka på revisionskvalitén för börsnoterade företag och finansiella företag av allmänt intresse?
    • Hur förbereder en revisionsbyrå ur ”The Big Four” sig inför byrårotation?
    • Vilka effekter kan byrårotation ha på marknadsstrukturen?

    Metod: Studien utgörs av en fallstudie där obligatorisk byrårotation studeras ur tre perspektiv. Studien baseras på ett antal befintliga teorier, varför studiens bearbetas utifrån den deduktiva ansatsen. Primärdata samlas in genom semi-strukturerade intervjuer, där respondenterna har valts ut efter olika kriterier, beroende på perspektiv.

    Empiri: Tre myndigheter, tre kunder och en revisionsbyrå har varit föremål för våra intervjuer, där vi tematiskt redogör för deras uttalanden.

    Slutsats: Byrårotation kommer att leda till att revisorn blir mer oberoende, då mandatperioden inte tillåter att nära relationer bildas och på grund av vitesbeloppets omfattning. Revisionen kommer inte kosta mer, med anledning av att det kommer att bli en kamp mellan byråerna om uppdragen. Vi har identifierat tre möjliga marknadseffekter av byrårotation, där kartelliknande verksamheter är en möjlig utgång. Revisionsbyråernas verksamheter kommer att bli mer likt de internationellas, där rådgivningstjänster utgör den största delen. En viktig konsekvens av byrårotation kan vara att bolag roterar byrå vid kritiska tidpunkter, vilket kan skada bolaget ytterligare. Bolag bör kunna flagga vid sådana tidpunkter, för att kunna förlänga rotationen parallellt med den nytillträdda i början av uppdraget.

  • 3435.
    Özgun, Lena
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Malakit, Savitri
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Banker & sociala medier: Framgångsrecept eller fiasko?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemdiskussion: Sociala medier är ett fenomen som vuxit sig stort på senare år och det blir allt vanligare att företag använder dessa plattformar som en kommunikationskanal med sina kunder. Bankerna kan via sociala medier, såsom Facebook och Twitter nå ut på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt, med sitt budskap till allt större publik på en och samma gång. Detta kan i sin tur förstärka företagets rykte, om word-of-mouth visar sig vara av positiv karaktär samtidigt som det kan snabbt rasera företagets varumärke om spridningen av word-of-mouth är allt för negativ och okontrollerbar. Vi ämnar besvara följande frågeställning: Är Facebook och Twitter en gynnsam kommunikationskanal för banker, eller skulle vissa gynnas mer av att inte tillämpa sociala medier i deras verksamhet?

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är analysera hur banker förhåller sig till och kommunicerar via sociala medier. Vi väger för- och nackdelarna mot varandra och ifrågasätter om de sociala medierna är en gynnsam kommunikationskanal för banker.

    Metod: Vi tillämpade en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi där vi samlade empiri som bestod av semistrukturerade intervjuer samt observationer av dialoger från bankernas Facebook och Twitter- konton. Dessutom analyserade vi data från SKI:s kundnöjdhetsundersökning inom banksektorn.

    Analys & Slutsats: Med hjälp av den insamlade empirin och de olika teorierna som behandlats har vi kommit fram till att det kanske inte är en fråga om banker ska finnas tillgängliga på sociala medier eller inte, utan istället ligger det väsentliga i hur de ska vara när de väl är ute på Facebook och Twitter. Bankerna bör således ha en genomtänkt kommunikationsstrategi då det kan uppstå ohanterliga situationer på sociala medier genom word-of-mouth.

  • 3436.
    Ünlü-Akyol, Cansu
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kroppsideal hos unga kvinnor i åldern 15-25 år: En kvalitativ studie av unga kvinnors syn på kroppsideal2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I have interviewed six young women about their views on body image and how their views are affected by their surroundings, massmedia and social media. Also the relationship between body image and eating disorders is relevant in this context and has a part in the study. The purpose of this study is to build an understanding of how young women relate to the body ideal that exists around them. Theoretical auxiliary tools used are George Herbert Mead's theory of the generalized other, Erving Goffman's theory of dramaturgical perspective and impression management, and Du Bois's theory of double consciousness. I have also used two scientific articles to get a deeper understanding of the subject. I will discuss the theoretical concepts and previous research by pending between these and the empirical material. Using a qualitative approach, I have been able to show that all the respondents' views on the ideal body is affected by the massmedia, social media and the respondents’ surroundings. The respondents also re2port that they find it difficult to fit into society if they do not live up to the current body ideals. This puts a lot of pressure on the respondents and several of them report recurring eating disorder behaviour.

    There are also positive aspects of the current body ideals, for example when they affect the respondents to eat healthier food, exercise and live healthier lives in general.

    The ethnicity of the respondents affects their body ideals and it is common that the respondents seek certain traits in the opposite ethnicity, for example women with foreign origin seeking blond hair and blue eyes.

    The most prominent finding in my study is the enormous pressure that my respondents experience, when trying to live up to the body ideals, and how this pressure is enhanced by massmedia, social media and the respondents’ surroundings.

  • 3437.
    Ünsal, Hamit
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Erdogan, Volkan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ger Hedgefonder högre riskjusterad avkastning än Traditionella fonder?: En jämförelsestudie mellan Hedgefonder och Traditionella fonder2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether hedge funds generate higher risk-adjusted returns than traditional managed funds in Sweden.

    Methodology: This study was based on quantitative data about the funds historical returns. The funds historical returns were taken from the database Morningstar and the risk-free rate from the Swedish central bank. Random samples of 36 funds have been divided into three portfolios in the form of a hedge fund portfolio, stock portfolio and mix fund portfolio.

    Result & Conclusion: The study concluded that the stock portfolio has shown the highest average yield for the study period where all portfolios below market index. Hedge fund portfolio has achieved the highest risk-adjusted return calculated by the portfolios Sharpe Ratio. Of all hedge strategies, arbitrage had the highest average return and risk-adjusted returns.

  • 3438.
    Čaušević, Naida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hyensjö, Frida
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Normkreativ reklamfilm ”Det är såhär reklam bör vara”: En kvalitativ studie om konsumenters uppfattning av normkreativ reklamfilm2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to identify how norm creativity in commercials is perceived by consumers and how it affects their perception of a brand.

    Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework for the study consists of theories of market communication, the advertising industry and brands.

    Methodology: The study is based on a deductible research where data collection takes place through focus groups.

    Result: The empirical content is collected through three focus groups, which are presented by narrative method.

    Conclusion: The study shows that consumers perceive norm creative commercials positively and meaningful. Consumers want to see more of this kind of commercials. This is because companies demonstrate corporate social responsibility and take on a responsibility consumers demand today. Norm creative commercials affect consumers' view of the brand both positively and negatively. Consumers argue that it has a positive impact on brands if they have good intentions and are doing it continuously, but that it may have a negative impact if the message does not go through or is provocative. The negative consequence is also linked to the fact that consumers believe brands may use this type of advertising solely for their own gain. It creates distrust among consumers and weakens their loyalty.

     

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