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  • 301.
    Habazin, Maria
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Gated communities: The american dream - den svenska mardrömmen?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is an essay about gated communities and their impact on society. The key questions of my essay are: why people choose to live in gated communities; how the city is impacted by gated communities and what the difference concerning the reasons and impact of gated communities in Florida and Sweden is, and what this difference might depend on. I am using postmodern urbanism as a starting point, and I look closer on Edward J. Soja’s theories about the postmodern metropolis. The research about gated communities is almost nonexistent in Sweden, so the literature I have read and used in my essay has mostly an American perspective. For a Swedish perspective I have among other things interviewed a professor in urban planning from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.

    My study shows that a search for security and a certain lifestyle are the main reasons for people to live or want to live in gated communities, both in Florida and in Sweden. However, there is a big difference in the subject between Florida and Sweden, mainly because there are only a few living areas in Sweden that can be considered as being gated communities. In Sweden a new lifestyle community called Victoria Park and is considered being a “Swedish gated community” has gotten a lot of critique in the media. This shows that gated communities are not really accepted in Sweden yet. In Florida gated communities are not considered extraordinary and you can see the negative impacts they have had on the city, like empty cities without the service that is now found inside gated communities.

    Gated communities can be seen by some as a dream living situation, and for others a nightmare. Living in a private community with gates are not yet something you can do in Sweden, but the development of living areas like Victoria Park and its popularity show that maybe it won’t take long until it’s not considered as an irregularity.

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  • 302.
    Hadzija, Merima
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Lagumdzija, Aljosa
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Zima, Kamil
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Kommunalt samarbete för att stärka en turistdestination: en studie av turistdestinationen Roslagen2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate and elucidate how and why municipalities cooperate across municipal boundaries with destination development. To answer the purpose the authors chose two research questions:

    What are the incentives of cooperation between the municipalities in Roslagen? What are the possibilities and difficulties of cooperation? In order to answer the research questions interviews with local business managers, administrative director, the acting Head of destination and tourist office staff were made. Municipalities have signed a cooperation agreement in October/November 2008, where they will work more formal together to strengthen the destination Roslagen. The result of the study shows that the main motive for municipal cooperation is the sharing of financial resources to promote and develop the destination Roslagen together. The possibilities are that Roslagen can market themselves both nationally and internationally through its partners Stockholm Visitors Board, Visit Skärgården and Visit Sweden. Difficulties in the cooperation are that the destination Roslagen lacks a major commercial operator who can control the development by coordinating the private and public sectors.

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  • 303.
    Hafiz, Amir
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Dubai - en hållbar idé?: En inblick i hållbar utveckling och en unik region.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studien grundar sig i hållbar utveckling anpassat på ett samhälle i form av Dubai. Den behandlar den hållbara utvecklingen och problematiserar Dubai som ett hållbart koncept. Den framhåller olika delar i ett samhälle som är viktiga att ta hänsyn till. Dessa områden redovisas och diskuteras kring. Det kritiska tänkandet är huvudtanken i studien, där det handlar om att kritisera och söka förståelse i vad det kan finnas för brister i ett samhälle och vad dessa kan få för konsekvenser för framtiden. Det innebär att undersökningen granskar relevanta delar och avgränsar sig genom att inte djupgående undersöka de olika aspekterna i ett samhälle. Studien uppmuntrar läsaren att vara kritisk genom att beröra delar i samhället som är viktiga för att dra slutsatser om kapaciteten att tillgodose människans och naturens behov. Det vi ibland anser vara fint och bra genom att se det med ögat, kan vi få en tvistande uppfattning om när vi diskuterar dess hållbarhet.

    Materialet i studien är i form av litteratur om Dubais historia, ekonomi, politik och natur. Dokumentärer, artiklar, nyhetsrapporteringar och böcker har införlivats i studien. Dessa litterära källor är enbart valda för att få en inblick i Dubai och dess kapacitet att uppfylla ett hållbart koncept. Således är litteraturen avgränsad för att inte allt för djupt undersöka de enskilda delarna i ett samhälle, utan det handlar om att se dess samspel sinsemellan.

    Materialet sammanställs för att avgöra vilka delar som är relevanta, och dessa delar har kopplats till ett hållbart förhållningssätt, där de olika delarna kopplas till hållbar utveckling för att kritiskt kunna diskutera dess hållbarhet. Exempelvis diskuteras energiförbrukningen från ett hållbart perspektiv. Detta fungerar som studiens tillvägagångssätt. 

    Det som framgår i studien är att hållbar utveckling är i all synnerhet ett diskutabelt ämne i Dubai då det råder hög produktivitet, hög energi förbrukning, förtäring av miljö och påverkande faktorer för det sociala livet som kan leda till segregation. Allt för snabb planering kan skapa negativa konsekvenser för framtiden och Dubais koncept där moderniseringen speglar vardagen kan visa sig vara en bristande idé. Resurser uppmärksammas också som en viktig aspekt i Dubais fall där man innehar goda resurser. Det framgår också att hållbar utveckling som förhållningssätt anpassat på Dubai är mycket diskutabelt.         

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  • 304.
    Hall, Elin
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Sustainable forests: A strategy for climate change adaptation and mitigation?: A case study from Babati District, Tanzania2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor‟s thesis aims at explaining the relationship between forests and climate change, a subject that has been given a lot of attention in environmental discussions in recent years, particularly because forests are a source of carbon dioxide emissions and in the same time have the potential to mitigate climate change through carbon sequestration. However, with the importance of mitigation as a background, the focus of this study is on adaptation. The purpose is to identify mutual benefits from the diverse forest ecosystems, and examine the possible benefits from forests to the rural poor population in Tanzania, in a future scenario of increased vulnerability to climate change. The methodology for the study can be divided into two parts, one qualitative literature study and one field study in Babati District northern Tanzania, limited to interviews and excursions. This thesis gives details about the scientific projections and local perceptions of climate change and the effects of climate change. The results of the thesis highlights the importance of sustainably managed forests and agroforestry systems, which have been successful in Babati through local participation; economic incentives such as carbon credit and other payments for ecosystem services, which is a possible future extension of forestry activities; and increased integration between sectors, which make sure that adaptation within different sectors can be done simultaneously.

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  • 305.
    Hallal, Sara
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Women and traditional organizations: A study on traditionally organized women in Babati District2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to  examine women and men’s perspective on the informal and traditional way for women to organize themselves in relation to formalization. To meet the aims of the thesis qualitative studies through interviews concerning a protest march that took place in 2003 Dareda village were performed, and a literature study to supplement the empirical data. Thereafter the purpose was analyzed through both feminist theory and empowerment theory. A majority of both the men and the women were positive opinions towards the traditional way for women to be organized. This might go against the feminist theory and verify that only negative statements are brought up within the feminist discourse. Through this tradition women collectively claim specific rights, because they are more powerful together then individually, but also under the banner of motherhood or as women. In relation to the process of development the women are being hindered from protesting more frequently and urged to act within the formal framework. Their major obstacles with the formalization concerns to the judicial system and some of them claim that corruption will prevent justice for them as women.

     

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  • 306.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Brain aromatase in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata: distribution, control and role in behaviour2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Neuroestrogen and male reproductive behaviour in the guppy2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Kitambi, Satish Srinivas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cloning, sequencing and In situ localisation of guppy brain aromatase, cyp19bManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oestrogens are biosynthesised by cytochrome p450-aromatase (Cyp19). Brain oestrogens serve several important functions of which nerve protection, cell proliferation, nerve development and behaviour control are a few. Teleost brain aromatase activity is exceptionally high (between 100-1000 times) compared to mammals and birds. We have successfully cloned and sequenced a 950 bp long partial fragment of the guppy CYP19B gene (PrCyp19b) derived from adult brain mRNA. Sequence alignment of translated amino acid sequence shows PrCYP19b having high sequence similarity to teleost brain aromatase. Anatomical distribution of PrCYP19b expression in adult guppy brains was studied using in situ-hybridisation with an antisense riboprobe synthesised from the cloned PrCYP19b gene. Expression of brain aromatase appeared at ventricular surfaces of the ventral telencephalic zones and the pre-optic area, in the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, optic tectum and the cerebellum. This pattern is similar to previously reported distribution of brain aromatase in other teleosts. Measurement of brain aromatase activity in telencephalon, mesencephalon/diencephalon and rhombencephalon revealed female guppies producing the most oestrogens in mesencephalon/diencephalon, whereas males produces the most oestrogens in both telencephalon and mesencephalon/diencephalon. This indicates that brain oestrogen production is sexually dimorphic in the guppy and may serve different functions in the two genders.

  • 309.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Linderoth, Maria
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Inhibition of cytochrome p450 brain aromatase reduces two male specific sexual behaviours in the male Endler guppy (Poecilia reticulata)2006In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 147, no 3, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mammalian and avian vertebrate groups, androgens act as controlling agents on male aggression and courtship behaviour by their conversion to oestrogens by cytochrome P450 aromatase in well-defined brain regions. Despite the fact that bony fishes have exceptionally high brain aromatase activity, little is known about it's possible regulatory effects on the reproductive behaviours of teleosts. In this study, Endler guppy males (Poecilia reticulata) were subjected to 26-29 days of 24-h exposure to two different concentrations (15 and 100 pg/L) of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole in the water. Compared with the control males, two of three courtship activities in males exposed to the higher concentration were reduced when they were paired with receptive stimulus females. Reduction in brain aromatase activity was confirmed in both exposed groups with the use of the tritiated water assay.

  • 310.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Effects on Guppy Brain Aromatase Activity Following Short-Term Steroid and 4-Nonylphenol Exposures2010In: Environmental Toxicology, ISSN 1520-4081, E-ISSN 1522-7278, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 261-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain estrogen production, performed by the enzyme aromatase, can be disrupted/affected in teleost fish exposed to endocrine disruptors found in polluted aquatic environments. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) was previously studied and confirmed to suffer negative effects on reproductive behaviors following inhibition of the brain aromatase reaction. Here adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata) of both genders were subjected to known endocrine disruptors: the androgen androstenedione (A), the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and the estrogenic surfactant 4-nonylphenol (NP), at high (50 mu g/L) and at environmentally relevant concentrations (10 ng/L EE2, 5 mu g/L NP, and 0.7 mu g/L A) for 2 weeks followed by measurements of brain aromatase activity (bAA). In the adult males, bAA was stimulated by A and EE2 at 50 mu g/L. Female activity was also stimulated by the higher estrogenic treatment. At environmentally relevant concentrations only the EE2 treatment affected bAA, and only in males. The alkylphenolic substance NP produced no effect in either of the experiments, not on males nor females. The results indicate that short-term steroid treatments have stimulatory effects on guppy brain aromatase even at concentrations that can be found in the environment. We thus suggest bAA of adult guppies to be a suitable bioindicator of endocrine disruptors.

  • 311.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Impacts of synthetic oestrogen and antioestrogen treatments on courtship and mating behaviours in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the neuroendocrinological mechanisms behind reproductive behaviour is fundamental when studying endocrine disruption. Neuroestrogen production is a key step in the activation of reproductive behaviours among vertebrates. The actions of estrogens are transmitted through estrogen receptors (ERs) in distinct brain nuclei. Here we report alterations in reproductive behaviours in guppy males following 55-day food treatments with the antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI) and the synthetic oestrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Male courtship and mating attempts were severely reduced in EE2 treated males after both 27-30 and 41-55 days of treatment when paired with females. ICI treatment gave a significant reduction in the frequency of sigmoid display behaviour after 27-30 days of treatment, and an almost 2.5-fold increase in gonopodium thrusting after 41-55 days of treatment. ICI treated males also decreased their frequency in successful mating attempts in comparison to the control males. The neurological effects of ICI were confirmed by Real Time-PCR analysis for brain aromatase and ERα gene expression. ICI treatment suppressed aromatase expression to 64% and stimulated ERα gene expression by over 300%. These results indicate that oestrogen action via ERs may play an important role for the complete display of male courtship and mating behaviour in the guppy. The results also suggest that local steroids are involved in regulating brain aromatase expression and that the negative effects of EE2 on sexual behaviour are linked via endocrine disruption of gonadal function.

  • 312.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Anxiogenic behaviour induced by 17α-ethynylestradiol in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)2011In: Fish Physiology & Biochemistry, ISSN 0920-1742, E-ISSN 1573-5168, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 911-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behaviour studies are used in toxicology research as they are excellent tools to measure physiological end-points caused by exogenous chemicals. In mammals both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviours have been used for a long period of time, whereas in teleost fishes non-reproductive behaviours have received little attention compared to reproductive behaviours. Recent advances in measuring stress related behaviours in zebrafish have provided additional tools to understand behaviour toxicology in fish. One species with well documented reproductive behaviour disturbed by different toxicants is the guppy, which is better suited than zebrafish for reproductive behaviour studies and therefore might be a better model organism for comparative behaviour studies in fish toxicology. Here we report new applications for non-reproductive behaviours in guppy and test these behaviours on males treated with the endocrine disruptor 17α-ethynylestradiol at environmentally relevant concentrations. 17α-ethynylestradiol increased freezing and bottom-dwelling when fish were placed in a non-familiar aquarium, but did not significantly affect shoaling behaviour. These results are similar to the anxiogenic behaviours seen in rats treated perinatally with 17α-ethynylestradiol and add more concern to the impacts of endocrine disruptors on aquatic wildlife.

  • 313.
    Hallin, Therése
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Kjellgren, Sofia
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Miljöcertifiering av hotellverksamheter: varför miljöcertifiera?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness regarding environmental issues is increasing and as a result a large number of products are eco-labeled. This enables the consumers to make enlightened environmental decisions when purchasing products. Eco-labeling is no longer for products only, but also for services like hotels. It’s difficult to determine what it actually means to eco-label a hotel and what kind of benefits it includes. Our goal for this essay regarding eco-labeling of hotels is to consider the question –why eco-label?

    The essay also considers benefits or disadvantages connected to eco-labeling and also aim to collect theories and thoughts about the meaning of this in the future. In order to reach this goal the essay involves a case study with hotels who are eco-labeled and those who are not. It also contains information from interviews with representatives from four different eco-labeling organizations and one government environmental scientist. This combined with collected theories aim to give a clear picture about the main focus point –why eco-label? The results show that the hotels whom were studied consider environmental work as very important. It also shows that they notice an increasing demand among customers. The demand also seems to be higher among corporate customers. Eco-labeling can be used as a tool to show the customers that the hotel is working according to special criteria which aims to a more sustainable environment. Care about the environment and increasing customer demand are two main important reasons for the hotels to get an eco-label. It has also shown that there can be more reasons behind the decision to eco-label like; the assistance regarding environmental issues from the eco-labeling organization, competitive advantages, brand related and corporate values. There are also challenges associated with eco-labeling; the ones we have seen are that the environmental work can stop evolving after the label has been accepted. Sometimes the eco-label might not even be the most environmental friendly solution. We have also seen that the eco-labels are combined with different compromises and that they often cost money and take time to implement.

    We have reached the conclusion that in the future eco-labeling of hotels is likely to be significantly important and collaboration between eco-labeling organizations will probably grow and be more international. The results do not generally apply for all hotels but it gives an important insight on eco-labels for hotels, and can give arguments about the subject.

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  • 314.
    Hallinder, Linnea
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Hållbar utveckling: Begreppets utveckling och användning på kommunal nivå2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns how local governments use the concept sustainable development, and what the concept means. The concept of Agenda 21 and local Agenda 21 will also be discussed in this essay, because it's an instrument for local governments to specify their work towards sustainable development. I have interviewed civil servants in leading positions in the municipalities’ work with environmental questions and sustainable development. In the choice of method for this thesis, I use the qualitative method and for the interviews I chose the “semi structure way of interviewing”.

    This thesis shows that local governments’ implementation of sustainable development and Agenda 21 differ between the municipalities. In one local government was the focus on an adapted local Agenda 21-document. Another local government worked with a complement to the local Agenda 21-document in shape of commitment to the Ålborg-declaration instead. An explanation to that was that the government wanted to integrate additional dimensions to the local government work with sustainable development. A third local government does not longer follow the Agenda 21-document, even though such a manual had been designed earlier. The government works with the own profession of the government employee instead, and a climate and energy strategy is now under development. The idea is that the strategy is going to be a new complement to the local Agenda 21.

    The concept of sustainable development is, in a theoretical way, quite broad. This has resulted in the fact that all of the three local governments have different views to what sustainable development involves. However, this might have been the intention behind the concept of sustainable development, because you have to adapt the investment to the local level to match the own local government in the best way. All the informants agreed that the Bruntland reports’ definition of sustainable development is the starting-point for their own versions of sustainability strategies.

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  • 315.
    Hallström, Sandra
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    En studie av kvinnogrupper och social mobilisering i Babati District ur ett feministiskt empowerment-perspektiv: Hur kan kvinnors agentskap och sociala interaktion transformera de strukturella förutsättningarna i Babati?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The results and the analysis of this essay are based on an empirical study of women groups in Babati District in Tanzania from 2005. The study has shown that the reason for women in Babati to organize themselves is to overcome traditional and structural obstacles that restrict women’s economical integration. Through the creation of social networks and a common source of income within the group, women are trying to strengthen their position within the household and in society. The significance of empowerment on an individual level is the sense of abilities in everyday life and the feeling of increased options.

    Social mobilization means that individuals come together and with united strengths and according to a common interest are trying to fulfil articulated goals. Local women groups in Babati and the social mobilization they constitute are seeking, through their agency to influence their social and economical situation. It can also mean challenging the structural conditions and increase women’s capacity of action. This kind of agency at a group level is extremely important for the capability of articulating own goals and creating prosperity, to feel in charge of one’s life conditions.

    Aim: The aim for this study is, by using an empowerment approach to examine how women groups in Babati District in Tanzania organize themselves and how the members through their agency are influencing the social conditions and economical possibilities for women in the area. What are the effects of social mobilization in Babati for the individual woman? How can women’s agency contribute to structural changes and help women to overcome traditional obstacles?

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  • 316.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Whose fish? Managing salmonidae and humans in complex social-ecological systems: Examples from the Baltic Sea Region2009In: Challenges for diadromous fishes in a dynamic global environment: proceedings of the international symposium "Challenges for Diadromous Fishes in a Dynamic Global Environment" held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, June 18-21, 2007 / [ed] Alex Haro ... [et al.], Bethesda, Md: American Fisheries Society , 2009, p. 663-676Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of salmonids at local and regional levels in the Baltic, Sea is best analyzed by viewing the Baltic region as a complex social-ecological system. The ecosystem approach, now in an implementation phase in the Baltic Sea region, provides a framework for understanding interdependencies between resources, ecosystems and society, and examining management trade-offs. This study focuses on application of the ecosystem approach to management of two salmonids: the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fishery in the Baltic Sea region and the brown trout S. trutta recreational fishery in Stockholm archipelago, Sweden. These cases provide illustrative examples of some current trend!; and key challenges for sustainable salmonidae management. The Baltic Sea has low biodiversity and Atlantic salmon is one of the few commercially or recreationally important fish species. In this region, fish resources and the ecosystems they depend on are shared by nine coastal nations. The different salmon populations spawn in their native rivers but mix in offshore areas where they are harvested by national fishing fleets. In the Baltic, a number of factors have impacted wild salmon populations. Hydropower development in the Baltic coastal states has led to declines in wild salmon populations and, to compensate, annual stocked fish releases. In attractive coastal areas such as the Stockholm archipelago in Sweden, increased recreational fishing has led to a shift in user patterns from small-scale commercial fisheries by islanders towards a heterogeneous group of visiting recreational fishers. Efforts to reorganize fisheries management institutions in the Baltic Sea region indicate the need to consider the full range of user groups, develop coherent multilevel management institutions, and achieve a better understanding of the role of diverse fish populations in the ecosystem.

  • 317.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Balfors, Berit
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Quin, Andrew
    Governance of Water Resources in the Phase of Change: A Case Study of the Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 210-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, focusing on the ongoing implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, we analyze some of the opportunities and challenges for a sustainable governance of water resources from an ecosystem management perspective. In the face of uncertainty and change, the ecosystem approach as a holistic and integrated management framework is increasingly recognized. The ongoing implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) could be viewed as a reorganization phase in the process of change in institutional arrangements and ecosystems. In this case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District, Sweden, we focus in particular on data and information management from a multi-level governance perspective from the local stakeholder to the River Basin level. We apply a document analysis, hydrological mapping, and GIS models to analyze some of the institutional framework created for the implementation of the WFD. The study underlines the importance of institutional arrangements that can handle variability of local situations and trade-offs between solutions and priorities on different hierarchical levels.

  • 318.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Towards improved environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 112012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving towards sustainable ecosystem governance practices is potentially a complex and time consuming endeavour. The RISKGOV project identified three main governance challenges linked to implementing an ecosystem approach to management in the medium to long term time span (i.e. years to decades), that, if adequately addressed by actors and stakeholders, could help improve the governance of environmental problems and risks in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Firstly, fostering a move towards reflexive and adaptive governance structures and processes by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration and forming spaces for interaction and dialogue. Secondly, strengthening the regional and ecosystem basis of knowledge generation and management is needed, including integration of various forms of scientific knowledge, stakeholder input, and increased attention to interdependencies among environmental problems and risks to better address uncertainties and disagreements. Thirdly, to develop a more integrated system of stakeholder input and communication, e.g. in the form of a “regional marine advisory council”, to face issues of inclusiveness, create a common concern for the Baltic ecosystem, improve the motivation and capacity, and improve coordination across scales and sectors.

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    RISKGOV D11
  • 319.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Andersson, Ingela
    Cross-scale linkages and trade-offs in multilevel water governance: A case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District2011In: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Annual Conference, Copenhagen: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea , 2011, p. ICES CM2011/R:21-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 320.
    Hansén, Hanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Odlingsfria skyddszoner i jordbrukslandskapet: En studie av Dyåprojektet i Nynäshamns kommun2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of the most substantial environmental problems in the Baltic sea and is caused by elevated nutrient concentrations in the water. A large part of these nutrients comes from losses in agricultural land (Bernes, 2005, s. 83). A number of measures can be taken to reduce agricultural nutrient loss to water, for example by introducing vegetative buffer zones adjacent to watercourses (Jordbruksverket, 2008). This paper examine such buffer zones and uses a 16 year long project in Nynäshamn municipality as a field study, the Dyå project. The local participation in the project was analyzed to see how this have influenced the nutrient content in the water table of Dyån. The result shows that nutrient content in the Dyå river surface water is still high regarding both total phosphorus and total nitrogen and the nutrient losses from the drainage area is extremely high. The method for analyzing the water samples differ from predominant research on buffer zones, which shall be kept in mind when analyzing the result. The local participation has worked well despite poor contact with the municipal authorities who initiated the project in 1995. The paper discusses other possible reasons for Dyåns high nutrient content, for example the soil quality, drainage tubes and changed land use in the drainage area.

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  • 321. Hao, Limin
    et al.
    Aspöck, Gudrun
    Bürglin, Thomas R
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    The hedgehog-related gene wrt-5 is essential for hypodermal development in Caenorhabditis elegans2006In: Developmental Biology, ISSN 0012-1606, E-ISSN 1095-564X, Vol. 290, no 2, p. 323-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes a series of hedgehog-related genes, which are thought to have evolved and diverged from an ancestral Hh gene. They are classified into several families based on their N-terminal domains. Here, we analyze the expression and function of a member of the warthog gene family, wrt-5, that lacks the Hint/Hog domain. wrt-5 is expressed in seam cells, the pharynx, pharyngeal-intestinal valve cells, neurons, neuronal support cells, the excretory cell, and the reproductive system. WRT-5 protein is secreted into the extracelluar space during embryogenesis. Furthermore, during larval development, WRT-5 protein is secreted into the pharyngeal lumen and the pharyngeal expression changes in a cyclical manner in phase with the molting cycle. Deletion mutations in wrt-5 cause embryonic lethality, which are temperature sensitive and more severe at 15 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. Animals that hatch exhibit variable abnormal morphology, for example, bagging worms, blistering, molting defects, or Roller phenotypes. We examined hypodermal cell junctions using the AJM-1: :GFP marker in the wrt-5 mutant background and observed cell boundary abnormalities in the arrested embryos. AJM-1: :GFP protein is also misplaced in pharyngeal muscle cells in the absence of WRT-5. In conclusion, we show that wrt-5 is an essential gene that - despite its lack of a Hint domain - has multiple functions in C. elegans and is implicated in cell shape integrity.

  • 322. Hao, Limin
    et al.
    Johnsen, Robert
    Lauter, Gilbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Baillie, David
    Bürglin, Thomas R.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Comprehensive analysis of gene expression patterns of hedgehog-related genes2006In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 7, p. 280-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes ten proteins that share sequence similarity with the Hedgehog signaling molecule through their C-terminal autoprocessing Hint/Hog domain. These proteins contain novel N-terminal domains, and C. elegans encodes dozens of additional proteins containing only these N-terminal domains. These gene families are called warthog, groundhog, ground-like and quahog, collectively called hedgehog (hh)-related genes. Previously, the expression pattern of seventeen genes was examined, which showed that they are primarily expressed in the ectoderm. Results: With the completion of the C. elegans genome sequence in November 2002, we reexamined and identified 61 hh-related ORFs. Further, we identified 49 hh-related ORFs in C. briggsae. ORF analysis revealed that 30% of the genes still had errors in their predictions and we improved these predictions here. We performed a comprehensive expression analysis using GFP fusions of the putative intergenic regulatory sequence with one or two transgenic lines for most genes. The hh-related genes are expressed in one or a few of the following tissues: hypodermis, seam cells, excretory duct and pore cells, vulval epithelial cells, rectal epithelial cells, pharyngeal muscle or marginal cells, arcade cells, support cells of sensory organs, and neuronal cells. Using time-lapse recordings, we discovered that some hh-related genes are expressed in a cyclical fashion in phase with molting during larval development. We also generated several translational GFP fusions, but they did not show any subcellular localization. In addition, we also studied the expression patterns of two genes with similarity to Drosophila frizzled, T23D8.1 and F27E11.3A, and the ortholog of the Drosophila gene dally-like, gpn-1, which is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The two frizzled homologs are expressed in a few neurons in the head, and gpn-1 is expressed in the pharynx. Finally, we compare the efficacy of our GFP expression effort with EST, OST and SAGE data. Conclusion: No bona-fide Hh signaling pathway is present in C. elegans. Given that the hh-related gene products have a predicted signal peptide for secretion, it is possible that they constitute components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). They might be associated with the cuticle or be present in soluble form in the body cavity. They might interact with the Patched or the Patched-related proteins in a manner similar to the interaction of Hedgehog with its receptor Patched.

  • 323. Hao, Limin
    et al.
    Mukherjee, Krishanu
    Liegeois, Samuel
    Baillie, David
    Labouesse, Michel
    Bürglin, Thomas R.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    The hedgehog-related gene qua-1 is required for molting in Caenorhabditis elegans2006In: Developmental Dynamics, ISSN 1058-8388, E-ISSN 1097-0177, Vol. 235, no 6, p. 1469-1481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes ten proteins that share similarity with Hedgehog through the C-terminal Hint/Hog domain. While most genes are members of larger gene families, qua-1 is a single copy gene. Here we show that orthologs of qua-1 exist in many nematodes, including Brugia malayi, which shared a common ancestor with C. elegans about 300 million years ago. The QUA-1 proteins contain an N-terminal domain, the Qua domain, that is highly conserved, but whose molecular function is not known. We have studied the expression pattern of qua-1 in C. elegans using a qua-1::GFP transcriptional fusion. qua-1 is mainly expressed in hyp1 to hyp11 hypodermal cells, but not in seam cells. It is also expressed in intestinal and rectal cells, sensilla support cells, and the P cell lineage in L1. The expression of qua-1::GFP undergoes cyclical changes during development in phase with the molting cycle. It accumulates prior to molting and disappears between molts. Disruption of the qua-1 gene function through an internal deletion that causes a frame shift with premature stop in the middle of the gene results in strong lethality. The animals arrest in the early larval stages due to defects in molting. Electron microscopy reveals double cuticles due to defective ecdysis, but no obvious defects are seen in the hypodermis. Qua domain-only::GFP and full-length QUA-1::GFP fusion constructs are secreted and associated with the overlying cuticle, but only QUA-1::GFP rescues the mutant phenotype. Our results suggest that both the Hint/Hog domain and Qua domain are critically required for the function of QUA-1.

  • 324.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Risk Governance and Management Strategies2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 170-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors’ incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  • 325.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    En regional organisation med pengar och makt: vem vågar föreslå det?2006In: Östersjön: hot och hopp / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Formas , 2006, p. 203-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 326.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Environmental Conventions, Pro-active Countries and Unilateral Initiatives: Sweden and the Case of Oil Transportation on the Baltic Sea2008In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 339-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine oil transportation in the Baltic Sea has increased significantly during the past decade. This may pose a significant threat to the environment, partly due to the increased risk of accidents and partly because of deliberate flushing of oil tanks at sea and other diffuse emissions. The problem is examined from a Swedish point of view, emphasizing possible ways of reducing environmental risks associated with marine oil transportation in which cooperative solutions will be required to solve current collective action dilemmas. It is argued that since international conventions tend to suffer from lowest-common-denominator (LCD) effects whereby the least interested actors often set the level of ambition, pro-active countries may benefit from adopting dual strategies where unilateral initiatives and convention-based cooperation are made part of an integrated approach. Countries such as Sweden that are especially vulnerable to ecological threats from marine oil transportation may thus have strong incentives to provide targeted support to less exposed countries. It is concluded that unilateral and sub-regional initiatives may serve an important objective in complementing international conventions and thereby reduce negative effects from Lcd outcomes.

  • 327.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Global regimes, regional adaptation: environmental safety in Baltic Sea oil transportation2010In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 489-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite significant efforts to improve environmental safety in marine oil transportation, the risk of a major accident with devastating oil spills has most likely increased. Building on the regime analytical approach where it is assumed that international collaboration may benefit participating countries, it is argued that bilateral and sub-regional initiatives may increase maritime safety significantly, compared to exclusive reliance on universal conventions. A distinction is made between on the one hand investments in safety-increasing infrastructure and local capacity building and on the other, vessel design, on-board installations and crew qualifications. It is suggested that bilateral and sub-regional initiatives are more likely to be taken on the former kind of objects, targeting issues, such as modernization of port facilities, monitoring support, assistance in emergency capacity building and designation of ports of refuge, because the interaction between the involved countries are comparably stable in the cases. Actual efforts to improve safety seem to follow the logic of separation between these two types of safety-increasing measures. It is concluded that similar drivers of bilateral and sub-regional initiatives targeting specific aspects of marine safety and contributing to overall collective benefits from improved environmental protection probably exist also in other regions than the Baltic Sea.

  • 328.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Postmaterialistic environmental attitudes: From attitudinal change to behavioural implications2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that economic development and increased socioeconomic security tend to foster postmaterialistic attitudes including an increased concern for the environment. According to the postmaterialist hypothesis, individuals who grow up under favorable materialistic conditions tend to place a higher value on non-materialistic issues, not only during their adolescence but also for the rest of their lives. During a modernization process where people’s socioeconomic welfare increases with time, a generational effect is created where younger cohorts systematically demonstrate a higher concern for postmaterialistic values. In contrast to the postmaterialist hypothesis, a link between current income and postmaterialism has been suggested as an alternative explanation for the alleged spread of postmaterialistic attitudes. This would imply that the generational effect is substituted for a current income effect where societies with more affluent citizens tend to have a more postmaterialistic outlook. In this article, concern for the environment is taken as an example of a postmaterialistic outlook. Survey data about attitudes towards environmental issues in Estonia (2001) is used to show that no clear correlation can be found between either personal income or age and the adoption of a positive attitude towards environmental issues. This finding is taken as a starting point for a theoretical elaboration about the relationship between income, attitudes and the consumption of postmaterialistic goods. It is suggested that the important link might not be between attitudes and socioeconomic security but between income and spending on postmaterialistic goods. Changes in behavior are therefore dependent on differences in income elasticity between materialistic and postmaterialistic goods. The most important implication is that the observed changes in attitude in a postmaterialistic direction probably entail less consumption of materialistic goods in relative terms but not in absolute terms.

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  • 329.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    [Recension av] "Internasjonal Miljøpolitikk", Steinar Andresen, Elin Lerum Boasson och Geir Hønneland (red).2009In: Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, ISSN 0040-716X, E-ISSN 1504-291X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 242-246Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 330.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Swedish environmental support to the Baltic Sea countries: collective goods, national interests, and altruism2007In: Western Aid in Postcommunism Effects and Side-effects / [ed] Anna Korhonen, David Lehrer, Palgrave Macmillan , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 331.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    The Myth of Sustainable Development: Environmental Policy, Practice and Incentives in the Baltic Sea Region2005In: The Challenge of the Baltic Sea Region: Culture, Ecosystems, Democracy / [ed] Bolin, Göran, Hammer, Monica, Kirsch, Frank-Michael, and Szrubka, Wojciech, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2005, p. 213-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Åbo University.
    Kern, Kristine
    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea - A comparison between five key areas: Deliverable number 82011Report (Other academic)
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  • 333.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Får Östersjön en hållbar förvaltning2009In: Miljöforskning, ISSN 1650-4925, no 3-4, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 334.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Leposa, Neva
    Marine oil transportations in the Baltic Sea area: Deliverable number 62010Report (Other academic)
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  • 335.
    Havervall, Carolina
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    CXCL13: A Prognostic Marker in Multiple Sclerosis2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the demyelinating autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) there is a great need for validated prognostic biomarkers that can give information about both prognosis and disease course. So far only clinical parameters have been shown to predict future outcome. CXCL13 is a potent B cell chemoattractant that has been suggested to be a potential biomarker candidate. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of CXCL13 as a prognostic biomarker for MS.

    Clinical, paraclinical, laboratory and MRI data about a large group of MS patients and controls were collected. CXCL13 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from these patients were determined by standard enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    In general CXCL13 were increased in CSF in MS, especially in relapsing-remitting MS during relapses, i.e. with ongoing inflammations in the central nervous system. CXCL13 is a good candidate prognostic marker for MS, since newly diagnosed MS with high CXCL13 levels showed worsened disease course within five years. Most importantly, MS conversion occurred in higher rate in possible MS patients with high concentrations of CXCL13 in CSF, and in a shorter time point. This observation may support an early treatment decision in these patients.

    In conclusion, this study provides support for an association between CXCL13 levels in the CSF and later development of disease severity in MS.

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    Carolina Havervall_CXCL13: A Prognostic Marker in Multiple Sclerosis
  • 336.
    Hedenström, Eva
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Offentlig upphandling av textila produkter – faktorer som kan inverka på en kommun när det gäller att ställa krav på miljö- och social hänsyn: En fallstudie av Örebro kommun2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector is a major purchaser of goods and services. By setting requirements for environmental and social considerations in public procurement, an authority has the possibility to use consumer power to influence the actors in a market. The purpose of this paper is to investigate public procurement of textile products in a municipality, in order to gain knowledge about factors that may be important for the use of environmental and social criteria. Håkan Hydén´s (professor in sociology of law) norm model was used as the basis of the analysis, where the conduct was investigated along three dimensions of the norm – willingness, knowledge and system conditions – in order to identify underlying factors that can influence the process.

    The results – analyzed by using interviews and documents – show that the procurer's willingness, motivation and knowledge are important factors in this context, as well as the political priority of the municipality. Procurers gain knowledge in this area to a large extent through networking with other actors. The possibilities to be able to verify the criteria are important. Verification of requirements is problematic because the municipality, as a public actor, is far from the production in the textile production chain. Lack of knowledge, in the form of mapping the textile production, prevents the development of criteria for best available technique. However, demands on manufacturing can be set indirectly by asking for some eco-labels (or equivalent) as verification. Furthermore, system conditions in terms of rules in the public procurement legislation set the framework for the procurement process.

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  • 337.
    Hedenström, Eva
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    To sort, or not to sort, that is the question: Factors influencing the sorting of food waste among homeowners in the City of Lidingö2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish people today are generally interested in environmental issues. One can assume that this would affect the way people act in their daily lives. However, research has shown that when it comes to attitudes and behavior, there is what has been described as “a gap”. Concern for the environment does not automatically mean that people act in an environmentally friendly way. The fact is that there are many barriers that prevent a so-called pro environmental behavior.

    This study deals with some of the factors that can influence a specific behavior, namely the sorting of food waste in the City of Lidingö – a municipality in Sweden that works to increase the number of subscribers of food waste collection. The waste is a valuable substrate when producing biogas, which is considered a renewable fuel. By replacing fossil fuels with biogas, the amounts of greenhouse gases that reach the atmosphere can be reduced.

    A questionnaire was sent out to more than 800 local citizens (of which half of them are subscribers of food waste collection) with questions about values, beliefs, motivation factors and opinions about efforts linked to the sorting of food waste. The results show that sustainability reasons are strong when it comes to why people decide to sort out food waste, and that a number of the subscribers of food waste collection consider it a moral obligation to take action in this matter. Several barriers, especially in the form of economic issues, preclude others from sorting. A need for more information, when it comes to the significance of this behavior, is also evident. As the thesis has its focus on pro-environmental behavior, factors in Stern’s Value-belief-norm theory, are used as the basis for the analysis. Blake’s model of barriers between environmental concern and action is used when studying what it is that prevents people from sorting out their food waste.

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    To sort, or not to sort, that is the question: Factors influencing the sorting of food waste among homeowners in the City of Lidingö
  • 338.
    Hedlund, Eva-Maria
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Molecular mechanisms of angiogenic synergism between Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
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  • 339.
    Hedlund, Johanna S. U.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Living with males: benefits and costs to females of resident males in Colobus vellerosus2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Only in primates is permanent male-female association the most widespread social structure of all. The continuous presence of resident males in the social group can have significant impacts on female fitness, both in forms of costs and benefits. In this study I investigate particular short-term benefits and costs of resident males to females in a population of ursine colobus (Colobus vellerosus). I hypothesise that for females permanent association with males result in certain benefits and certain costs, exceeding those provided or imposed by other females. The results indicate that female derive greater benefits from males than from females during intergroup encounters and in the form of vigilance since males were the main participants in intergroup encounter and were more vigilant than females. I could not confirm any type of behaviour employed by resident males that is costly to females. However, the rarity and subtleness of some costly male behaviours imply that more data is needed before making a conclusion on their absence or occurrence in this population and I purpose that herding behaviour could occur at my study site. Moreover, multi-male groups (MM-groups) showed higher rates of vigilance than single-male groups (SM-groups) and had a tendency to experiencing fewer intergroup encounters than SM-groups. I interpret the former as a result of the demanding social conditions in the MM-groups. The latter indicate that females may benefit from MM-group living through a decrease in intergroup encounters.

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  • 340. Hedman, Jenny E.
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Thorsson, Maria H.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Fate of contaminants in Baltic Sea sediments: role of bioturbation and settling organic matter2008In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 356, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study examined the interactive effects of bioturbation and settling organic matter (OM) on the fate (burial and remobilisation) of 2 surface-deposited contaminants in Baltic Sea sediment: the metal Cd and a hydrophobic organic pollutant, the flame retardant BDE-99. Three macrofaunal species with diverse feeding and bioturbation strategies were used: the amphipod Monoporeia affinis, the clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. Radiolabelled contaminants were added to the sediment surface in association with 3 different OM types: (1) phytoplankton, (2) terrestrial lignin and (3) Baltic sediment. Bioturbation by all species increased the retention of both contaminants in the sediment, most effectively M affinis and M balthica. A decoupled transport of Cd and BDE-99 by Marenzelleria was observed. Generally, Marenzelleria buried the highest amount of Cd into the sediment but also caused the highest remobilisation to the water, indicating an effective transport of (soluble) Cd over the sediment-water interface via bioirrigation. Lack of the highly hydrophobic and mainly particle-associated BDE-99 below the sediment surface suggests that Marenzelleria caused no significant particle mixing. The addition of various OM types significantly affected the distribution of Cd, but not of BDE-99. There was an interactive effect between bioturbation (species) and OM type, generally showing an increased burial and release of Cd when associated with phytoplankton in the presence of Marenzelleria. Our results emphasise the importance of understanding the complex interactions between ecological (e.g. infaunal feeding and bioturbation activities) and physiochemical processes (contaminant speciation and sorption kinetics) when assessing the fate of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  • 341.
    Hedman, Maria
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Women, Water, and Perceptions of Risk: a case study made in Babati, Tanzania 20082009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More than 1 billion people in developing countries lack access to safe water and sanitation. Drinking water in these countries is often collected from unsafe sources outside the home. Even piped well water in the developing world can be unsafe due to inadequately maintained pipes, low pressure, intermittent delivery, lack of chlorination, and clandestine connections. Furthermore, drinking water often becomes contaminated after collection, either during transport or during storage in the home. Improvements in water supply, hygiene education and safe storage can reduce the spread of waterborne diseases, such as diarrhoea. However it is not an easy task to combat unsafe drinking water, and several factors have to be taken into account. Correct management of water at the household level is a vital factor in reducing contamination of water in areas where water is not available in the home, and often has to be transported for long distances before storage.

    It is often a woman's responsibility to collect and store water. The aim of this study is to provide an understanding of women’s knowledge and perceptions of the risks associated with drinking water and waterborne diseases in Babati, Tanzania. Furthermore, the study sets out to investigate the methods utilized at the household-level to prevent waterborne diseases. Interviews were the key method to collecting primary data and the results present findings from 20 women in two villages in Babati. All of the respondents had access to community water pipes but none had taps in their household. Among the respondents who treated their water, the most common method of treatment was boiling. The study shows that there is a link between lived experience, perceptions of risk, and the way water is managed in the household.

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  • 342.
    Helldorff, Hedvig
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Social acceptance of antimalarial strategies in Uganda2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the World Health Organization(WHO) the most efficient and cost-effective strategies in the global fight of malaria are the Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and the Insecticide Treated Nets ITNs). However, since the strategies include the use of synthetic insecticides, WHO reports that they sometimes meet opposition in the society. In a Global Malaria Programme report from 20061, WHO describes that concerns in the community regarding the safety of the IRS hinder its effective implementation. WHO states that the social acceptability of ITNs2 has to increase. This study aims at investigating if and where in the Ugandan society the antimalarial strategies meet opposition. The study analyzes whether authorities, non-governmental organizations and caretakers in one region in Uganda reject the antimalarial strategies recommended by WHO. The aim is further to investigate where focus should be put in order to meet the

    opposition (if any) to current strategies and thus facilitate the implementation of the strategies. The methodology used is an empirical approach based on interviews with officials at authorities, representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and caretakers in the slum areas in Kawempe Division, which is an area highly exposed to malaria, in Uganda. The results show that the authorities and the NGOs in this study accept the current strategies but believe that they are not fully accepted by caretakers. Further, the authorities and the NGOs point out that current strategies, mainly IRS, meet great resistance among politicians and within the agricultural and environmental sector. Nevertheless, the majority of the caretakers in the interviews does accept the strategies and give other reasons for not having them implemented in their houses. Many of the households do not have the money neither to buy the ITNs nor to have the IRS implemented in their houses. Thus, this study implies that the opposition to the current strategies is not among authorities, NGOs or caretakers but in the political, environmental and agricultural

    sphere. In order to fight malaria in the study area, WHO and stakeholders have to work with the change of attitudes among politicians and stakeholders within the environmental and agricultural sector in Uganda. They also have to provide poor households with ITNs or IRS for free, since lack of money is the reason for the studied group of caretakers not having the recommended strategies implemented in their houses.

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  • 343.
    Hench, Jürgen
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Henriksson, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Lüppert, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Bürglin, Thomas R.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Spatio-temporal reference model of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis with cell contact maps2009In: Developmental Biology, ISSN 0012-1606, E-ISSN 1095-564X, Vol. 333, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a model for developmental biology for decades. Still, the few publicly available spatio-temporal (4D) data sets have conflicting information regarding variability of cell positions and are not well-suited for a standard 4D embryonic model, due to compression. We have recorded six uncompressed embryos, and determined their lineage and 4D coordinates, including nuclear radii, until the end of gastrulation. We find a remarkable degree of stability in the cell positions, as well as little rotational movement, which allowed us to combine the data into a single reference model of C. elegans embryogenesis. Using Voronoi decomposition we generated the list of all predicted cell contacts during early embryogenesis and calculated these contacts up to the similar to 150 cell stage, and find that about 1500 contacts last 2.5 min or longer. The cell contact map allows for comparison of multiple 4D data sets, e. g., mutants or related species, at the cellular level. A comparison of our uncompressed 4D model with a compressed embryo shows that up to 40% of the cell contacts can be different. To visualize the 4D model interactively we developed a software utility. Our model provides an anatomical resource and can serve as foundation to display 4D expression data, a basis for developmental systems biology.

  • 344.
    Henriksson, Oskar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Mwandya, Augustine
    Gullström, Martin
    Thorberg, Marika
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Genetic Identification and Population Structure of Juvenile Mullet (Mugilidae) Collected for Aquaculture in East Africa2012In: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand for wild caught juvenile fish to supply the market for aquaculture. However, little is known about the genetic effects of juvenile collection from wild populations. There are a number of imminent threats to both aquaculture systems and wild fish populations. Juvenile collection from a single population can for example reduce population’s evolutionary potential as well as the disease resistance within an aquaculture pond. In this study, we investigated the local genetic structure of juvenile mullets collected from five sites around Bagamoyo (Tanzanian mainland) and Zanzibar Island, East Africa. Fish were caught in low tide using a seine net. The fish were morphologically identified, and then genetically identified using direct sequencing of the CO1 gene with cross referencing with the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) systems.  Molecular variance analyses were used to infer genetic subdivision based on geographic sampling site as well as inferring population structure through the Bayesian assignment test implemented in STRUCTURE 2.3. Our results showed that samples morphologically identified as Mugil cephalus where in fact Valamugil buchanani and we also found evidence of an introgression genome event, where the gene flow from one species may have affected the general gene pool. The Bayesian analysis revealed a clear genetic population structure among the sampled fish; the main difference was the presence of a unique mainland cluster. Our findings may have important implications for management and conservation of mullet fishes in the region and elsewhere.

  • 345.
    Herron, John Paul
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Immunoaffinity isolation of Btk´s signalosome, a proteomic approach to identifying interacting proteins2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Signalosome is a term used to define a putative signalling complex, which assembles near the plasma membrane in response to external signals received at cell surface receptors and then migrates towards downstream effectors. It is proposed to regulate the level of intracellular Ca2+ and subsequent downstream signalling events. To date it has been defined to consist of BTK, BLNK, BCAP, VAV, PLCγ2 and PI3K1-4 in B-Cells.

    This work entailed initiating a new proteomic approach to investigate the nature and extent of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, Btk, involvement in the signalosome – inherently, the aim was to study multiple interactions of Btk with other molecules. By transfecting host cells with a Btk gene-transfer plasmid, virus particles were produced that were used to up-regulate and analyse the expression of Btk in three haematopoietic cell lines: B-cells, Pre-B-cells and a myeloid cancer cell. The construction of a new gene-transfer vector was successfully carried out by plasmid sub-cloning and it was subsequently found to effectively transfect the host cells and produce virus particles. The recombinant virus particles were employed with success in transducing three haematopoietic cell lines and with immunopurification and subsequent gel separation protein signalosome complexes were obtained ready for analysis by mass spectrometrical fingerprinting (to be carried out as a joint effort in Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada).

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  • 346.
    Hjert, Carl-Johan
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    People vs. Wildlife: Buffer zones to integrate wildlife conservation and development?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania is famous for it’s beautiful nature and rich wildlife. Proud of it’s natural heritage, Tanzania has dedicated over 20% of it’s territory as protected areas to shield the wildlife from human interference. But the wildlife is regarded as a menace by the local communities that lives close to the impressive national parks. At the same time, the increasing human population threatens the survival of the large migratory species in the parks by blocking vital dispersal areas.

    This essay describes the human/wildlife conflict around Tarangire National Park and focuses on communities close to park borders. The intention is to examine if a buffer zone could solve the conflict in this area. By studying the political ecology of wildlife conservation in Tanzania, from local to global scale and through a historical perspective, it is concluded that the poor state-society relation as experienced in local communities is a crucial factor for the diminishing wildlife.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 347.
    Hjort, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Bergström, Maria
    Adesina, Modupe F.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Smalla, Kornelia
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Chitinase genes revealed and compared in bacterial isolates, DNA extracts and a metagenomic library from a phytopathogen-suppressive soil2010In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study, we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF103 of the isolate Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used.

  • 348.
    Hjort, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Goldberg, Alina V.
    Tsaousis, Anastasios D.
    Hirt, Robert P.
    Embley, T. Martin
    Diversity and reductive evolution of mitochondria among microbial eukaryotes2010In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 365, no 1541, p. 713-727Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All extant eukaryotes are now considered to possess mitochondria in one form or another. Many parasites or anaerobic protists have highly reduced versions of mitochondria, which have generally lost their genome and the capacity to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. These organelles have been called hydrogenosomes, when they make hydrogen, or remnant mitochondria or mitosomes when their functions were cryptic. More recently, organelles with features blurring the distinction between mitochondria, hydrogenosomes and mitosomes have been identified. These organelles have retained a mitochondrial genome and include the mitochondrial-like organelle of Blastocystis and the hydrogenosome of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus. Studying eukaryotic diversity from the perspective of their mitochondrial variants has yielded important insights into eukaryote molecular cell biology and evolution. These investigations are contributing to understanding the essential functions of mitochondria, defined in the broadest sense, and the limits to which reductive evolution can proceed while maintaining a viable organelle.

  • 349.
    Hoflin, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Övergödning i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde: En utvärdering av genomförda insatser för minskad näringsbelastning från enskilda avlopp och jordbruk2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and examine the first period of the unique project Enskilda avlopp i kretslopp and actions implemented in the agriculture sector to reduce nutrient loading in Stavbofjärden. The idea was to provide an overall assessment of the current situation and discuss the possible future effects of the work. Challenges of the project are also discussed to examine the possibility for other communities to follow the initiative. To achieve the purpose, a study of literature and semi-structured interviews were conducted. The work is a case study of the evaluative nature and has been implemented in Stavbofjärdens catchment area. 

    Today several actors in Södertälje kommun are working actively to reduce nutrient loading in Stavbofjärdens catchment area. For the past three years, the project has been carried out in order to reduce eutrophication and enable recycling of nutrients to cropland. Within the project framework toilet water is collected in a closed tank separate from the bath, sink and wash water, the fraction is then processed in a facility and spread on farmland. In connection with this, the agriculture sector tries to close the cycle and reduce nutrient discharges to Stavbofjärden. Several measures have been implemented during the project's first phase, a recycling policy has been adopted, a local treatment facility has been built and nutrients have begun return to arable land. Distinct structural changes have occurred in the first years of the project, in particular, cooperation between different actors in the catchment area strengthened. The prospects for achieving improved water quality in Stavbofjärden increasing with the implemented and planned measures. The project also raises a number of challenges. Interviews and literature studies have shown that the use of sludge on farmland is not an entirely uncontroversial issue, mostly because of a concern about the possible effects of hormones and medicine which may occur in factions. Other challenges are that the replacement of sewer means a high investment cost and that people feel insecure when major changes happens. All actors involved in the project refers to the fact that human waste has to end up somewhere, and that it is much better to put the waste on soil than it leaks out in the water because there are far more degrading bacteria in the soil than in water.

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    Övergödning i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde: En utvärdering av genomförda insatser för minskad näringsbelastning från enskilda avlopp och jordbruk
  • 350. Hogan, C. J.
    et al.
    Aligianni, S.
    Durand-Dubief, M.
    Persson, J.
    Will, W. R.
    Webster, J.
    Wheeler, L.
    Mathews, C. K.
    Elderkin, S.
    Oxley, D.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Varga-Weisz, P. D.
    Fission yeast Iec1-Ino80-mediated nucleosome eviction regulates nucleotide and phosphate metabolism2010In: Molecular and Cellular Biology, ISSN 0270-7306, E-ISSN 1098-5549, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 657-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ino80 is an ATP-dependent nucleosome-remodeling enzyme involved in transcription, replication, and the DNA damage response. Here, we characterize the fission yeast Ino80 and find that it is essential for cell viability. We show that the Ino80 complex from fission yeast mediates ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling in vitro. The purification of the Ino80-associated complex identified a highly conserved complex and the presence of a novel zinc finger protein with similarities to the mammalian transcriptional regulator Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and other members of the GLI-Krüppel family of proteins. Deletion of this Iec1 protein or the Ino80 complex subunit arp8, ies6, or ies2 causes defects in DNA damage repair, the response to replication stress, and nucleotide metabolism. We show that Iec1 is important for the correct expression of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, including the ribonucleotide reductase subunit cdc22 and phosphate- and adenineresponsive genes. We find that Ino80 is recruited to a large number of promoter regions on phosphate starvation, including those of phosphate- and adenine-responsive genes that depend on Iec1 for correct expression. Iec1 is required for the binding of Ino80 to target genes and subsequent histone loss at the promoter and throughout the body of these genes on phosphate starvation. This suggests that the Iec1-Ino80 complex promotes transcription through nucleosome eviction.

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