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  • 301.
    Akhtar, Jeena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Reducing Inequality Through Foreign Aid: An Econometric Analysis2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global initiatives have caused renewed interest in the efficiency of aid and its impact on poverty. Whilst growth effects of foreign aid have extensively been analyzed, less attention has been paid to the distributional effect of aid. This paper aims to investigate the potential moderating effects of foreign aid on within-country income inequality using econometric analysis. Employing unbalanced panel data on 42 countries in the period 1990–2017, and conducting a multivariate regression analysis, this study finds no robust empirical support for the positive effects of foreign aid on income inequality.

  • 302.
    Akkawi, Jamil
    Södertörn University College, Lärarutbildningen.
    Islam i religionsboken: Framställningen av islam och muslimer i två religionsböcker för gymnasiet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this research was to examine description of Islam in two different schoolbooks about religion. The rapport starts with an introduction of the subject and discusses the background of the topic. After the presentation, aims, and the questions I present my methods and material used in this research. Following the method and material is earlier research where I mention some of the previous rapports and results of researchers within the discourse. The theory used to investigate the text is postcolonial and the orientalism theory presented by Edward Said.

    The intention of the research was to answer if the books representation contributed to an oriental description of Islam and Muslims and to see how the text and pictures where used and structured. Similar researches have been presented earlier but this rapport handles a completely new book and a reedited book. The first book is written by Lars-Göran Alm and is called “Religionskunskap A” this book has been published before and is commonly used in schools all around Sweden. The other book is written by Olov Jansson and Linda Karlsson and is called “Religionskunskap A, en mosaik” and had its first release in 2009. The result shows that the book written by Alm represents a more oriental description and the text structure leaves the reader sometimes confused and wanting more. Alm chooses to bring up subjects like Islamism and circumcision of girls but both books mentioned a willingness of Shia Muslims to commit suicidal bombings. Alm left out more spiritual aspects like religious holidays and Sufism. The other book written by Jansson and Karlsson had some tendencies to an oriental description of Islam but not in the same extent as Alm. Jansson and Karlsson also gave a clearer representation of a Swedish context, which made the religion more present and not as distant as Alm. Both books used pictures to complement the text and in most cases in Alms book the pictures were images of places and persons in other continents and countries then Europe and Sweden.

  • 303.
    Akkurt, Nancy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Förväntningsgap ur kreditgivarens perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem discussion: In recent years, the auditing profession has attracted attention due to a number of scandals. A misunderstanding that stakeholders have in common is that they believe that a clean audit report is a guarantee of a company's survival. The stakeholders argue that the pure audit report must ensure that the company's accounts are correctly executed and do not contain material errors. Earlier research shows that creditors have too high expectations of the auditor's obligations and responsibilities in relation to the auditor's duties according to laws and standards. The high expectations can give rise to serious consequences on the financial market if it wants to be bad, which in turn can contribute to the confidence in the auditing profession deteriorating.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine whether creditors have higher expectations on the requirements that the auditors must meet and whether the audit report is still a topical document as a basis for today's credit decision.

    Methodology: This study is based on existing literature and partly through both quantitative and qualitative methods in the form of interviews and questionnaires. The survey aims to investigate whether there is an expectation gap. In the interviews with creditors, it is examined whether the audit report has a significant role in lending.

    Theoretical perspectives:The theoretical frame of reference consists of relevant laws and standards in the audit area. It also consists of literature regarding the expectation gap and the audit report's significance as well as the credit granting process.

    Empirical foundation: The empirical study consists of a questionnaire survey that was answered by various creditors from the four major banks in Sweden regarding the auditor's role and audit. The empire also consists of interviews with creditors regarding the significance of the audit report inlending process.

    Analysis and Conclusions: Based on the data obtained in this study, the analysis leads to the following conclusions: there is an expectation gap between creditors and auditors regarding the extent of the auditor ́s work and responsibilities. Furthermore, the study also shows that an audit report does have a significant role, but at the same time it has an ambiguous role in credit decisionmaking.

  • 304.
    Ako, Nadidam
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Teacher Education.
    Föräldraengagemang, finns det olika sätt?: En studie om en grupp mödrars förhållningssätt till föräldraengagemang2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study was to illustrate and analyze the approach and parental involvement of a group of mothers in their children's schooling. Also their reflections on parental involvement will be highlighted and what the parents experience as obstacles in their involvement.

    Method: I conducted six semi structured interviews for my research. I chose to interview six mothers who have a child in the sixth grade. I chose specifically the sixth grade because the mothers will have had quite a few contacts with the school at this point. I also chose not to reveal their ethnicity because they cannot represent a whole ethnic group anyway.

    Result: The result of my interviews show that the parents have different approaches when it comes to parental involvement. The approaches are different between the mothers but one thing they have in common is that they care about their children. 

    Conclusion: One of the conclusions of this study is that the parents who do not participate in meetings and activities at school, are either because of language barrier or lack of information concerning what the school expects of them. Furthermore the study shows that their lack of participation in school activities does not mean that they are not involved as parents. Instead they express their involvement in different ways, mainly in their homes. 

  • 305.
    Akram, Ghorbani
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
    Får jag lov att vara annorlunda?: en vetenskaplig essä2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Min essä handlar om en händelse som är självupplevd. Den beskriver att det finns brist på erfarenhet om interkulturellt förhållningssätt på vissa förskolor. Den beskriver även att jag och mina kollegor inte kunde hantera några situationer som man i förskolans värld kan hamna i. Dilemmat som framträder i händelsen handlar om brist på kunskap när det gäller interaktion mellan olika kulturer. Detta speciellt på de institutioner där den är som allra viktigast i samhället, nämligen i skolans- och förskolans värld. Uppsatsen visar det förhållningssätt som pedagoger har gentemot vuxna och barn, som i pedagogernas ögon anses vara annorlunda.

    Det här är en vetenskaplig essäform där mina egna erfarenheter möter olika teoretiska perspektiv. På det sättet försöker jag att nå svar på mina frågor men även lyfta fram dilemmat i min essä. Därför får den som läser möjlighet att se mina erfarenheter ur nya perspektiv. Jag inleder min uppsats med att diskutera bristande interkulturellt ledarskap i förskolans miljö. Därefter utvecklas den med hjälp av teoretiska perspektiv, genom att lyfta fram hur vi kan bli bättre på att utveckla ett interkulturellt förhållningssätt. I mitt slutord reflekterar jag kring viktiga ämnen som essän har lyft fram med fokus på möjliga förbättringar. Det viktigaste ämnet i essän är det förhållningssätt som vi pedagoger har när det gäller barnens olikheter.

  • 306.
    Akrawi, Narin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Ciechowicz, Michelle
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Fotbollsturism: En studie om fotbollsturisters upplevelse och tillfredställelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study made by two students for their bachelor theses in Tourism at Södertörn University, Sweden. The study investigates weather the theoretical characteristic features of a sport tourist is inconsistent with reality. The study also investigates factors that sport tourist consider important during a football trip to achieve a satisfying experience. By identifying specific element of the phenomenon increase knowledge and development of sport tourism. The method chosen for the study was qualitative interviews which where performed with twenty respondents, each respondent travel to Lisbon, Portugal to attend the quarter- finals of Champions League between SL Benfica and FC Bayer München, 13 April 2016. The interview material was interpreted and later merges with previous research and theories in order to investigate and identify the phenomenon. The result of the study showed that the theoretical and previous research that have been presented on characteristic features of a sport tourist do not or partly match the respondents in this study. This study also showed that factors that sport tourist consider important as e.g. good seats, security, transport, good company, good atmosphere, other supporters and supporting their favourite football team, are the factors that contribute and makes a satisfying, memorable and positive experience trip.

  • 307.
    Akrawi, Narin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Ciechowicz, Michelle
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Företag på Facebook: En studie om företagskommunikation på Facebook2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present a study where the case of the study is to examine how a selection of Swedish companies with a similar number of followers on Facebook can achieve an effective communication through a two-way communication with there followers. A survey to see which technical solutions Swedish companies need to achieve an effective communication. The main purpose is to examine how these companies work to achieve an effective two-way communication with their followers on the selected company's Facebook page.

    Furthermore, the effects that caused by the means of communication and the technical solutions and how they are involved in the process. That constitutes of functions that Facebook provides in terms of share, like, comment and tag. The research is based on a content analysis of six Swedish companies' Facebook pages, that are linked to theories that are related to areas of Facebook, communication, interaction and eWOM. Which late in the paper will be compiled into a conclusion.

    The study resulted in various forms of communication and interaction on account of the selected company's activity, purpose and on the company's adaptation after their business.

  • 308. Akre, O
    et al.
    Ekbom, A
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Tretli, S
    Body size and testicular cancer2000In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN 0027-8874, E-ISSN 1460-2105, Vol. 92, no 13, p. 1093-1096Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Akritidou, Amalia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies.
    Arce, Vanessa
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies.
    Emotioner och marknadsföring: en studie om parfymannonser2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reaching out with a specific message to consumers is the idea of marketing. Advertising is among the most common elements when it comes to marketing a product or a service. There are various ways to provide marketing with a message. A relatively new way that has become larger in marketing is to provide marketing with emotions. It has been shown in several studies that emotions can have a direct or an indirect effect such as ad-attitude and brand-attitude, and that is what our essay is about. This essay will make a research on perfume ads and see if the emotions in the ads have any connection to ad- and brand attitude.

    The research began with a preliminary study to make sure that correct ads were selected for the purpose of the main study, which was to gain a greater understanding of how we are positively affected by different emotions in perfume-ads and how it may affect different variables in the effect hierarchy, such as attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand and brand awareness. The method that was chosen for the study was quantitative. The main study contained 5 perfume ads where emotions, ad-attitude, brand-attitude and brand-awareness were measured.

    The results showed that emotions have a tendency to act as moderating variables when it comes to ad-attitude and brand-attitude. Depending on the design and conception of the ad, the results showed a stronger or weaker correlation between these variables.

  • 310.
    Aksan, David
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Aslan, Mary
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Hur stärks ett företags varumärke genom sponsring?: Rosa Bandet kampanjen2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze and investigate how a company’s brand is strengthened by the sponsorship and in which way. We will also make a comparison between a main sponsor and smaller sponsors.Method: We have used a qualitative method, i.e. interviews. We interviewed a sponsor charge by the three sponsors, we have chosen and a representative from the Pink Ribbon Campaign.Results and Conclusion: A company’s brand is strengthened by the sponsorship depending on what conditions the companies have. This means the strength of cooperation between donors and sponsor takers have. The more a sponsor helps the more space it takes, thus strengthening the brand more. The degree of strength depends on how appropriate the brand is in the A-ERIC model.

  • 311.
    Aktas, Gabriella
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
    Ungdomars berättelser om Hovsjö: En kvalitativ studie om hur sex ungdomar i åldrarna 21-26 ser på sitt bostadsområde2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problems: All that is stated in social media might not always sometimes be right, which has consequences for the individual's view of the described phenomena. The individual interprets and takes in mass media messages, which can lead to that the wrong information makes believed to be is correct one. The news media’s photo illustrations might pictures result in bad images of the suburbs. Hovsjö, residential area in the city of Södertälje, occurs in the media depicted as is a bad place to live due to the high rate of crime there.

    Purpose and Issues: My main research question is: How do young people view their residential area Hovsjö in comparison with the image they believe consider is given in that the news media gives the area? Further questions of the study are: How do the young people of the district describe their residential area? How do the youth's react to the news media images of Hovsjö? Has the neighborhood helped to form their identity?

    Method: In my data collection I have chosen a qualitative approach with observation and semistructured interviews. The reason I chose to do interviews is because it gives respondents the opportunity to give their own experiences and feelings of living in Hovsjö. My method has been ethnographic for the reason that I want to describe but also to understand the informants' world.

    Results: According to the interviews the news media has generalized Hovsjö as poor housing site pointing out mainly negative messages from the area. The informants have a different view on their residential area which does not correspond with the news media's version. They see their neighborhood in a positive way, and they explain that the environment has formed them to be good people. They do not deny the “crime incidents” in Hovsjö but they believe that the news media exaggerate events to depict the residential area as a criminal and dangerous area. As summary, I have come to a conclusion that the respondents have a positive view of their neighborhood which they consider a safe and a social area to live in.

  • 312.
    Akter, Applee
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Grönvall, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Socialt ansvar i ett svenskt företag: En studie om hur ett företag inom livsmedelsbranschen arbetar med CSR2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Numera engagerar sig allt fler företag i sociala och miljömässiga frågor då det förekommer ett krav från intressenter om att företag ska ta sådant ansvar. Fler företag involverar verksamheten i aktiviteter som berör Corporate social responsibility (CSR), för att tillfredsställa externa intressenter och uppnå en fördelaktigare position hos verksamhetens intressentgrupper.

    Problemdiskussion: Det förekommer en uppfattning om att företag enbart involverar verksamheten i frågor kring CSR i syfte att endast främja den egna verksamheten. Forskare menar att CSR aktiviteter inom ett företag kan ha en god inverkan på varumärket medan en del anser att effekten av dessa inte är uppenbara och tydliga.

    Frågeställning: Hur inkorporerat är CSR i Coops affärsidé och hur implementeras dessa hållbarhetsstrategier på butiksnivå?

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur ett företag i Sverige arbetar med Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Vidare är syftet att undersöka hur företagets strategier inom CSR stärkt varumärket samt hur har resultatet av deras hållbarhetsstrategier gjort detta.

    Metod: Denna uppsats har utgått ifrån en kvalitativ ansats för att undersöka företaget Coop, där tillvägagångssättet delvis varit intervjuer med konsumenter och butikschefer samt företagets hållbarhetschef. Vidare har studien utgått ifrån sekundärdata för att analysera verksamheten genom relevanta teorier. Den teoretiska referensramen innehåller teorier om CSR av olika forskare samt Carrolls CSR pyramid. Vidare har den insamlade datan analyseras genom teoriernaom CSR, Carrolls Pyramid, Brand Identity, Brand Equity, Corporate Identity samt kommunikation av CSR.

    Slutsats: CSR är väl interagerat i Coops affärsidé framförallt på central nivå inom organisation. Dock har deras hållbarhets strategier inte stärkt varumärket enligt den empiriska undersökningen. Coop bör bli tydligare i sin kommunikation av sina hållbarhetsaktiviteter annars kommer detta inte att vara en avgörande faktor som stärker Coops varumärke.

  • 313.
    Al Ashmawi, Fawzia
    et al.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Reiss, Wolfram
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Dougi, Noureddine
    University of Manouba, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Riley, Michael
    Schools History Project, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Hassani Idrissi, Mostafa
    University Mohammed V, Rabat, Morocco.
    Thurfjell, David
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Study of religions.
    Guidebook for History Textbooks Authors: On a Common Path: New Approaches to Writing History Textbooks in Europe and the Arab and Islamic Worlds: The Case of the Mediterranean2012Report (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Al Hajderi, Dahlia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences. daaahlia@live.com.
    Produktplacering i fillm: ur konsumentens perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To get an insight into consumer attitudes toward product placement and how product placement influences the consumer based on two factors, brand awareness and exposure.

    Method: This study has been conducted through a quantitative method. A survey has been in support of the gathering of empire where a movie clip has been the focus of the survey.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that product placement is perceived positively and depending on the exposure method or previous brand awareness the consumer has, it may affect consumers, which means that it can either lead to a purchase or not depending on the attitude of the consumer.

  • 315.
    Al, Roza
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Klimatneutrala företag - kan IT minska utsläppen?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The attention on environmental issues has never been as huge as today. The climate is changing and more and more evidence suggest that the cause behind climate changes is an increase of carbondioxide into the atmosphere. The increase in turn is considerd to be an act of human activity. Therefore some companies have decided to become climate neutral and implement information technology in their business in order to reduce their emissions. This thesis has three aimes: to calculate a small company´s carbondioxide emissions, study whether or not information technology could help to reduce these emissions and furthermore find out why some companies decided to become climate neutral and describe the concept climate neutral. The results show that if information technology is used properly and effectively there are great potential to reduce the emissions, especially emissions from transportation sector. Now that the environment issues has become number one in the news and in the political agenda many companies try to cut their emissions, which is why some companies decided to take one step further and become climate neutral. Most of the companies see this action as a necessity in order to survive in a high competitive market. By doing so, they get more PR and more credit from both their investers and custumers. That is also why GreenIT´s carbondioxide emissions where calculated here. GreenIT have intentions in becoming climate neutral and in order to becoming one they have to reduce their remaining emissions by investing in projects in developing countries. As GreenIT is a small company they don´t have large emissions to reduce. This action will not cost them much but will probably give them an advantage in the market and credit from other investors and customers.

  • 316.
    Al, Roza
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Dogan, Ceren Xezal
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Psykiskt sjukas utsatthet i medierna: En granskning av Svenska Dagbladets och Expressens rapportering om psykiskt sjuka2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie gick ut på att se om publiceringen av artiklarna som handlar om psykiskt sjuka och rättspsykiatri, ökade i omfång i Expressen och Svenska Dagbladet efter mordet på utrikesministern Anna Lindh den 10 september 2003. Vi ville även analysera några utvalda texter som tar upp psykiskt sjuka i samband med brott. Vi använde oss av både kvantitativa och kvalitativa metoder för att få en så heltäckande studie som möjligt. Det vi kom fram till är att artikelantalet i båda tidningarna ökade efter mordet på Anna Lindh. Dessutom såg vi en tendens till att Expressens artiklar är mer dramatiserande och innehåller fler och större bilder än Svenska Dagbladets artiklar.

  • 317.
    Alacabek, Alan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Sahin, Erdal
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    "Rollen på Scenen": En studie om vakters uppfattningar av den främre och bakre regionen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to obtain a deeper understanding of how the opinions of security guards differ between their professional and the private roles that they occupy. Furthermore the purpose is to find out how violence and threats prevent the performance of a successful guard role. The method we have used was qualitative semi-structured interviews with eight security guards. The result of the study suggests that the professional life and the personal life may form two separate spheres. The presence of threats and violence shapes a professional role where the internal cooperation is the main key.

  • 318.
    Alam, Afsana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Juth, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Motivation i läraryrket: En studie i vad som motiverar lågstadielärare och hur nya skolreformer påverkar deras motivation.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund - Enligt Statistiska centralbyrån kommer det saknas så mycket som 40 000 lärare inom de närmsta åren och det är endast fem procent av lärarna som anser att yrket är uppskattat av samhället. Med en utgångspunkt i svenska elevers försämrade resultat i internationella kunskapsmätningar och att detta i sin tur ses som ett resultat av den svenska skolans kunskaps- och disciplinproblem. Har man för att lösa dessa problem genomfört ett stort antal skolreformer och man har gjort en stor satsning på lärares professionella utveckling. Om dessa reformer påverkar lärares motivation är dock ett högst relevant men outforskat ämne.

    Syfte - Syftet med den här studien är att få djupare förståelse i vilka faktorer som motiverar lågstadielärare i sitt dagliga arbete och om dessa faktorer skiljer sig beroende på om de börjat arbeta innan eller efter implementeringen av de nya skolreformerna, samt studera hur skolreformerna, införandet av lärarlegitimation och den nya professionen förstelärare, som trätt i kraft de senaste fem åren har påverkat dem.

    Metod - Studien har en kvalitativ forskningsansats för att skapa en djupare förståelse över ett redan existerande fenomen. Som forskningsdesign används en komparativ studie tillsammans med semi-strukturerade intervjuer.

    Slutsats - Studien har visat på att det både finns skillnader och likheter mellan vad som motiverar lågstadielärare som har arbetat olika länge inom yrket. Alla som medverkade i den här studien ansåg först och främst att det var eleverna och att se dem lyckas som främst motiverade dem i deras yrke. Det som skilde grupperna åt var att de nya lärarna motiverades mer utav de yttre faktorerna, så som lön, vilket inte var lika viktigt för de gamla lärarnas motivation. Studien har även visat på att de nya skolreformerna inte påverkat lågstadielärare särskilt märkbart. Det råder dock delade meningar huruvida skolreformerna är av positiv eller negativ karaktär för lärarna.

  • 319.
    Alam, Sadaf Sakina
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Determination of gp120 & Trx80 dependent production of hydrogen peroxide in cell free & cell-dependent systems2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen specie (ROS), is most commonly associated with oxidative stress causing cytotoxic effects on living cells. Oxidative stress has been implicated in various conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. In addition H2O2 is produced as a defense mechanism against pathogens, as being released by activated phagocytes. In recent years, H2O2 has become established as an important regulator of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Hydrogen peroxide is generated both intracellularly and extracellularly in response to various stimuli including cytokines and growth factors. There are different mechanisms by which H2O2 is generated, facilitating signal transduction in cells; through NOX-system in miyochondria, via singlet oxygen, receptor/ligand interaction or by redox active metal ions. The HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) is associated with HIV dementia and it is known as a neurotoxin that causes neuronal damage. It has been proposed that free radicals may be involved in the pathogenesis caused by gp120. In addition the truncated form of thioredoxin (Trx80) is known to stimulate HIV replication in HIV infected cells, however, the exact mechanism is not known. A possible way both proteins may mediate their activity is by inducing H2O2 production. The aim of this study was to investigate H2O2 production induced by the proteins gp120 and Trx80. In order to detect H2O2 production an assay based on the fluorescent compound Amplex Red, was established. The assay was used to detect H2O2 released by gp120 and Trx80 in a cell-free environment, in a cell-system and in the presence of metal ions (copper ions) with a physiological reductant (ascorbate). We did not detect H2O2 production induced by gp120 and Trx80 respectively, using our assay, however, other ROS such as hydroxyl radicals may have been generated although they were not detectable with our method. Hence, further studies are needed in order to fully understand how gp120 and Trx80 mediate their activity.

  • 320.
    Alam, Saiful
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Rozario, Antonia
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Franchising: - Franchisetagarens möjligheter till förändring av varuutbudet.2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Franchise is a form of cooperation between two merging parts: a franchisor and franchisee. In similarity to other businesses, it is important for a company based on franchising to adjust to the rapid market changes in order to achieve a competitive advantage of commodities. Due to the strict franchise agreement, the franchisees are restricted in adapting to the market changes. The purpose of this thesis is, therefore, to get an understanding of the franchisees perspective in their business, and also to see to what degree the commodities are affected by the control from the franchisor. We have chosen to limit the study to brand retail-stores in the fashion industry because of the rapid changes that distinguish it. Adjustment to changes in order to become more competitive is the point of weight in our thesis. We have also restricted us to Business Format Franchising. Casestudies was performed to fulfil the purpose of the thesis. The study consists of interviews with franchisees from three brand-retail stores in Stockholm. The selected brand retail-stores are part of the two corporations, namely, RNB and Bestseller. An interview with the vice president of the Swedish Franchise Association was also conducted. Based on our findings in the empirical material and analysis we have come to the conclusion that the franchise agreement is the central controlling force that allows the franchisor to control their franchisees business. There are indifferences between the two parts when it comes to the franchise agreement and when it comes to changes in the supply. It is obvious that it leads to a power struggle between those involved. The franchisee has undeniably small opportunities to effect merchandise supply, interior decorating and marketing. This is because the franchisor holds a firm hand around the basic concept which acts as an identity for the franchise line. Thus, there is a need from the franchisees to more free thinking outside the borders of the agreement, specially in the matter of adapting to customer requests. That is because they daily encounter consumer needs and has an overview of the trends on the market.

  • 321.
    Alami, Fina Saida
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Teacher Education.
    Ledarskapets inverkan på elevernas användning av IKT-verktyg på fritidsverksamhet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the influence of leadership on student use of Smart phones as an ICT tool at after school care. I use a qualitative, hermeneutical method that departs from two stories. I also use qualitative interviews with both structured and unstructured questions. My reflections and interpretations are, through the interviews, complemented by my colleagues’ views of the use of Smart phones and how that is affected by how the activities are managed. I have faced a dilemma in my stories where I have to choose between following the school’s rules or help the students that need help with the use of Smart phones.

    Reflecting on the stories leads me to view my own leadership and style of leadership in a critical light and to view myself in a wider context within a problematic organization with a hierarchical leadership. This leads to other dilemmas that occur in a school organization, where helpful factors to a change can be seen in different perspectives with the open dialogue as an advantage.

  • 322. Alanko, Anna
    et al.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Who Needs Mental Health Services?: Mental Health Care Planning and the Image of the Service User in Finland2013In: All Well in the Welfare State?: Welfare, Well-being and the Politics of Happiness / [ed] Marklund, Carl, Helsinki: Nordic Centre of Excellence NordWel , 2013, p. 82-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 323.
    Alarcón Alanes, Paul
    Södertörn University College, The School of Culture and Communication.
    I den monokroma gestaltens gryningsland: Representationen av icke-vita och vita i John Q2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens övergripande syfte är att utröna huruvida ett specifikt samtida populärkulturellt verk – den amerikanska filmen John Q (2002) – i representationen av sina karaktärer befäster en kolonialistisk diskurs eller om dessa gestaltas på ett sätt som skiljer sig från denna diskurs representationsmönster. Med kolonialistisk diskurs avser jag här en diskurs som fundamentalt gror ur de idémönster som var verksamma under den egentliga kolonialismen. Utifrån ett poststrukturalistiskt perspektiv med teoretiska analysinstrument från diskursteori och postkolonialism analyseras kvalitativt filmens karaktärer som indelas i fyra subjektspositioner; icke-vit man/kvinna och vit man/kvinna. Dessas identiteter undersöks i analysen utifrån fem huvudsakliga aspekter; 1/ funktion/roll i narrativet, 2/ personlighet och icke-fysiska egenskaper, 3/ agerande och förehavanden, 4/ utseende och slutligen 5/ eventuellt tydligt intertextuellt förhållande till den skådespelare som representerar honom/henne.

    Analysen visar att filmen John Q i upprättandet av en gynnad dikotomi mellan människa och system konstruerar karaktärernas identiteter på ett sätt som nästintill fullständigt följer den kolonialistiska diskursens representationsmönster. Icke-vita gestaltas på för diskursen typiskt stereotypa sätt och bland filmens vita karaktärer representeras de som intar en god narrativ roll i enlighet med den kolonialistiska diskursens vita ideal. Samtidigt tillskrivs de vita karaktärer som manifesterar en ond gestalt en systemidentitet som får funktion av förklaring till deras misslyckande att fullgöra vithet. Det fåtal försök till diskursiv förändring i vissa karaktärer undergrävs effektivt genom ett framhävande av andra aspekter i karaktären ifråga som gestaltas på för diskursen typiska sätt. Endast en karaktär skiljer sig härvidlag från de övriga och upptar en paradoxal och diskursivt icke-tillsluten position.

  • 324.
    Alasalmi, Emmy
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Mattsson, Lisa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hockeyspelare - kombinerar nytta med nöje: - En kvalitativ studie om proferssionella ishockeyspelares engagemang i CSR-arbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) within the industry of sports and more precisely in regards to professional ice hockey players. The purpose of this study is to achieve a deeper understanding of how professional ice hockey players organize themselves through philanthropic CSR and why these engage in this CSR-work and in turn how it affects their brand. To attain this purpose the study need to answer the following three questions: how do ice hockey players organize themselves using philanthropic CSR, what motivates them to do philanthropic CSR-work and lastly how is their brand affected by doing philanthropic CSR.To achieve this deeper knowledge eleven interviews were carried out to collect the empirical data for the study. The interviews were conducted with a deductive viewpoint which gradually turned into a inductive one. With this in mind the study has been carried out with previous studies being taken in consideration and after the conclusion of the interviews into the position of the individual hockey players. After analysing the results a strong connection between the empirical data and the theoretical framework could be confirmed and it became clear that the players did not use CSR for their own gain or benefits. The motives behind the players engagement with CSR-activities could be connected to their unique prerequisites, but also through the encourage they received from their surroundings. The motivation for CSR seemed to come from the will to transcend into the life after sports.

  • 325.
    Al-badrawi, Rasha
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Pavlovic, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Ganeva, Kremena
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Dagens hotellbransch: En studie som belyser hur hotell i Stockholm arbetar för att behålla sina gäster2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the large supply of information is today's leisure travelers very enlightened and have firsthand knowledge of what can be demanded on a hotel stay. Along with business travelers, who are not price sensitive, they place higher demands on the standards and service they require. It has become increasingly important to attract the visitors in a unique way.

    The purpose of this study is to reveal those aspects which hotels focus on in their business in order to keep their guests, despite the strong competition and the new demands of the changing hotel industry. The study has examined more closely if the hotels have specific concepts in their approach, if their servicescapes (the environment where the service is assembled) are designed in a unique way to attract visitors and if the hotels have special relationships with their guests.

    The study is qualitative and in order to answer the purpose has observations of the selected hotels and interviews with managers and receptionists been made.

    One of the conclusions that we reached is that the most important aspect in the hotels business is their relationship to the guests. Each respective hotel strives to have a special and unique relationship with its guests conveyed by its staff. But even if the hotels have the same purpose, they use different ways to create a unique relationship to their guests. As for concept, we have concluded that none of the hotels work with thematisation, but that they instead use various concepts to make their guests' experiences more positive. The servicescapes are valued not quite high by the hotels, however, they are designed in different ways that convey certain emotions.

  • 326.
    Albazi, Hanin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Lenhart, Nicole
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Strategisk användande av sociala medier inom bankbranschen: En studie om informationschefers varumärkestänkande i förhållande till sociala medier2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 327.
    Albornoz, Sara
    Södertörn University College, School of Gender, Culture and History.
    Socialdemokratiska kvinnor: Ledande pionjärkvinnor inom den socialdemokratiska kvinnorörelsen och den socialdemokratiska kvinnorörelsens syn på samhället mellan åren 1900-19092009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 328.
    Albornoz, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, Lärarutbildningen.
    Hellman, Therese
    Södertörn University College, Lärarutbildningen.
    Eugeniahemmet: Synen på barnen i Eugeniahemmet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to examine the view on children with disability´s in the end of the 19 Th to the beginning of the 20 Th. We will examine the children that lived in Eugeniahememt but we will also examnie the view the society had on the children who lived on Egueniahemmet. In our essay there are four questions that we are going to answer.

    - Who took the initive to start Eugeniahemmet and how did it affect the activity?

    - Which view had the society on the children who lived on Eugeniahemmet?

    - How did the work with the children look like?

    - Which view had the staff, in Eugeniahemmet, on the children?

    The method that is being used in this essay is trying to analyses what the material tells us about the view on the children and how the work with the children lookt liked in Eugeniahemmet.

    The theory that we use is about Michel Focaults look on madness. Focault says that a person who is mad dosen’t have a connection between body and soul and that creates hallucinations witch leeds to madness. We also use a gender theory by Yvonne Hirdman who explains that women and men have diffrent roles in the society. Womens role is to be responsible for their home and the mens role is to be responsible for the public business.

    The main conclusion is that the view on children with disability in the society made it hard for Eugeniahememt staff to work whit the home´s activity. The view of the children in the society was that they were more a burden on the society than good citizen. These children was learned fast, but if the children who did´t learned fast were called idiot´s. Another coclusion is that in the beginning of Eugeniahemmet activity they accepted everyone even the children who consider be impossible to be educate. But in the beginning of the 20 Th they started to exlude the children who were impossible to educate, because they were idiot´s.

    Title: "The home of Eugenia, The view on the children in Eugenia" qreaters Sara Albornoz and Therese Hellman. Keywords: disabled, protége, free intelligence, institution, idiot.

  • 329.
    Albornoz, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, Lärarutbildningen.
    Koy, Didan
    Södertörn University College, Lärarutbildningen.
    Synen på det svenska samhället utifrån skribenter i Röda röster mellan åren 1919-19212007Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 330.
    Albrecht, William
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
    ”Vi låter oss inte stoppas av andras kamp mot grundläggande demokratiska värden”: En narrativ analys av Sverigedemokraternas kriskommunikation efter Utöya2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the communicative crisis defense of the Sweden democrats after the criticism that appeared after the mass murder by the right-wing extremist Anders Behring Breivik at Utöya in 2011. In this analysis a narrative examination is made of the party leader Åkessons explanation to why the crisis emerged and how his apology interacts with the party’s internal story. The first part of the results shows that Åkesson structures a narrative where the society’s witch hunt on the party stands as an explanation to why the crisis has emerged. The second part of the analysis shows that Åkesson uses the crisis to strengthen the role of the Sweden democrats as an anti-establishment party by using dichotomies. In his crisis narrative he attributes similar characteristics to his critics and Breivik. The consequence of this is that the two actors stand as a collective villain in the narrative. To the contrary, the Sweden democrats became a hero in the narrative - the protector of democracy in Sweden.

  • 331. Albæk, Karsten
    et al.
    Asplund, Rita
    Barth, Erling
    ISF, Oslo universitet.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Economics.
    Gudmundsson, Björn Rúnar
    Karlsson, Vifill
    Strøjer Madsen, Erik
    The Wage-Unemployment Relationship in the Nordic Countries: Wage flexibility without wage curves2000In: Research in Labor Economics, ISSN 0147-9121, Vol. 19, p. 345-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 332. Albæk, Karsten
    et al.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Economics.
    Barth, Erling
    ISF, Oslo universitet.
    Asplund, Rita
    Gudmundsson, Björn Rúnar
    Karlsson, Vifill
    Strøjer Madsen, Erik
    The Wage Curve in the Nordic Countries1999Report (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Alce, Özgul
    Södertörn University College, Lärarutbildningen.
    Utan den andres bekräftelse är jag ingenting: En studie om kvinnan i kärleksrelationer och relationer2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this essay is to analyse young peoples view and thoughts about women. I have studied how young people “create women” in an opinion poll about love relations and relationships.

    The survey has been answered by high school student in a suburb in Stockholm. My main question is: What conceptions of the women are presented in love relationships and relationships in general?

    To analyse the data, I have used a qualitative method which means that I have tried to understand and interpret their answers. The study consists of two surveys, one about love relationships and the other about empathy. The outcome of the study is presented as different women characters such as the shy women, the affectionate and the rescuing women, the bimbo and the object. The study shows that women and men are indeed a part of the construction of women.

    The study shows a pattern of words and actions that the young people connect to the female. It also shows that it is more accepted and expected for girls to write about feelings and pain. Young people seem to define themselves in a connection to the opposite by comparing

    themselves to the opposite sex. For example a woman who shows her feelings serves a purpose, the action is done in a way to be confirmed of the people around her, that she is a woman. Both boys and girls are a part of constructing women. They perform a pattern of

    actions that clearly shows the existents of norms; the effect of repeated actions is gender. It means that young people ‘look for’ actions that confirms there gender.

    The keywords in this study are young people, women, gender, love relationships/relationships.

    Finally I would like to thank my tutor Ana Graviz and the research group who has given support and help during the study and at the time of writing. And a big thanks to those who made this study possible, the class that participated in the study and their teacher.

  • 334.
    Alci, Gül
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Saliba, Gabriella
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Anställningsform och stress: Hur upplever polisaspiranter sin anställningsform i relation till stress?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and aims to give the reader a greater understanding of how police cadets experiencing stress in relation to their employment status and a gender perspective on male and female cadets experience different demands and expectations. As scientists, we will also study how aspirants handle stress and how they experience the benefit of the work. This is because the one who is rejected by the aspirant will lose all possibilities of becoming a police officer. The essay will primarily highlight the impact of employment status have on stress according to police cadets and how gender can affect the stress.

    During the research process, the researcher will have worked through qualitative semi-structured interviews with six respondents who work as police cadets. We have analyzed our material by Karasek and Theorell of requirements, control and support model that is about the extent of demand and control individuals have the work-related aspects. We also give examples of how the requirements and control support model works for police cadets in the field with the help of research addressing the topic. The other theoretical starting point is an occupational stress research of Kelloway, Hurrel & Days (2008). Data collection shows, and supported by our theory that the form of employment is creating concerns over future work, and that perceived stress is equal for both men and women.

  • 335.
    Al-Dabbagh, Farah
    Södertörn University College, Lärarutbildningen.
    ”Det är egentligen ännu bättre om de har sitt första språk ordentligt.”: Undersökning med elev- och lärarperspektiv om sambandet mellan flerspråkiga barns modersmål och deras inlärning av andra språk2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate, illuminate and discuss teacher’s and multilingual student’s view on the connection between their mother tongue and their learning of other languages. This qualitative study is based on interviews with eight students in the 8th grade and two language-teachers from the same school, as well as ethnographic observations during English and Swedish lessons. With the help of some relevant theories, the empirical study is compared, analyzed and interpreted. The results show that the theories and informant’s view on the connection between the mother tongue and other languages are similar, which is that the mother tongue must be fully established before a new language can be taken in.

  • 336.
    Aldefors, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archaeology.
    Begreppet harg: En arkeologihistorisk diskussion2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of harg - an archeology historical discussion: This study is an attempt to deal with the concept harg known from the historical sources in the north and its use in the field of archeology. Harg has come to be used in connection with cult, religion and to interpret ritual sites within archeology. Still it leaves much unanswered of what it contains or sometimes applies. By focusing on empirical sources from several disciplines such as language and place-name research, history, religion and archeology, which have all contributed in various ways to the discussion of harg. I will try to find out what harg really is, based on the different interpretations regarding harg, and how harg as a concept is used in connection with interpretations of archaeological findings.

  • 337.
    Aldenhed, Linnea
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Nester, Li
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Är sportjournalistiken offside?: En studie om framställningen av manliga och kvinnliga fotbollsspelare inom den svenska sportjournalistiken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kandidatuppsatsen granskar fördelningen av utrymmet på sportsidorna utifrån könstillhörighet. Vi undersöker hur mycket utrymme som tilldelas herrarnas respektive damernas slutspelsperioder under Europamästerskapen i fotboll år 2012, 2013, 2016 samt 2017 i Dagens Nyheter, Aftonbladet och Expressen. Vidare undersöker vi om det förekommer skillnader i rapporteringen om manliga respektive kvinnliga fotbollsspelare i Dagens Nyheter och Expressen år 2016 och 2017. Slutligen diskuterar vi frågan gällande på vilket sätt Dagens Nyheters och Expressens rapportering under slutspelen i fotbolls-EM år 2016 och 2017 bidrar till att upprätthålla de etablerade könsrollsuppfattningarna.

    Uppsatsen utgår från ett genusperspektiv och redogör för en del av den tidigare forskning som finns inom området genus. För att besvara frågeställningarna används kvantitativ innehållsanalys samt kvalitativ diskursanalys. Resultatet av vår kvantitativa analys är att herrarnas mästerskap värderades högre ur ett nyhetsvärderingsperspektiv och tilldelades mer utrymme än damernas mästerskap. Den kvalitativa diskursanalysen visar att det under herrarnas mästerskapsår rapporteras om enbart män, medan det under damernas år rapporteras om båda könen. Den kvalitativa analysen visar därmed att männen tilldelas mer plats i medierna än kvinnorna. Detta överensstämmer med resultatet av vår kvantitativa analys, samt den tidigare forskning som lyfts fram i vår studie. Slutsatsen är att herrarna är överrepresenterade på sportsidorna samt att medierna upprätthåller de etablerade könsrollsuppfattningarna. 

  • 338.
    Aldrin, Emelie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Beganaj, Sabina
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Konflikt och konflikthantering: En kvalitativt intervjustudie om hur konflikter skapas och hanteras i fritidshemmet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 339.
    Aldén, Nina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Is A Holistic Approach Relevant for Non-Governmental Organizations’ Agricultural Extension Strategies?: Case Studies from Tanzania2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural extension can play a major part in the development and adoption of sustainable agriculture practices. Local NGOs have a unique opportunity to serve as extension agents due to their acceptance and close relationship in communities. The paper argues that agricultural extension needs to adopt a holistic approach to the communities’ development to achieve a lasting and sustainable agriculture. This study examines four NGOs in Tanzania to see 1) how they provide extension services; 2) if they have a holistic approach; and 3) if the holistic approach is a conscious strategy. The findings show that a mixture of extension methods is commonly used by all four of the NGOs. More over the NGOs offer a wide variety of projects, which focus on different issues. This results in a holistic approach, even though this probably is rather a result of funding practices than a conscious extension strategy.

  • 340.
    Aleksandrova Arnaudova, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The Gender Wage Gap in Spain: An analysis of the impact of the financial crisis on the gender wage gap distribution2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Equality is part of the European policy and legislation. However there are still evident signs of women being treated unequally in the labour market. The aim of the thesis is to answer the question if women are more vulnerable to economic shocks in terms of wage distribution. The focus will be on women in Spain in the context of the financial crisis of 2008. The thesis examines the evolution of the salary structure in the period 2002-2014 using the microdata of the Structural Earning Survey. The taste-based and the statistical discrimination theory are going to be described in order to explain the causes of gender wage discrimination. The methods applied in this paper are the Mincer method, which explains the human capital theory and the Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions, which separates the gender wage gap into explained and unexplained parts. The results from the study suggest that there is a decrease in the gender wage gap in Spain following the situation before and after the crisis.

  • 341.
    Aleksandrova Arnaudova, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The Gender Wage Gap in Spain: An analysis of the impact of the financial crisis on the gender wage gap distribution2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Equality is part of the European policy and legislation. However there are still evident signs of women being treated unequally in the labour market. The aim of the thesis is to answer the question if women are more vulnerable to economic shocks in terms of wage distribution. The focus will be on women in Spain in the context of the financial crisis of 2008. The thesis examines the evolution of the salary structure in the period 2002-2014 using the microdata of the Structural Earning Survey. The taste-based and the statistical discrimination theory are going to be described in order to explain the causes of gender wage discrimination. The methods applied in this paper are the Mincer method, which explains the human capital theory and the Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions, which separates the gender wage gap into explained and unexplained parts. The results from the study suggest that there is a decrease in the gender wage gap in Spain following the situation before and after the crisis.

  • 342.
    Aleksic, Sonja
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    "De kommer alltid för sent!": En vetenskaplig essä om kommunikationsproblem mellan föräldrar och förskola2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My science- and experience based essay depicts the communicative difficulties I perceive with a special parent couple at my preschool. My questions are: What kind of relationship can I have with the parents based on my duty ethics, utility ethics and virtue ethics? How can the power between me and the parents be described from a power perspective? How can my practical knowledge help me deal with parents who are late? In the essay I present my interpretation of two self-experienced situations that I illustrate in two different stories. The problems are also from a more general perspective regarding the communication between home and preschool. The study will help me learn more about what communication is and what new challenges that may arise when home and preschool meet. Furthermore, my reflection will help me to get an overview from a power-related perspective and what is in the preschool curriculum about cooperation between parents and preschool. How can I see the problem from the parents´ perspective and take their position? What makes me react the way I do? What makes parents act the way they do? The purpose of this study is to analyze the importance of communication between parents and educators in preschool and then see what the consequences will be for the child when the communication fails. I intend to also shed the light on the power relationship that exists between educators and parents. To get further, I need to reflect on my actions based on several different perceptions and with this create a deeper insight into the whole dilemma. From different ethical  perspectives, I will help to see my dilemma. I will also highlight the significance and influence of Aristotle´s three forms of knowledge for my practice. I believe that education, learning and care are important components that we preschool educators should relate to.

    The conclusion I see is that the steering documents are important to me as an educator and just as important is the cooperation with all parents at the preschool. Relationship competence is important to have when we educators at preschool have to work with it every day, through all our “meetings” with educators, children and parents. That relational competence requires that I as an educator have intuition and am extremely responsive to how I should act there and then.

  • 343.
    Alemayehu, Hanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Hultgren, Viktoria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Facebook: En intervjustudie om utformandet av Narcissismens kultur på nätverk2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with this paper is to examine and analyze the way that the youth look at their use of Facebook. A survey was conducted on 10 high school students in Stockholm to review if Facebook reveal narcissistic behavior. To explain this, we gathered information about narcissistic culture, weak band strength, symbolic interactionism and the dramaturgical perspective. To our conclusion, the narcissism dominates on the social network level, as result of their attitudes and view of other members.   

  • 344.
    Alengård, Frej
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
    Passa pucken eller inte?: En kvalitativ studie om maktrelationen mellan hockeyjournalister och citizen journalists2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur makt konstrueras inom hockeyinformationsflödet på Twitter. Genom att ta utgångspunkt i hockeyjournalisters utsagor är målet med uppsatsen att belysa rådande maktstrukturer mellan journalister och citizen journalists på Twitter. Jag vill även undersöka hur nya informationsteknologier har förändrat journalisternas yrkesroll och yrkespraktik, med ett stort fokus på den förändrade interaktionen med de olika typerna av användare (journalister, citizen journalists och ”vanliga” medieanvändare). För att ta reda på detta har uppsatsen analyserat relationen mellan citizen journalists och journalister ur ett maktperspektiv. För att undersöka hur makt konstrueras inom Twitter har jag utgått ifrån Manuel Castells diskussion kring makt och värdeskapande i nätverkssamhället. Jag har även valt att använda journalistikens ideologi och praktik i förändring samt citizen journalists och dess förhållande med journalister som teoretiska utgångspunkter för att undersöka hur nya informationsteknologier och den förändrade interaktionen med användarna har påverkat journalisternas yrkesroll och yrkespraktik. Genom kvalitativa forskningsintervjuer med fem hockeyjournalister på rikstäckande mediebolag visar de resultat jag fått fram att det har skett en maktförskjutning mellan citizen journalists och hockeyjournalisterna. Relationen verkar utåt sätt präglas av en demokratisk dialog och större informationsutväxling de två emellan, men hockeyjournalisterna verkar fortfarande befästa makt kring nyhetsprocessen genom att referera till den journalistiska ideologin. Detta gör att det fortfarande finns en tydlig hierarkisk ställning inom hockeyinformationsflödet. Resultatet visade även att hockeyjournalisternas yrkespraktik präglas av en mycket högre hastighet än tidigare vilket har förändrat journalisternas sociala praktik, där det stora informationsflödet har omvandlat deras tillvägagångssätt att hämta och distribuera nyheter och information. Till skillnad från vad andra studier visat så pekar min studie på att hockeyjournalisternas yrkesroll blivit mer individualiserad, med högre krav på tekniskt kunnande och kunskaper inom flera olika medieområden till följd av en mer krävande och kunnig publik. 

  • 345.
    Alenius, Esther
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Brorson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Holmgren, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    “Prova på semestern innan du köper den”: En kvalitativ studie om konsumenters attityd till marknadsföring av turism med VR-teknik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitude of potential customers towards marketing of tourism through virtual reality. Since it is considered a risk to purchase a service it was interesting to see if the implementation of VR could lower the uncertainty. The study was conducted through a qualitative methodology consisting of 15 user tests. The result shows that the market has a positive attitude towards the marketing method since it was considered an exciting way to get information and gave a more honest image of the destination. It was more appreciated to experience a hotel in VR than a destination. However, VR-marketing was not considered necessary but rather a pleasant complement. The result of the study led to a few recommendations to any touristic company aiming to produce a VR-video for marketing purposes.

  • 346.
    Alenius, Maja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Jönsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    En studie om användandet av årsredovisningen vid bostadsrättsköp2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Find out how and in what way buyers of housing co-operatives use the association ́s annual report in their purchase decision and investigate whether they understand it or not.

    Method: The study is conducted using a qualitative method in the form of interviews. The Authors stood outside viewings and interviewed presumptive buyers of housing co-operatives in Stockholm.

    Empiricism: The study was conducted on 22 respondents, all interviewed outside a total of six different viewings around Stockholm. It turned out that the majority of respondents did not fully understood annual reports and most of them asked for help. The majority of those who felt they understood the annual report also asked someone in their surroundings to help them determine the stability of the housing association's economy. The result showed that homeowners usually use the annual report to see "warning signs" that indicate that a association will raise its fees. To evaluate the association ́s economy, most of the respondents used indebtness.

    Analysis: The study points out that since many homeowners did not fully understood the annual report, it could be difficult for them to make decisions based on it. This has been linked to previous research that highlighted similar problems. There are similarities between the improvement and change proposals developed by FAR together with other organizations and the results the study has shown.

    Conclusion: Presumptive buyers of housing-cooperatives generally do not understand annual reports so well that they can make a financial decision based on it. At the same time, the study has shown that even those homeowners who felt they understood asked for further help and advice from their surroundings. The study's conclusions are that there is a great deal of room for changing the accounting for housing co-opratives associations to make them more

    transparent and understandable to it ́s users. Furthermore, it was concluded that regardless of the individual's understanding of an annual report, he largely takes advantage of his surroundings as it is a major and comprehensive decision. 

  • 347.
    Alerius, Markus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Järlefelt, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    En slumpmässig vandring eller genomsnittlig återgång: Råder förutsägbarhet på Stockholmsbörsen?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted in order to determine the existence of predictability for the Stockholm stock exchange. With this purpose the random walk theory has been raised against the theory of mean reversion in order to determine which theory is the most substantial. Data has been collected from Nasdaq OMX Nordic and furtherly been processed using the statistical software EViews. Swedish listed companies’ daily share values between 2000-2014 have been analyzed using two tests; an Augmented Dickey Fuller test and a Variance Ratio test. The results show generally that the null hypothesis - and thus the random walk - is rejected in the short term. This means that both on an aggregated level and on an individual level, the Stockholm stock exchange is predictable in the short term - in the form of mean reversion - and that it is most evident in small cap firms.

  • 348.
    Alersjö, Anneli
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Myndigheter för hållbar utveckling: En studie av myndigheters miljölednignssystem 20052006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agencies towards Sustainable Development – A Study of Environmental Management Systems in Governmental Agencies 2005

    A vision of the Swedish government is to build an ecologically sustainable society. A tool in this effort is to implement environmental management systems (EMS). The aim of the thesis is to present in which phase of the implementation of EMS Swedish governmental agencies are. This will be done by compilation and evaluation of agencies’ yearly environmental reports.

    The thesis is written in co-operation with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Swedish EPA). Swedish EPA has the responsibility to coordinate and drive forward the development of environmental management systems. The thesis is therefore a scientific tool to evaluate how the government’s decision, that governmental agencies have to implement an EMS, is fulfilled.

    Keywords: Sustainable development, environmental management systems, governmental agencies, environmental report.

  • 349. Alestalo, Matti
    et al.
    Hort, Sven E. O.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Kuhlne, Stein
    The Nordic Model: Conditions, Origins, Outcomes, Lessons2009Report (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Alesund, Isabelle
    Södertörn University College, Lärarutbildningen.
    Digital elevdokumentation: från implementation till praktiskt arbete2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is statutory that teachers shall document their student's development of knowledge in different subjects. The teachers employed by Sundbybergs municipality have been commissioned to do the documentation in the web-based electronic system Projekt- och Omdömesdatabasen, P.O.D.B. The purpose of this study was to investigate witch effect the IT-solution P.O.D.B has brought for the teachers in their task of student documentation. By conducting interviews and questionnaire studies I have been looking for answers to if the target achievements have increased by using the IT-solution, and if the teachers are aware of what they may or may not write about their students in the system. The conclusions I have been able to draw through my studies are that the teachers have accepted the commission to use P.O.D.B. But they didn't feel assessorial in the decision of beginning to use computers for the task of documentation. Their work has because of this become more time extensive, and there is some insecurity about the formality of the system. The effect of the decision has resulted in that the targets have been made more visible and the target achievements have increased, and the storage options have made the student information more readily accessible.  

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