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  • 301.
    Arvidsson, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Blomstedt, Linnea
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Företagsrelationer ur individens perspektiv: En kvalitativ branschstudie om relationer i försörjningskedjor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Relationer i leverantörskedjor, långsiktiga företagsrelationer och samarbete mellan företag är områden som ges alltmer fokus från såväl företagsvärlden som vetenskapen. Forskningen visar att relationerna mellan företagen har blivit djupare och att man samarbetar i större utsträckning med såväl leverantörer som kunder. Det är inte längre enskilda företag som står i fokus, utan hela kedjor av leverantörer samarbetar för att skapa en produkt till slutkunden.

    Studier om leverantörskedjor och företagsrelationer har dock i stor utsträckning varit kvantitativa och personperspektiv saknas. Utifrån detta är syftet med denna studie att undersöka hur individer som arbetar med företagsrelationer upplever dessa relationer och att relatera till teorier om relationer i leverantörskedjor och företagsrelationer kopplat till främst det logistiska fältet.

    I denna studie har tre kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts och empirin från dessa har sedan jämförts med teorier om formalisering, interpersonella relationer, relationer i leverantörskedjor och relationsskapande.

    Intervjupersonerna och forskarna har stora likheter i tankarna kring till exempel hur relationer och samarbete definieras, vikten av tillit och ärlighet, samt individens roll i företagsrelationen. Frågetecken väcks dock om hur teorin kontra empirin beskriver inledningen av samarbetet, samt till viss del vad långsiktiga relationer innebär.

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  • 302.
    Arvidsson, Isabell
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Dong, Andi
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Värdeskapande för företag: En kvalitativ studie om hur företag kan arbeta med värdeskapande innehåll i en digitaliserad och konkurrerande miljö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Marketing has undergone several eras due to radical conversions. It has come to an increasingly digitized environment with people constantly connected to the Internet and companies that are increasingly visible on digital platforms. In marketing, this digitization has meant fundamental changes and conditions that extend beyond the physical scope of the company. Consumers' increased power and impact in combination with the changing conditions of digitization imposes higher demands on companies that need to find new strategies with content that generate added value to compete in the market. Companies unable to turn to the changed reality are at risk of bankruptcy.

    The purpose of this study is to chart how companies can apply value-creating content to adapt to digitization in a competitive environment. In order to investigate the problem, a qualitative approach has been used in which interviews have been conducted with five companies that are involved in value-creating content and marketing strategies. The theory of the study has been gathered from previous research and includes value-creating content, digital strategies, competition strategies, differentiation and positioning.

    The conclusion is that the factors that are important when businesses are to use value-creating content, is that they should have an in-depth perspective with the customer in focus. Companies that work with value-creating content should have a creative approach and be honest in their storytelling. They also need to work with a long-term strategy that repeatedly need to be evaluated time after time because value-creating marketing is not just a tool, it's more an approach.

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    Värdeskapande för företag
  • 303.
    Arvidsson, Lina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Vem är turisten i tidningen Turist: en analys av tolv resereportage ur Svenska Turistföreningens medlemstidning Turist2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen analyserar tolv texter från Svenska Turistföreningens medlemstidning Turist. Texterna är hämtade från 1964 till 2014 med två nedslag vart tionde år.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att ta reda på vem turisten i de analyserade reportagen är, hur hen ser på sig själv och på andra som hen möter under sina resor och hur landskap, väder, miljöer och människor beskrivs.

    Analysen är gjord med ett frågeschema som skapats med stöd från massmedieretorisk och narratologisk metod. De aspekter som undersöks handlar framför allt om hur människor på resmålet beskrivs, hur landskap, djur och väder beskrivs och används i berättelserna, hur turisten ser på sig själv och andra och vilka värderingar som framkommer.

    De teoretiska ramar som används utgår från romantikens syn på besjälade landskap samt en postkolonial syn på turism och turister och deras påverkan på turistmål.

    Resultatet visar att turisten ser både resmål, miljö och människorna på resmålen med exotifierande ögon. Turisten längtar efter äkthet och strävar under sin semester efter att bli en mer äkta, rejäl och hälsosam människa. Det framkommer också att bildspråk och sätt att skildra naturen har starka kopplingar till romantikens strömningar. Landskapet beskrivs som besjälat och vädret speglar turistens sinnesstämningar.                        

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  • 304.
    Arvidsson, Mårten
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ekobyn som försvann2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    martenarvidsson_fardigtprojektarbete.pdf
  • 305.
    Arvidsson, Mårten
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Andreas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Att bära hem Sverige: En studie av arbetsrutiner hos utrikeskorrespondenter stationerade i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår undersökning utgick från de vetenskapliga frågeställningarna ” Vad styr utrikeskorrespondenternas utformning av nyhetsnätet?” och ”Vilka konsekvenser har relationen till hemmaredaktionen för arbetsrutinerna och nyhetsnätet?”

    Vi stödjer oss på Gaye Tuchmans teori om news net, nyhetsnätet. Teorin går i korta ordalag ut på att man som journalist behöver en systematiserad nyhetsinsamling, ett nyhetsnät, för att på bästa sätt bedriva journalistiskt arbete. Varför är detta intressant? Bakgrunden till vår uppsats är att vi tror att utrikeskorrespondenter har ett för reportrar annorlunda arbetssätt till följd av deras förutsättningar (verksamma i ett annat land, samhälle etc.) Frågeställningen kring relationen till hemmaredaktionen är relevant eftersom utrikeskorrespondenten får antas ha ett kunskapsövertag gentemot hemmaredaktionen vad gäller det geografiska området korrespondenten är satt att bevaka.

    Vi har utfört kvalitativa forskningsintervjuer med ett urval av utrikeskorrespondenter som alla representerar europeisk tryckt press, och som alla är baserade i Stockholm. Resultatet av studien visar att rikstäckande tryckt press styr utformningen av utrikeskorrespondenternas nyhetsnät när de letar efter uppslag till artiklar. Ytterligare en central fråga var hur deras värdering av offentliga källor och kontakter kontra personliga såg ut. Den slutsats vi dragit är att det i stor utsträckning är den specifika uppdragsgivarens läsekrets och resurser som styr hur korrespondenterna värderar offentliga respektive personliga källor. Relationen till hemmaredaktionen visade sig bygga på en relativ balans där korrespondenten sågs som expertis på området och regionen. Detta gör i sin tur att det i första hand är korrespondenten som hör av sig till redaktionen, i och med att hen har ”exklusiv” kunskap om vad det är som är värt att skriva om.

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  • 306.
    Arvidsson, Oona
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Taubert, Alexander
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    ”Man måste bli allt – man måste vara mamma, pappa, syskon, man”: En fenomenologisk studie om familjeåterförening för ensamkommande barn i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore how unaccompanied minors describe their experiences of family reunification, and what importance or implications it has for them. Furthermore, our aim was to find out how they experience the withdrawal of public social support after the arrival of their families. We interviewed three persons who were unaccompanied minors by the arrival to Sweden, and later reunified with their families in Sweden. The theoretical framework of this qualitative interview study is formed by Schütz’ phenomenological sociology and Berger and Luckmann’s theory of the social construction of reality. We complemented the theoretical framework with Boss’ theory of ambiguous loss and Greif’s theory of ambiguous reunification. The method for analysis used is Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The main results shown in this study is that there seems to be an ambiguity in the family reunification experience. On one hand, the family reunification was of big importance to the participants. On the other hand, the time following the reunification was characterized by a great responsibility for the family. Finally, we discuss possible shortcomings in the way the public social support for families after family reunification is provided. 

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    Arvidsson & Taubert, C-uppsats HT-17
  • 307.
    Asfar, Mattias
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kaspo, Norman
    Kreditbedömnings- och kreditbeviljningsprocessen efter avskaffandet av revisionsplikten: Utifrån bank perspektiv gällande mindre bolag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Den 1 november 2010 beslutade den svenska regeringen att avskaffa den obligatoriska revisionen för småföretag. Effekten av det effektiva ändringsförslaget framkallade några problematiska faktorer. I samband med avskaffandet av revisionsplikten har de mindre bolagen varit tvungna att strukturera om de finansiella underlagen för att optimera sina chanser till beviljad kredit. Betydelsen av förtroende mellan banken och företagen har visat sig vara viktig del vid ansökan av finansiella medel. Processen omfattar flera steg inklusive korrelationen mellan risk och förtroende.

    Syfte: Undersökningen granskar bankernas kreditbedömnings-och kreditbeviljningsprocess och hur dessa processer har påverkats efter avskaffandet av revisionsplikten, samt studera hur betydelsefull en auktoriserad revisor är för de mindre aktiebolagen.

    Metod: I syfte att besvara undersökningens frågeställning har studien använt sig utav ett kvalitativt tillvägagångssätt i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer med en deduktiv ansats. Undersökningen har genomförts genom att intervjua tre olika kontorschefer hos storbankerna samt utgått från vetenskapligt ramverk för att tolka den insamlade empirin.

    Slutsats: Ett transparent och seriöst företag kan dra nyttan av att bibehålla trovärdigheten för det redovisade resultatet i kombination med ett starkt förtroende mellan parterna. En objektiv värdering av affärsrelationen är således ett viktigt steg i kreditbeviljningsprocessen. Banken måste garantera att företagets finansiella uppgifter är korrekta. Resultaten tyder på att en väsentlig och tillförlitlig affärsrelation ger en betydande trygghet för banken, där revisorns betydelse är tongivande men inte den viktigaste beståndsdelen i alla situationer.

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  • 308.
    Askery, Johannes
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Niemi, Jaana
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Finanskrisens påverkan på Stockholmsbörsens volatilitet: En jämförande studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 309.
    Asklöf, Anders
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Arbinge, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hållbarhet, lönsamhet och det eventuella sambandet däremellan: En kvantitativ studie om hållbarhetsredovisningens effekt på lönsamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine the correlation between public companies registered CSP and CFP. This was examined through the use of a Correlation matrix and the use of multiple regression analysis. These were then used to answer the studies specific subquestions which in combination with one another related to the main topic which is correlation between CSP and CFP. The data was provided by Folksam from their sustainability index from 2013. 

    The study’s results are discussed from the theoretical framework, consisted of stakeholder theory, agency theory and legitimacy theory. The data was ambiguous and therefore no conclusion can be drawn as to whether these factors correlating to one another. 

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  • 310.
    Aslamy, Sonia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Purkovic, Samira
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Arbetsinnehåll och yrkesroller inom apoteksmarknaden efter omreglering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    July 1, 2009 saw a government deregulation of pharmacies in Sweden, which meant that private operators were given access to this market. The pharmacy market had previously been entirely controlled by a state monopoly. The purpose of this report is to study how the running and governance of pharmacies has changed since this deregulation, both within the state’s own corporation and the privately owned pharmacies. Furthermore, we examine how this has influenced the roles of the different professional groups and their working conditions as compared to during the monopoly period. The study was conducted by using a qualitative method together with an abductive approach. The sample for the study included staff from twelve pharmacies in southern Stockholm in both state-owned and private pharmacies. The 16 participants in the interviews were presented with semi-structured questions. In order to arrive at relevant results, we have focused on theories such as New Public Management, Total Quality Management and Profession Theory, along with Bourdieu's theory and its key concepts. The results of the interviews were then analyzed on the basis of these theories, and the study shows that the deregulation of the pharmacy market has affected the content of the staff’s jobs, whether they work for the state corporation Apoteket AB, or for the privately owned pharmacies. The market today has become more competitive, which means that each pharmacy must work with continuous improvements in their service. Organization has undergone changes especially as concerns staffing levels, and the number of employees has decreased. Fewer people are working but they each have more responsibility, new tasks and a higher level of work-related stress. Some things that the pharmacy employees say in the study suggest that their work has become more statistically controlled, that they are obliged to follow profitability goals set by management and that new techniques of quality management in most organizations have consequences for the professional groups impacting upon their self-esteem and sense of professional identity.

     

    Keywords: Pharmacy market, Deregulation, Apoteket AB, Privately owned pharmacies

     

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  • 311.
    Aslan, Sandra
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Issa, Jacqueline
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Komponentavskrivning: Övergången till komponentmetoden för kommunala fastighetsbolag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: Has the implementation of component depreciation resultedin differences in depreciation? Has the implementation of the component method had an impacton the operating result?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and describe changes in depreciations. The purpose is also to examine if there has become effectsin the financial reports operating profit in conjunction with transitioning to using component depreciation.

    Methodology: This study applies a quantitative research.Figures from depreciation in the companies’ annual reports have been studied. The statistical test ”Wilcoxon signed-rank test for dependent populations” has been applied to this study.

    Conclusion:The introduction of component depreciation has led to differences in depreciation. It hasalso resulted in effects on the operatingresultwhere some of the companies had increased profits, while others had reduced operating profits.

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  • 312.
    Asmelash, Danait
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Shahab, Nazia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Motivation sett utifrån ledar- och medarbetarperspektiv: En fallstudie om vilka faktorer som motiverar medarbetarna i PostNord Logistik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att ha motiverade medarbetare på en arbetsplats är väsentligt. Motivation anses vara en central del i medarbetarnas arbetsprestation och ledaren har en roll att skapa förutsättningar som kan främja motivation i en arbetsplats. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka och analysera vilka faktorer som motiverar medarbetarna, både från ledarnas och medarbetarnas perspektiv. Uppsatsen kommer även att undersöka vilka tillvägagångssätt en ledare använder för att skapa motivation bland medarbetarna.  

    I denna uppsats har en kvalitativ forskningsmetod använts i form av en fallstudie för att samla in empirin. För att få en helhetsbild av undersökningen har författarna utfört total sex intervjuer, varav hälften är ledare och hälften är medarbetare i PostNord Logistik.

    Studiens resultat visar att för medarbetarna är den största motivationsfaktorn arbetet i sig. Medarbetarna anser också att faktorer såsom uppmärksamhet, ekonomisk belöning, gemenskap, samt eget ansvar är motiverande. Ledarna anser dock att lönen kan vara den främsta motivationsfaktorn för medarbetarna.

    Resultat visar även att ledarna försöker finnas tillgängliga, vara förebilder, ge uppmärksamhet och skapa trivsel på arbetsplatsen för att motivera medarbetarna. Medarbetarna hade en gemensam åsikt när det gäller ledarnas tillgänglighet för att de ska känna sig motiverade.

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  • 313.
    Asplin, Amanda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Schou, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Influencers trovärdighet vid samarbeten: En kvalitativ studie om följares förtroende gentemot influencers2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Before digitization, it was increasingly difficult to reach new target groups. However, during the early 2000s, this changed when the web 2.0 emerged with the "dot-com" bubble. This paved the way for a new phenomenon, social media that is a way for users to share their views and thoughts. Using social media as a marketing strategy has contributed to an increasing number of companies being able to reach a wider audience. This has led to a new concept which is influencers, where they can influence their followers via their social media, which companies have started to use. By implementing this in their marketing strategies, it allows them to reach new target groups and markets. However, it can be difficult for the followers to decide what is genuine or not when marketing is via influencers.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how the relationship of the followers to influencers is affected by different collaborations between companies and influencers.

    Method: This study implements a qualitative research strategy where semi-structured interviews and observations have been applied to collect the empirical material. To get a variation in the result, 12 respondents of different ages and genders have been interviewed.

    Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it has proved important that an influencer shows authenticity, in order for the followers to trust them and that values should be consistent with the image they want to convey. The conclusions also show that previous relationships to an influencer and how often they make a collaboration can play a crucial role in how the followers receive it.

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  • 314.
    Asplin, Andrea
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    von Sterneck, Louise
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Värdeskapande aktiviteter online: En kvalitativ studie om kunders upplevelse på e-handelsplattformar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Even though the fashion industry has grown to become one of the most digitized and consumed industries in the world, it seems to be an issue for physical fashion companies to break through within ecommerce. This is due to the lack of ability for physical companies to adapt to the digital development and the changing customer behavior prevailing on the internet. E-commerce has gone from selling goods and comparing prices online, to provide valuecreating experiences for customers. As a result, the competition has drastically increased, which makes the customer able to easily move and choose between a variety of e-commerce platforms. As an increased understanding of customer experience in e-commerce can provide profit-sharing competitive advantages, it is important for physical fashion companies to take customer preferences into account.

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to generate an understanding of valuecreating activities in e-commerce and what customers value on ecommerce platforms.

    Methodology: This thesis is based on a qualitative research strategy with an abductive research approach. The empirical material has been collected by means of semi-structured interviews and observations with seven respondents in the ages between 19 and 40 years.

    Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it is necessary for fashion companies to maintain an utilitarian and hedonic approach to generate value-creating activities. The conclusions indicate that the utilitarian activities should be designed in a standardized manner, while the hedonic activities rather should keep an unique and distinctive approach.

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  • 315.
    Asplund Klingstedt, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Carlsson, Kajsa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    En studie av individers interaktion med företag på Instagram2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media is today a large and important part of most people's everyday lives. The combination of the high user frequency, ready availability and cost efficiency makes social media an attractive marketing channel. Instagram is one of the largest players on the Swedish market and it is based on visual content. Because of the focus on visual content, Instagram is a more complex service to analyze and therefore research on this service is still limited.

    We have chosen to examine the service Instagram from a marketing perspective in order to identify which factors make individuals choose to follow and interact with companies on Instagram. This was done through a combination of quantitative- and qualitative data in the form of a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The study showed that it is common that individuals follow companies on Instagram but that they are selective regarding which companies they choose to follow. They need to gain some sort of value from the account in order to continue to follow and interact with the company on Instagram. For a company to be interesting to follow and interact with on Instagram it is required that the company meet a number of parameters which are presented in the study. Most common was a continually updated stream of visually appealing and inspiring images and videos. The study also shows that there is a majority who feel they have a better relationship with companies they follow on Instagram compared to the companies that they don’t follow on Instagram but do follow on other social media.

    Based on the conclusions of this study companies that are active on Instagram and therefore communicate mainly through visual content have a lot to gain. By using this study companies can develop a strategy to optimize their presence on the Instagram in order to get people to interact with them, to expand the knowledge of the company on the market, strengthen relationships and to increase the company's sales.

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  • 316.
    Asry, Imane
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Azad Khan, Kamran
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Normbrytande reklam idag: Ett branschperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att identifiera hur normbrytande reklam används som verktyg i företags marknadskommunikation. Som en del i syftet undersöks även vilka konsekvenser detta får för företag och dess kunder.

    Metod: För att uppfylla syftet genomfördes studien med en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi där fenomenologi tillämpades. Sju yrkesverksamma intervjupersoner inom reklambranschen valdes ut och intervjuades för att få en förståelse kring fenomenet normbrytning. Adaptiv metod och följande teorier: Konvergent marknadsföring, Linear model of communication , relationsmarknadsföring, multikulturell marknadsföring, marketing communication mix och kundbaserat varumärkesvärde.

    Slutsatser: Studiens slutsatser mynnade ut i att företag ser lönsamhet i form av försäljning, innovativa konkurrensfördelar och en förändring av normer i reklamvärlden och samhället. Företag når även en bredare målgrupp genom syftesdriven kommunikation som får mottagare att sprida kampanjer som berör de vidare. Vi kan också konstatera att normbrytande reklam idag används som ett verktyg för att komma närmare kunden och det som kommuniceras ut mot kunden ligger i grund i ett relationsskapande.

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  • 317.
    Atallah, Carol
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    P. Munther, Victor
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Abrahams barn: En studie av religionsnyheternas förändring mellan 2002 och 2012 – med exempel från Svenska Dagbladet och Sydsvenskan2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att genom en kvantitativ innehållsanalys ge svar på vilka artikeltyper och nyhetssammanhang som oftast förekommer för judendom, kristendom och islam – de tre abrahamitiska religionerna – i tidningarna Svenska Dagbladet (SvD) och Sydsvenskan (SDS) för perioderna april 2002, oktober 2002 och motsvarande för 2012.

    För att nå ökad förståelse för resultatet av den kvantitativa innehållsanalysen har intervjuer genomförts med en ledarskribent från vardera tidning samt med en representant från vardera religion. De intervjuade har bland annat fått ge sin uppfattning kring hur religionsnyheter ser ut idag jämfört med tio år sedan.

    Den kvantitativa studien består av 283 analyserade artiklar, av vilka 118 behandlar islam, 109 kristendom och 56 judendom. Kristendom dominerar för inrikesnyheterna och islam för utrikesnyheterna. Inom de inrikesartiklar som berör islam dominerar sammanhanget diskriminering, medan kultur och antisemitism utmärkte kristendom respektive judendom. För samtliga religioner är de dominerande sammanhangen för utrikesartiklarna annat och krig eller konflikt. I båda kategorier dominerar islam. De största skillnaderna åren emellan är antalet artiklar om Israel-Palestina-konflikten samt förekomsten av artiklar som rör antisemitism.

    Analyserat utifrån tidigare forskning och nyhetsvärderingsteorier tyder resultatet på att religiösa händelser är svåra att göra nyheter av, varför religionerna, och då särskilt islam och judendom, ofta förekommer i konfliktcentrerade nyheter – något även många av de intervjuade håller med om.

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    kandidatuppsats_atallah_munther
  • 318.
    Ates, Ishak
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sahel, Lina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ledarskap är kommunikation, kommunikation är ledarskap: en kvalitativ studie på den svenska dagligvaruhandeln2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to create a deeper understanding of how the internal communication in the Swedish daily trade is affected by the leadership. The study also aims to investigate employees' experiences of the leadership's communication.

    Research questions: - What impact does leadership have on internal communication in the Swedish daily trade? - How is the manager's communication experienced by employees?

    Theoretical frame of reference: The frame of reference starts with central concepts that include leadership, leadership style, communication, internal communication and communication channels. Then two communication models are applied: Shannon and Weaver's communication model and Schramm's communication model

    Method: A qualitative study with an abductive approach. The respondents were selected through a convenience selection and then semi-structured interviews were conducted.

    Results: The study's results show that leadership has an impact on communication internally in the Swedish daily trade. Internal communication is influenced by the type of leader and the leader's choice of communication channels. The study also shows that there are weaknesses in leadership that make information dissemination to employees difficult.

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    fulltext
  • 319.
    Atmane, Miriam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Olsson, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Hur bra är de svenska universiteten och högskolorna på att kommunicera till utländska studenter?: En kvalitativ studie om hur utländska studenter uppfattar svenska högskolor och universitets kommunikation inför och under utbytesstudier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To create an understanding of how foreign students perceive the communication they receive from universities and colleges before and during exchanges with regard to cultural differences.

    Theory: The theoretical framework of this study is based on three different theories and prior research. The three theories are Shannon & Weaver’s (1963) The Linear Communication Model, Duncan & Moriarty’s (1998) The Scope of Marketing Communications and Hofstede et als (2011) cultural theories. Scientific articles on culture and communication were used to see how university communication is applied in practice.

    Method: The research has been conducted with a qualitative research with a deductive approach. Two focus groups took place in order to carry through with the research. These groups equally consisted of four participants each. The topics of the discussion amongst them were culture and communication. The participants are foreign students studying at Södertörn University College in Stockholm during the spring semester of 2016. The selection of participants was made with a convenience sample where contact was made through email invitations of participation in a focus group.

    Conclusion: The study has shown that all of the participating foreign students perceived the communication they had with the Swedish university as effective and informative. It was also clearly for them whom they could go to when help was needed in certain matters. Additionally, it was also shown that cultural differences have a moderate effect on the perception of the communication in the organizational culture of higher education.

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    fulltext
  • 320.
    Attefjord, Julia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lalovic, Irena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kvinnors entreprenörskap: Politiska incitament och stödsystem för kvinnors entreprenörskap inom branschen vård och omsorg2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze and generate a deeper understanding of the development of the policies that affect women’s entrepreneurship within the health and social care.

    Method: In order to answer the research question and to fulfill its purpose, the study has been conducted with a qualitative approach where a qualitative text analysis has been conducted. This in order to find information as well as analyze the legislative changes and other incentives introduced to promote women’s entrepreneurship.

    Empiricism andAnalysis: The material underpinning the study consists of Government documents, documents from the State Public Investigations and documents from the Swedish Agency for Growth and other Authorities, all of which have been used and carefully studied to identify the most prominent and relevant themes based on the purpose of the study and the previously presented theoretical reference framework.

    Conclusions: The conclusion that can be drawn is that policies that have had an impact on women’s entrepreneurship have been varied, with incentive initiatives that both inhibited and motivated women’s entrepreneurship in the industry. We have identified that the policy initiatives undertaken had starting points including the promotion of regulations that govern women’s entrepreneurship. Historic law barriers still exist today, explaining the differences between men and women’s entrepreneurship, which means that it is therefore necessary to revise the regulations. In addition to revising regulatory frameworks, improved knowledge, but also efforts to break the norms and stereotypical images about women’s entrepreneurship, are required by evening segregation between women’s and men’s entrepreneurship. In order to promote women’s entrepreneurship, they need the same right to external financial assistance to start, run and develop companies like the opposite sex, that is, the man.

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    Kvinnors entreprenörskap
  • 321.
    Attling, Ida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ingvarsson, Linda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: en studie om hur företag använder GRI som ett verktyg för att förbättra hållbarhetsarbetet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle där vi förbrukar allt mer resurser har frågorna om hur vi ska göra för att få en hållbar utveckling blivit allt viktigare. Det finns ett stort intresse för dessa frågor och många ställer krav på företagen att ta ansvar för sin påverkan på samhället och att arbeta för en hållbar utveckling. Detta har lett till att många företag idag arbetar med och även redovisar hur de arbetar med ansvars- och hållbarhetsfrågor.  Regeringen har ställt kravet att alla statliga bolag från och med räkenskapsåret 2008 ska upprätta en hållbarhetsredovisning enligt Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). GRI är ett ramverk för hållbarhetsredovisning som kan användas som ett verktyg för att redovisa, utveckla och styra hålllbarhetsarbetet med. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om företag använder GRI som ett verktyg för att förbättra hållbarhetsarbetet samt hur företagen använder det. Studien genomfördes som en fallstudie där kvalitativ data samlades in genom intervjuer. Datainsamlingen bestod främst av intervjuer med de hållbarhetsansvarige på fyra företag i Stockholm.

    Genom studien kunde slutsatsen dras att de fyra undersökta företagen inte använder GRI som ett verktyg för att förbättra hållbarhetsarbetet i direkt mening. Däremot använder företagen GRI indirekt då ramverket behandlar områden som företagen redan har arbetat med. Hållbarhetsredovisningen används främst som ett renodlat redovisningsverktyg. En trolig förklaring till detta är att företagen redan hade väl utvecklade hållbarhetsarbeten samt att företagen såg svårigheter med att arbeta med GRI. En möjlig förklaring kunde även finnas i anledningarna till att företagen började använda GRI. Studien visade att företagen hade svårigheter med att urskilja vad som lett till en viss förändring, vilket gjorde det svårt för dem att veta om GRI var orsaken till den. En annan slutsats som kunde dras var att hållbarhetsredovisningen inte lett till många och stora konkreta förändringar i företagen. De förändringar som gick att urskilja var vissa förändringar i de interna rutinerna, ändrat fokus på hållbarhetsfrågorna och bättre struktur på hållbarhetsredovisningen. Genom studien kunde även slutsatsen dras att inget av företagen direkt använde indikatorerna som utgångspunkt för hållbarhetsarbetet. Samtliga företagen använde sig av olika styrtal och nyckeltal som de redan innan GRI tagit fram och arbetat med. En del av dessa var desamma som vissa indikatorer vilket innebar att indikatorerna indirekt blev en utgångspunkt i hållbarhetsarbetet. Slutligen kunde slutsatsen drag att företagen använder hållbarhetsredovisningen i andra former än som ett verktyg för att utforma hållbarhetsarbetet,  så som att lyfta hållbarhetsfrågorna på företaget.

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    C uppsats, hållbarhetsredovisning, Ida Attling, Linda Ingvarsson
  • 322.
    Atto Demirdag, Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Södergren Öglü, Filiz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Aktuariella antaganden: En studie om svenska koncerners val2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there is a correlation between the actuarial assumptions, of listed groups in Large Cap on the Nasdaq Stockholm, equity ratio and their pensionplans funding status.

    Method: The study is based on a quantitative research method, where the analysis of annual reports takes place. The quantitative research method has enabled the paper to perform related analyzes and comparisons of means between groups, for listed companies equity ratio and pension obligation, and the relation to its actuarial assumptions. Correlation measurements are made using a non-parametric method, Spearman's rho, then further tested using one-sided hypotheses t-test.

    Theory: The backbone of the thesis is presented using two theories, earnings management and the principal-agent theory. These theories are intertwined with the previous researches, which also dealt with the essay topic of earnings management in previous years and in other countries.

    Empirical: Correlation analyzes between the studied actuarial assumptions and corporate groups solidity and pension financial status is presentedusing tables and charts. These are further analyzed using hypothesis tests and scatterplots.

    Conclusion: All tests resulted in very weak correlation between the different variables and can there for not be classified as significant. The conclusion that companies, listed in Large Cap on Nasdaq Stockholm, tend to make its actuarial assumptions in order to try to achieve a certain equity ratio, or to try to get their unfunded pension plans seem more funded than they actually are, is not possible to make.

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    Aktuariella antaganden
  • 323.
    August, Fredriksson
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Public Law.
    Papajannou, Ninve
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Public Law.
    Abstrakt normkontroll som garant för den konstitutionella överhögheten: En komparativrättslig studie mellan Sverige och Frankrike.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Judicial preview acts as a tool to assure that no laws to be enacted conflicts with the constitution. For that reason, it is of importance that the authorities set to perform the judicial preview are independent towards the ruling power. The aim of this essay is to do a comparison between how judicial preview is done by the Council on Legislation in Sweden and by the Constitutional Council in France. The essay examines how this preview acts as a tool to guarantee the supremacy of the constitution and to insure a none confrontational legal system. This is done with the help of the method of comparative law and the legal dogmatic method. The result of the analysis shows that judicial preview plays an increasingly important role of guaranteeing the supremacy of constitutions in legal systems of increased complexity and in societies that are experiencing political tensions. The result also shows that the constitutions in both Sweden and France is increasing in importance to protect the ways of government, democracy and basic rights for the citizens. Based on the analysis the forms of judicial preview should be reviewed and stronger safeguards for the constitution may be of interest in the future.

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    fulltext
  • 324.
    Awasthi, Mina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Rydell, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kvinnor i ledande position: Stämmer perceptioner om kvinnliga ledaregenskaper överens med stereotyperna?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är dominans av män på ledande positioner i organisationer och på arbetsplatser. Det sägs bero på att de egenskaper som anses manliga enligt normen också tycks vara dem som är bättre lämpade för ledarskap. De enligt normen kvinnliga egenskaperna anses inte vara lika passande utan snarare exempel på det som inte eftertraktas hos en ledare (Powell, 2011, s. 3). Denna studie undersöker mäns perceptioner av kvinnliga ledaregenskaper. För att utföra studien och besvara syftet skapades frågeställningarna: ”Stämmer mäns, verksamma inom byggbranschen, perceptioner överens med stereotypen för kvinnliga ledaregenskaper? “ och “Skiljer sig perceptionerna beroende på ifall männen haft en kvinnlig respektive manlig ledare?” Könsstereotyper skapar psykologiska hinder för kvinnor att ta sig upp på ledande positioner. Detta leder till att kvinnor inte tror på att de kan nå dessa positioner (Wynn, 2017, s. 646; Leicht et. al., 2017). Överlag har kvinnor svårare att nå dessa positioner, detta faktum gäller även om de psykologiska hindren bortses från. Detta fenomen kallas för ”glastaket” och innebär att det finns en viss gräns gällande hur högt upp kvinnor kan klättra i hierarkin. Ett annat hinder som även kommer diskuteras är Queen-B fenomenet. Det innebär att kvinnor som lyckats komma förbi glastaket distanserar sig från och förminskar andra kvinnor för att kunna bibehålla sin position högst upp på företagsstegen. Empiriinsamlingen genomfördes med strukturerade intervjuer där respondenterna är män verksamma för kvinnliga respektive manliga ledare, samt kvinnor på ledande position på tre byggföretag belägna och verksamma inom Stockholms län. Resultatet som studien genererar är att erfarenhet grundar individers personliga perceptioner, medan ingen erfarenhet tyder på att individer förlitar sig på omgivningens uppfattningar och normer. Empirin lutar åt att män med kvinnliga ledares perceptioner om kvinnliga ledaregenskaper avviker från stereotyperna, medan män med manliga ledares perceptioner stämmer överens med dessa.

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    fulltext
  • 325.
    Awdisho Danial, Flouna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Nikolic Jevremovic, Ivana
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ren eller oren revisionsberättelse?: En studie om faktorers påverkan på utfallet av en revisionsberättelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The audit market has changed during the recent period due to scandals such as the Enron scandal and the abolition of auditing obligations 2010. When fraud occurs in the company's financial reports, its auditors are usually accused of being responsible as their main task is to review the companies' financial reports. The auditor gives the firms either an unqualified or qualified auditor’s report. An unqualified auditor’s report is seen as a “quality stamp”. Previous research has shown that a variety of factors affect the outcome of an unqualifiedand qualified auditor’s report. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the chosen factors of the study are related to an audit report, in order to understand which factors can be associated with a qualified audit report. Based on a quantitative method, empirical data has been collected from 377 micro-, small and medium sized companies' annual reports in Stockholm, and were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis with eight different independent variables. A statistical significance on the variables; solvency and return on total assets, is found in both the simple and multiple logistic regression analysis, whereupon the zero hypothesis could be rejected for these. The lower the solvency and return on total assets, the greater the likelihood of an auditor leaving a qualified auditor’s report.

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    C-uppsats Flouna & Ivana
  • 326.
    Axelsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sandström, Therese
    Skattefinansierad sjukvård- är marknad och konkurrens svaret?: En analys av kostnaderna i upphandlad sjukvårdsverksamhet.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decades, the structural reforms of the public sector has created incentives for legislation that is meant to stimulate competition between operators acting in the health care market. A raised attention to this type of market which is characterized by increased privatization has led to the study's purpose which is to investigate the correlation between the proportion of the net cost (the tax-funded health care) performed by private firms and net costs per medical visit (tax-funded activities / visits) in the two health care branches primary care and "specialized somatic care”. Further on, this study describes the impact of the increased market orientation in the public sector the past ten years. The theoretical framework deals with areas around quasi-markets, cost-benefit, the system of choice and the New Public Management. The study is based on a quantitative bivariate analysis where the variables “percentage of private providers of net cost” (independent variable) and the “net cost divided by the number of visits” (dependent variable) is investigated between 2005 and 2014. The statistics has been collected from the Municipality and county database Kolada for the total sample which consists of the 21 regions and counties in Sweden. A regression and correlation analysis was conducted in both the “specialized somatic care” and primary care to ascertain whether there is a linear numerical relationship between the two variables and to what extent the independant varible affects the dependent one. A negative correlation was found in both of the study groups for the whole period, where a strong correlaton can be proved for some of the years where net costs per visit in health care generally drops for each percentage county council purchases of private activity increases. The result also shows that there are regional differences where the share of private providers in large extent can be reflected in the population density.

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    fulltext
  • 327.
    Axelsson, Jens
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Green Wheels: en studie om transportbranschens miljöarbete mot minskat utsläpp av växthusgaser2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då miljö är ett ämne som får större och större utrymme i politiken, medier och våra dagliga liv så blir det en viktig aspekt som företagen måste ta hänsyn till. Transporternas utsläpp av växthusgaser utgör en tydlig miljöpåverkan och regeringen har därför satt upp mål om att utsläppen ska minskas med minst 40 % fram till år 2020. Syftet med undersökningen är att undersöka hur transportföretagen arbetar med miljömål för att minska utsläppen av växthusgaser, vilka arbetssätt de använder sig av och vilka effekter de kunnat urskilja. För att kunna ta reda på hur de resonerar kring och arbetar med att minska utsläppen har vi gjort en kvalitativ undersökning med semistrukturerade intervjuer hos åtta stora transportföretag som verkar inom Sverige. Vår teoretiska referensram från tidigare forskning och litteratur infattade Den logistiska målmixen, Resursflöde, Grön Marknadsföring och TQEM. Studien visade att företagen är medvetna om regeringens mål men arbetar utifrån sina egna. För att minska ner på utsläppen av växthusgaser arbetar de främst med effektivare logistik, ecodriving och till viss del alternativa drivmedel. För att möjliggöra fortsatta förbättringar så kommer det behövas ytterligare stöd i infrastrukturen.

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    Green Wheels
  • 328.
    Axelsson, Sofie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    The ethics of reporting on radical nationalist groups in Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radical nationalist groups are growing in Sweden as well as in the rest of the world due to contemporary political, cultural and social rationale, where the internet is used as a catalyzer and tool to organize and spread their ideologies. Simultaneously, the structures and the system that hold journalism seem to be altering at a similar speed. The journalistic reporting on radical nationalist groups has, for this reason, become increasingly difficult. The alt-right, a radical nationalist group in the US expanded much because of the oxygen that American journalists added in an attempt to raise awareness of the danger or the highly problematic opinions that these groups sometimes stand for (Faris et.al 2018). A similar trend in Sweden is not yet visible but the lack of an ethical code of conduct when reporting on radical nationalist groups speaks for unpreparedness. This study aims to understand the ethical approach of Swedish journalists when reporting on radical nationalist groups through the interviews of 8 journalists. ¨´The theoretical approach is based on the structures that affect ethical decision-making along the hierarchy of influence model, by Shoemaker and Reese (1996) as well as journalists’ positioning of ideology and relativism, an ethical concept developed by Plaisance (2005). Based on the interview data collected for this study, some of the journalists in Sweden claim to be consequence neutral, thus it can be assumed that the responsibility of providing accumulated attention to radical nationalist groups which contribute to their expansion is not taken by many journalists. The focus of the interviewed Swedish journalists is rather on up front nazis than the dubious groups spreading online, with some exceptions, which could help explain the more carefree approach. However, the challenges of similar groups’ potential spreading in the near future is an important reason to address ethical approaches on how to best report on radical nationalist groups promptly.

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    fulltext
  • 329.
    Axelsson, Tina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Hogby, Andreas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Business Intelligence: En studie om den upplevda nyttan av att använda BI-system2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An information society under constant development enables organizations to have access to a growing supply of information. Handled in an efficient manner, information can be a valuable, competitive resource. This can be achieved by investing in a Business Intelligence system (BI system). BI system's main function is to manage large amounts of unstructured data, convert it into useful information, which in turn will be used as a basis for performance management.

    The purpose of this study is that, through qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews, to examine the perceived benefit of using BI systems to support business governance. This benefit is analyzed using theories such as traditional, bounded and flexible-bounded rationality, cognitive bias and theories of man's ability to think intuitively and reflective. The benefits of BI systems will also be analyzed using the theories of the communication process, conflicts in decision making and DIKW pyramid describing the process data, information, knowledge, wisdom. It also analyzes the benefits of BI systems using agency theory.

    The results show that users of BI systems are experiencing the benefits as follow: BI systems provide increased access to information in the organization, increasing the ability to handle large amounts of information, creating more fact-based decisions, freeing up time for analysis, reducing opportunistic behavior and facilitates internal communication. This creates flexibility in the bounded rationality, a more reflective decision-making process that improves the prospects to make rational decisions. Users go higher up in DIKW pyramid. BI systems reduce the information asymmetry between principal and agent. BI systems reduce uncertainty in decision reducing the risk of conflict. Training and practice are essential for BI systems to generate benefits. Unlike previous research, this study shows that BI systems are well integrated into organizations as well as live up to expectations. A new aspect of BI systems is that they reduce the risk of opportunistic behavior.

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    fulltext
  • 330.
    Axelsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Kristoffer
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Omvänt Förvärv, ett fenomen på First North: en studie i skillnader mellan bolags sätt att ta sig till Nasdaqs tillväxtmarknad2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New companies go public through Nasdaqs growth market First North constantly. The reasons for going public are many, and the interest at the moment is big. There are different ways to go public, the most common being the traditional IPO. This study is about the companies that have been listed on Nasdaq First North between 2008 and 2013 through traditional IPO, or by RTO (reverse takeover).

    The differences between these two ways of going public are that the IPOs are reviewed more thoroughly by Nasdaq and the market. This makes the study interesting, as the RTOs go public in a faster way, and avoid the review from outside parties largely. In this study you will see whether there is a difference in investing in either group of companies, from a shareholders point of view.

    In the study, we establish that there is no difference in the performance between the two groups of companies. However, we do see clear differenes between the companies development, not from a share perspective, but in other interesting perspectives such as takeovers, listing changes, bankruptcy, and delistings.

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    fulltext
  • 331.
    Ayari, Nadine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Al Banna, Veronica
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kvinnliga chefer i byggbranschen: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnors upplevelser och arbetslivserfarenheter av byggbranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay refers to have its focus on women in male-dominated industries, especially within the construction industry to make a differentiation. We want to see what kind of experience women in a male-dominated industry have around leadership among men. Therefore, the separation existing in the work environment has brought difficulties for the women to advance to manager rolls in their work-life. Women encounter difficulties in their role as a manager also during the procedure to reach an executive position. We have the motive to clear obstacles that eventually come up for female managers in male-dominated professions due to their gender. By testing through our selected ideal point of view and term, to see if it counsels the inequality that exists between the two genders and homosociality, also when it comes to the glass ceiling. When evaluating numbers of interviews that were set up with four different people, their responses guided answers to questions regarding female managers in a male-dominated industry. 

    The results indicate that the majority of our numbers still experience more privileges and barriers than opportunities in the male-dominated industry that they occupy themselves in, because of their gender as females. However, feelings are felt that it is more equated nowadays compared to previous decades. We are able to conclude from our interviewers that the issue in our ideal point of view still exists in today's world, even in Sweden's civilized society, Through different obstacles, special treatments, and injustice between different sexes, women end up being subordinate to men.

    Key Words: Gender roles, gender system, glassceiling, glass elevator, glass cliff, female manager, man dominated, special treatment, segregated labor market, experience.

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    fulltext
  • 332.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    A Nordic Model of Democracy?: Political Representation in Northern Europe2014In: Models of Democracy in Nordic and Baltic Europe : Political Institutions and Discourse / [ed] Nicholas Aylott, Farnham: Ashgate, 2014, p. 1-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    A Question of Priorities: Candidate Selection in Estonian Political Parties2014In: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 321-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses political-party organization in Estonia, especially candidate selection. Its first objective is to describe the ways in which the main parties chose their candidates before the 2011 parliamentary election. A second objective is to evaluate those procedures in light of expectations generated by established theory. The focus is on two conditions: the institutional framework, particularly the electoral system, and the relative youth of Estonian democracy. The evidence confirms these expectations only partially, which suggests that an individual party’s ideological, organizational and strategic circumstances, in addition to structural and institutional conditions, are critical to understanding why it performs this basic function as it does.

  • 334.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Conclusions: Towards a New North European Democracy2014In: Models of Democracy in Nordic and Baltic Europe : Political Institutions and Discourse / [ed] Nicholas Aylott, Farnham: Ashgate, 2014, p. 219-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Models of Democracy in Nordic and Baltic Europe: Political Institutions and Discourse2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 336.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    The Party System2015In: The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics / [ed] Jon Pierre, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 152-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Blomgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet.
    Bergman, Torbjörn
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Umeå universitet.
    Political Parties in Multi-Level Polities: The Nordic Countries Compared2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political parties are essential for parliamentary democracy, the form of government that prevails in most European states. But how have parties adapted to modern society – not least a new layer of political decision-making in the EU? Should we talk of a crisis of party democracy?

    This book reports the findings of a comparative survey of parties in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland and Sweden, all EU member states; and Norway, which remains outside the Union. Using original data, it explores how power is exercised within party organisations and their respective parliamentary groups.

    Within an analytical framework that envisages a party as a series of delegation relationships, the book illuminates how leaders are chosen, how election candidates are selected, how manifestos are written – and how a party's various elements are co-ordinated. For all the challenges posed by multi-level governance, parties retain much of their capacity for making democracy work.

  • 338.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Centre for the Study of Political Organization.
    Bolin, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University.
    A party system in flux: the Swedish parliamentary election of September 20182019In: West European Politics, ISSN 0140-2382, E-ISSN 1743-9655, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 1504-1515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish parliamentary election of 7 September 2018, the biggest parties, the Social Democrats and the Moderates, both lost votes compared to their scores in the previous election, but not as many as they had feared. Commensurately, the radical-right challenger party, the Sweden Democrats (SD), which had seemed certain to profit from Sweden's dramatic experience of the European migration crisis, did well, but not as well as it had hoped. The result left the array of parliamentary forces fragmented and finely balanced. Only after months of negotiations could a government be formed. Eventually, the incumbent coalition received a renewed parliamentary mandate. At the same time, the party system was transformed.

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  • 339.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Bolin, Niklas
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Managed Intra-Party Democracy: Precursory Delegation and Party Leader Selection2017In: Party Politics, ISSN 1354-0688, E-ISSN 1460-3683, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 55-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how party leaders are selected has recently, and belatedly, come under systematic comparative scrutiny. If it is the location of intra-party power that interests us, however, it might be that some of the more observable indicators in such processes, such as the identity of the selectorate, are not actually the most revealing ones. Using a delegation perspective, we thus present a framework for analysing prior steps in leader selection and relate it to various ideal-typical constellations of intra-party power. The framework encompasses, first, what we call precursory delegation, with focus especially on an agent that, formally or informally, manages the selection process before it reaches the selectorate. Second, the framework takes account of the degree to which the process is managed rather than left open to free competition between leader candidates. We illustrate the framework primarily with instances of leader selection in two Swedish parties.

  • 340.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Bolin, Niklas
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Polarising Pluralism: The Swedish Parliamentary Election of September 20142015In: West European Politics, ISSN 0140-2382, E-ISSN 1743-9655, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 730-740Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Bolin, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University.
    The Swedish Greens: a big step forward – and several steps back2015In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 337-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The parliamentary election of 14 September 2014 induced decidedly mixed feelings in the Swedish Green Party (Miljöpartiet de gröna). It led to the ejection of the centre-right government and the installation, for the first time, of Green cabinet ministers. However, the party also experienced a small but unexpected loss of votes compared to its score in the previous election. Moreover, partly because a far-right party built impressively on its breakthrough into the national parliament in 2010, the new government rests on a precariously narrow parliamentary base.

  • 342.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Ikstens, Jānis
    University of Lativa.
    Lilliefeldt, Emelie
    Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations.
    Ever More Inclusive?: Candidate Selection in North European Democracies2014In: Models of Democracy in Nordic and Baltic Europe : Political Institutions and Discourse / [ed] Nicholas Aylott, Farnham: Ashgate, 2014, p. 117-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Ayranci, Tolga
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Dasko Aziz, Dunia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Investeringsprocess: En kvalitativ fallstudie om X investeringsprocess2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning: Idag är det allt vanligare för företag att genomföra investeringar för att företaget ska genera vinster. X arbetar dagligen med att investera i nya projekt. Verksamheten har delat upp sina investeringar i två kategorier som benämns med små och stora projekt. Varje projekt har sitt eget tillvägagångssätt där ett antal aspekter såsom implementering och idé förekommer. Flera kända forskare har studerat kring olika kalkylmetoder samt kostnadsuppföljningar. Detta har gjorts för att resultaten ska ha resulterat i en långsiktig ekonomisk effektivisering. Forskare som Esbjörn Segelod och Professor Arjan Van Weele, är en av de forskare som förklarar vikten av en kostnadsuppföljning samt kalkylering.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva och undersöka investeringsprocessen på X för att se hur investeringsplanering samt kostnadsuppföljningar pläglas för stora och små projekt i samband med att CAPEX-svaren kommer i senare skede samt för att få en förståelse av de valen som företaget gör.

    Metod: I uppsatsen har en kvalitativ metod i form av intervjuer gjorts kombinerat med interna dokumentationer i form av X beräkningssätt, årsredovisningar et cetera för att få en samlad bild av kalkylernas betydelse vid ett investeringsbeslut.

    Teori: Berör ämnet investeringar. De främsta teorierna som tas upp i denna studie är, investeringsklassificering, investeringsplanering, investeringsprocess samt tidigare forskning för att utöka teorierna och för att läsaren ska kunna koppla det till analysen.

    Empiri: Investeringsprocessen på X delas in i två projekt, stora och små projekt. Uppdelningen bygger på hur den X klassificerar sina investeringar utifrån kundernas och restaurangernas behov. Företaget utgör planeringar och kostnadsuppföljningar i sina stora projekt men i de små projekten uppstår varken en planering eller en kostnadsuppföljning

    Slutsats: X anser inte att kostnadsuppföljningar och planeringar är viktiga i de små projekten. Detta kan dock innebära att risker och brister uppstår på långsikt genom att man kan få ökade kostnader för små projekt.

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  • 344.
    Azhibayeva, Mariam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rutqvist, Lisa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kartläggning av omvänd logistiks institutionella krafter på mikronivå: En komparativ fallstudie av två retursystem i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Companies have many demands based on environmental aspects. Sweden is largely influenced by EU regulations and one of the areas covered by EU regulations is waste management and waste prevention. One way for companies to work with their waste management and waste prevention is by using Reverse Logistics. Reverse Logistics aims to retrieve the product after its use for recycling, reuse or waste. In addition to the Reverse Logistics activities of a company being largely controlled by regulations, it is also affected by key players in the network. The Reverse Logistics research and literature is limited in several areas. Among other areas, Reverse Logistics has not been studied to a greater extent based on Institutional Theory. This study therefore sees the opportunity to cover this gap by examine the Reverse Logistics field in a micro perspective.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to map and understand how institutional forces have shaped the field of Reverse Logistics and how these forces have taken shape from a micro perspective.

    Method: A comparative case study was conducted by two return systems of pallets: Svenska Retursystem (SRS) in the food industry and Retursystem Byggpall (RB) in the construction industry. The study consists of seven semistructured interviews. It also consists of literature and regulations to present the institutional forces as they have shaped the Reverse Logistics field that later created the return systems.

    Theory: The theoretical frame of reference consists of Institutional Theory and Network Theory.

    Results: The institutional powers that was examined in this study and which have influenced the field of Reverse Logistics are literature and regulations. The literature shows that Reverse Logistics mainly have been used as a way to save costs in companies, but has more and more emphasized its environmental advantage. Reverse Logistics regulations show that organizations are governed by EU directives that are translated into Swedish legislations and later on to industry-specific guidelines. The return systems and their networks are the result of these institutional forces, as shown by the requirements and practices they have. Learning and dependence were two important factors in the network relations with other key players. Finally, it has been found that sustainability is a growing trend in Reverse Logistics.

    Proposals for continued research: Examine more key players in Reverse Logistics and study them based on Stakeholder Theory.

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  • 345.
    Azizi, Hazhier
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ezzat, Meadia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Aktieägare – endast drivna av avkastning?: En studie om den finansiella marknadens reaktion mot företag som missköter sitt sociala ansvar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problem: Begreppet CSR har fått allt mer uppmärksamhet. Företagen tycks vara måna om att skydda sitt rykte och undvika händelser som kan skada deras bild som ett ”socialt ansvarsfullt företag”. Det råder i dagsläget ingen klarhet över hur pass allvarligt ett företag bestraffas av sina aktieägare när de missköter sitt sociala ansvar. 

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att se hur den svenska finansiella marknaden reagerar på företag som missköter sitt sociala ansvar. Resultatet kan hjälpa företagen att ta ett mer välgrundad beslut kring resursfördelningen mellan vinstdrivande investeringar och CSR-drivna projekt. Resultatet kan även hjälpa investerare att på ett tydligare sätt kunna förutse vad som sker med deras aktier vid händelser som påverkar företagets CSR-image.

    Metod: En event studie kommer att utföras för att se om företagets aktie ger en abnormal avkastning. Publiceringen av noggrant utvalda händelser i någon av de tre tidningarna Expressen, Aftonbladet & Dagens Nyheter kommer att användas som händelsedatum. Ett t-test kommer att testa om den abnormala avkastningen kan bekräftas genom en dubbelsidig hypotesprövning.

    Slutsats: Nollhypotesen för de 30 utvalda händelserna kunde inte förkastas, vilket innebär att ingen signifikant abnormal avkastning uppstod vid publiceringen av nyheter som berörde företagens sociala misskötsel. Den finansiella marknaden reagerade alltså inte på sådana händelser. Slutsatsen blir därför att investerare är rationella aktörer som tycks ignorera händelser som inte berör företagets förmåga att skapa avkastning till dem. 

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  • 346.
    Baars, Adája E
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rubio-Valverde, Jose R
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hu, Yannan
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, and CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Madrid, Spain.
    White, Chris
    Office for National Statistics, London, United Kingdom.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Fruit and vegetable consumption and its contribution to inequalities in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy in ten European countries2019In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 861-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess to what extent educational differences in total life expectancy (TLE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) could be reduced by improving fruit and vegetable consumption in ten European countries.

    METHODS: Data from national census or registries with mortality follow-up, EU-SILC, and ESS were used in two scenarios to calculate the impact: the upward levelling scenario (exposure in low educated equals exposure in high educated) and the elimination scenario (no exposure in both groups). Results are estimated for men and women between ages 35 and 79 years.

    RESULTS: Varying by country, upward levelling reduced inequalities in DFLE by 0.1-1.1 years (1-10%) in males, and by 0.0-1.3 years (0-18%) in females. Eliminating exposure reduced inequalities in DFLE between 0.6 and 1.7 years for males (6-15%), and between 0.1 years and 1.8 years for females (3-20%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Upward levelling of fruit and vegetable consumption would have a small, positive effect on both TLE and DFLE, and could potentially reduce inequalities in TLE and DFLE.

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  • 347.
    Babovic, Mesud
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Alexander
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Val av avskrivningsmetod & införande av komponent-avskrivningar K3: En studie på kommunala energibolag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze how municipal energy companies reason in the choice of depreciation method and how municipal energy companies has prepared for the introduction and implementation of component depreciation.

    Theory: The theories used in this study, we find to be relevant and applicable to the specific research purpose and research questions. We have among other things, used the Burns & Scapens Framework that is part of the institutional theory, which is the theory that the study assumed.

    Method: The study is based on the qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews and document review.

    Empirics: The empirical data includes interviews with five municipal energy companies including review of relevant documentation.

    Conclusions: The study has shown that municipal energy companies are experiencing depreciation choice as a process that is difficult to estimate, and is characterized by inertia due to influencing factors and ingrained rules and routines. With the interpretation and implementation of BFNs regulation relating to component depreciation has an internal resistance due to difficult and arbitrary assessments, been built up. That has contributed to a wide range of estimations, which has demand the need for clearer recommendations and directives. Despite the halting implementation work, all respondents welcomed the introduction and can see a value in it even if it initially involves extra work. 

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  • 348.
    Babovnikova, Margarita
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    The Construction of National Identity in Poland’s Newspapers: Content Analysis of Nasz Dziennik, Gazeta Wyborcza, and Rzeczpospolita2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on national identity, constructed and represented in Poland’s media, and analyzes three daily newspapers which are diverse in their orientations as follows:

    1. Catholic Nasz Dziennik,
    2. pro-establishment business-conservative Rzeczpospolita,
    3. and independent center-left Gazeta Wyborcza.

    The research questions are

    1. how Gazeta Wyborcza, Nasz Dziennik, and Rzeczpospolita constitute national identity in content and
    2. what differences there are in identity construction in Gazeta Wyborcza, Nasz Dziennik, and Rzeczpospolita.

    The method is quantitative content analysis.

    It was found out that the Polish media employ a broad spectrum of identity construction strategies which could be defined as

    1. identification with and antagonizing from the European Union,
    2. redefining and creating new meanings of past events.

    The prevalent identity represented in the media is an identity of a civic and law-abiding democratic society. This identity is an outcome of political struggles in the country since 1989.

    The differences between three media types are minor:

    1. the media lack one established identity agenda and
    2. media content tends to depict the national identity as ambivalent.
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  • 349.
    Baca, Leart
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Badumé, Ali
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    The Good, the Bad & the Profitable: En studie om kontroversiella och hållbara företags prestation på börsen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Kontroversiella företag är företag verksamma i branscher som anses skada samhället och individer. Det kan därför vara motsägelsefullt för dessa att vara socialt ansvarsfulla som företag och kan även påstås vara omöjligt att vara socialt hållbar. Det finns även socialt hållbara företag och studier som visar att deras socialt hållbara arbete leder till ökat företags värde, samtidigt finns det studier som visar att kontroversiella företag ger en abnormt högre avkastning.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka ifall det finns ett samband mellan högt rankade hållbara företag och högre avkastning. Detta för att ta reda på ifall hållbara företagens CSR – arbete har en påverkan på avkastningen.

    Metod: Denna studie använder sig av en kvantitativ metod där sambandet mellan avkastning och hållbarhet undersöks. Hållbarheten bestäms genom Folksams index för hållbara företag och en regressionsanalys görs över åren 2009–2013.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen i denna studie är att kontroversiella företag presterar bättre än hållbara företag.

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  • 350.
    Bach, Jakob
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Barnfamiljer eller 50 000 fascister?: En komparativ analys av hur en polsk självständighetsmarsch framställs i polska, svenska, tyska och brittiska nyhetstexter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att besvara följande frågeställning:

    1) Hur gestaltas den polska självständighetsmarschen och dess deltagare? Går det genom öppen kodning att hitta återkommande frames? Går det att se nationella skillnader?

    2) Hur förhåller sig gestaltningen till tidigare journalistisk forskning om hur demonstrationer gestaltas? Kännetecknas gestaltningar av de frames som i hög utsträckning används? Går det att se nationella skillnader?

    3) Hur återspeglar framställningar av självständighetsmarschen hur journalister i de olika undersökta länderna förhåller sig till objektivitetsideal enligt en liberal modell?

    Frågeställningen besvarades genom en tvådelad kvantitativ objektivitetsanalys samt en tvådelad kvalitativ gestaltningsanalys. Resultatet av den första delen av den kvantitativa undersökningen visade att objektivitetsideal förknippade med hur informationskällor används var relativt lika; objektivitetsideal återspeglas inom detta område på ett relativt likartat sätt länder emellan. Resultatet av den andra delen av den kvantitativa undersökningen visade relativt stora skillnader mellan hur inrikes (polska) medier samt utrikesmedier beskriver marschen. Tydligast i detta sammanhang var att 46% av de utländska nyhetstexterna kallade marschen helt högerextrem, medan endast 7% av de polska nyhetstexterna kallade den i helhet som högerextrem. Liknande siffror kunde ses om man bytte ut begreppet ”högerextrem” mot ”nationalistisk”. I gestaltningsanalysens första del, kunde fem olika mindre ramar som beskrev marschens deltagare (”stöttade av regeringen”, ”representanter av allmän opinion”, ”vandaler/huliganer”, ”extremister” och ”harmlösa”) identifieras, och dessa bildade tillsammans en övergripande gestaltningsram. Den övergripande ramen gick att tillämpa på de flesta texter som analyserades. Resultatet av den andra delen visade att Dardis (2006) kartlagda marginaliseringsfigurer (som forskning visat frekvent använts i tidigare journalistisk forskning om demonstrationer) användes i liten utsträckning. Gestaltningsanalysen visade, tillskillnad från objektivitetsanalysen, relativt lika beskrivningar i samtliga länders medier, även om det gick att se nationella skillnader.När det gäller objektivitetsideal så indikerar resultatet generellt att journalister i Polen inom detta sammanhang förhåller sig annorlunda till västerländska objektivitetsideal, alternativt att journalister förhåller sig annorlunda till objektivitetsideal när det gäller utrikes- jämfört med inrikesrapportering.

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