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  • 3001.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Uppsala universitet.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and loneliness among adults in the general population2017In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 62, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research on the association between adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and loneliness is scarce even though factors which have been previously linked to loneliness, such as divorce and poorer mental health may be more prevalent among adults with ADHD. This study investigated the relation between ADHD symptoms/symptom severity and loneliness in the general adult population.

    METHODS: Data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403, aged ≥16years) were analyzed. ADHD symptoms and common mental disorders (CMDs) were assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener and the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised, respectively. Loneliness was measured with a question from the Social Functioning Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations.

    RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, an ASRS score ≥14 was strongly associated with loneliness (OR=2.48 95%CI=1.83-3.36). ADHD symptom severity was related to loneliness in a dose-response fashion. Over one-third of the association between ADHD symptoms and loneliness was explained by CMDs.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adults with more ADHD symptoms are at an increased risk of feeling lonely. Future research should determine how ADHD symptoms are linked to loneliness and if loneliness is affecting well-being.

  • 3002.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: findings from a population-based study2018In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 226, p. 332-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample.

    Methods: Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25–84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables.

    Results: In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for adult depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model.

    Limitations: Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations.

    Conclusion: Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course.

  • 3003.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York City, NY, USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelon, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sleep problems and depression among 237 023 community-dwelling adults in 46 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems are considered a core symptom of depression. However, there is little information about the comorbidity of sleep problems and depression in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and whether sleep problems with depression confer additional risk for decrements in health compared to sleep problems alone. This study thus examined the association between sleep problems and depression and whether sleep problems with depression are associated with an increased risk for poorer health in 46 LMICs. Cross-sectional, community-based data from 237 023 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. Information on sleep problems (severe/extreme) and International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision depression/depression subtypes was collected. Multivariable logistic (binary and multinomial) and linear regression analyses were performed. Sleep problems were associated with subsyndromal depression (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.70), brief depressive episode (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 2.09-2.95) and depressive episode (OR = 3.61, 95% CI = 3.24-4.03). Sleep problems with depression (vs. sleep problems alone) conferred additional risk for anxiety, perceived stress and decrements in health in the domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, and interpersonal activities. Clinicians should be aware that the co-occurrence of sleep problems and depression is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in LMICs. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

  • 3004.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Narita, Z.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / nstituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid , Spain.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 

  • 3005.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Ng, C F S
    Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Watanabe, C
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Inoue, Y
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Konishi, S
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    General thoughts of death and mortality: findings from the Komo-Ise cohort, Japan.2019In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 662-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsDeath ideation (thinking about/wishing for one's own death, thinking that one would be better off dead) is linked to an increased mortality risk. However, comparatively little is known about more general thoughts of death (GTOD) where no wish to die or life value is expressed. This study examined whether GTOD predicted mortality in a community-based cohort of older adults.

    METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort study in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The analytic sample comprised 8208 individuals (average age 61.3 (range 47-77)) who were asked in wave 2 of the study in 2000 if they had 'Thought about death more than usual, either your own, someone else's or death in general?' in the past 2 weeks. Death data were obtained from the municipal resident registration file. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine associations.

    RESULTS: During the follow-up period (2000-2008), there were 672 deaths. In a model adjusted for baseline covariates, GTOD were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.20-2.29). Stratified analyses showed an association between GTOD and mortality in men, older subjects (⩾70 years), married individuals and those with higher social support.

    CONCLUSIONS: GTOD are associated with an increased mortality risk among older citizens in Japan. Research is now needed to determine the factors underlying this association and assess the clinical relevance of screening for GTOD in older individuals.

  • 3006.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JapanUniversity of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / Nagasaki Univiversity, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, Aki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Kodaka, Manami
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    DeVylder, Jordan E.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Birthdays are associated with an increased risk of suicide in Japan: Evidence from 27,007 deaths in Tokyo in 2001-20102016In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 200, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has produced conflicting findings concerning whether birthdays are associated with an increased risk of suicide. This study examined the association in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: Suicide data (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) for the period 2001-2010 were obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used with conditional logistic regression analysis being performed to estimate within-subject birthday exposures' while controlling for meteorological conditions and public holidays. Results: There were 27,007 suicides in the study period. For males the 5 days before the birthday and the week after the birthday were associated with significantly higher odds for suicide with the odds ratio being highest on the actual birthday (OR =1.677, 95% CI: 1.294, 2.172). For females, significantly higher odds for completed suicide were observed 7-11 days before the birthday. Stratified analyses showed different at risk time patterns among men from different age groups, and that married men had higher odds for suicide on, and for the 4 days before and in the 2 weeks after their birthday. Limitations: We lacked detailed information on suicides which would have enabled a better understanding of the observed associations. Conclusions: Birthdays are associated with an increased risk for suicide in Tokyo, Japan. Health professionals who work with individuals at risk of suicide should be made aware that birthdays are associated with an elevated suicide risk. This information should also be communicated in wider suicide prevention campaigns.

  • 3007.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, T.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Mckee, M.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Koyanagi, A.
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Injury and depression among 212 039 individuals in 40 low- and middle-income countries2020In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, Vol. 29, article id e32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsAlthough injuries have been linked to worse mental health, little is known about this association among the general population in low- A nd middle-income countries (LAMICs). This study examined the association between injuries and depression in 40 LAMICs that participated in the World Health Survey.MethodsCross-sectional information was obtained from 212 039 community-based adults on the past 12-month experience of road traffic and other (non-traffic) injuries and depression, which was assessed using questions based on the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations.ResultsThe overall prevalence (95% CI) of past 12-month traffic injury, other injury, and depression was 2.8% (2.6-3.0%), 4.8% (4.6-5.0%) and 7.4% (7.1-7.8%), respectively. The prevalence of traffic injuries [range 0.1% (Ethiopia) to 5.1% (Bangladesh)], and other (non-traffic) injuries [range 0.9% (Myanmar) to 12.1% (Kenya)] varied widely across countries. After adjusting for demographic variables, alcohol consumption and smoking, the pooled OR (95%CI) for depression among individuals experiencing traffic injury based on a meta-analysis was 1.72 (1.48-1.99), and 2.04 (1.85-2.24) for those with other injuries. There was little between-country heterogeneity in the association between either form of injury and depression, although for traffic injuries, significant heterogeneity was observed between groups by country-income level (p = 0.043) where the pooled association was strongest in upper middle-income countries (OR = 2.37) and weakest in low-income countries (OR = 1.46).ConclusionsAlerting health care providers in LAMICs to the increased risk of worse mental health among injury survivors and establishing effective trauma treatment systems to reduce the detrimental effects of injury should now be prioritised.

  • 3008.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / 5Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2019In: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, E-ISSN 1741-2854, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 158-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:: Perceived discrimination has been linked to worse mental health. However, little is known about this association in the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU).

    AIM:: To address this deficit, this study examined the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine fSU countries.

    METHODS:: Data were analyzed from 18,000 adults aged ⩾18 years obtained during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2010 and 2011. A single-item measure was used to assess discrimination. Psychological distress was measured with a 12-item scale. Logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations.

    RESULTS:: After adjusting for all potential confounders, when using none/little discrimination as the reference category, moderate and strong discrimination were associated with significantly increased odds for psychological distress in the total population and in men and women separately with odds ratios ranging from 1.93 to 2.64. Meta-analysis based on country-wise estimates showed that the level of between-country heterogeneity was negligible.

    CONCLUSION:: Perceived discrimination is associated with psychological distress in countries throughout the fSU. Quantitative and qualitative research is now warranted to determine its specific forms and impact on population health in individual fSU countries.

  • 3009.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Jacob, Louis
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France / Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Waldman, Kyle
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Perceived discrimination and psychotic experiences in the English general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 62, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination has been linked to psychotic experiences (PEs). However, as yet, information is lacking on the relationship between different forms of discrimination and PEs. This study examined this association in the English general population.

    METHODS: Nationally representative, cross-sectional data were analyzed from 7363 adults aged 16 and above that came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Self-reported information was obtained on six forms of discrimination (ethnicity, sex, religious beliefs, age, physical health problems/disability, sexual orientation), while PEs were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations.

    RESULTS: In a fully adjusted logistic regression analysis, any discrimination was significantly associated with PEs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.75-3.48). All individual forms of discrimination were significantly associated with PEs except sexual orientation. Multiple forms of discrimination were associated with higher odds for PEs in a monotonic fashion with those experiencing ≥ 3 forms of discrimination having over 5 times higher odds for any PE. In addition, experiencing any discrimination was associated with significantly increased odds for all individual forms of PE with ORs ranging from 2.16 (95%CI: 1.40-3.35) for strange experience to 3.36 (95%CI: 1.47-7.76) for auditory hallucination.

    CONCLUSION: Different forms of discrimination are associated with PEs in the general population. As discrimination is common at the societal level, this highlights the importance of public policy and evidence-based interventions to reduce discrimination and improve population mental health.

  • 3010.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Santini, Ziggi Ivan
    University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu/CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Urinary incontinence, mental health and loneliness among community-dwelling older adults in Ireland.2017In: BMC Urology, ISSN 1471-2490, E-ISSN 1471-2490, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with worse health among older adults. Little is known however, about its relation with loneliness or the role of mental health in this association. This study examined these factors among older adults in Ireland.

    METHODS: Data were analyzed from 6903 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 50 collected in the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) in 2009-11. Information was obtained on the self-reported occurrence (yes/no) and severity (frequency/activity limitations) of UI in the past 12 months. Loneliness was measured using the UCLA Loneliness Scale short form. Information was also obtained on depression (CES-D), anxiety (HADS-A) and other sociodemographic variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between variables.

    RESULTS: In a model adjusted for all potential confounders except mental disorders, compared to no UI, any UI was associated with significantly higher odds for loneliness (odds ratio: 1.51). When depression was included in the analysis, the association was attenuated and became non-significant while the inclusion of anxiety had a much smaller effect. Similarly, although frequency of UI and activity limitations due to UI were both significantly associated with loneliness prior to adjustment for mental disorders, neither association remained significant after adjustment for both depression and anxiety.

    CONCLUSION: UI is associated with higher odds for loneliness among older community-dwelling adults but this association is largely explained by comorbid mental health problems, in particular, depression.

  • 3011.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Sheng Ng, C. F.
    Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Konishi, S.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Watanabe, C.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, 2001–20112017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 155, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has indicated that pollen might be linked to suicide mortality although the few studies that have been undertaken to date have produced conflicting findings and been limited to Western settings. This study examined the association between the level of airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, Japan in the period from 2001 to 2011. The daily number of suicide deaths was obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, with pollen data being obtained from the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. A time-stratified case-crossover study was performed to examine the association between different levels of pollen concentration and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 5185 male and 2332 female suicides in the pollen season (February to April). For men there was no association between airborne pollen and suicide mortality. For women, compared to when there was no airborne pollen, the same-day (lag 0) pollen level of 30 to <100 grains per cm2 was associated with an approximately 50% increase in the odds for suicide (e.g. 30 to <50 grains per cm2: odds ratio 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.076–2.303, p=0.020). The estimates remained fairly stable after adjusting for air pollutants and after varying the cut-points that defined the pollen levels. Our results indicate that pollen is associated with female suicide mortality in Tokyo.

  • 3012.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, T
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Z
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Oh, H
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    DeVylder, J E
    Fordham University, New York, NY, USA.
    Jacob, L
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France / CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Koyanagi, A
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Physical injury and psychotic experiences in 48 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences (PEs) may be associated with injuries, but studies focusing specifically on low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs) are scarce. Thus, the current study examined the link between injuries and PEs in a large number of LAMICs.

    METHOD: Cross-sectional data were used from 242 952 individuals in 48 LAMICs that were collected during the World Health Survey in 2002-2004 to examine the association between traffic-related and other (non-traffic-related) forms of injury and PEs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations while controlling for a variety of covariates including depression.

    RESULTS: In fully adjusted analyses, any injury [odds ratio (OR) 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-2.31], traffic injury (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.53-2.21) and other injury (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.84-2.37) were associated with higher odds for PEs. Results from a country-wise analysis showed that any injury was associated with significantly increased odds for PEs in 39 countries with the overall pooled OR estimated by meta-analysis being 2.46 (95% CI 2.22-2.74) with a moderate level of between-country heterogeneity (I2 = 56.3%). Similar results were observed across all country income levels (low, lower-middle and upper-middle).

    CONCLUSIONS: Different types of injury are associated with PEs in LAMICs. Improving mental health systems and trauma capacity in LAMICs may be important for preventing injury-related negative mental health outcomes.

  • 3013.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki
    National Medical Centre for Children and Mothers, Tokyo, Japan.
    Hashimoto, Keiji
    National Centre for Child Health and Development (NCCHD), Tokyo, Japan.
    Haraguchi, Hideyuki
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Miyake, Atsuko
    Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Morokuma, Seiichi
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Nitta, Hiroshi
    National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Oda, Masako
    Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
    Ohya, Yukihiro
    National Center for Child Health and Development (NCCHD), Tokyo, Japan.
    Senju, Ayako
    University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Yamagata, Takanori
    Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Assessment of Autistic Traits in Children Aged 2 to 4½ Years With the Preschool Version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-P): Findings from Japan2017In: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 852-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent development and use of autism measures for the general population has led to a growing body of evidence which suggests that autistic traits are distributed along a continuum. However, as most existing autism measures were designed for use in children older than age 4, to date, little is known about the autistic continuum in children younger than age 4. As autistic symptoms are evident in the first few years, to address this research gap, the current study tested the preschool version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-P) in children aged 2 to 4½ years in clinical (N = 74, average age 40 months, 26-51 months) and community settings (N = 357, average age 39 months, 25-50 months) in Japan. Using information obtained from different raters (mothers, other caregivers, and teachers) it was found that the scale demonstrated a good degree of internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability, and a satisfactory degree of convergent validity for the clinical sample when compared with scores from diagnostic "gold standard" autism measures. Receiver operating characteristic analyses and the group comparisons also showed that the SRS-P total score discriminated well between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those without ASD. Importantly, this scale could identify autistic symptoms or traits distributed continually across the child population at this age irrespective of the presence of an ASD diagnosis. These findings suggest that the SRS-P might be a sensitive instrument for case identification including subthreshold ASD, as well as a potentially useful research tool for exploring ASD endophenotypes. Autism Res 2016.

  • 3014.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Tachimori, Hisateru
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shinkai, Takahiro
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Yoshimura, Reiji
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Nakamura, Jun
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Morita, Gihei
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Nishii, Shigeki
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Tokutsu, Yuki
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Otsuka, Yuka
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Egashira, Kazuteru
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Inoue, Miyuki
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Kubo, Takamitsu
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Tesen, Hirofumi
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Takashima, Naoyuki
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Tominaga, Hirotaka
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients2018In: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, ISSN 1323-1316, E-ISSN 1440-1819, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 713-722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidal behavior in psychiatric outpatients and whether this association differs among patients with different psychiatric disorders.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional data came from the Japan Prevalence Study of Adult ADHD at Psychiatric Outpatient Care (the J-PAAP study) which included psychiatric outpatients aged 18-65 years recruited from one university hospital and three general psychiatric outpatient clinics in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan in April 2014 to January 2015 (N=864). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to collect information on ADHD symptoms. Reports of current and lifetime suicidal behavior were also obtained. A multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the association between ADHD symptoms and suicidal behavior.

    RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates there was a strong association between possible ADHD (ASRS ≥ 14) and suicidal behavior with prevalence ratios ranging from 1.17 (lifetime suicidal ideation) to 1.59 (lifetime suicide attempt) and 2.36 (current suicidal ideation). When ASRS strata were used, there was a dose-response association between increasing ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Analyses of individual ICD-10 psychiatric disorders showed that associations varied across disorders and that for anxiety disorder ADHD symptoms were significantly linked to all forms of suicidal behavior.

    CONCLUSION: ADHD symptom severity is associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior in general psychiatric outpatients. As ADHD symptoms are common among adult psychiatric outpatients, detecting and treating ADHD in this population may be important for preventing suicidal behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 3015.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Waldman, Kyle
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, NY, USA.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Jacob, Louis
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Psychotic experiences and accidents, injuries, and poisonings among adults in the United States2019In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 282, article id 112610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotic experiences (PEs) have been linked to an increased risk for accidents and injuries. However, this association remains little researched in many countries. To address this research gap, the current study used cross-sectional data from the United States to examine the association between PEs and accidents, injuries, and poisoning in a general population sample. Data were analyzed from 2274 individuals who completed the psychosis screen as part of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information was obtained on PEs (hallucinations and delusions) and the experience of past 12-month accidents, injuries, and poisoning. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association while adjusting for demographic variables and common mental disorders (CMDs). In a fully adjusted model past 12-month PEs were associated with almost three times higher odds for reporting accidents, injuries, and poisoning (odds ratio [OR]: 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-7.74). The results of this study indicate that PEs are associated with higher odds for accidents and injuries among adults in the United States. Research is now needed to determine the direction of this association and the factors linked to it.

  • 3016.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Waldman, Kyle
    Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Shirama, Aya
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Childhood physical neglect and psychotic experiences: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication2020In: Early Intervention in Psychiatry, ISSN 1751-7885, E-ISSN 1751-7893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Childhood adversities have been linked to an increased risk for psychosis. However, as yet, there has been comparatively little research on the effects of neglect. This study examined the association between childhood physical neglect and psychotic experiences (PEs) in a general population sample.

    METHODS: Data were analysed from 2308 individuals collected during the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information on lifetime PEs was collected with the WHO-CIDI Psychosis Screen. Respondents also reported on five forms of childhood neglect (went hungry, went without necessities, went unsupervised, lacked medical care, chores too difficult/dangerous). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations.

    RESULTS: In models adjusted for sociodemographic and psychiatric disorder variables, aggregated physical neglect scores (continuous/dichotomized) were associated with significantly increased odds for any lifetime PEs. All individual forms of neglect except went without necessities (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.50) were significantly associated with PEs with ORs ranging from 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08-1.51, went unsupervised) to 1.53 (95% CI: 1.19-1.97, went without medical care). In models that were further adjusted for co-occurring forms of neglect and childhood physical abuse, doing chores that were too difficult/dangerous continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for PEs (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.61).

    CONCLUSIONS: Childhood physical neglect is associated with significantly increased odds for PEs in the general population. Screening for childhood adversities and PEs among potential patients may be important for the early detection of individuals at high risk for psychosis, as well as for formulating comprehensive and effective treatment plans.

  • 3017.
    Stier, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Dobers, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Quadruple Helix Co-creation in SSH: Experiences, Considerations, Lessons Learned2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe 2020, the European Union’s ten-year growth strategy, aims at delivering smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The strategy sets targets in the areas of employment, research and development, climate change, education and poverty, and social exclusion for the coming decade. It is within this context that the Horizon 2020 scheme highlights impact, co-creation, and quadruple helix cooperation vehicles for innovation and in response to societal challenges. It is also here that the knowledge and research results of the social sciences and humanities (SSH) play a crucial role. At the same time, definitions and understanding of such concepts are ambiguous if not even contradictory, which makes it difficult to determine their applicability and effectiveness. This being said, there is a need for clearer definitions and viable and measurable valorisation processes to determine the value and outcomes of such processes. By the same token, there is a need to move beyond concepts and models into the actual work with these matters: to talk to the people from academia, government, industry and societal partners about their experiences with co-creation and the considerations these experiences have involved and the lessons that have been learned. To move beyond traditional and linear valorisation approaches (i.e. from academia to society), it is frequently claimed that quadruple helix actors need to be committed to and actively engaged in co-creation. Yet, due to its being boundary transgressive, co-creation is multifaceted and seldom naturally occurring. Also, collaboration and co-creation are often obstructed by differences in organisational culture, organisational logics and ideological disagreement among the actors involved. For all the reasons above, the ACCOMPLISSH consortium, made up of 14 universities from 12 countries (representing a range of SSH sub-disciplines), is engaged with a variety of quadruple helix partners from government, industry and society.

  • 3018.
    Stigbrand, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Professional Identity in Changing Media Landscapes: Journalism Education in Sweden, Russia, Poland, Estonia and Finland2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism programmes are popular; they are growing in number the world over despite an often insecure labour market. What do journalism students expect? How do they see their future as journalists? What kind of training is offered by the Academy?

    This report presents journalism education in five universities, in the Baltic Sea Region, from different perspectives: the teachers and the students’ goals in relation to wishes and needs of the sector and common challenges in changing media landscapes.

    The comparative project was financed by the Foundation of Baltic and Eastern European Studies in Sweden.

    Interviews with teachers, as well as the student survey, were made possible thanks to the collaboration with Maria Lukina, Moscow State University; Dominika Rafalska, University of Warsaw; Halliki Harro Loit, University of Tartu and Raimo Salokangas, University of Jyväskylä.

  • 3019.
    Stigfur, Sophie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Svenske, Arvid
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Framställningen av HBTQ-personer under november 2015 i tre jamaicanska dagstidningar: The Jamaica Observer, The Jamaica Star och The Jamaica Gleaner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har undersökt hur HBTQ-personer framställs i tre jamaicanska dagstidningar under november 2015. Vårt intresseområde rör huruvida de jamaicanska medierna kan tänkas bidra till samt upprätthålla den stigmatiserade roll som HBTQ-personer har på Jamaica i dag. Syftet med studien är att undersöka och belysa de mekanismer som medierna medvetet eller omedvetet använder sig av i sin beskrivning av utsatta minoritetsgrupper, och vilka uttryck detta tar sig.

    För att undersöka detta har vi analyserat hur HBTQ-personer framställs, med utgångspunkter i tidigare forskning och teori. Vi har huvudsakligen använt oss av Erving Goffmans teori om stigmatisering samt Leonor Camauer och Stig Arne Nohrstedts teori om mediernas strukturella diskriminering.

    Vårt material består av 31 nyhetsartiklar som samlats in under november månad 2015 från Jamaicas tre största dagstidningar; The Jamaica Gleaner, The Jamaica Observer och The Jamaica Star. Samtliga nyhetsartiklar som på något sätt berört HBTQ-frågor har analyserats med hjälp av kvantitativ innehållsanalys. Tolv artiklar har även valts ut och studerats mer ingående med hjälp av kvalitativ textanalys.

    Vårt resultat visar att HBTQ-personer huvudsakligen framställs som en kontroversiell grupp som särbehandlas av samhället. Resultatet är inte entydigt men visar på två huvudsakliga linjer, dels fall där medierna framställer HBTQ-personer som orättvist behandlade och dels fall där den negativa särbehandlingen istället framställs som befogad. I det senare fallet anser vi att HBTQ-personernas diskriminerade ställning understöds av medierna, vilket tyder på att de i viss mån kan sägas bidra till stigmatiseringen av HBTQ-personer på Jamaica.

  • 3020.
    Stjernudde, Christoffer
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ekonomiska nyheter och dess effekt på aktiemarknaden: En studie i hur nyheter av ekonomisk karaktär påverkar aktiesparare och i sin tur aktiemarknaden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Vilken effekt som publiceringar från media med dåliga ekonomiska tider har på aktiespararna på stockholmsbörsen samt undersöka om dessa nyheter påverkar aktiepriset på ett negativt eller positiv samt hur aktiesparare reagerar på ekonomiska indikationer samt om aktiespararens utbildningsnivå har någon effekt på om aktiespararen använder sig av media som beslutsunderlag i sin aktiehandel.

    Metod: Det är två undersökningar varav den ena är en kvantitativ enkätundersökning utan kvalitativa element. Den andra är ett stickprov på aktiekurser i samband med specifika artiklars publiceringsdatum.

    Slutsats: Utifrån de resultat som presenterats så går det att utläsa att aktiesparare sällan använder sig av media som beslutsunderlag när de handlar med aktier samt så finns inget negativt samband med de valda artiklarna och aktiekursen. Det fanns dock ett sammanband i det att aktiesparare med högra utbildning är mindre benägna att använda sig av media och dess indikationer som beslutsunderlag i deras handel med aktier.

    Fortsatt forskning: Det finns flera intressanta undersökningsfrågor kvar, bland annat så skulle undersökningen behövas göras på mer än ett område av media samt på flera olika områden av aktiemarknaden än dagligvaruhandeln. En annan intressant fråga är att enligt enkätundersökningen så är många aktiesparare högt utbildade inom ämnet men är fortfarande osäkra på deras effekt på aktiemarknaden när de handlar.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Ett försök till att undersöka om media skapar sina egna självuppfyllande profetior i samband med att de publicerar nyheter med en negativ vinkling på det kommande ekonomiska klimatet. Enligt undersökningen så har inga tidningsartiklar någon märkbar effekt på aktiekursen.

  • 3021.
    Stolperud, Sanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Olivia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ekologiskt köpbeteende: En studie om faktorer som påverkar generation Y i valet mellan ekologiska och icke-ekologiska livsmedel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problem: In a society where environmental issues are increasingly in focus, there are also discussions about actions that individuals can take to contribute to a more sustainable consumption, where increased consumption of organic goods is a way of contributing. Generation Y is today's young adults and will for many decades in the future affect the environment through their consumption. In order to influence generation Y to consume a greater amount of ecological goods, it has to be concluded why individuals within the generation choose to consume in a certain way. There are also reasons to focus on identifying generation Y:s consumer behavior and not just to focus on opinions and the individuals own words regarding their consumption.

     

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to identify factors that affect generation Y in their choice between organic and non-organic food purchases. By raising awareness about factors that affect the choice of organic food, the result of the study may be of interest to actors who wish to increase the organic consumption.

     

    Research question: What factors affect generation Y in the choice between organic and non-organic food purchases?

     

    Theoretical framework: The theoretical framework of the study is based on previous research on generation Y, as well as factors which, based on previous research, have been shown to have an impact on consumer purchasing decisions.

     

    Method: As a data collection method, two different types of observations were used together with semistructured interviews interpreted through a qualitative approach.

     

    Conclusion: The result led to the conclusion that the six factors affecting generation Y in the choice between organic and non-organic food purchases were price and economy, knowledge, habits and routines, attitudes, preferences and exposure. Researchers can, however, also draw the conclusion that there are difficulties in determining the extent to which the various factors affect the purchasing decision and how the different factors depend on each other. 

  • 3022.
    Stolt, Denise
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Does the Level of Gender Equality in National Parliament have an Impact on Economic Growth?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is clear that economic growth is achieved by a number of means depending on theoretical affiliation and also that growth rate varies across countries.

    The thesis investigates the relationship between economic growth and the proportion of representation by women in national parliament across countries. Women are discriminated at every level in the society based on gender and the thesis analyses the effects on production and growth, based on the fact that half of the population are not given equal opportunities to participate in economic activities. The study is performed through two cross-country regression analyses, divided by low- and high-income countries with secondary data. The variables included are: the proportion of seats represented by women, initial GDP/capita, FDI, level of education, population growth, and terms of trade and level of democracy. The variables are chosen in accordance to growth theories. The findings cannot isolate if a high proportion of female parliamentarians increase growth, but the result indicates that a more gender equal economy operate at a higher production level. Increased proportion of female representation in local parliament should according to theory, increase inclusive incentives and policies for women in the labour force and enrolment in higher education, thus increasing the average level of human capital. Previous studies support the result; gender equality is viewed as “smart economics”.

  • 3023.
    Storkaas, Adelina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    South African press and social sustainability projects: A qualitative study with journalists and people managing projects in the agriculture sector2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa is a country in transition with struggles and structures in society reflecting a past of colonialism and apartheid. The government has implemented new laws such as the Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment Act to achieve sustainable development and companies and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) have started projects to improve living conditions of previously disadvantaged persons.

    The purpose with the thesis is to bring understanding to how journalists and companies/ NGOs look at their roles in society and understand their relation to sustainable development projects and policies. Qualitative interviews with ten journalists from different newspapers and freelancers were conducted. Also nine representatives of seven companies and NGOs with projects concerning extreme poverty, inequality, social mobility, discrimination and social cohesion on farms were interviewed.

    Normative theories of the media and social responsibility theory were used to analyze the qualitative interviews. The study showed journalists’ and people working with projects’ views on government’s inability of tackling societies’ struggles alone and the requirement of private initiatives. Furthermore, the study showed the aim of spreading information about social sustainability projects differed among persons on both sides. Journalists highlighted the importance of news value, pleasing their readers and inform the public about good examples. Journalists expressed that companies, NGOs and government have also responsibilities to spread information. Some companies did not feel this responsibility however; they believed in word of mouth and did not approach the press or public about their social work. 

  • 3024.
    Strand, Adam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Edhborg, Kristoffer
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Upptäcka vinstmanipulering med Den Modifierade Jonesmodellen: En studie på Stockholmsbörsens Mid cap lista2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka ifall vinstmanipulering förekommer bland företagen på Nasdaq OMX Nordic samt att analysera ifall att VD-byte är kopplat till detta fenomen. Metod: Studien har använt sig av Den Modifierade Jonesmodellen som är en periodiseringsbaserad modell för vinstmanipulering. Undersökningen är en kvantitativ studie och har utgått från årsredovisningar mellan åren 2007-2011 från börsnoterade bolag på Stockholms Mid Cap lista, totalt 295 observationer. Fyra hypoteser blir statistiskt testade. Teori: Denna del tar upp flera teorier som är kopplade till uppsatsens undersökning, bland annat genom Agentteorin och Designad redovisning. Agentteorin grundar sig på att alla individer nyttomaximerar, vilket kan vara en förklaring till varför redovisningsmanipulering existerar. Designad redovisning används för att nå förutbestämda mål genom att välja rätt redovisningsteknik. Inom denna teori finns flera begrepp och de som tas upp i uppsatsen är: vinstutjämning, vinstmanipulering samt kreativ redovisning i form av Big Bath. Dessutom tas tre tidigare vetenskapliga studier upp som undersöker kopplingar mellan VD-byten och vinstmanipulering:

    Resultat: Studien finner 35 VD-byten och majoriteten av de diskretionära periodiseringarna är negativa. De fyra testerna finner inga statistiska skillnader.

    Slutsatser: Undersökningen ger en indikation på att vinstmanipulering förekommer. Det framkommer ingen signifikant skillnad mellan år då VD-byte genomförts och år då det inte skett något byte.

  • 3025.
    Strand, Viktor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Berneby, Alex
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hemligheterna bakom fonders prestation: Aktivitet och avgifters påverkan på den riskjusterade avkastningen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska fondmarknaden är ständigt växande, detta på grund av teknikutveckling och innovationer. Majoriteten av fonder på marknaden är aktivt förvaltade trots att indexfondernas popularitet har växt de senaste åren. Skillnaden mellan passivt och aktivt förvaltade fonder är att den första försöker spegla eller följa ett referensindex medan den andra aktivt försöker avvika från marknaden genom att riskanpassa, byta innehav eller göra frekventa transaktioner. De aktivt förvaltade fonderna har debatterats flitigt den senaste tiden och flera skandaler har förekommit.

    Syftet är att undersöka vilka aktivitetsmått, kostnad och risk som påverkar fondernas prestation i form av avkastning. Resultatet ska sedan kunna avgöra vilka mått som bör presenteras av fondbolag och användas avinvesterare för att göra rationella beslut på den svenska marknaden. För att besvara syftet och undersöka problematiken användes en kvantitativ ansats. Data samlades in för beräkning av Sharpekvot som ställdes mot Aktiv risk, Active share, Omsättningshastighet och Normanbelopp.

    Active share och Omsättningshastighet visade ett signifikant orsakssamband med Sharpekvot vilket innebär att en ökad aktivitet hos fonder genererar en högre prestation. Aktiv risk visade inte på något signifikant samband dock visade måttet en hög korrelation med Active share vilket betyder att de i stort sett säger samma sak. Det tyder på att även detta mått kan påverka den riskjusterade avkastningen. Kostnadsmåttet Normanbelopp påverkade inte avkastningen vilket visar på att fonder med högre avgifter inte behöver betyda en bättre prestation. Skillnaden i avkastning mellan aktiv och passiv förvaltning gav olika resultat. Fonderna delades in i två kategorier; Sverigefonder och Sverigefonder små-/medelstora bolag. I den första kategorin visade genomsnittet av de aktivt förvaltade fonderna en högre avkastning. I den andra jämfördes fonderna mot sitt referensindex där det var tydligt att genomsnittet inte slog index.

  • 3026.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Citizenship Education: Ideology or System? A Critical View on Civic Educational Policy Thinking2019In: Handbook of Research on Education for Participative Citizenship and Global Prosperity / [ed] José A. Pineda-Alfonso, Nicolás De Alba-Fernández & Elisa Navarro-Medina, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2019, p. 431-446Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to investigate salient approaches to citizenship and civic-normative educationin liberal democratic life. The chapter argues that core technocratic assumptions about clarity,linearity, and predictability feeding into civic-educational deployment and change warrant critical attention.The chapter aims to shed new light on states’ instinct to regard themselves and their value setsas seamless conceptual wholes. A range of ramifications of this typical approach are interrogated, inprinciple as well as in relation to Swedish civic-educational matrices. The chapter refines a heuristicmodel for unpacking citizenship and civic-normative education thinking in liberal democracy originallypresented in an earlier work by the author. It is concluded that even as the enormous policy efforts thatgo into organizing and revamping public civic-normative education in response to new societal challengeshave little chance of meeting governments’ intentions; they may still be important since they areexerted in highly visible public spaces and domains.

  • 3027.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Civic Education and Liberal Democracy: Making Post-Normative Citizens in Normative Political Spaces2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book explores the inherent tension in civic education. There is a surging belief in contemporary European society that liberal democracy should work harder to reproduce the civic and normative setups of national populations through public education. The cardinal notion is that education remains the best means to accomplish this end, and educational regimes appropriate tools to make the young more tolerant, civic, democratic, communal, cosmopolitan, and prone to engaged activism. This book is concerned with the ambiguities that strain standard visions of civic education and educational statehood. On the one hand, civic-normative education is expected to drive tolerance in the face of conflicting good-life affirmations and accelerating worldview pluralisation; on the other hand, nation-states are primarily interested in reproducing the normative prerogatives that prevail in restricted cultural environments. This means that civic education unfolds on two irreconcilable planes at once: one cosmopolitan/tolerant, another parochial/intolerant. The book will be of significant interest to students and scholars of education, sociology, normative statehood, democracy, and liberal political culture, particularly those working in the areas of civic education; as well as education policy-makers.

  • 3028.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Disciplinarity and normative education2018In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 254-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on recent interdisciplinary, multidimensional research on civic and religious education in northern Europe, this article explores disciplinary epistemological economies in an era of mounting discontent with the narrowness of mono-disciplinary analyses of complex social and educational issues. It is argued in the article that under conditions of sufficient world complexity, interdisciplinarity provides for a more cogent scholarly approach to educational structures and phenomena than either of the logics of mono-, multi- and transdisciplinarity—the main extant alternatives. It is shown in both conceptual and empirical terms that these alternatives cannot accommodate social and educational diversity, complexity and sprawl other than thinly, hence should mainly be endorsed by universities and research funders for other than epistemological reasons or when there is agreement that the object subjected to analysis is correspondingly thin and isolated. As education in and of itself is a remarkably complex social phenomenon and field of study, it is concluded that interdisciplinary environments may typically be expected to provide a stronger potential for assessing and understanding it.

  • 3029.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Epistocracy and Democratic Participation in a Post-Truth World2018In: Democratic Theory, ISSN 2332-8894, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates civic-political and cognitive participation as they play out in democratic theory. Its core purpose is to develop a conceptual-normative critique of the presupposition in liberal democratic theory that these logics are mutually reinforcing and complementary. This misunderstanding of a theoretical ambivalence contributes to inhibiting constructive assessment of epistocratic*technocratic frameworks of democratic interpretation and theory. I demonstrate that these logics circulate contrasting views of democratic power and legitimacy and should be disentangled to make sense of liberal democratic theoretical and political spaces. This critique is then fed into a political-epistemological interrogation of post-truth and alt-facts rhetorical registers in contemporary liberal democratic life, concluding that neither logic of participation can harbor this unanticipated and fundamentally nonaligned way of doing liberal democratic democracy.

  • 3030.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Fair and cloudy weathers of tolerance in civic and religious education in northern Europe2015In: Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, ISSN 1746-1979, E-ISSN 1746-1987, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 3-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the normative logic and orientation of civic and religious education in seven countries in northern Europe. One main underlying argument is that public schooling must be generically regarded as a heavy functional contributor to the ‘soft’ normative reproduction and validation of certain ethical and cultural identities. In the article, the rhetorical goals of neutralism and tolerance in current European political–educational thought are measured against empirical modes and practices of education. A parochialism–cosmopolitanism conceptual dichotomy is constructed and used as a main analytical guide, which allows for a number of critical conclusions to be made on the production of normative statehood through education in contemporary ‘post-normative’ Europe. The ultimate ambition of the text is thus to contribute to shedding new light on the interpretation and enactment of value diversity in these seven educational settings and interculturalising societies. © The Author(s) 2014

  • 3031.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Iain M. Banks tio romaner om The CultureConsider Phlebas, The Player of Games, Use of Weapons, The State of the Art, Excession, Inversions, Look to Windward, ­Matter, Surface Detail och The Hydrogen Sonata2017In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 119, no 4, p. 820-822Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3032.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Introduction: On crossings and crosses2015In: Crossings and crosses: Borders, religions, and educations in northern Europe / [ed] Berglund, Lundén, Strandbrink, Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2015, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3033.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Kunskapspolitik2016In: Politisk teori / [ed] Beckman, Ludvig & Mörkenstam, Ulf, Stockholm: Liber, 2016, 2 utök., p. 310-326Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3034.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Nio politiska begrepp: ideologi, språk och begreppsanalys2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begrepp är centrala i allt politiskt tänkande och handlande: begrepp formar politiska program och dagordningar, men också maktförhållanden och världsbilder. Det går inte att förstå en politisk idéströmning om man inte tar hänsyn till de uttolkningar av begrepp som individgemenskapautonomi eller kultur som strömningen omfattar – men uttolkningarna skiftar från en ideologisk tradition till en annan.

    I denna bok utvecklas en modell för att förstå politisk-normativ begrepps­­bildning och här analyseras nio av de mest framträdande politiska begreppen. I anslutning till analysen diskuteras också villkoren för god kunskapsbildning i en tid som präglas av post-sanning, val­manipulation, sociala mediebubblor, elitförakt och politisk kunskaps­resistens. I ett utförligt appendix presenteras slutligen ett antal centrala västerländska ideologiska traditioner på ett överskådligt vis.

  • 3035.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Nostalgia and shrinkage: Philosophy and culture under post-postmodern conditions2018In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 50, no 14, p. 1407-1408Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3036.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Stangneth, Bettina, 2014. Eichmann before Jerusalem. The unexamined life of a mass murderer. London, Penguin Random House.2017In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 630-632Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3037.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    The Asymmetrical Appropriation of Culture in Politics2018In: Journal of Conflict and Integration, ISSN 2586-0836, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 8-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article hinges on the notion that the location of the term ‘culture’ in political discourse and debate remains under-theorised, particularly regarding its covariation with political recognition. It is shown that arguments for culturally motivated justice, recognition, or redress of past wrongs may be expected only by marginalised groups, not by states or other powerful political agents –since these are not framed as cultural in the first place. This suggests that to become more powerful in modern politics one normally must become less cultural. The article ultimately aims to unpack this implicit logic of modern liberal democratic reasoning on culture.

  • 3038.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    There is No Sacrum in it Any More: Revisiting Formalist Statehood and Religious/Civic Education on Baltic-Barents Borders2013In: Religion, State and Society, ISSN 0963-7494, E-ISSN 1465-3974, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 394-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even under globalised and hyper-diverse cultural and social conditions, representative liberal democracy conceives of itself as non-involved in issues to do with ethics, faith and belief. Drawing on a formalist systemic state identity it advocates a neutralist, secularist, generalist and non-biased approach to education in state schools. Building on a current research project on religious/civic education in the Baltic-Barents area, this article argues that this self-image is flawed and that representative liberal democracy cannot avoid being ethically biased. There is thus, the article argues, a need to better frame our understanding of different modes of religious/civic education as well as the logic of ethical neutralism characteristic of contemporary democratic statehood. © 2013 © Taylor & Francis.

  • 3039.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Unpacking postnormativity in religious and civic education: Coming to an early end?2015In: Crossings and crosses: Borders, educations, and religions in northern Europe / [ed] Berglund, Lundén, Strandbrink, Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2015, p. 155-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3040.
    Strandbrink, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Är rationell politisk styrning ens möjlig?: En snabbkritik av teknokratisk politisk filosofi2016In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 10-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I modernt tänkande om staten finns en framträdande idé om att korrekt kunskap om politiska frågor och omständigheter bör vara vägledande för hur stater agerar och organiserar sig. Denna politiska epistemologi skyggar inför tanken att staters maktutövning och allmänna orientering skulle vara mer irrationell än rationell; vilket framträder klart i både Platons och den tidiga upplysningsfilosofins statsteori. Slutpunkten för resonemanget är att normativ bearbetning av politiska problem inte kan vara mer än ett korrelat till beslut som fattas på sakligt kvalificerade grunder.

    I denna text visas hur den rationalistiska politiska epistemologin bygger på radikalt felaktiga föreställningar om förhållandet mellan specialistkunskap om olika samhällssektorer och insikter och utsagor om politikens allmänna område. Bidraget avslutas med en översiktlig bedömning av Sveriges, respektive EU:s, grad av överensstämmelse med det teknokratiska styrideal som springer ur rationalismens politiska epistemologi.

  • 3041.
    Strandh, Joakim
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Affärsarkitekter som intermediärer: En studie om intermediärens funktion och förtroendeskapande2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:                          

    Syftet är att analysera intermediärens funktion i en svensk kontext för att öka kunskapen kring vilka roller en intermediär kan tillskrivas och varför de existerar. Syftet är vidare att analysera huruvida ett förtroende gentemot intermediären förelåg och vad detta förtroende baserades på. Detta för att skapa ett bidrag till befintlig forskning och öka kunskapen kring förtroendeskapande gentemot intermediärer.  

     

    Metod:

    Fallstudie av Stiftelsen Flemingsberg Science och dess projekt Kraftcentrum Flemingsberg. Semi-strukturerade intervjuer med respondenter vilka varit involverade i projekt drivna av Kraftcentrum Flemingsberg.

     

    Teori

    Transaktionskostnadsteori, strukturella hål, kunskapsöverföring, medling och förtroende.      

                              

    Slutsatser                 

    Intermediärerna fyllde en funktion utöver de traditionella ”brokering” och ”knowledge brokering” funktionerna genom att de även fungerade som operativa projektledare och stöd. Förtroende existerade i ett tidigt stadie och baserades på intermediärens kompetens och meriter.  Vidare baserades förtroendet även på organisationen vilken intermediären representerade och förmedlades genom, där organisationens finansiär och syfte även var betydelsefullt. 

  • 3042.
    Stringberg, Frida
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Does financial sector development have an effect on economic growth?: A study of sub-saharan africa2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the financial sector in helping an economy grow has been the subject of debate for a long time. Recently, however, consensus has been reached, through empirical evidence, showing the importance of financial sector development in achieving economic growth (ADB, 2009). Using the Global Financial Development Database (GFDD) model, the study done here will provide an analysis of financial sector development in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effect on economic growth, using data for 40 countries, in the years from 2000-2014. This analysis was done using a cross-sectional regression analysis of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with data provided from the World Bank. The regression shows significantly positive results between economic growth and firms using banks to finance investments, bank cost to income ratio and bank credit to bank deposits, while significantly negative results are shown in financial system deposits and stock market total value traded. However, seeing as financial sector development is diverse and dynamic, these measurements and the regression done here will not provide a comprehensive picture of the state of financial sector development in SSA.

  • 3043.
    Ström, Amanda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ekonomisk tillväxt, frihet och institutioner: En tvärsnittsanalys av frihetsnivå och dess påverkan på BNP2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad som driver ekonomisk tillväxt och vilka faktorer som påverkar den är en av de äldsta och största frågorna inom nationalekonomi.Tidiga tillväxtteorier har visat sig bristfälliga i sin förklaring till vad som egentligen skapar ekonomisk tillväxt och varför endast vissa länder uppnår ekonomisk tillväxt. Majoriteten av tidigare forskning har fokuserat på samband mellan ekonomisk tillväxt och demokrati vilket ofta inte har visat något övertygande resultat och därför har forskare riktat sig mot teorier om institutionell påverkan för att söka efter andra påverkansfaktorer. Denna uppsats undersöker det finns någon relation mellan ekonomisk tillväxt och ökad frihet i termer av ekonomisk frihet, politisk frihet och andra sammanvägda institutionella faktorer.

  • 3044.
    Ström, Freja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Zimmermann, Alexandra
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Utveckling av den personliga yrkesidentiteten för individer inom ett etablerat företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The brand, as a phenomenon, has developed over time and has taken different forms. Previously, brands have mainly been associated with companies, but that has now changed. The development of the communications channels, mainly social media, has resulted in that every individual and every company have the opportunity to constantly stay visible. The development has contributed to the brand taking a new form: the personal brand. Many individuals are working in a company with an already established brand, but similar to a self-employed person the individuals need to differentiate themselves from both external and internal competition to get the customers to come to them personally. We mainly find this category in the service sector where hairdressers, personal trainers, masseuses and real estate brokers are included. Individuals need to develop a strong personal brand to attract customers, or it might be a risk that the customers choose the co-workers or an external competitor, and the individual will be left without customers and might even completely be without emolument. This study therefore seeks to examine how individuals in companies, with already established brands, develop their professional identity through branding and through a selection of communications channels. In order to examine the category of individuals described above, we use real estate brokers as an example of this phenomenon. This study is based on a qualitative research approach with a selection from six different real estate brokers in Stockholm who work in three bigger companies with well-known brands. The method used in this study is semi-structured interviews consisting of five main questions with additional sub questions based on the theory chapter. The conclusion shows that real estate brokers develop their professional identity by working with their personal brand and communicate the brand through the right channels. This study also shows that the best suited channels to communicate the personal brand is social media and direct advertising. It is also important to make yourself recognized and create relationships to the customers in the neighborhood where the real estate brokers are working. However, the personal branding for the individual real estate broker need to align with the corporate brand in order not to confuse the customers.

  • 3045.
    Strömberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Norberg, Mikaela
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Synen på psykisk ohälsa i en mansdominerad organisation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine the view of mental illness is in a male dominated organization and what strategies are used to handle mental illness by the organization and the individual. We conduct semi structured qualitative interviews with persons who have in some way been in contact with mental illness within the organisation, we then encode our material from a themed analysis. We analyze the material and illustrate our problem area on the basis of Erving Goffmans theories of interaction and on R.W. Connells theory of hegemonic masculinity. We also show how previous studies of how men seek help for mental illness can help to enlighten our research area. Our survey shows that the general idea of how men talks about mental illness is not quite accurate and the way men speak about the subject is contextual. The survey also shows that the organization’s and the individual’s way of dealing with mental illness differs. Also in this area it appears that the strategies are contextually bound. The themes that are used in the survey are: The view of mental illness, Strategies to handle mental illness and unity. Finally, we conclude that the view on mental illness and how you handle it is highly individual, but there are tendencies that show that the surrounding work environment has an effect on it.

  • 3046.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jungar, Ann-Cathrine
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Dahlberg, Stefan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sweden: No Longer a European Exception2016In: Populist Political Communication in Europe / [ed] Toril Aalberg, Frank Esser, Carsten Reinemann, Jesper Strömbäck & Claes de Vreese., New York: Routledge, 2016, p. 68-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3047.
    Strömbäck, Joakim
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Våldsbejakande extremism i Stockholms söderort: En kvalitativ studie om kommunalt preventionsarbete i anknytning till våldsbejakande extremism.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper aims to examine how local boroughs in the South suburbs of Stockholm work with matters relating to radicalism and violent extremism with roots in white power environments and Islam. The paper will look at the different challenges faced by the local Boroughs in tackling the problems in the future.

    The empirical material that forms the basis of this paper have been collected through semi structured interviews with local coordinators employed by three different boroughs within the South suburbs of Stockholm.

    The theoretical framework of the study is formed by a typological model that comprises different kinds of crime prevention exercises with backgrounds in superordinate values. The empirical material has been analyzed in relation to crime prevention as a societal phenomenon depending on what preventive method has been given the timely aspect related to primary, secondary or tertiary prevention.

    Results show that radicalism and violent extremism are phenomenon with substantial complexity, according to all participating coordinators, white power environments tend to be significantly more violent in their behaviour and serves as the primary local threat whereas activities relating to radical Islam is more limited. The coordinators speak about the necessity to work for an inclusive society rather than controlling which risks stigmatizing the individuals who could be considered in an already weak and resource scarce situations.

    The study show that the boroughs dominant prevention mechanisms are formed of structural and socialization prevention methods rather than effective reduction and/or controlling prevention. 

  • 3048.
    Styf- Lundqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Yllequist, Stina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    "Hälsohets": En diskursanalytisk studie om hur samspelet mellan normer, makt och media kan förstås ur ett Foucauldianskt maktperspektiv2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose ofthis essay is to examine the norms of health and unhealthinesst hat is conveyed in newspaper articles during the year 2012 and then connect them to a power perspective from Foucault's thoughts on governmentality. The intention is to see how norms and power interact and to explore how to understand “hälsohets” (the almost obsessive focus on health, similar to “bodyism”) from a power perspective. The method we use is discourse analysis.The results show many powerful norms such as; health is assessed by body appearance, body appearance is connected to character features and there is pressure to be healthy. Italso turns out that “hälsohets” is spread by managers and employers who themselves are training like elite athletes. Based on Foucault's power analysis, we can deduce that the majority of people in the articles feel controlled by their employers to be healthy. Others are guided by norms and discourses, even if they themselves are not aware of it. There are also examples showing that the employers do not control its employees deliberately to discipline them, they are rather unaware of the norms and discourses that prevail. Employers follows these norms either unreflective or because they do what they think is right. Therefore one can not understand the "hälsohets" as simply a result of governmentality. Governmentality is a conscious exercise of power and "hälsohets" appears to be based both conscious and unconscious actions. The discussion highlights the role of the media in terms of creation and upliftment of "hälsohets" to a societal problem. Our conclusion is that “hälsohets” is an ongoing of the Civilizing Process.

  • 3049.
    Styffe, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Jansson, Marina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Storbankers val av marknadsstrategi2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Redogöra för eventuellt användbara teorier då vi undersöker varför Handelsbanken samt Swedbank har valt att marknadsföra sig som de gör.

    Metod: För att uppnå vårt syfte har vi valt att ha en kvalitativ utgångspunkt i vår uppsats. Primärdata har samlats in genom personliga intervjuer med anställda på både handelsbanken samt Swedbank. Sekundärdata har samlats in från litteratur och vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Teoretisk referensram: Den teoretiska referensramen har byggts upp kring relevanta teorier och modeller som har anknytning till profilering av marknadsföringsstrategier.

    Empiri: Primärdata har samlats in genom personliga intervjuer med kontorschefer på handelsbanken och ansvarig personal för marknadsföringsavdelningen i Swedbank, alla intervjuer har genomförts i Stockholm.

    Resultat: Det resultat som har nåtts efter att uppsatsen har avslutats är att Handelsbanken marknadsför sig lokalt samt att Swedbank marknadsför sig genom stora kommunikationskanaler för att nå ut till alla konsumenter.

  • 3050.
    Ståhl, Julia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Jönsson, Phoebe
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ekonomiska sanktioner mot Iran: En undersökning av oljebranschens aktiemarknad efter hävda sanktioner mot Iran2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As decided by the FN and UN, a set of sanctions against Iran’s nuclear development and human rights infringements have successively been implemented during the course of several decades, severely affecting the country’s trade and overall development. The industries most affected by these restrictions include the oil- and gas industries. The sanctions were removed on January 16th 2016, once more giving Iran the opportunity to trade freely with other countries.

    This quantitative event study uses data from the Iranian and American stock markets to examine whether there is a statistical significant change in the revenue of 30 oil companies from the two countries during a period of ten days surrounding January 16th. The result is then analysed using a t-test. The study shows that there is a statistically significant change in revenue for the Iranian oil companies, but not for the American. This is explained using the Efficient Market Hypothesis, previous research and external factors affecting the revenues of the companies and the overall movements of the stock market. 

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