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  • 2551.
    Åstenius Näslund, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kavianfard, Raheleh
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Verksamhetsstyrning på vårdcentraler: Hur nyckeltal används2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att jämföra tre vårdcentraler i Stockholms läns landsting med avseende på hur de arbetar med nyckeltal i sin verksamhetsstyrning.

    Uppsatsen är utförd genom en flerfallsstudie och är baserad på både primär- och sekundärdata. Underlaget till studien har samlats in genom tre intervjuer med antingen verksamhetschef eller ekonomichef på respektive vårdcentral. Våra sekundärdata innefattar artiklar, elektroniska och tryckta källor. 

    För att kunna besvara uppsatsens syfte och frågeställningar samt för att kunna bearbeta våra empiriska data har vi valt några teorier och modeller. Modellerna berör styrprocesser och verksamhetsstyrning medan teorierna bemöter fenomenet nyckeltal. Dessa modeller och teorier har sammankopplats till vår empiri som ligger till grund för vår analys.

    I analysen får utvalda teorier och sekundärdata möta empirisk data i form av intervjuer. Jämförelser görs med respondenternas svar samt med uppsatsens angivna teorier och modeller. Vår avsikt var att utgå från primärdata med teorihänvisningar, med syfte att se om vi har fått svar på frågeställningarna.

    Mål- och resultatstyrning är den typ av styrning som används på vårdcentralerna i vår studie. De använder sig av nyckeltal i sin verksamhet för att exempelvis mäta och öka sin effektivitet och produktivitet. Med hjälp av nyckeltal utför de uppföljningar och jämförelser i sina verksamheter. Nyckeltalsanvändning är beroende på typen av verksamheten.

  • 2552.
    Åström, Agnes
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Rutberg, Helena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Open innovation in large organizations: A multicase analysis of multinational Swedish companies2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes open innovation in large multinational organizations. The study has been applied to four organizations to examine how they work with open innovation in innovation networks.

    The purpose of this study is to render a knowledge inventory on experiences of an open innovation approach, with an emphasis on innovation networks, among product developing enterprises within different branches.

    The theoretical part and empirical outcomes of the study touch upon models and methods of using open innovation. The three main theoretical models are innovation networks, partnering and ecosystems. The study is a multicase analysis which builds on the experiences of four large anonymous organizations within different branches and fields. The experience-based knowledge of this essay is drawing on material from semi-structured interviews with twelve anonymous respondents, two from each organization.

    The conclusions of this study show that one of the most important parts in innovation cooperation is to be able to harness relationships because relations are quintessential in an open cooperation for either the success or failure of said cooperation. All organizations have differences and there exists no original blueprint in exactly how a company should work with innovation as they must adapt the open innovation strategy to the companies’ needs and organization culture. The study has found eight concrete points in how companies’ can succeed with open innovation cooperation.

  • 2553.
    Åström, Moa
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Westberg, Julia
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Satsningar på samhällsansvar: Ett långsiktigt arbete startar idag2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Conditions for companies are constantly changing. At the same time customers and employees have taken on new significant roles in how companies are designed and what values they strive towards. Companies are expected to assume an active social responsibility, but thus far investments have been too short-term and have not delivered results in economic terms. For this reason social responsibility should be seen through a long-term perspective and be firmly established in the business idea.

    Problem: Which factors are important for companies to be able to incorporate a long-term social responsibility into their business idea?

    Purpose: To analyze and evaluate the connection between internal strategies and the consensus between management and employees regarding social responsibility.

    Method: The thesis is based on a qualitative survey and a deductive approach. A strategic selection was made in the choice of companies and informants.

    Theories: Relevant theories in this paper are Corporate Social Responsibility, Business Idea, Development of Knowledge, Communication, Value Adding and Involvement.

    Empiric: The empirics consist of primary data collected through depth interviews with the selected companies.

    Result and Conclusion: Our conclusion is that IKEA's internal strategies are flawed, and consequentially there is a lack of consensus between management and employees. With Nudie there were well-formulated internal strategies and also a high degree of consensus. The strategies that lay the foundation for consensus are development of knowledge, two-way communication, highly involved employees and the company's use of process control to monitor changes in the surrounding world.

  • 2554.
    Åström, Petter
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Cash crops vs food crops: A case study of household's crop choices in Babati District2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to earlier research farmer's crop orientation in developing countries mainly depends on farm size, large-scale farmers prefer cash crop while small-scale farmers prefer subsistence crops. The first aim of this study is to see if this hypothesis can be applied on six households in Babati District in rural Tanzania. The second aim is to investigate if other factors than farm size affect crop portfolio choice and the final aim is to see if those crop portfolio models can be improved. A case-study research design and qualitative interviews are used. The primary data is based on a fieldwork that took place from the 18th of February until the 7th of March 2009 in the study area.

    From a theoretical perspective the underlying assumptions of the Marcel Fafchamp's model Crop portfolio choice under multivariate risks is discussed in connection to the result of the study.

    Interviews were made with six households of different farm size. The result of the study indicates that both small-scale and large-scale farmers are using cash crops. The fact that all crops can be used for selling, gives also small-scale farmers in season with higher prices, an opportunity to sell a large share of their crops. It's thereby not possible to state that large-scale farmers devote a larger share of their land for cash crop than small-scale farmers do.

     

  • 2555.
    Öberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Özmen, Izla
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Anställdas motivation till rörlighet på ett industriföretag: en fallstudie på Sandvik SMC2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetskraftens rörlighet är ett centralt begrepp för ett lands ekonomiska utveckling. I Sverige kan man se en stark utvecklingsinriktning mot ökad rörlighet i arbetslivet. Syftet med denna uppsats var att göra en fördjupad studie för att undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkar de anställdas rörlighet på Sandvik SMC i Stockholm. För att genomföra undersökningen använde sig författarna av en fallstudie och kvantitativ undersökningsmetod i form av en enkätundersökning. Uppsatsen utgick från en deduktiv ansats då enkäten och resultatet utformades och tolkades utifrån vald referensram. Referensramen bestod av teorier kring motivation och tidigare forskning angående rörlighet. Resultatet och slutsatsen från studien påvisade att detta företag hade en trögrörlig personal, vilket bl.a. kan bero på de anställdas relativt höga ålder, utbildningsnivå etc. De faktorer som skulle kunna få de anställda att byta arbetsgivare visade sig vara lön, stimulerande arbetsuppgifter, eget ansvar för arbetssituationen och genomförandet, möjligheter till personlig utveckling samt varierande och självständiga arbetsuppgifter.

  • 2556.
    Öberg, Irina
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Smirnova, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Etableringsmöjligheter på den ryska livsmedelsmarknaden2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionellt isolerad från internationella marknader har Ryssland under de senaste femton åren genomgått stora förändringar, vilket ledde till landets ökade deltagande i världsekonomi och som resultat till större intresse från utländska aktörer. Detaljhandelsbranschen är en av de mest attraktiva sfärer för utländska investeringar och då inte minst när det gäller livsmedelsförsäljningen. Innan företag bestämmer sig att gå in på en marknad måste de genomföra en utförlig marknadsanalys för att se om det finns potential för ytterligare etableringar inom branschen. Syftet med detta arbete är därför att undersöka om det finns etableringsmöjligheter för utländska etablerare på den ryska livsmedelsmarknaden. Fokus läggs främst på att genomföra en branschanalys genom att titta på branschutvecklingen, konkurrenssituationen samt eventuella inträdeshinder. Undersökningen begränsas till Sankt Petersburgsregionen.

    Undersökningen har visat att det råder goda ekonomiska samt branschförutsättningar på den ryska livsmedelsmarknaden. Befolkningens välståndsökning, starkare köpkraft och minskad inflation tyder på ökad ekonomisk stabilitet. Branschen befinner sig fortfarande i tillväxtstadium. För detta talar det faktum att konkurrenssituationen inte är väldigt intensiv då det finns ett fåtal ledande aktörer som är ganska differentierade sinsemellan samt ökande efterfrågan på konsumtionsvaror. Därför kan man konstatera att det finns utrymme för fler etableringar inom denna bransch. Dock bör man uppmärksamma att inom snar framtid kommer konkurrenssituationen att intensifieras vilket kan försvåra en framgångsrik etablering.

    Ett visst antal svårigheter vid utlandsetableringen har likaså uppmärksammats under undersökningsgång. Det största är att de inhemska företag har funnits på marknaden i flera år och har redan en väletablerad verksamhet när det gäller marknadskunskap, etablerade relationer med kunder och leverantörer samt tillgång till gynnsamma lokaler. För att övervinna dessa etableringshinder krävs det lång tid och omfattande investeringar. Dessa etableringshinder kan dock övervinnas under förutsättning att potentiella utländska etablerare innehar speciella fördelar i form av t.ex. differentierad produkt eller service, erfarenheter av internationellt företagande samt stora kapitalresurser.

  • 2557.
    Öberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Granséll, Moa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Jämförbarhet i hållbarhetsredovisning: En studie om jämförbarhet i redovisningen av miljömässig påverkan hos svenska industriföretag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important objectives with accounting is that the information is comparable, both from one year to another and also between companies. This enables stakeholders to make rational decisions. Today, the law requires all large companies to report sustainability data but the requirements are flexible which makes it hard to compare data. To develop sustainability reporting guidelines, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) was established in 1997. One of GRI’s principles to achieve high quality sustainability reporting is comparability. The aim of this study is to examine whether swedish industry companies’ reporting of their environmental impact is comparable from one year to another and between companies according to GRI’s principle of comparability.

    To examine this, an analytical model has been developed using previous research. According to this model there are four factors that affect the comparability of sustainability reports - the guidelines used, the reported indicators, the units of measurements, and absolute and relative numbers. The study was based on the stakeholder theory, which says that all stakeholder should be treated equally and that the managements should look to the best interest of the stakeholders. A content analysis of sustainability reports of seven companies over three years was made and the reports was encoded using a coding scheme and a coding manual that had been developed based on the analytical model.

    The data analysis showed that the sustainability reports partially is comparable from one year to another. The companies report the same indicators and with the same units of measurements from one year to another to a great extent, but often the reports lack relative number that describe the change from the previous year. The comparability between companies is slightly lower because the indicators reported and especially the units of measurements used vary.  

  • 2558.
    Ögren, Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Kuo, Yuan-Li
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Revisorers syn på analysmodellen: En jämförelse mellan små och stora revisionsbyråer2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 2559.
    Öhlund, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Thorsell, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Iögonfallande layout & känsloväckande stimuli: En studie om modebutikers fysiska upplägg och dess påverkan på konsumentbeteende och köpbeslut, ur ett företagsperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe and to give greater understanding of how selected companies in the fashion industry works with the physical layout of stores, including the use of atmosphere, sensory stimuli and visual merchandising. Also what impact the layout can have on consumers buying process and the perception of the brand. Six interviews with different companies gave qualitative data that was analyzed together and against each other, based on the theoretical framework of the study. The result shows that the selected companies do not plan the layout based on theories of consumer behavior or sensory marketing. Instead the layout is planned based on the brand and the positioning the company works for, which differentiates itself based on what company it is. To convey a feeling and to give an overall impression of the brand with the help of layout is important, and it is based on how the companies want the brand to be perceived. This then affects the buying process because it determines if the customers choses to consume in the store or not. A successful planning of the layout, for the companies in the study, is therefore not based on how well it matches with recent research in the field, but how well it is matched based on the brand only.

  • 2560.
    Öhlén, Mattias
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Herold, Christian
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Goodwill: Tillgång eller belastning?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leverage buyout’s is an opportunity for companies, who can strengthen its market position by expanding its operations, and it add’s value to the company. At every LBO, copmanies make different values of the target company to finally come upp to a final bid. The final bid may in many cases be made of a surplus value, which is the differens between the value of the net-assets and the final bid. This we call goodwill and it has been a target in many discussions. Goodwill is valued by a subjective judgment about how much you think the comapny will be able to generate in future synergies by a purchase of the target company. Today, there is no limit on how much goodwill company may disclose, which makes goodwill affect business in a more cunstructive way.

    Problem: "How much of a company's total assets consist of goodwill, and how will the company be affected if you take away the goodwill as an asset"?

    Purpose: The study aims to provide insight and understanding of goodwill. From different perspectives goodwill will be studied and described, about how this intangible asset affects companies.

    Method: A comparative study has been carried out, where only written sources, secondary data have been used. A quantitative method has been chosen. The study aims to study and analyze the accounts from 15 different annual reports from 2007, and five of these more detailed. It’s the information from the annual reports that are the backbone of the study.

    Conclusions: Risk measure, goodwill/equity, we believe show when a company should, write down the goodwill or increase equity. All the company's solvency affected dramatically when goodwill is eliminated, the majority of buisnesses lands on a negative equity ratio, which among other things makes outside founding diffucult. If campanies want the shareholders well and make accurate downs, even if it affect the outcome, a higher return on equity is a more legitimate measure and preferred.

  • 2561.
    Öhman, Erika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Toll, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Love me tänder: En studie om offentliga och privata företags kundrelationer med exempel från tandvården2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 1990’s more and more companies of the Swedish public sector were exposed to competition, and this started the debate on how such actions might affect the business and even society.

    The first chapter examines how the public sector and especially health care, is financed and managed. We also explore what it means to be exposed to competition and find that there are many different ways of exposing the public sector to competition. The study examines dental care as an example of a market with both publicly and privately owned companies. The purpose of this paper is to explore how publicly and privately owned health care companies view their relationship with their consumers. The question that this paper seeks to answer is: "Are there any differences between publicly and privately owned dental care companies in how they communicate with their consumers?"

    Communication in this study refers to planned communication such as advertisement and websites, as well as the message the consumer receives when interacting with the product or service that is delivered. Two dental care companies in the city of Stockholm are examined in this comparative case study, one is owned by the public sector and one is a privately owned company.

    This paper concludes that publicly and privately owned dental care companies communicate with their consumers in slightly different ways. Privately owned dental care companies include their employees and use word of mouth in their communication to a higher extent than dental care companies owned by public sector. We suggest that this could mean that privately owned companies view their consumers as customers who need to be convinced, whereas publicly owned companies are more informative in their communication suggesting they view their consumers more like patients who need to be educated. Because unplanned communication was not examined in this study, this is suggested as a future field of research, to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between consumer and company.

  • 2562.
    Öhman, Per-Henrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Löfholm, Tony
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Förpackningen som identitetsbärare och differentieringsverktyg2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 2563.
    Öhrming, Jan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Allt görs liksom baklänges: Verksamheten vid Nya Karolinska Solna2017 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggandet av Nya Karolinska Solna (NKS) är förknippat med en dröm från slutet av 1990-talet om ett sjukhus som ett nav i ett internationellt konkurrenskraftigt universitetssjukvårdssystem. Det skulle vara ett specialsjukhus för regionen och inta en central roll för utvecklingen av Stockholmsregionen till ett biomedicinskt kraftcentrum. 2008 fattades beslutet om att bygga det nya sjukhuset och fylla det med ett nytt verksamhetsinnehåll. Beslutsprocessen rörande verksamhetsinnehållet vid NKS har präglats av interimistiska beslut och utvecklats till en process som förändrat villkoren för andra beslutsprocesser med stora ekonomiska och praktiska återverkningar för hälso- och sjukvården i Stockholmsregionen.

    Här redovisas hur det gick till när besluten om vård, forskning och utbildning vid NKS fattades. Och framför allt diskuteras NKS-projektets otillräckliga beslutsunderlag och de utdragna beslutsprocessernas konsekvenser för det regionala vårdsystemet.

    Jan Öhrming är Senior professor i företagsekonomi vid Södertörns högskola.

  • 2564.
    Öhrming, Jan
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Sjukvård, företagande och näringspolitik2011In: Business history in Sweden: Näringslivshistoria i Sverige / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg & Paulina Rytkönen, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2011, 1, p. 548-573Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2565.
    Öhrn, Victor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Elfström, Oskar
    Beslutsprocessen för att stödja spelföretag genom Crowdfunding: En kvalitativ studie om varför människor väljer att stödja Crowdfundingprojekt på hemsidan Kickstarter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2566.
    Öhrström, Hannah
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Molin, Nathalie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Företagens närvaro i sociala medier: En studie om hur användare förhåller sig till företagssidor i sociala medier2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding of how social media users relate to and why they choose to follow business accounts in social media, what they expect from them and how they feel about businesses constant presence in social media. We have studied this through a qualitative approach and have collected our data through the use of focus groups. In order to capture as much of the subject as possible the interviews have been semi-structured as this is considered to allow the participants to discuss freely. The theoretical framework covers consumer attitudes, consumer behaviour, image creation through brands and word of mouth through social media.

    The results show that the participants mainly follow business accounts for information, inspiration and entertainment. The majority of the participants also follow business accounts to gain access to discounts, promotions and services. However, image is also a key factor as to why the participants choose not to follow business accounts. The most recurring expectation among the participants is that the business accounts enable two-way communication, that businesses respond to users' comments and that the responses are relevant. On the one hand the participants generally perceive businesses presence in social media as positive when it gives them the means to influence businesses, express opinions and criticism and learn from other users' comments. On the other hand the participants generally perceive businesses presence in social media as negative when content they have not actively chosen to take part of reaches them. That said, the majority of participants believe that businesses should be present in social media and would perceive it as somewhat strange if they where not.

  • 2567.
    Örnebro, Camilla
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Mobilbetalning: en studie om konsumenters förmåga att acceptera nya betalningsformer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Banks’ settlement of handling cash and the technological developments of our payment services, leaves us guessing at the outlooks of consumers’ payment systems. One of the new payment options arising from this development is mobile payment. With access to internet, mobile payment can take over the role as the primary method of payment, as it can be used on any occasion. Questions are raised about which factors that are affecting the future users’ attitude to use mobile payment, and if the service can be a threat to the traditional card payments.

    Method: This study is based on a quantitative method by the means of a survey design. Questionnaires are used in order to collect a considerable amount of data. A deductive approach is used to formulate hypotheses from existing theory, which is tested with various statistic methods.

    Result & Conclusions: The study results display a significant relationship between the users’ attitude to start using mobile payment and compatibility and usefulness. The variable that showed no significant relationship was ease of use. The results also showed that the method of card payment is accepted and is therefore main competitor for mobile payment.

    Suggestions for future research: To investigate which factors future users value between the variables compatibility and usefulness is a possible suggestion for future research. When these two were found to have a relationship with attitude, it can affect the future users’ acceptance to mobile payment. It would also be interesting to examine a merchant’s perspective to identify who intends to offer such services. This is an important aspect, as the study results showed that the respondents had lower response rates regarding whether mobile payment could be associated with the availability for use in the market.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study highlights future users’ acceptance of mobile payment and which factors that can be driving for increased spread. The result can provide ideas on what incentives are neccessary to be focused on, to get more of the younger generation to develop a positive attitude towards this service and then apply it. The study results also provide an insight for card companies, as they seek knowledge whether the mobile payment is a threat in the current situation.

  • 2568.
    Örnell, Dennis
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Vedin, Julia
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Konsten att etablera sig på en mogen marknad: Svenska livförsäkringsbranschen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
  • 2569.
    Örnstad, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Lundin, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Underkapitalisering i privata välfärdsbolag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Denna uppsats studerar ämnet underkapitalisering. Med underkapitalisering menas sambandet mellan ett företags skulder och dess egna kapital. Underkapitalisering kan användas inom koncerner där moder- och dotterbolag har skatterättslig hemvist i olika länder och kan därmed använda sig av skillnader i skattelagstiftningen för att minska sina skattekostnader. Då moderbolaget finansierar dotterbolaget med lånat kapital istället för att skjuta till eget kapital uppstår räntekostnader som minskar dotterbolagets skattemässiga resultat och därmed sjunker skattekostnaderna. Koncerner kan alltså använda sig av underkapitalisering i syfte att skatteplanera. Uppsatsen kommer även att studera regleringen runt underkapitalisering och speciellt inkomstskattelagens 24e kapitel och hur den har reviderats för att undvika att företag använder sig av underkapitalisering.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om privata välfärdsbolag i Sverige är finansierade på sådant sätt att de går att klassificera som underkapitaliserade. Detta genom att studera företagens soliditet och deras interna räntekostnader för att sedan dra slutsatser av resultatet. Syftet är även att studera hur revideringen av inkomstskattelagens 24e kapitel har påverkat koncernernas kapitalstruktur.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Är svenska privata välfärdsbolag med ägare i länder med en lägre bolagsskatt underkapitaliserade?
    • Har revideringen av inkomstskattelagens 24e kapitel, angående begränsningen i avdragsrätten för räntekostnader gjort att koncernerna har ändrat sin kapitalstruktur?

    Metod: Författarna har genom att studera tio utvalda välfärdskoncerner ämnat att undersöka om underkapitalisering föreligger eller inte. Detta har gjorts genom att undersöka deras soliditet samt kapitalstrukturen i de utvalda koncernernas bolag.

    Urval: I undersökningen ingår tio välfärdskoncerner som ägs av utländska ägare som har sin hemvist i länder med lägre bolagsskatt än i Sverige.

    Resultat: Undersökningen visar att fem av de undersökta koncernerna hade en soliditet under minst ett av de tre år som undersökningen spann över som kvalificerade dem som underkapitaliserade enligt den danska lagstiftningen som säger att skulderna inte får överstiga det egna kapitalet i förhållandet 4:1. Uppsatsen visar även hur flera koncerner har minskat sina interna räntekostnader efter att revideringen av inkomstskattelagens 24e kapitel genomfördes 2013.

  • 2570.
    Österberg, Jessica
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Dazzled to Invest: Are the funding masses falling for effects?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The issue investigated is the nature of reward-based crowdfunding being too influenced by visual media and the creator’s personalities rather than focusing on the creator’s ability to run a business and the business plan. Through Source Credibility Theory three sets of categories for the studied variables were developed in addition to one category concerning external actors. The variables aim to measure the visual elements, the honesty and personal credibility of the creator as well as the business plan. A sample of 150 campaigns was picked from the platform Kickstarter, which consisted of half successful and half failed campaigns. Each campaign was observed individually and the communicated elements were recorded and compiled for analysis. The variables were recorded as binary or continuous and were tested through chi-square, regression and correlation tests. The study concludes that some business plan variables are often communicated for both failed and successful projects, however rarely in detail. The campaigns are often utilising visual elements but the honesty and personal credibility of the creator is not as common. Generally the successful campaigns are communicating all variables to a greater extent than the failed projects.

  • 2571.
    Österberg, Svetlana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Stenberg, Tom
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kapitalstruktur, beskattning och effekten på aktiekursen: Panelstudie av svenska industrikoncerner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Modigliani and Miller theorem is regarded as a milestone and a paradigm shift in Corporate Finance. The research behind the theorem has given rise to the controversial conclusion that a company's capital structure is irrelevant in an equilibrium market, without taxation. In contrast, when taxation occurs firm value will increase equivalent to the deductible tax on interest expense when debt is issued. The theorem has not been without criticism. Several researchers have examined the theorem and criticised its assumptions.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the Modigliani and Miller theorem in respect of capital structure’s impact on companies' share prices.

    Literature Review: The Modigliani and Miller theorem with its assumptions is initially presented as the study’s main theorem. The presentation of the theorem is followed by a description of agency theory, signalling theory, trade-off theory and the efficient market hypothesis, along with previous studies on the theorem and its assumptions.

    Research Methodology: The study applies a quantitative approach, with three regression models. The random sample consists of ten companies in the industrial sector, that are listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange. The sample is based on panel data of the companies during the period 2005 to 2012. The study's empirical data consists of historical stock prices and annual reports.

    Empirical Results: The leverage ratio, i.e. debt to equity ratio, indicates a low and non-signif-icant correlation with the stock prices of the examined companies, in all three regression models. The tax shield indicates a higher and significant correlation with the stock price, while the control variable earnings per share EPS indicates the highest correlation with the stock prices, as the response variable.

    Conclusions: The study’s results show no empirical support for the Modigliani-Miller theorem in its entirety. The explanation for the findings may be that the assumptions are not satisfied in the empirical data. Agency theory, signalling theory, trade-off theory and the efficient market hypothesis may serve as explanations of the study’s results.

  • 2572.
    Österman, Marit
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Alexander, Andreas
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    MP3-spelare: Värdeskapande faktorer ur ett konsumentperspektiv2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: MP3-spelarens historia är inte särskilt lång, utan snarare intensiv. Marknaden för MP3-spelare är idag stor, under år 2005 såldes hela 855 800 spelare i Sverige. Nästan alla teknikföretag säljer någon variant av spelare och de finns i alla storlekar och utseenden. Trenden är att skapa så annorlunda MP3-spelare som möjligt, och vikten av att differentiera sig genom att skapa ett mervärde är central. De största aktörerna på marknaden har varierat under de senaste åren, mycket beroende på vem som släppt den senaste och mest uppskattade spelaren.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera olika märken av MP3-spelare och dess konsumenter, och därigenom undersöka vilka faktorer konsumenterna anser skapar mervärde i den konkurrensutsatta branschen för MP3-spelare. Detta jämförs med återförsäljarnas syn på vilka mervärden de olika MP3-företagen levererar och sedan analysera om dessa två perspektiv stämmer överens.

    Metod: För att vårt syfte skulle uppnås valde vi att göra både en kvalitativ undersökning av återförsäljare, samt en kvantitativ undersökning av konsumenter. Fem återförsäljare intervjuades och 100 enkäter delades ut till konsumenter.

    Slutsats: Vi har kunnat konstatera att återförsäljarna och konsumenternas perspektiv av vad som är viktigt på en MP3-spelare är överensstämmande. Det centrala i en MP3-spelare är kvaliteten i produkten, utöver det är designen en mycket viktig aspekt. Vad vi har kunnat konstatera är att alltså att mervärdet som är dominerande när det gäller MP3-spelare är kvaliteten på produkten.

  • 2573.
    Östervall, Sandra
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Carnerud, Christine
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Företagsidentitet: En fråga om du är eller vill vara?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbudet på produkter och tjänster ökar ständigt och det blir då svårare för konsumenten att särskilja dem utifrån dess egenskaper. Nu är det företaget bakom som spelar en allt större roll och det är företagsnamnet som garanterar att produkten eller tjänsten innehar vissa egenskaper och kvaliteter. För att bli det företag som kunden väljer framför ett annat krävs en god image och ett gott anseende. Detta är något som inte kommer av sig själv utan grunden till att lyckas nå ut till kunden är en stark och tydlig identitet.

    Corporate identity eller företagsidentitet, som vi valt att översätta begreppet till, är ett komplext område med många olika definitioner och synsätt. Syftet med vår uppsats var att reda ut begreppet och skaffa oss en bredare bild av vad företagsidentitet innebär. Detta ville vi göra genom att svara på fyra frågor; vilka karaktäristiska delar innefattar en företagsidentitet?, i vilka situationer kan en förändring av identiteten i ett företag vara nödvändig?, hur motiveras och förklaras arbetet när en designbyrå ändrar ett företags identitet? och stämmer denna arbetsgång överens med det som beskrivs i litteratur och vetenskapliga artiklar?

    För att kunna besvara syftet och frågeställningarna har vi tagit del av både teoretisk och empirisk data. Teorin hämtade vi från litteratur och vetenskapliga artiklar som belyser ämnet och utifrån det har vi bildat oss en uppfattning av vad vi anser begreppet innebär. Empirin, som togs fram ur två intervjuer, hjälpte oss att se företagsidentitet ur ett annat perspektiv. Vi fick en chans att skaffa oss en uppfattning om hur det kan se ut i verkligheten då en identitet förändras.

    Vi fann att företagsidentitet, för oss, innefattar tre delar; den visuella identiteten, företags beteende och företagskommunikation. Ur identiteten mynnar image och anseende, vilket är den uppfattning betraktaren har av företaget och därför inget som går att kontrollera. När vi jämförde de identitetsskapande processerna så upptäckte vi att det finns många likheter mellan teori och verklighet. Vi fann dock en stor skillnad, den teoretiska processen är uppbyggd på en omfattande analys som saknas i den praktiska processen.

  • 2574.
    Östhem, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Fredell, Emelie
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Kapitalcirkus: Vad påverkar svenska börsnoterade företags val av kapitalstruktur?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2575.
    Östling, Anna
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Strand, Sara
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    PR och trovärdigheten: en studie av PR-byrån Four C och dess kund Akzo Nobel2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PR appears to be an indistinct division and a complicated resource for companies to value. The current circumstances are negative to the credibility and reliability of PR. This study emphasizes how an application of return on investment contributes to a more strategic use of PR and increases the status and credibility for the division.

    We experience that measuring the economic value of PR is of great importance and of current interest with few prior studies made. The purpose of this study is to find out how a PR-agency and one of its clients relates to and works with evaluation of PR-activities and to which extent the economic contribution of the activity is measured.

    The foundation which the theoretical reference grounds on is theories of Delusions of PR and the use of benefit-cost analyzes, Stages and Levels for Evaluating Public Relations Programs, Marketing Return on Investment and PR Return on Investment. The theoretical reference serves as a base during the analyze of the study.

    The conclusion, based on the empirical body of information, is that an application of return on investment could contribute with a higher status and credibility for the PR-division. The effects that derive from PR-activities are made visible with ROI and can contribute with strong arguments during the negotiation of the budget for the division. PR-agencies are also given motives for the pricing of their work. The objective assessment that is possible to evaluate with help from ROI can bring PR-agencies and companies guidance in the planning of future activities. By considering the budget of PR as an investment its contribution to an organization profit can be evaluated.

    The study’s introduces several critical factors for an application of ROI. These critical factors are evaluation, knowledge and understanding PR and it’s potentials, the relation towards the division and cooperation and maturity in the field.

  • 2576.
    Östlund, Lina
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Verk: Utan titel, text på papper: konstens betydelse för näringslivet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper's purpose has evolved during the process of researching and writing it. In the beginning it was to investigate if art and culture could increase the strength and knowledge of a brand and if there existed a knowledge about this amongst Swedish companies, situated in Stockholm. During the process the purpose has evolved into exploring the type of companies that acknowledge this and those that don't. By using Bourdieu's terminology and tools, the reasons behind the use of art has been analyzed.

    The paper employs an explorative approach by accessing data through interviews and public data provided by the Internet through web pages and government files.

    The paper comes to the conclusion that what Holt calls cultural branding has not evolved, when looking at the companies that are accurate for this study. Out of 24 companies only one comes close to observing socio cultural movements through the arts. The rest are occupied with emotional branding. To reach a level where a person or a company actually uses art to add emotions to the brand in a strategic way, that person, and the company as an extension of the persons habitus, need to have a large accumulated bank of cultural capital and be able to use it in social events to widen their social capital and therefore realize the possibilities of gaining from these relationships in a monetary capital sense. Art is also used in an unconscious way to add to the holistic brand. When the act is not done with a strategic plan in mind, it is explained by the fact that these individuals lack cultural capital that is evaluated by the group at large. The study of the field indicates that a movement is made from the economic field into the cultural without an equal movement in the other direction. In the economic sector cultural capital seems to be important and the Swedish cultural field contains smaller fields in the field, for example the tribe that hold the power. This tribe is well entangled in both the top hierarchy of the economic and the cultural field.

  • 2577.
    Öye, Veronica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ahl, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Inflytelserika kvinnor i musikbranschen: En studie i vad som krävs för att nå inflytelserika positioner2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s Swedish music industry, there is an uneven distribution of women and men among the influential positions. The male dominance in the industry has been highly debated in recent years, which brought the interest for this study. The study is therefore focused on females that have managed to occupy influential positions. The study aims to gain an understanding of the factors that enabled these women to obtain their influence in the music industry. Based on this purpose, our research question is "Is it possible to see similarities and differences among the respondents' backgrounds, and in their acquired knowledge, which has enabled their achieved power in the music industry?” The research takes a qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews with ten women who all hold influential positions in the music industry. The women interviewed are, in alphabetical order: Cecilia Ancker, My Blomgren, Emelie Bååth, Marie Dimberg, Karin Gunnarsson, Helen McLaughlin, Theodora Nordqvist, Hilda Sandgren, Anna Sjölund och Lena Åberg Frisk. Based on the study's purpose, Pierre Bourdieu's theory of field, capital and habitus is used as a theoretical framework to explore which capital is of most relevance when one is interested in acquiring an influential position in the music industry. The empirical data obtained shows that the capital considered most important for achieving an influential position is practical experience and social networking. Accumulating practical experience is a common trait among all respondents. The analysis of empirical data has led us to the conclusion that the importance of experience and execution is more important than formal education in the field. The respondents’ testimonials all conclude: The capital of social networking is an asset that is converted into knowledge; knowledge that is particularly important within the music industry, and can be considered an industry specific education. The capital of social networking, combined with practical experience, is the most relevant capital in order to obtain influence in the music industry. 

  • 2578.
    Öz, Izla
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Företagsförvärv: Abnorma avkastningseffekter på börsen vid olikheter i konjunkturläge respektive branschtillhörighet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Share development of acquired companies listed at the bearer's publication has been studied. Companies acquired during the recession years 2007-2009 and the boom years 2001-2004 have been studied to see if there is any difference in the share price that would depend on what cyclical the economy in the society is. I have further investigated whether there is a difference depending on what industry the companies are active in.

    The study is anchored in theory from the efficient market hypothesis in which a semi-strong efficient market is assumed. This degree of efficiency is usually assumed in financial markets and is the form that event studies adopt. The survey form used in this paper is an event study and this statistical method measures the market’s reaction to new information. The abnormal return is calculated which is then illustrated by tables and charts, which in turn is interpreted by an analyst.

    The study showed that acquisitions in the recession had higher abnormal returns than purchases made during the boom. The paper also showed that the communications companies had a higher abnormal return than the remaining sectors.

  • 2579.
    Öz, Izla
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies.
    Dimitriadou, Kicki
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies.
    Ledning av komplexa projekt: Det nationella införandet av Pascal ordinationsverktyg i hälso- och sjukvården2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing need for national IT support in health care has led to the development of a national IT strategy for health care services and the initiation of several IT projects in health care. One of these projects is the development and national introduction of the new prescription tool Pascal which includes all counties and municipalities. The projects initial conditions and its size entail that the management must find suitable strategies to cope with its complexity. It has been found that a large number of project failures can be caused by the fact that complex projects sometimes are led by unsuitable strategies. Managing complex projects can be complicated due to the fact that linear approaches are not suitable. The strategy selection should be situation dependent and determined by the problems at hand.

    This case study intends to identify how a complex project for the introduction of an innovation in the Swedish health care can be managed to deal with its complexity. The case study was executed by a qualitative method in which 11 interviews were conducted with members of the project management, a communicator, and people responsible for the implementation in municipalities and counties. The conclusions were that support, transparency, good dialogue, the exchange of knowledge and adaptability were the key elements to project success.

  • 2580.
    Öz, Mustafa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ali, Daoud Omar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Systematisk risk och avkastning på en volatil samt stabil marknad: En undersökning på den svenska aktiemarknaden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the early 60’s, the CAPM or Capital Asset Pricing Model, has been an invaluable tool for assessing an asset's expected return, assuming that the asset is added to an already well-diversified portfolio of assets. CAPM theory assume that the unsystematic risk can be diversified and that the systematic, market-specific, risk is determined by the Beta value, from the Greek β. An investor who takes big risks expect higher returns.

    One of the CAPM’s basic assumptions is that disruption in the market is not taken into account. This assumption may lead to results that do not correspond to reality.

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between systematic risk, and return on a stable and volatile market.

    Methodology: The study was performed using a quantitative research with secondary data, in which 30 companies listed on the OMX 30 on the Stockholm stock exchange was studied. The investigation period was from 2003 to 2012 and was divided into three parts. Using the statistics program SPSS and Excel the data required to answer the purpose of the essay was calculated.

    Results: The analysis of the first time period between 2003 and 2007 showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between beta value and the average return for the period.

    The second time period between 2008 and 2012, which was characterized by an extremely volatile stock market, showed different results. The result of this period showed no statistical relationship existed when the market was characterized by high volatility.

    The third and final period between 2003 and 2012, which was a combination of a stable and a volatile market. The results for this period showed no significant association between beta value and average returns.

    The conclusion of this study is therefore that the CAPM model to assess an asset's return fails when the market is unstable, e.g. due to a financial crisis. To compensate for this error that is built into the model, one should therefore use alternative models, or revised versions of the CAPM, if the aim is to produce data in a realistic way that can be used as basis for investment decisions.

  • 2581.
    Özalp, Murat Ozan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Torres, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Införandet av EU:s revisionspaket: En studie om obligatorisk byrårotation och revisionskvalité2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Innan rotationskrav för revisorer har hunnit cementeras och ge utslag, har Regeringen i ett nytt betänkande lagstadgat även krav för rotation för byråer. Krav på byrårotation uppkom som en proposition efter finanskrisen 2008, som ett led i att strama åt regelverket för revisionsbyråer. Den Europeiska kommissionen skriver i sitt betänkande att även om de huvudansvariga revisorerna byts ut med jämna mellanrum kvarstår risken för en jävsituation.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur revisionsbyråer, kunder och myndigheter förhåller sig till obligatorisk byrårotation. Vi kommer även att studera hur marknaden för revision ändras, samt studera hur en revisionsbyrå ur ”The Big Four” kommer att förbereda sig inför denna lagförändring.

    Frågeställningar:

    • Hur kommer byrårotation att inverka på revisionskvalitén för börsnoterade företag och finansiella företag av allmänt intresse?
    • Hur förbereder en revisionsbyrå ur ”The Big Four” sig inför byrårotation?
    • Vilka effekter kan byrårotation ha på marknadsstrukturen?

    Metod: Studien utgörs av en fallstudie där obligatorisk byrårotation studeras ur tre perspektiv. Studien baseras på ett antal befintliga teorier, varför studiens bearbetas utifrån den deduktiva ansatsen. Primärdata samlas in genom semi-strukturerade intervjuer, där respondenterna har valts ut efter olika kriterier, beroende på perspektiv.

    Empiri: Tre myndigheter, tre kunder och en revisionsbyrå har varit föremål för våra intervjuer, där vi tematiskt redogör för deras uttalanden.

    Slutsats: Byrårotation kommer att leda till att revisorn blir mer oberoende, då mandatperioden inte tillåter att nära relationer bildas och på grund av vitesbeloppets omfattning. Revisionen kommer inte kosta mer, med anledning av att det kommer att bli en kamp mellan byråerna om uppdragen. Vi har identifierat tre möjliga marknadseffekter av byrårotation, där kartelliknande verksamheter är en möjlig utgång. Revisionsbyråernas verksamheter kommer att bli mer likt de internationellas, där rådgivningstjänster utgör den största delen. En viktig konsekvens av byrårotation kan vara att bolag roterar byrå vid kritiska tidpunkter, vilket kan skada bolaget ytterligare. Bolag bör kunna flagga vid sådana tidpunkter, för att kunna förlänga rotationen parallellt med den nytillträdda i början av uppdraget.

  • 2582.
    Özdemir, Nebahat
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Nourbehesht, Shadi
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Revisionsprocessen mellan Ungdomsstyrelsen och revisorer2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2583.
    Özgun, Lena
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Malakit, Savitri
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Banker & sociala medier: Framgångsrecept eller fiasko?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemdiskussion: Sociala medier är ett fenomen som vuxit sig stort på senare år och det blir allt vanligare att företag använder dessa plattformar som en kommunikationskanal med sina kunder. Bankerna kan via sociala medier, såsom Facebook och Twitter nå ut på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt, med sitt budskap till allt större publik på en och samma gång. Detta kan i sin tur förstärka företagets rykte, om word-of-mouth visar sig vara av positiv karaktär samtidigt som det kan snabbt rasera företagets varumärke om spridningen av word-of-mouth är allt för negativ och okontrollerbar. Vi ämnar besvara följande frågeställning: Är Facebook och Twitter en gynnsam kommunikationskanal för banker, eller skulle vissa gynnas mer av att inte tillämpa sociala medier i deras verksamhet?

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är analysera hur banker förhåller sig till och kommunicerar via sociala medier. Vi väger för- och nackdelarna mot varandra och ifrågasätter om de sociala medierna är en gynnsam kommunikationskanal för banker.

    Metod: Vi tillämpade en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi där vi samlade empiri som bestod av semistrukturerade intervjuer samt observationer av dialoger från bankernas Facebook och Twitter- konton. Dessutom analyserade vi data från SKI:s kundnöjdhetsundersökning inom banksektorn.

    Analys & Slutsats: Med hjälp av den insamlade empirin och de olika teorierna som behandlats har vi kommit fram till att det kanske inte är en fråga om banker ska finnas tillgängliga på sociala medier eller inte, utan istället ligger det väsentliga i hur de ska vara när de väl är ute på Facebook och Twitter. Bankerna bör således ha en genomtänkt kommunikationsstrategi då det kan uppstå ohanterliga situationer på sociala medier genom word-of-mouth.

  • 2584.
    Ünsal, Hamit
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Erdogan, Volkan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ger Hedgefonder högre riskjusterad avkastning än Traditionella fonder?: En jämförelsestudie mellan Hedgefonder och Traditionella fonder2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether hedge funds generate higher risk-adjusted returns than traditional managed funds in Sweden.

    Methodology: This study was based on quantitative data about the funds historical returns. The funds historical returns were taken from the database Morningstar and the risk-free rate from the Swedish central bank. Random samples of 36 funds have been divided into three portfolios in the form of a hedge fund portfolio, stock portfolio and mix fund portfolio.

    Result & Conclusion: The study concluded that the stock portfolio has shown the highest average yield for the study period where all portfolios below market index. Hedge fund portfolio has achieved the highest risk-adjusted return calculated by the portfolios Sharpe Ratio. Of all hedge strategies, arbitrage had the highest average return and risk-adjusted returns.

  • 2585.
    Čaušević, Naida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hyensjö, Frida
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Normkreativ reklamfilm ”Det är såhär reklam bör vara”: En kvalitativ studie om konsumenters uppfattning av normkreativ reklamfilm2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to identify how norm creativity in commercials is perceived by consumers and how it affects their perception of a brand.

    Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework for the study consists of theories of market communication, the advertising industry and brands.

    Methodology: The study is based on a deductible research where data collection takes place through focus groups.

    Result: The empirical content is collected through three focus groups, which are presented by narrative method.

    Conclusion: The study shows that consumers perceive norm creative commercials positively and meaningful. Consumers want to see more of this kind of commercials. This is because companies demonstrate corporate social responsibility and take on a responsibility consumers demand today. Norm creative commercials affect consumers' view of the brand both positively and negatively. Consumers argue that it has a positive impact on brands if they have good intentions and are doing it continuously, but that it may have a negative impact if the message does not go through or is provocative. The negative consequence is also linked to the fact that consumers believe brands may use this type of advertising solely for their own gain. It creates distrust among consumers and weakens their loyalty.

     

  • 2586. Меликов, Ю
    et al.
    Popova, Maria
    РАЗВИТИЕ СИСТЕМЫ МИКРОКРЕДИТОВАНИЯ В РОССИИ И ЗА РУБЕЖОМ2006In: Финансовые исследования, ISSN 1991-0525, no 12, p. 33-42Article in journal (Refereed)
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