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  • 251. Kinlund, Peter
    et al.
    Bergman, Maria
    Geografi: för grundskolans senare del. Grundbok2003 (uppl. 1. uppl.)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 252. Kinlund, Peter
    et al.
    Bergman, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Impuls: för grundskolans senare del. Geografi. 1, Grundbok2009Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 253. Kinlund, Peter
    et al.
    Bergman, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Impuls: för grundskolans senare del. Geografi. 1-3, Stadiebok2009Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 254. Kinlund, Peter
    et al.
    Bergman, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Impuls: för grundskolans senare del. Geografi. 2, Grundbok2009Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 255. Kinlund, Peter
    et al.
    Bergman, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Impuls: för grundskolans senare del. Geografi. 3, Grundbok2009Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 256.
    Klimaschewski, Andrea
    et al.
    School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN Northern Ireland, UK.
    Barnekow, Lena
    Quaternary Sciences, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, SE22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Bennett, Keith D.
    School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN Northern Ireland, UK.
    Andreev, Andrei A.
    Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 49a, D-50674 Cologne, Germany.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Bobrov, A.A.
    Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Vorobievy Gory, 119899 Moscow, Russia.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Quaternary Sciences, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, SE22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record2015Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, nr SI, s. 142-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI).

    The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381–384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A.incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A.incana and also A.viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP, wet conditions dominate as dry indicating testate amoebae decrease. After 1800 cal yr BP soil conditions become more variable again but this time with dry dominating testate amoebae.

    In contrast to surrounding regions, there is no evidence of trees such as spruce or larch growing in the surroundings of the site even though those trees are characteristic of many eastern Siberian sites. This difference might be because of the maritime influence of the Okhotsk Sea. Even dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), which is currently widely dispersed in northern Kamchatka, became part of the local vegetation only during the last 700 yr.

  • 257.
    Klintman, M.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Political consumerism and the transition towards a more sustainable food regime: Looking behind and beyond the organic shelf2013Ingår i: Food Practices in Transition: Changing Food Consumption, Retail and Production in the Age of Reflexive Modernity, New York: Routledge, 2013, s. 107-128Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In media, policymaking and research, increasing attention is drawn to the phenomenon of ‘green political consumerism’, referring to consumerrelated practices that are based on concerns beyond the traditional criteria of product quality and price. Political consumerism is about expressing non-economic values, that is, values beyond the direct, economic self-interest of consumers. Such values may concern social conditions of farmers producing our food or the welfare of animals used in food production. Green political consumerism is a concept that highlights a concern for environmental conditions, although these concerns often overlap with social and animal-related ones (Boström & Klintman 2008). Micheletti (2003) has defi ned political consumerism as consumers’ ‘individualistic collective action’, practiced, for instance, through boycotting or buycotting certain products and services.

  • 258.
    Kolari, Sandra
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Tolkacheva, Ekaterina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Resor och miljö: En resvane-undersökning om miljömedvetenhet2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning ska se om faktorerna klimat, image, pris och transporter påverkar populationens miljömedvetenhet vid resa

  • 259.
    Konrad, Maria Theresia
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Ørsted Nielsen, Helle
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Branth Pedersen, Anders
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. SLU.
    Drivers of Farmers' Investments in Nutrient Abatement Technologies in Five Baltic Sea Countries2019Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 159, s. 91-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adoption of new manure and fertiliser technology is considered an effective tool to reduce diffuse nutrient pollution from agriculture, and policy instruments to encourage technology uptake are therefore widespread. But policy makers need to understand farmers' reasons for adoption of such technologies to design policies that actually work. Using data from a survey with responses from 2439 farmers in five countries around the Baltic Sea, we identify the drivers of technology adoption for three different abatement technologies: manure spreading equipment, slurry tanks, and precision technology for fertiliser application. We compare drivers for technology investments across technologies with a particular focus on the role of the scale of farm operations, neighbour relations, environmental concerns and innovation readiness. The results show that the scale of farm operation is important for the uptake of all three technologies, while we find no evidence that neighbour relations are important for technology investments. Environmental concerns for soil quality and other on-farm environmental qualities do drive investment; however, the impact of environmental concerns differs across technologies. Innovation readiness is a driver of investments in relation to some technologies, suggesting that the novelty or sophistication of the technology matters to the investing farmers.

  • 260.
    Kotthoff, U.
    et al.
    University of Hamburg.
    Groeneveld, J.
    University of Bremen.
    Ash, J.L.
    UCLA.
    Fanget, A.-S.
    Aarhus University, Université de Perpignan.
    Krupinski, N.Q.
    Lund University.
    Peyron, O.
    University of Montpellier.
    Stepanova, A.
    Texas A&M University.
    Warnock, J.
    Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
    Van Helmond, N. A. G. M.
    Utrecht University.
    Passey, B.H.
    University of Michigan.
    Clausen, O.R.
    Aarhus University.
    Bennike, O.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Granoszewski, W.
    Polish Geological Institute-National Research Institute Krakow.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Filipsson, H.L.
    Lund University.
    Seidenkrantz, M.-S.
    Aarhus University.
    Slomp, C.P.
    Utrecht University.
    Bauersachs, T.
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität.
    Reconstructing Holocene temperature and salinity variations in the western Baltic Sea region: a multi-proxy comparison from the Little Belt (IODP Expedition 347, Site M0059)2017Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 14, s. 5607-5632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment records recovered from the Baltic Sea during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 provide a unique opportunity to study paleoenvironmental and climate change in central and northern Europe. Such studies contribute to a better understanding of how environmental parameters change in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins. Here we present a multi-proxy-based reconstruction of paleotemperature (both marine and terrestrial), paleosalinity, and paleoecosystem changes from the Little Belt (Site M0059) over the past  ∼  8000 years and evaluate the applicability of inorganic- and organic-based proxies in this particular setting. All salinity proxies (diatoms, aquatic palynomorphs, ostracods, diol index) show that lacustrine conditions occurred in the Little Belt until  ∼  7400 cal yr BP. A connection to the Kattegat at this time can thus be excluded, but a direct connection to the Baltic Proper may have existed. The transition to the brackish–marine conditions of the Littorina Sea stage (more saline and warmer) occurred within  ∼  200 years when the connection to the Kattegat became established after  ∼  7400 cal yr BP. The different salinity proxies used here generally show similar trends in relative changes in salinity, but often do not allow quantitative estimates of salinity. The reconstruction of water temperatures is associated with particularly large uncertainties and variations in absolute values by up to 8 °C for bottom waters and up to 16 °C for surface waters. Concerning the reconstruction of temperature using foraminiferal Mg  /  Ca ratios, contamination by authigenic coatings in the deeper intervals may have led to an overestimation of temperatures. Differences in results based on the lipid paleothermometers (long chain diol index and TEXL86) can partly be explained by the application of modern-day proxy calibrations to intervals that experienced significant changes in depositional settings: in the case of our study, the change from freshwater to marine conditions. Our study shows that particular caution has to be taken when applying and interpreting proxies in coastal environments and marginal seas, where water mass conditions can experience more rapid and larger changes than in open ocean settings. Approaches using a multitude of independent proxies may thus allow a more robust paleoenvironmental assessment.

  • 261.
    Kröger, Markus
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ethno-territorial rights and the resource extraction boom in Latin America: do constitutions matter?2016Ingår i: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 682-702Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent times a growing number of Latin American rural groups have achieved extended ethno-territorial rights, and large territories have been protected by progressive constitutions. These were the outcomes of extended cycles of national and transnational contentious politics and of social movement struggle, including collective South–South cooperation. However, the continent has simultaneously experienced a resource extraction boom. Frequently the extractivism takes place in protected areas and/or Indigenous territories. Consequently economic interests collide with the protection and recognition of constitutional rights. Through a review of selected demonstrative cases across Latin America, this article analyses the (de jure) rights on paper versus the (de facto) rights in practice.

  • 262. Kunzendorf, Helmar
    et al.
    Voss, Maren
    Brenner, Wolfram
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Vallius, Henry
    Molybedeneum in sediments of central Balric Sea as an indicator for algal blooms2001Ingår i: Baltica: an International Yearbook for Quaternary Geology and Palaeogeography, Coastal Morphology and Shore Processes, Marine Geology and Recent Tectonics of the Baltic Sea Area, ISSN 0067-3064, E-ISSN 1648-858X, Vol. 14, s. 123-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 263.
    Laakkonen, Simo
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. simo.laakkonen@helsinki.fi.
    Waves of Laws and Institutions: The Emergence of National Awareness of Water Pollution and Protection in the Baltic Sea Region over the Twentieth Century2014Ingår i: The Sea of Identities: A Century of Baltic and East European Experiences with Nationality, Class, and Gender / [ed] Norbert Götz, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, s. 293-318Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 264.
    Lalander, Rickard
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Stockholms universitet.
    Ethnic rights and the dilemma of extractive development in plurinational Bolivia2017Ingår i: International Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1364-2987, E-ISSN 1744-053X, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 464-481Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bolivian constitution of 2009 has been classified as one of the most progressive in the world regarding indigenous rights. The indigenous principles of Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien/Good Living on the harmonious relationship between humans and nature are established in the constitution. Nonetheless, these rights clash with the constitutionally recognised rights of the nation state to extract and commercialise natural resources (mainly hydrocarbons and mining) under the banner of redistributive justice, welfare reforms and the common good, in this study labelled the dilemma of extractive development. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and combines a political economy perspective on the extractive dilemma, while similarly examining the tensions between ethnically defined rights in relation to broader human rights in terms of values and norms related to welfare and conditions of living. The ethnic identity is multifaceted in Bolivia. Large segments of the indigenous population prefer to identify in class terms. The class-ethnicity tensions have altered throughout history, according to changing socio-economic, cultural and political settings. A central argument is that, during Evo Morales' presidency, class-based human rights in practice tend to be superior to the ethnically defined rights, as a reflection of the dilemma of extractive development.

  • 265.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gendering Popular Participation: Identity-Politics and Radical Democracy in Bolivarian Venezuela2016Ingår i: Multidisciplinary Latin American Studies: Festschrift in Honor of Martti Pärssinen / [ed] Harri Kettunen & Antti Korpisaari, Helsinki: University of Helsinki , 2016, s. 149-173Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 266.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Indigeneidad, descolonización y la paradoja del desarrollismo extractivista en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia: Indigeneity, decolonization and the paradox of extractive development in the Plurinational State of Bolivia2017Ingår i: Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política, ISSN 0718-9389, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 47-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, indigenous peoples have been marginalized and oppressed in the Bolivian political economy. During the presidency of Evo Morales, and under the 2009 Constitution, political, economic, social and cultural decolonization has become the central project for the transformation of the State and society. On the one hand, the new Constitution has been classified as one of the most progressive in the world with respect to ethnically defined rights; the indigenous ethical-philosophical principles of Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien, referring to the harmonious relationship between individuals and nature, have been incorporated into the Constitution. On the other hand, these rights collide with broader social rights (defined by class) and also the rights of the State to extract and market natural resources (especially hydrocarbon extraction and mining) under the banner of redistributive justice, social reforms and the common good. This collision is defined in this study as the paradox of extractivist developmentalism. The article is based on an ethnographic work and problematizes the extractivist dilemma and the tensions between ethnic rights and class rights, thus contributing to debates about indigeneity and the challenges and dilemmas of decolonizing projects.

  • 267.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Indigeneidad y diálogos interculturales en la política local: Una etnografía del Estado sobre los Kichwas de Cotacachi y Otavalo2018Ingår i: Imbabura Étnica / [ed] Albert Arnavat, Ibarra, Ecuador: Editorial UTN/ Universidad Técnica del Norte , 2018, s. 73-113Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo principal del presente texto es examinar y problematizar la politización de la indigeneidad mediante el enfoque analítico en los encuentros y diálogos interculturales, y más específicamente de los Kichwas de Cotacachi y Otavalo, localidades tradicionalmente marcadas por las estructuras sociales excluyentes y racistas. Dentro del marco de la democracia deliberativa intercultural y las estructuras de oportunidades políticas, se analizarán las alianzas sociopolíticas de diferentes agrupaciones de ciudadanos y colectivos indígenas, que anteriormente estuvieron excluidas de las esferas públicas, y que confrontan nuevos desafíos y dilemas una vez que emergen como autoridades políticas a nivel local. ¿Cómo se reflejan las complejidades identitarias y de las alianzas interculturales en los procesos político-electorales locales de Cotacachi y Otavalo desde las perspectivas de los actores indígenas? Teóricamente y metodológicamente, la presente etnografía del Estado enfoca concretamente en el las transformaciones de los vínculos entre las poblaciones indígenas de Cotacachi y Otavalo y el Estado, asimismo considerando los diálogos y alianzas interculturales del movimiento indígena en las dos localidades. Estos procesos asimismo conllevan modificaciones de la indigeneidad, considerando que el grupo étnicamente definido siempre se autoidentifica en relación con otra categoría étnica, es decir: ¿Qué pasa con la identidad étnicamente definida cuando el movimiento colectivo llega a la posición de autoridad del Estado? Esta aproximación se sostiene metodológicamente en trabajo etnográfico en el campo, con una gran cantidad de entrevistas, conversaciones informales y observaciones participativas durante períodos en Cotacachi y Otavalo entre 2004 y 2018, así como una lectura crítica de publicaciones de los temas. Asimismo, hasta cierto grado se utiliza una aproximación metodológica comparativa, pero hay que aclarar que no se ofrecerá una comparación completamente sistemática entre los dos casos, más bien se destacarán las características y complejidades particulares de los dos contextos.

  • 268.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Política identitaria e interseccionalidad en la Venezuela Bolivariana: Reflexiones sobre el protagonismo de las mujeres de los sectores populares (2006-2013)2018Ingår i: Ontosemiótica, ISSN 2477-9482, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 35-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article problematizes the empowerment of Venezuelan women of the popular sec­tors, who previously were marginalized in terms of gender, ethnicity and class. More specifically, the study focuses on the protagonist role of women in the Community Cou­ncils during 2006-2013. An additional interrelated aim of the study is to question the myth of Venezuela as the least racist country of Latin America. Theoretically, the study connects to an old debate of Leftist academia, namely on how to deal with the identi­tarian elements of class, ethnicity and gender in a broader socio-political setting. This viewpoint is contrasted with the theoretical-methodological framing of intersectionality, which considers the relationships between different identitarian elements at individual and collective level. The article shows that gender, class and ethnicity are intimately and complexly intertwined among the protagonists, and that these identity bases cross each other in local political situations. A further argument is that, generally, class-based identity appears to be superior to those of gender and ethnicity in socio-political settings. Methodologically, the study is based on critical reading of previous literature and, above all, ethnographic fieldwork in Venezuela between 1996 and 2013, including participa­tory observation and hundreds of interviews with actors involved in these political and socio-cultural processes.

  • 269.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Ecuadorian Resource Dilemma: Sumak Kawsay or Development?2016Ingår i: Critical Sociology, ISSN 0896-9205, E-ISSN 1569-1632, Vol. 42, nr 4-5, s. 623-642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the tensions between constitutional rights, welfare politics and extractivism in Ecuador. In practice, the rights of nature risk being subordinated to other human values amidst strategic State interests in economic development and social programs, due to the government’s pragmatic approach toward environmental rights. The Ecuadorian Constitution of 2008 has been celebrated for being the most radical in the world regarding the specific rights of nature and the indigenous peoples. The central framing of the Constitution is the indigenous concept of Sumak Kawsay regarding humans being in harmony with nature. The Rafael Correa government launched a groundbreaking initiative to protect biodiversity and indigenous peoples in the oil rich national park of Yasuní, adding to the image of Ecuador as an ecological alternative to follow and a challenge to global capitalism. Far-reaching welfare programs have been implemented during the Correa administration, but resource extraction has increased. In light of the Ecuadoran experience, substantial questions remain as to whether Sumak Kawsay can be a path for socialist transformation and ecologically solvent development.

  • 270.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Cuestas-Caza, Javier
    Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ecuador.
    El Sumak Kawsay y el Buen-Vivir2018Ingår i: Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales/ TraHs, ISSN 2557-0633, nr 3, s. 3-5Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 271.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Cuestas-Caza, Javier
    Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ecuador.
    Sumak Kawsay y Buen-Vivir en Ecuador2017Ingår i: Conocimientos ancestrales y procesos de desarrollo: Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador / [ed] Ana Dolores Verdú Delgado, Loja, Ecuador: Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja , 2017, s. 30-64Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [es]

    El interés de la academia por investigar sobre el término del Sumak Kawsay ha despegado a partir de su incursión en la Constitución del Ecuador en 2008. Su cuestionada traducción como Buen-Vivir ha despertado diversos debates epistemológicos y ontológicos. En la actualidad, son tres las corrientes de pensamiento que estudian al paradigma emergente del Buen-Vivir: indígena-culturalista, postdesarrollista-ecologista y socialista-estatista. Cada una de ellas ha interpretado de diferente manera los saberes indígenas relacionados con el Sumak Kawsay, lo que ha dado lugar a varios cuestionamientos, entre ellos, un posible extractivismo epistémico en el uso y contenido del término Buen Vivir. Además, en la práctica, la inclusión del Buen-Vivir en la Constitución ecuatoriana de 2008 y el reconocimiento de los derechos de la naturaleza ha dado lugar a una serie de críticas y dilemas político-ambientales debido a las políticas públicas neo-extractivistas implementadas por el gobierno de Rafael Correa. El presente capítulo tiene como objetivo ahondar y enfatizar varios de los debates intelectuales sobre el Sumak Kawsay y el Buen-Vivir, así como identificar algunos dilemas y desafíos en la implementación práctica de los principios y valores de estas visiones.

  • 272.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kröger, Markus
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Extractivism and the de jure and de facto ethno-territorial rights in Latin America: How important are the constitutions?: Extractivismo y derechos étnico-territoriales de jure y de facto en Latinoamérica: ¿Cuán importantes son las constituciones?2016Ingår i: Observatorio del Desarrollo, ISSN 2393-6916, nr 23, s. 1-22Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of Latin American rural groups have attained extended ethno-territorial rights, and sizeable territories were safeguarded by progressive constitutions. This trend was the product of extended cycles of protest at local, national and transnational levels; social movements struggle, with broader collective South-South collaboration. Nonetheless, the continent simultaneously experienced a resource extraction boom. Commonly, the extractivism takes place in protected areas and/or indigenous territories. Accordingly, economic interests clash with the safeguarding and recognition of constitutional rights. Through the analysis of selected illustrative cases across Latin America, this study analyses the (de jure) rights on paper versus the (de facto) rights in practice. 

  • 273.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lembke, M.
    Stockholm University.
    The Andean Catch-22: ethnicity, class and resource governance in Bolivia and Ecuador2018Ingår i: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 636-654Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the tensions and contradictions between resource governance, welfare policies, and the constitutionally recognized rights of nature and the indigenous peoples in Bolivia and Ecuador. We have identified a certain reductionism in current debates on these issues and propose a more systematic analytical focus on class and the class-ethnicity duality, as expressed in historical and contemporary indigenous struggles, and also confirmed via our ethnographic material. Drawing on the double bind as expressed in Joseph Heller’s Catch-22 wherein the protagonists face situations in which they do not have any choice to achieve a net gain, this article centres on how national governments have to choose between the protections of rights – in this case ethnic and environmental rights – and welfare provision financed by extractive revenues. From the perspective of ecologically concerned indigenous actors, the Catch-22 is articulated in the choice or compromise between universal welfarism on the one hand, and ethno-environmental concerns on the other hand. The article draws primarily on ecosocialist arguments and on indigenous-culturalist perspectives on Good Life (Sumak Kawsay or Vivir Bien). A central finding is the existence of awareness among involved actors – oppositional movements and government authorities – that the Catch-22 quandary and joint class-ethnic concerns are unavoidable ingredients in their discourses, struggles, and understandings of Good Life.

  • 274.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholm universitet.
    Dilemas e desafios na construção do Estado plurinacional: Territorialidade, Indigeneidade e Diálogo Deliberativo Intercultural no Equador2017Ingår i: Revista MovimentAção, E-ISSN 2358-9205, Vol. 4, nr 6, s. 178-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [pt]

    Existem diferentes interpretações e posturas sobre a plurinacionalidade e a interculturalidade dos atores indígenas. Problematizar-se-á como se expressam essas posições internamente, dentro da organização, e como se expressam externamente. Refere-se a este segundo processo externo como o diálogo deliberativo intercultural. O objetivo principal do presente texto é analiticamente problematizar os desafios e dilemas associados ao projeto de Estado Plurinacional a partir da perspectiva dos povos indígenas. Na estrutura teórica se destacam as contribuições sobre democracia deliberativa em sociedades divididas e/ou multiétnicas. A pergunta investigativa principal é: Como se refletem as complexidades do processo de implementação do Estado Plurinacional e Intercultural nos discursos dos atores envolvidos? O projeto plurinacional se inseriu contextualmente em uma relação complexa entre a territorialidade e a autoidentificação étnica. Enfatizamos a centralidade da territorialidade na indigeneidade e como estratégia nos processos organizativos e discursivos das organizações indígenas. Nessas disputas discursivas sobre a territorialidade, diferentes grupos indígenas se posicionam segundo sua relação histórica com a sociedade branco-mestiça. De tal maneira se constroem temporalidades diferentes desde a territorialidade. Metodologicamente, além da leitura crítica da literatura existente sobre o tema central do estudo, a presente investigação tem como base o trabalho etnográfico no Equador no qual se realizaram centenas de entrevistas entre 2001 e 2016 com políticos, intelectuais e porta-vozes das organizações indígenas. 

  • 275.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Ospina Peralta, Pablo
    Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Quito.
    Political economy of state-indigenous liaisons: Ecuador in times of Alianza PAIS2019Ingår i: Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe / European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, ISSN 0924-0608, E-ISSN 1879-4750, nr 108, s. 193-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the contentious liaisons between the indigenous movement and the state in Ecuador during the government of Alianza PAIS under the presidency of Rafael Correa (2007-2017). The research question examines to which measure, how and why the shift from neoliberal to leftist administrations could have affected the principal strategic repertoire of the indigenous movement. Leaning on a political economy approach and social movement theorizing, and accentuating the relative power balance between the indigenous movement and the state, it focuses on indigenous oppositional strategies and the ambivalent attitude of the state regarding participatory democracy and the rights of the indigenous peoples. By contrasting this period with the neoliberal 1990s – considered the heyday of the indigenous struggle – we examine contemporary strategic responses of the movement amidst the new political setting characterized by hyper-presidentialism and a systematic effort to de-corporatize the state. A central finding is that, while retaining its powerful organizational network which could be reactivated during critical situations, the indigenous movement weakened in relation to the 1990s. This relative decline is manifested in three types of social movement relationships: between leaders and grassroots (mobilizing capacity); between the movement and its alliance partners (alliance politics); and between the movement and the legal institutional terrain of the state (institutional participation).

  • 276.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lenza, Chiara
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Transmodernity and Socio-Historical Time in the Decolonization Process of the Plurinational State of Bolivia: La transmodernidad y el tiempo sociohistórico en el proceso descolonizador del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia2018Ingår i: Revista de Estudios Sociales, ISSN 0123-885X, E-ISSN 1900-5180, nr 65, s. 48-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes how transmodernity has been expressed in the Plurinational State of Bolivia since 2009. It specifically focuses on the complexities involved in the reconstruction of the State and the road towards an intercultural society based on the constitutional acknowledgment of the values and praxis of plurinationality. This historic moment —with the reconstruction of the State and society based on the beliefs, traditions, epistemologies and ontologies of the indigenous peoples— symbolizes a particular social time and is the result of the silent survival of pre-colonial cultures which, over centuries, gradually transformed themselves alongside and in interaction with modernity, thus evolving into transmodern cultures. The establishmentof the Plurinational State has also legitimized the indigenous ethical-philosophical concept of SumaQamaña-Vivir Bien (“To Live Well”), which refers to a harmonious relationship between humans and Natureand is enshrined as a socio-political-cultural guideline and alternative to the logics of eurocentrism, anthropocentrism, individualism and capitalism. Methodologically, the study is based on years of ethnographic fieldwork in Bolivia and a critical reading of previous studies of such subjects.

  • 277.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Magnus, Lembke
    Stockholms universitet.
    Territorialidad, indigeneidad y diálogo intercultural en Ecuador: Dilemas y desafíos en el proyecto del Estado Plurinacional2018Ingår i: Territorialidades otras: Visiones alternativas de la tierra y del territorio desde Ecuador / [ed] Johannes Waldmüller & Philipp Altmann, Quito: Ediciones La Tierra , 2018, s. 183-212Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 278.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Stockholm University.
    Maija, Merimaa
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The Discursive Paradox of Environmental Conflict: Between Ecologism and Economism in Ecuador2018Ingår i: Forum for Development Studies, ISSN 0803-9410, E-ISSN 1891-1765, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 485-511Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecuador in times of the Rafael Correa government constitutes a prime example of the paradox of environmental conflict, in which all involved actors claim to represent the true vanguard concerning safeguarding of the environment and human conditions. The country presents the ecologically most progressive constitution in the world and also incorporates far-reaching recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights. Notwithstanding, the economy remains reliant on extractivism and the government argues that the revenues of extractive industries benefit the common good. Anchored in a distinction between environmentalism and ecologism, this article identifies and problematizes dominant narratives among the actors of the contentious discursive scenarios, and analyses how the state and its ecological-indigenous opposition aim to position themselves within the political conflict. The central questions are: How are eco-progressive politics perceived, defined and expressed in this setting of an intercultural and plurinational society economically reliant on natural resource extraction? Which values, interests and ontological assumptions are at stake and how are these expressed in the discursive struggle? The research is based on several years of ethnographic fieldwork, combined with critical reading of the previous literature and discourse analysis. The article contributes to politico-environmental debates in Ecuador and beyond and shows that environmental struggle is entangled in broader political disputes conditioned by global economic structures. It likewise communicates with debates on argumentative discourse and illustrates that the same core arguments can constitute the argumentative basis of rivalling actors in political struggles, thus emphasizing the centrality of the contextual framing amid ontological divides in contentious discursive settings.

  • 279.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Merimaa, Maija
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    La paradoja político-ambiental ecuatoriana: The Ecuadorian Politico-Environmental Paradox2017Ingår i: Provincia, ISSN 1317-9535, nr 37, s. 29-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [es]

    Ecuador en tiempos del gobierno de Rafael Correa constituye un caso perfecto de la paradoja político-ambiental, que trata de conflictos en los cuales todos los actores – autoridades del Estado y opositores ecologistas e indígenas – se auto-identifican como los verdaderos defensores del ambiente y las condiciones humanas. Por un lado, Ecuador tiene la Constitución más progresista del mundo en cuanto a la protección de la naturaleza y entre las más radicales en el reconocimiento de los derechos de los pueblos étnicamente definidos. Por otro lado, la economía desarrollista basada en extractivismo se ha mantenido durante el período y el gobierno argumenta que los ingresos derivados del extractivismo son utilizados para el bien común (bienestar social). Basándose en varios años de trabajo etnográfico en Ecuador, la lectura crítica de publicaciones temáticas y el análisis de discursos públicos, documentos políticos y datos recogidos a través de observación participativa, el artículo identifica y problematiza las narrativas dominantes entre los diferentes actores de los escenarios discursivos contenciosos, y también analiza cómo las autoridades estatales y sus opositores buscan posicionarse hacia el otro en relación al extractivismo y a las preocupaciones ecológicas. ¿Cómo se perciben, definen y expresan las políticas ambientales (progresistas) y las preocupaciones ecológicas por parte de los diferentes actores?

  • 280.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University.
    A population genomic analysis of blue mussels identifies genomic regions associated with sewage treatment plant effluents in the Baltic SeaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 281.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lind, E. E.
    SLU.
    Corell, H.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Matematikens didaktik.
    Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area2017Ingår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, s. 98-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.

  • 282.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Lind, Emma
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Stockholms universitet.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    From AFLP to sequence specific markers: Identifying genomic regions under selection in the three-spined stickleback caused by pulp mill effluentsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes underlying divergent selection and genetic adaptation have been on the evolutionary biologists agenda for a long time. In this study we used the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) study system, a perfect system to study the evolution of similar traits in different lineages exposed to similar environmental conditions. Lind and Grahn (2011) have found directional selection caused by pulp mill effluent on populations of three-spined stickleback along the Swedish coast. In their study, they identified 21 AFLP- outlier loci indicated to be under selection. Here we converted some of these anonymous AFLP loci into sequenced markers and aligned them to the stickleback genome. Four out of five loci, aligned within or close to coding regions, on chromosome I, chromosome VIII, chromosome XIX and chromosome XX. One of the locus, located on chromosome VIII, have been identified to be under selection for fresh water adaption in other studies, including Baltic Sea stickleback populations (Mäkinen et al. 2008a,b). We believe that this is feasibly method that can be used as a starting point for identification of genes and genomic regions possible involved in adaptation, both for model and non-model organisms. 

  • 283.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Lind, Emma E
    SLU.
    Świeżak, Justyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast2016Ingår i: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, artikel-id e2628Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  • 284.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Świeżak, J.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Turower, M.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Czerniawska, N.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Multi biomarker analysis of pollution effect on resident populations of blue mussels from the Baltic Sea2018Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 198, s. 240-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic pollution including metals, petroleum, toxins, nutrients and many others is a growing problem in the marine environment. These are important factors altering the environment and by that the fate of many local populations of marine organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of selected point pollution sources on resident populations of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) in the Baltic Sea using multiple biomarker approach. The study used a nested sampling scheme in which sites from reference (REF) habitats are geographically paired with selected sites from sewage treatment plants (STP) and harbors (HAR). The results showed that mussels from harbors had a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland compared to mussels from sewage effluent affected areas and reference sites. However these mussels together with mussels from STPs had higher lipid content, body mass index (BMI) and gonado-somatic index (GSI) compared to mussels from reference sites. A marked spatial variability was found with a stronger toxicity of ambient environment affecting resident mussel populations in the Gulf of Gdańsk area, while an opposite pattern was found in Tvärminne area. Yet the blue mussels sampled in the Gulf of Gdańsk were characterized by the highest GSI and BMI values compared to Askö and Tvärminne populations. No differences in analyzed biomarker response related to species identity, measured by a species-specific genetic marker, were found indicative of strong genetic introgression in the Baltic Proper.

  • 285.
    Larsson, Kiara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Barriers to Access to Antiretroviral Treatment in Babati, Tanzania2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region in the world most severely affected by HIV, and Tanzania is among the most severely affected countries in the region. The introduction of antiretroviral treatment has offered hope to people living with HIV/AIDS, improving their quality of life significantly. Still, there are individuals living with HIV who either lack access to ART, or choose not to make use of the available treatments. The purpose of this thesis is to identify underlying factors perceived as barriers for HIV- positive individuals to initiate and maintain Antiretroviral treatment in Babati District, Tanzania. Twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out between the 15th of February and 6th of March 2016. The interviews were conducted with ART-patients, health workers and members of the community. An analysis was made within a theoretical framework based upon Goffman's notion of stigma and the Initial Behavioral Model by Andersen. The following obstacles to access to ART were indicated by the findings: HIV/AIDS related stigma issues, discrimination, economic barriers, ignorance due to lack of education, counseling on HIV treatment, and beliefs that HIV can be cured by traditional healers. 

  • 286.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Dahlgren, Johan P
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark .
    Garcia, Maria Begoña
    Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología (CSIC), Saragossa, Spain.
    Leimu, Roosa
    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK .
    Syrjänen, Kimmo
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Forest succession and population viability of grassland plants: long repayment of extinction debt in Primula veris.2016Ingår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 181, nr 1, s. 125-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Time lags in responses of organisms to deteriorating environmental conditions delay population declines and extinctions. We examined how local processes at the population level contribute to extinction debt, and how cycles of habitat deterioration and recovery may delay extinction. We carried out a demographic analysis of the fate of the grassland perennial Primula veris after the cessation of grassland management, where we used either a unidirectional succession model for forest habitat or a rotation model with a period of forest growth followed by a clear-cut and a new successional cycle. The simulations indicated that P. veris populations may have an extinction time of decades to centuries after a detrimental management change. A survey of the current incidence and abundance of P. veris in sites with different histories of afforestation confirmed the simulation results of low extinction rates. P. veris had reduced incidence and abundance only at sites with at least 100 years of forest cover. Time to extinction in simulations was dependent on the duration of the periods with favourable and unfavourable conditions after management cessation, and the population sizes and growth rates in these periods. Our results thus suggest that the ability of a species to survive is a complex function of disturbance regimes, rates of successional change, and the demographic response to environmental changes. Detailed demographic studies over entire successional cycles are therefore essential to identify the environmental conditions that enable long-term persistence and to design management for species experiencing extinction debts.

  • 287.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Environmental Impacts of Rural Landscape Change During the Post-Communist Period in the Baltic Sea Region2017Ingår i: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, s. 155-171Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 288.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Vinter, Tiina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Plant response to habitat amount and configuration in Swedish forests2019Ingår i: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: There is an intense debate about whether habitat fragmentation has a negative or positive effect on biodiversity. We examined whether species richness and incidence of forest plants were negatively or positively associated with fragmented forest configuration. We also analysed whether the results support the fragmentation threshold hypothesis with fragmentation effects only in landscapes with small habitat amount.

    Location: Sodermanland province, south-eastern Sweden (8,388 km(2)).

    Methods: Data consisted of plant distribution maps and landscape data on forest amount and configuration in 2.5 km x 2.5 km quadrats. We carried out models including forest area together with clumpiness index (CL models) or edge density (ED models) as the measure of habitat configuration. We focused on plant taxa with positive association between incidence and forest area (163 taxa in CL models; 119 taxa in ED models).

    Results: Responses to fragmented configuration were negative more often than by random (33 and 22 taxa in CL and ED models, respectively; includes only models without significant forest area x configuration interaction), whereas positive responses were rare (four taxa in both models). When forest area x configuration interaction was significant, the most common response had a negative effect of fragmented configuration when forest area was low and no effect of configuration when forest area was high, which agrees with the fragmentation threshold hypothesis. Species richness also had this type of response. In another common interactive response, the effect of fragmented configuration was negative at low forest area and positive at high forest area.

    Main conclusions: Responses to fragmented forest configuration, when significant, were usually negative. When responses to fragmented configuration were modulated by forest area, they were negative when forest area was low. The findings of complex interaction between forest area and configuration have implications for selection of appropriate patch sizes in sustainable forest management.

  • 289.
    Lehtimäki, Linda
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    From legislation to implementation?: Understanding the implementation deficiency of the general rules of consideration, the Swedish Environmental Code (2000:61)2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Environmental Code is a central environmental policy instrument, which contributes to achieve Sweden’s national environmental objectives. Therefore, the implementation of the rules and regulations of the Environmental Code are of importance. This thesis focuses on the identified research gap in the implementation of the general rules of consideration in the Environmental Code, adopting a Swedish perspective and seeking to understand the reasons why. This thesis intends to increase the understanding of both external and internal aspects affecting the implementation at a municipal level. The results show that the implementation deficiency in the general rules of consideration consists of several complex, interconnected factors. The findings implicate three fundamental aspects affecting the implementation: prerequisites, work procedures and interpretations of the general rules of consideration. Furthermore, the implementation requires an improved understanding among concerned stakeholders. This thesis argues that there is a shortage of knowledge and understanding of the general rules of consideration among stakeholders, therefore there is much more to learn, in order to reduce the implementation deficiency of the rules. Additionally, the findings indicate a need for exemplified guidance from state authorities and government agencies, to reduce the knowledge gap among municipalities and operators. Furthermore, operators ought to increase the understanding of the general rules of consideration, to contribute to the implementation of the general rules of consideration.

  • 290.
    Lewis, J.P.
    et al.
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, England.
    Ryves, D.B.
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, England.
    Rasmussen, P.
    National Museum of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark / Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsen, J.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Knudsen, K.-L.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Andersen, S.H.
    Moesgård Museum, Højbjerg, Danmark.
    Weckström, K.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Clarke, A.L.
    APEM Aquatic Scientists Ltd, Stockport, UK.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Juggins, S.
    Newcastle University, Newcaslte, England.
    The shellfish enigma across the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in southern Scandinavia2016Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 151, s. 315-320, artikel-id http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.09.004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-known and widespread replacement of oysters (abundant during the Mesolithic period) by cockles and mussels in many Danish Stone Age shell middens ca. 5900 cal yrs BP coincides with the transition to agriculture in southern Scandinavia. This human resource shift is commonly believed to reflect changing resource availability, driven by environmental and/or climatic change at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition rather than cultural choice. While several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the “Mesolithic-Neolithic oyster decline”, an explanation based on a sudden freshening of the inner Danish waters has received most attention. Here, for the first time, we test and refute this long-standing hypothesis that declining salinity explains the marked reduction in oysters identified within numerous shell middens across coastal Denmark at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition using quantitative and qualitative salinity inference from several, independent proxies (diatoms, molluscs and foraminifera) from multiple Danish fjord sites. Alternatively, we attribute the oyster decline to other environmental causes (particularly changing sedimentation), ultimately driven by external climatic forcing. Critical application of such high-quality environmental archives can reinvigorate archaeological debates and can aid in understanding and managing environmental change in increasingly impacted coastal regions.

  • 291.
    Lidberg, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Hantering av miljö- och hälsorisker i textila produktkedjor: En fallstudie av Stockholms läns landsting2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 292. Lidmar-Bergström, Karna
    et al.
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Geografi.
    Japsen, Peter
    Stratigraphic Landscape Analysis and geomorphological paradigms: Scandinavia as an example of Phanerozoic uplift and subsidence2013Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 100, s. 153-171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stratigraphic Landscape Analysis (SLA) is based on a) the relationship between peneplains (low-relief denudation surfaces) in basement and their cover rocks of different age, b) the crosscutting relationships between such re-exposed peneplains and never covered (epigene) peneplains, and c) the occurrence of valleys incised below peneplains. Previous studies based on detailed SLA of the South Swedish Dome (SSD) have identified two major re-exposed peneplains, the flat sub-Cambrian peneplain and the sub-Jurassic/Cretaceous peneplain with undulating hilly relief. Both surfaces developed dose to former sea levels, were subsequently transgressed, and buried below sedimentary covers. The preservation of these peneplains documents that uplift of the land surface was followed by subsidence. Crosscutting relationships between these re-exposed and tilted peneplains and a third peneplain, an epigene and horizontal plain with residual hills, demonstrate that the latter is younger and thus of post-Cretaceous age. Three topographic highs characterize Scandinavia, the Northern Scandes (NS), the Southern Scandes (SS), and the low SSD. We show that the three relief types of the SSD can be identified across Scandinavia and that they demonstrate phases of uplift/denudation and subsidence/burial of Scandinavia during the Phanerozoic. In particular, we show that the epigene peneplains of the NS, the SS and the SSD are Cenozoic erosion surfaces and this also leads us to identify three major Cenozoic morphotectonic units. A result of our studies is that the paradigm of continuous uplift of steady state landscapes cannot be assumed as a universal model of landform evolution.

  • 293.
    Lind, Emma
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Stockholms universitet.
    Genetic response to pollution in sticklebacks; natural selection in the wild2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The last century, humans have been altering almost all natural environments at an accelerating rate, including the Baltic Sea that has highly eutrophicated areas and many coastal industries such as Pulp-mills. For animals living in a habitat that changes there are basically two alternatives, either to cope with the change or become locally extinct. This thesis aims to investigate if recent anthropogenic disturbance in the Baltic Sea can affect natural populations on a genetic level through natural selection.

    First, we found a fine-scale genetic structure in three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations along the Swedish coast (paper I), indicating limited gene-flow between populations in geographic proximity. Different genetic markers, specifically Amplified Fragment Lenght Polymorpism (AFLP, and microsatellites,  gave different results, highlighting the heterogeneous character of genomes which demonstrates that it is important to choose a genetic marker that is relevant for the question at hand. With a population genomic approach, and a multilocus genetic marker (AFLP), we detected convergent evolution in genotype composition in stickleback populations living in environments affected by pulp-mill effluent (paper II) and in highly eutrophicated environments (paper III), compared to adjacent reference populations. We found loci, in both studies (paper II, III), that were different from a neutral distribution and thus probably under divergent selection for the habitat differences investigated. The selective effect from pulp-mill effluents were more pronounced, but the two different habitats had mutual characters (AFLP loci). In paper IV, we converted five anonymous AFLP loci to sequenced markers and aligned them to the stickleback genome. Four out of five loci aligned within, or close to, coding regions on chromosome I, chromosome VIII, chromosome XIX and chromosome XX. One of the loci, located on chromosome VIII and identified as under divergent selection in both paper II and III, has been identified in other studies as to be under selection for fresh water adaptation, including Baltic Sea stickleback populations.

    In conclusion, anthropogenic alterations of natural environments can have evolutionary consequences, probably adaptive, for the animals living there and the evolutionary response exhibited by natural populations can be very fast.

  • 294.
    Lind, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Stockholms universitet.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Tuomainen, Ulla
    University of Helsinki.
    Borg, Malin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Candolin, Ulrika
    University of Helsinki.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Genetic response to eutrophication in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus): A study of multiple Baltic Sea populationsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic activities are causing change in natural habitats at an accelerating rate and affecting populations by altered selection pressures. One example is human-induced eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, were behaviour alterations are well documented in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Here we have used 204 variable Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers to investigate genetic differences between a set of ten hierarchal sampled populations of sticklebacks, five populations inhabiting eutrophicated habitats and five from control populations, in total 292 individuals. We found significant genetic variation that could be attributed to habitat (4.3% AMOVA). A combination of FST outlier analysis and classification analysis revealed seven AFLP-loci likely to be affected by divergent selection by eutrophication. Four of these seven loci have earlier been identified as under selection in stickleback populations living in pulp-mill effluents suggesting some similar selective factors between eutrophication and pulp-mill effluent effected habitats. 

  • 295.
    Linke, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Unravelling science-policy interactions in environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: Comparing fisheries and eutrophication2014Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 505-523Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 296.
    Linnala, Laura
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Laura Linnala.
    Frames of climate change skepticism: A comparative framing analysis of climate change skeptics in Sweden and the world.2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a time of changing climate and global warming, creating an urgency for policy- and societal ameliorative action. Increasing climate change skepticism in the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world as well as in Europe risks delaying urgent actions needed. This thesis studies a climate skeptical blog site and network in Sweden, Klimatupplysningen, and analyzes strategies used. A comparative framing analysis is conducted where frames compiled from previous research is searched for and analyzed in a randomly selected material of 150 blog posts.

    The results from the research show that strategies and frames from previous research to a large extent match those in Klimatupplysningen. Two new frames appeared from the material; Media & Debate and Humor. The new frames are indicative of a contextuality of online social media as main platform for communication and networking. More research is needed on effects on audiences from blogs and other social media.

  • 297.
    Ljungberg, Stina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Drivkrafter och hinder ur ett multifunktionellt perspektiv: Förutsättningar och utvecklingsområden för produktion av biobränsle från våtmarker2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Då Sverige redan nått flera av de energi- och klimatpolitiska målen kan målet om att skapa ett fossilfritt samhälle stå som ytterligare drivkraft för att fortsätta utvecklingen av de hållbara bränslena. Bidrag finns att få för att anlägga våtmarker, minska klimatpåverkan, förbättra naturmiljön och för utvecklandet av ny teknik samt bygga upp anläggningar för biobränsleproduktion. Trots detta har odling av våtmarksgrödor för energiutvinning ännu inte etablerats på energimarknaden. Denna studie är en del i kartläggningen av vad som kan komma att driva utvecklingen av våtmarker som källa till bioenergi framåt, och vilka delar som saknas i det arbetet. Efter intervjuer med intresserade och kunniga aktörer inom ämnet presenteras här de drivkrafter och hinder som påverkar denna utveckling. Drivkrafterna grundar sig i viljan att komma bort från fossila bränslen, att minska utsläppen av näringsämnen samt ge utrymme för biologisk mångfald, samtidigt som åtgärderna kan göra nytta för samhället och hjälpa till att nå klimat- och miljömålen. De största hindren utgörs av att speciella maskiner kan behövas för behandling av våtmarksgrödorna där terrängen är känslig och att mycket stora ytor skulle behövas för att öka lönsamheten. De ekonomiska stöd som finns att tillgå täcker inte heller alla nödvändiga steg i produktionsledet. Eftersom priserna på el och fossila bränslen är låga finns ännu ingen etablerad marknad för denna typ av energikälla och produktionen leder därför inte till någon större förtjänst. Biobränsleproducenter har även svårt att på ett tillräckligt effektivt sätt utvinna energin från grödorna. Detta gör att efterfrågan på energigrödor från våtmarker idag är mycket låg. Trots detta kan våtmarker bidra med en rad viktiga ekosystemtjänster i samband med produktion av energigrödor. Det rekommenderas därför att ett sådant system präglas av förvaltningsfilosofin mångbruk, där en naturresurs syfte är att nyttjas för flera ändamål samtidigt. Detta multifunktionella synsätt kan hjälpa till att öka våtmarkernas roll i uppfyllandet av flera av de nationella klimat- och miljömålen, om dess ekosystemtjänster vägs in tydligare i kalkylerna vid energiproduktion.

  • 298.
    Lublinn, Sandra
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Modeintresserad och miljömedveten - en möjlig kombination?2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumtion är något vi ägnar åt oss i vardagen och som inte går att komma ifrån. Nya möjligheter idag, vare sig det handlar om högre inkomst eller större utbud på marknaden, gör att det skapas nya begär och att den nya konsumtionen efter ett tag känns nödvändig. Idag konsumeras därmed fler varor än någonsin tidigare. Men konsumtionen av varor och tjänster påverkar miljön, och det under hela sin livscykel, från utvinning av råvara till då den blir till avfall.

    Konsumtion av mode är ett exempel på konsumtion där man uttrycker sina begär och sin längtan. Mode som ofta uttrycks genom kläder ger stimulans till konsumtion och mode och trender förändras snabbt, vilket innebär att det är svårt att hålla kolla på hela produktionsledet och hur miljön påverkas. Om konsumtion av mode har negativa effekter på miljön lyder frågan ifall det då är möjligt att konsumera mode på ett sätt som är mer hållbart.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka ifall det är möjligt att kombinera ett modeintresse med en miljömedvetenhet. Det som undersöks är bland annat ifall mode kan konsumeras på ett hållbart sätt, samt vilka möjligheter och svårigheter det finns med att kombinera mode med miljö. Dessa frågor besvaras med hjälp av en teoretisk litteraturstudie, framförallt eftersom det inte finns många studier som kombinerar mode med miljö. Teorierna som behandlas handlar bland annat om konsumtion och beteenden, och för att kunna kombinera mode med miljö behöver konsumtionsmönster förändras och alternativ till konventionella kläder finnas på marknaden. Om flera val tillhandahålls och marknadsförs på marknaden skapas alternativ som bidrar till att individen kan förena ett modeintresse och en miljömedvetenhet, men detta kan inte ses som den enda lösningen. Denna studie analyserar även huruvida praktiska exempel miljömärkning och second hand kan bidra till att kombinera miljö och mode.

  • 299.
    Lugomela, Charles
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, University of Dar es Salaam, PO Box 35064 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Lyimo, Thomas J.
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Dar es Salaam, PO Box 35179, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Namkinga, Lucy A
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Dar es Salaam, PO Box 35179, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Moyo, Sabina
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, PO Box 65001 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Goericke, Ralph
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, 92093, USA.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Co-variation of Cholera with Climatic and Environmental Parameters in Coastal Regions of Tanzania2014Ingår i: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 93-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterium causing cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is essentially a marine organism and its ecological dynamics have been linked to oceanographic conditions and climate. We used autoregressive models with external inputs to identify potential relationships between the number of cholera cases in the coastal regions of mainland Tanzania with climatic and environmental indices (maximum air temperature, sea surface temperature, wind speed and chlorophyll a). Results revealed that, between 2004 and 2010, coastal regions of mainland Tanzania inhabited by approximately 21% of the total population accounted for approximately 50% of the cholera cases and 40% of the total mortality. Significant co-variations were found between seasonally adjusted cholera cases and coastal ocean chlorophyll a and, to some degree, sea surface temperature, the outbreaks lagging behind by one to four months. Cholera cases in Dar es Salaam were also weakly related to the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index, lagging by five months, suggesting that it may be possible to predict cholera outbreaks for Dar es Salaam this period ahead. The results also suggest that the severity of cholera in coastal regions can be predicted by ocean conditions and that longer-term environmental and climate parameters may be used to predict cholera outbreaks along the coastal regions.

  • 300.
    Luthman, Ola
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jonell, M.
    Stockholm University.
    Troell, M.
    Stockholm University / Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Governing the salmon farming industry: Comparison between national regulations and the ASC salmon standard2019Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 106, artikel-id 103534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmed salmon has become an important export commodity for many countries and regions. The expanding salmon aquaculture industry has, due to its rapid increase, resulted in environmental concerns, most notably relating to the interaction with wildlife, effects of effluents and discharges in local ecosystems, in some regions overuse of antibiotics and development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and high dependence on fish resources in feeds. As a response to these concerns, the industry has strengthened their efforts to improve practices and private led sustainability initiatives, including certification and eco-labelling, has become increasingly important. This study examines the differences between salmon farming governance policies in the four largest salmon producing regions; Norway, Chile, Scotland (UK) and British Columbia (Canada) and the Aquaculture Stewardship Council's (ASC) salmon standard. The purpose of the study is to clarify how the standard from a well-established eco-certification program compares to national or regional conventional standards, using additionality as measuring method. The paper concludes that at present the ASC standard has mainly three strong advantages over existing regional/national standards and these relate to; escape numbers allowed, antibiotic usage and fish resources in feed. Changing these three main divergences in the national/regional regulations would significantly improve some of the main sustainability issues with uncertified salmon farming. The study also finds that the potential additionality of the ASC standard can differ between regions, with the highest difference in Chile and lowest in Norway.

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