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  • 251.
    Häggblom, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Wallin, Amanda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Marknadens reaktion på omvända vinstvarningar: En eventstudie om hur tillkännagivandet omvända vinstvarningar påverkar aktiekursen hos svenska börsnoterade bolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En vinstvarning är när ett företag går ut med information till allmänheten om att resultatet kommer att bli väsentligt lägre än förväntat. Denna studie undersöker marknadens reaktion vid omvända vinstvarningar, som är precis vad namnet antyder, när företag går ut med information om att resultatet kommer bli väsentligt högre än förväntat. Marknadens reaktion vid vinstvarningar tenderar att vara mer negativ då företag väljer att inte dela med sig av detaljerad information och mindre negativ då företaget väljer att vara mer transparenta och dela med sig av detaljerad information (Bulkley & Herrerias, 2005; Church & Donker, 2010). Tidigare studier har också visat att reaktionen vid vinstvarningar är mer negativa hos små företag än stora (Jackson & Madura, 2003; Bulkley & Herrerias, 2005; Church & Donker, 2010). Om resultat från tidigare studier som har studerat negativa vinstvarningar skulle stämma överens även vid omvända vinstvarningar betyder det att aktiekursen stiger mer hos små företag än hos stora företag vid tidpunkten för tillkännagivandet och att minskad transparens har en positiv effekt. Studien försöker därför svara på frågeställningen; Hur reagerar den svenska marknaden när företag tillkännager omvända vinstvarningar?

    Undersökningen genomförs med hjälp av en eventstudie med kvantitativ ansats. Urvalet av omvända vinstvarningar är de som har hittats med hjälp av databasen Retriever Media Archive under åren 2004 – 2019. Resultaten visar att företagens storlek och vilken typ av information som finns i de omvända vinstvarningarna har betydelse för hur stark marknadsreaktionen blir. Studien undersöker även om det förekommer abnormal avkastning redan tiden innan dagen för tillkännagivandet, vilket kan tyda på informationsläckage, men detta kan inte påvisas med statistisk signifikans. Då regelverken kring huruvida företag måste vinstvarna är diffusa och öppna för tolkning kan det också diskuteras kring vilka konsekvenser det får för företagen att vara så transparenta som möjligt.

    Resultaten tyder på att den positiva kumulativa abnormala avkastningen är signifikant avvikande vid tillkännagivandet av omvända vinstvarningar från svenska börsnoterade bolag. Även fast så hög transparens som möjligt bör eftersträvas ur ett moraliskt perspektiv, så kan resultaten från denna studie användas till att förstå hur marknaden tar emot informationen vid tillkännagivandet av omvända vinstvarningar och därmed ge inblick i hur olika utformningar av denna information kan leda till olika marknadsreaktioner. Om en stark positiv reaktion eftersträvas så visar studiens resultat att det ger en starkare marknadsreaktion att inkludera mer detaljerad information. Små företag har också större chans att få aktiekursen att stiga vid en omvänd vinstvarning än vad stora företag har (Jackson & Madura, 2003; Bulkley & Herrerias, 2005; Church & Donker, 2010).

  • 252.
    Höglund, David
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Abdulmasih, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    CSR: Frivilligt eller påtvingat?: Ett strategiskt perspektiv på IKEAs hållbarhetsarbete2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur strategiskt IKEA arbetar med CSR, genom att studera hur de hanterar samhällets förväntade krav för att uppnå legitimitet.

    Metoden var kvalitativ och genomfördes som en innehållsanalys, baserad på sekundärdata. Denna bestod av sammanlagt sex rapporter, varav tre av dessa var IKEAs hållbarhetsrapporter från 2010, 2013 och 2016. De tre resterande var granskande rapporter från EU-parlamentet, SVTs Uppdrag Granskning och Svenska Dagbladet. Studien utgick från Porter och Kramers teori om strategisk CSR, Carrolls CSR-pyramid och nyinstitutionell teori.

    Resultatet av den insamlade datan visade att IKEA arbetar med CSR genom egna, konkretiserade mål som är kärnan i hållbarhetsarbetet och att de förhåller sig till ett flertal organisationers riktlinjer för hur CSR ska tillämpas. En viktig komponent i hållbarhetsrapporterna är IWAY, IKEAs uppförandekod för samarbetet med leverantörer. Vidare visade analysen att företaget har identifierat de områden väl där de har en störst påverkan på samhället och att CSR arbetet är bra integrerat i verksamheten. De har i viss mån uppnått ett strategiskt CSR arbete, främst gällande bomullsutvinningen och IWAY. Ett område IKEA kan utvecklas inom är att se vilka möjligheter det finns i den omgivande miljöns påverkan på företaget. I syfte att uppnå legitimitet måste IKEA förhålla sig till samhällets normer, som ställer högre krav än det som förväntas i ren legal och ekonomisk mening, Detta innebär att företaget har blivit tvunget att agera responsivt eller löskoppla.

  • 253.
    Höglund, Fanny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Karkulahti, Emilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Public Relations på sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie om PR-byråers effektiva kommunikationsprocess2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The technological development has made it possible for organizations and companies to communicate directly to the target group without any restrictions in time and place. Through social media, a new communication process has been developed and it is now possible to communicate directly with society through their own media. The PR industry has become increasingly digitalized and the traditional one-way communication has evolved into communication between two parties, furthermore, this has contributed to the fact that people can engage in a completely different way today.

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to generate an understanding of PR agencies communication process on social media and how they determine the extent of their effectiveness.

    Methodology: The study is of qualitative research strategy with a deductive research approach. To answer the questions, the empirical material has been collected through semi-structured interviews with seven selected PR agencies in Stockholm.

    Conclusions: The results of the study show that all PR agencies work with the communication model where two-way communication is a central part. How they work with the communication process differs depending on the size of the agency. The results also show that the larger PR agencies apply the measurement tools to determine the extent of effectiveness, while the smaller PR agencies apply lesser reports, analyzes variables, and through feedback.

  • 254.
    Höök, Jennifer
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Issak, Merna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: En kvalitativ studie om begriplighet, användbarhet och relevans av en hållbarhetsrapport ur ett medarbetarperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Sustainability accounting - A qualitative study about the understanding, usefulness and

    relevance of sustainability reporting based on an employee perspective.

    Problematization: There has been previous research about sustainability reporting through

    an external point of view. There is however a gap in research about sustainability reporting

    from an employee perspective.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a better comprehension of how employees

    perceive the information presented in sustainability report and if they feel that the report is

    aimed for them or external stakeholders.

    Frame of reference: This episode began with previous research about the three qualitative

    characteristics that are used when creating a financial report. The framework of GRI is also

    presented. Lastly the stakeholder theory and stakeholder dialogue are introduced.

    Method: This study has a qualitative approach where 10 semi-structured interviews have

    been held to collect data.

    Research: The employees have a better understanding of the information related to the social

    and environmental issues. Furthermore they only consider the information regarding the

    environment to be useful in their daily work. The employees believe that the environmental

    and social part of the report is relevant while the economic could not be assessed by the

    employees.

    Conclusions: Diagrams, thorough explanations and knowledge of the subject increased the

    understanding of the report. The economical part can be further understood if there is more

    extensive content. The information becomes useful when they can directly use it in their daily

    work and when they feel that the information is aimed for them. They need to receive the

    information through meetings for it to be useful for them. They had little previous knowledge

    of the economical part and were there for not able to assess the relevance of the report's

    content while the environmental and the social area were relevant because the content has

    currently been highlighted in newspapers and debates.

  • 255.
    Ilic, Mattea
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Moberg, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Vikten av att vara motiverad: En kvantitativ fallstudie om motivation på en av Skandinaviens största koncerner inom detaljhandeln2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Undersöka vilka skillnader och likheter i motivationsfaktorer som går att upptäcka mellan chefer och anställda på detaljhandelskoncernen Nilson Group. Fokus har legat på att undersöka vilka av de inre och yttre motivationsfaktorerna som väger tyngst hos respektive yrkesgrupp och att utreda vilka eventuella samband som finns mellan dem. Metod: För att besvara frågeställningen har en kvantitativ fallstudie gjorts på en koncern och dess företag inom detaljhandelsbranschen. Data har samlats in i form av enkäter. Slutsatser: Det går att se ett tydligt mönster av att det är de inre motivationsfaktorerna som har störst betydelse för både chefer och butiksanställda. 29 av 30 chefer i undersökningen, motsvarande 97 procent, motiveras främst av inre motivationsfaktorer. 26 av 30 anställda i undersökningen, motsvarande 87 procent, motiveras främst av inre motivation. Det var ingen som enbart motiverades av den inre eller yttre faktorn utan för samtliga respondenter fanns det influenser av båda faktorerna. Det gick att fastslå en signifikans skillnad mellan yrkesgrupperna i ett påstående tillhörande varje teori. Det gick också att se tydliga likheter i två påståenden. I de övriga kunde en del samband och olikheter upptäckas men det gick inte att signifikant fastslå. Det går att statistiskt säkerställa att de enskilda medelvärdena för respondenternas svar är representativt för populationen på en 95 procent signifikansnivå. Det betyder att det går att fastställa att det är de inre faktorerna som betyder mest.

  • 256.
    Ilvonen, Rebecka
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ylönen, Mikaela
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ledarskapets roll i strategiska allianser: En kvalitativ branschöverskridande studie på sex företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order for companies to be able to reach the global market more easily and to meet customers’ expectations, strategic alliances have increased. Strategic alliances form when two or more companies decide to cooperate to reach a higher strategic purpose, which they cannot do individually. Many alliances do not succeed and strategic alliances are often very difficult to manage and requires a competent management and leadership. Previous research claims that leadership plays a major role in the success of strategic alliances.

    The aim of the study was to contribute to better understanding of what impact leadership have in strategic alliance. The method used was based on a qualitative research design with semi structured interviews from six companies in different sectors.

    The results of the study indicate that leadership has an important impact in a strategic alliance. The results also indicate that the four success factors; trust, interdependence, communication and conflict management, are important to succeed with the alliance. Leaders strives to create trust by building good relationships internally and externally within the alliance. The leaders of the companies experienced interdependence which was considered positive. All leaders put a lot of effort to ensure good communication, which is done by being transparent, straightforward, open and honest in his communication. The few conflicts that arose in the alliances were resolved at one time by being diplomatic and creative.

  • 257.
    Ivanioukhine, Alexander
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Wahlmark, Filip
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Guld - en safe haven mot volatilitet?: Undersökning av förhållandet mellan guld och volatilitetsindex2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyse whether gold fulfils the criteria for being a safe haven asset in certain conditions. Through the use of data pooled from CBOE’s VIX, GVZ and the spot price of gold, we employ a quantitative approach to analyse correlation, rate of return and standard deviation during times of market volatility. The chosen period for this analysis is the time between 1994 and 2018. Gold proved its ability to retain value during such conditions, which is evidenced by higher average returns when VIX has been at high levels. This strengthens its role as a safe haven asset. However, gold failed to keep a low level of volatility in periods of rising implied volatility on the stock market, as expressed by the VIX index. Moreover, the implied volatility of gold, expressed through the GVZ index, has shown a strong correlation with the VIX, indicating that gold is not a safe haven. Finally, the gold spot price was shown to have little to no correlation with changes in VIX.

  • 258.
    Ivarsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lindgren, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    ”Betalt samarbete med…”: En studie om attityder och åsikter till Instagrams annonseringspolicy och ekonomiskt kompenserade inlägg publicerade av influencers2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Influencer marketing is an effective method, rather than traditional advertising strategy, due to that the method is perceived more authentic and trustworthy. During autumn 2017 the social media platform Instagram introduced an advertising policy to distinguish personal opinions and advertising – due to this advertising is more visible than ever before on the social media platform. Further, the general advertising resistance is enhancing in Sweden, and the commercial use of influencer has increased. There’s an interesting situation in a constantly evolving marketing environment, which is relevant and valuable to investigate.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate attitudes and opinions regarding Instagram's new advertising policy and economically compensated posts labeled "Paid partnership with...". Based on the purpose, the following research question has been established:

    • What opinions and attitudes exist towards Instagram advertising policy and economically compensated posts published by influencers on Instagram with the label "Paid partnership with...”?

    The essay is based on a qualitative and quantitative research methodology, also known as mixed methods research. The empirical data was based on three semi structured interviews with key persons whom represents companies, influencers and they all are working with Influencer marketing. In addition, an online survey was implemented with 140 respondents whom use Instagram.

    Based on the results of the study, several conclusions have been identified. The match between influencers and companies has proved to be one of the primary prerequisites for economically compensated collaborations to be considered credible. Companies generally has a positive attitude towards Instagram's advertising policy, considering that it helps to label economically compensated posts as advertisements. Additionally, the policy is appreciated by the Instagram users as it helps to increase transparency for economically compensated posts, as it’s very important that such posts be advertised, by both perspectives. Continuingly, the study shows that both parts generally have a positive attitude towards posts published by influencers on Instagram with the label "Paid partnership with...". In conclusion, the design of such posts has proved to be crucial for the Instagram users attitude.

  • 259.
    Ivarsson Westerberg, Anders
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Jacobsson, BengtSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Staten och granskningssamhället2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Granskningar har blivit både vanligare och alltmer omdiskuterade. Många har börjat tala om förekomsten av ett granskningssamhälle. Granskningar – vare sig de kallas revision, tillsyn, kontroll, kvalitetssäkring, inspektion, utvärdering eller certifiering – har idag många förespråkare, men börjar också få sina kritiker.

    Den 15 februari 2013 hölls ett vittnesseminarium med rubriken ”Staten och granskningssamhället” vid Södertörns högskola. Där fördes en livlig diskussion såväl om granskandets välsignelser som om dess avigsidor. Tre frågor stod i fokus: varför granskas det så mycket? Vad händer när man granskar? Vilka konsekvenser får det myckna granskandet?

    I denna skrift publiceras utskriften av vittnesseminariet tillsammans med en inledande artikel av Bengt Jacobsson och Anders Ivarsson Westerberg som ställer frågan om det finns någon väg ut ur granskningssamhället?

  • 260. Izak, Michał
    et al.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    There is hope in organizing: Dialogic imagination against linearity2019In: Organizing Hope: Narratives for a better future / [ed] Daniel Ericsson and Monika Kostera, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, p. 176-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Den moderna myndigheten2017In: En modern myndighet: Trafikverket som ett förvaltningspolitiskt mikrokosmos / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson; Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 173-194Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Den svåra samordningen: Regeringen och Agenda 20302019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten handlar om Regeringskansliet och dess förmåga att hantera de krav på långsiktigt, samordnat handlande som aktualiseras av den FN-policy som går under namnet Agenda 2030.

    Intresset riktas mot Regeringskansliet och dess förutsättningar att bli organiserat på ett sätt som gör att den samlade expertis som finns i staten kan komma till nytta. Ambitionerna med Agenda 2030 är högt ställda, och implementeringen innebär onekligen utmaningar för den svenska staten. Genomförandet tycks förutsätta en betydande kapacitet för styrning och samordning.

    Finns det några särskilda egenskaper hos det svenska Regeringskansliet som är viktiga att ha i åtanke när man diskuterar förverkligandet av Agenda 2030? Eftersträvas det en kapacitet som förmår att initiera förändring, eller en som förmår att visa att förändring redan är på gång?

  • 263.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Fotnoter till förvaltningspolitiken: Lärande, styrning and all that jazz...2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    "Det systematiska lärandet har aldrig riktigt fått fotfäste i staten. Politiska logiker är mestadels framåtblickande, och inriktade mot hur man genom reformer och andra åtgärder ska kunna uppnå önskvärda framtider. Trots expansionen av granskning under senare år är reflektioner kring den existerande organiseringens ändamålsenlighet en bristvara."

    Bengt Jacobsson diskuterar i denna essä hur man kan förstå den styrning som förekommer i staten, hur styrningen i dagens statsförvaltning har utvecklats över tiden och hur mål och resultatstyrningen kommit att dominera i svensk statsförvaltning. Avslutningsvis ger han förslag på hur regeringen både skulle kunna stimulera myndigheternas men också sin egen förmåga att på ett systematiskt sätt lära av erfarenheter.

    Bengt Jacobsson är professor i företagsekonomi och verksam vid Förvaltningsakademin, Södertörns högskola.

    Förvaltningsakademin är en mångvetenskaplig centrumbildning vid Södertörns högskola som bedriver uppdragsutbildning och forskar om statsförvaltning samt verkar för kvalificerade möten mellan forskning och praktik.

  • 264.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Granskning och styrning2019In: Granskningssamhället: offentliga verksamheter under lupp / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson, Jon Pierre, Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 261-268Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 265.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Jämförelser mellan politikområden2019In: Granskningssamhället: offentliga verksamheter under lupp / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson, Jon Pierre, Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 209-223Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kulturpolitik: Styrning på avstånd2014Book (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lita mer till det professionella2014In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 2, p. 45-49Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Mujkic, Leonora
    Historien bakom Trafikverket2017In: En modern myndighet: Trafikverket som ett förvaltningspolitiskt mikrokosmos / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson; Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 31-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Pierre, Jon
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Den offentliga granskningen2019In: Granskningssamhället: offentliga verksamheter under lupp / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson, Jon Pierre, Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 11-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 270.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Pierre, Jon
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Governing the Embedded State: The Organizational Dimension of Governance2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Pierre, JonGöteborgs universitet.Sundström, GöranStockholms universitet.
    Granskningssamhället: offentlig verksamhet under lupp2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Demokrati och förvaltning: En festskrift till Rune Premfors2014Book (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Sundström, GöranStockholms universitet.
    En modern myndighet: Trafikverket som ett förvaltningspolitiskt mikrokosmos2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ett förvaltningspolitiskt mikrokosmos2017In: En modern myndighet: Trafikverket som ett förvaltningspolitiskt mikrokosmos / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson; Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 15-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholm University.
    Governing the State2016In: The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics / [ed] Jon Pierre, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 347-361Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mönster i granskningssamhället2019In: Granskningssamhället: offentliga verksamheter under lupp / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson, Jon Pierre, Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 247-260Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholm University.
    The Europeanization of the Swedish State2016In: The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics / [ed] Jon Pierre, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 515-528Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 278.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sundström, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Variation och likformighet i granskningen2019In: Granskningssamhället: offentliga verksamheter under lupp / [ed] Bengt Jacobsson, Jon Pierre, Göran Sundström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 225-245Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Svensson, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Rektorer: Om konsten att hantera motstridiga krav2017Book (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Jacobsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Svensson, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Tomson, Klara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rektorer på skolbänken: Några observationer halvvägs in i en studie2013Report (Other academic)
  • 281.
    Jakobsson, Felicia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Förmånsbestämda pensionsplaner: En studie om koncerners val av diskonteringsränta i pensionsredovisningen utifrån aktuell skuldsättningsgrad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to investigate the corporations that apply defined benefit pension plans with actuarial assumptions. The study intends to see if there is any correlation between the corporation’s debt-to-equity ratio and the choice of discount rate in their pension plan.

    Demarcation - The study will be limited to all the corporations that apply defined benefit plans during the fiscal year 2016. The corporation shall report the discount rate as one of the actuarial assumptions in the pension report.

    Method - The study has chosen a quantitative research strategy with a deductible approach to answer the study's purpose and problem formulation, namely, see if there is a correlation between debt-to-equity ratio and discount rate. Based on previous studies, we then compile and analyze data from the financial reports.

    Empiricism - The study uses a simple regression analysis to obtain a correlation coefficient to describe if there is a correlation between the study's variables, debt ratio and discount rate. In order to clarify the relationship between the variables, a regression line is used and is illustrated in a scattergram.

    Analysis/Conclusion - The 92 observations that have been completed by using financial statements have resulted in that there is no correlation between the x variable (debt ratio) and the y-variable (discount rate), both x and y show varying values but not as a result of each other. The size of the corporation does not matter and have no effect on the final result of the study. The study received a greater loss than expected due to the fact that corporations do not apply defined benefit plans to the same extent as before and defined-contribution pension plans is more common today. In addition, many corporations now reported their defined benefit plans according to Alecta's technical insurance bases.

    Proposals for further research - It would be interesting to apply additional key figures as well as additional actuarial assumptions than just the debt-to-equity ratio and discount rate. Interviews as a complement would also provide a deeper understanding of the defined benefit plans, as well as the underlying motives that may exist in the forecast of actuarial assumptions.

  • 282.
    Jangiri, Solin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Syed, Sagiba
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Valet av smartphone: En kvalitativ studie om vad som motiverar konsumentbeteendet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today's society, not only is the focus on the physical product but also on the behavior of the consumer and the value of a brand. Brands carry symbolic values ​​that consumers use to identify themselves and create communities, also known as Brand communities. Today, consumers are less affected by advertising and product placements and as a result, marketers are constantly working to interpret consumers and what motivates the consumer behavior.

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate the underlying factors which motivate consumers to choose a smartphone.

    Issues: What factors motivate the customer when they choose to buy a smartphone?

    Which of these factors are dominant for the customer?

    How does the dominant factor affect the consumer?

    Method: The study is based on a qualitative research strategy. The methodological approaches of the study constitutes a relationship between theory and practice and, as a consequence, the deductive approach has been selected. The study has applied source triangulation through two interviews with a focus group consisting of eight people and supplemented with three telephone interviews with different sales representatives.

    Conclusions: The conclusion shows that all cultural, social and psychological factors motivate consumers to choose a smartphone. However, the main influencing factor is consumers friends who belong to the category of social factors. Consumer friends introduce the consumer for new products, brands and trends. Among the social factors we also find status and roles. The smartphone is associated with certain values ​​as exclusivity and can be a tool for achieving a certain status or living up to a certain role. This then creates preferences and associations of the consumer that drives it to choose a smartphone.

  • 283.
    Jansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Andersson, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Intern kommunikation, en bro mellan arbetsro och framtidstro: Visuell kommunikation i en digitaliserad värld2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen var att redogöra för hur organisationer arbetar med intern kommunikation och belysa om bristen på personliga möten mellan medarbetare av olika slag påverkar kommunikationen. Samt ge en djupare förståelse i hur kommunikation uppfattas och tolkas på olika nivåer inom organisationer för att förbättra effektivitet, måluppfyllelse, motivation och engagemang hos medarbetarna. Syftet var även att skapa en modell över en organisations interna kommunikation som kan användas både individuellt och övergripande i organisationen för att utvärdera den interna kommunikationen. Den forskningsstrategi som användes var en fallstudie hos ett transportföretag i Uppsala. Personer på olika hierarkiska nivåer i organisationen intervjuades och datan som respondenterna genererade kategoriserades under fem olika teman. Det framgick att det förekommer brister i den interna kommunikationen, framförallt mellan de olika hierarkiska nivåerna och en stor osäkerhet i hur de olika kommunikationskanalerna kan användas. Organisationen försökte lösa samtliga anställdas kommunikations- och informationsbehov genom en kanal. Beroende på vilken hierarkisk nivå den anställde befann sig på fanns det skillnader i uppfattningen och tolkning av information samt via vilken kanal som kommunikation bör ske genom. En ny modell som kan fungera som ett verktyg för att utvärdera den interna kommunikationen utarbetades med inspiration från två andra modeller. Den nya modellen ska kunna appliceras på organisationen som helhet men även på individnivå för att kunna utvärdera sin egen interna kommunikation.

  • 284.
    Jansson, Sandra
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Orelöv, Jesper
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Mindfulness på arbetsplatsen: En kvalitativ studie om hur anställda upplever att mindfulness som hälsofrämjande åtgärd inverkar på deras arbetssituation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies of today tend to invest more and more in workplace health promotion measures to improve employees ́ health. These health promotion measures have in particular been consisted of physical training, while the mental training have not received equal attention. Furthermore, research shows that a big part of how employees describe their well-being is based on how they experience their work situation. A few factors that have been identified to affect the work situation is work-related relationships, work environment and work-related strains. The aim of this study is therefore to contribute to an increased understanding of how employees experience that workplace health promotion in form of mindfulness can affect their work situation. The study has its basis on the Social cognitive theory and Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). In order to answer the aim, six semi-structured interviews were conducted at a consulting company in the real estate industry in Stockholm. The result showed that conclusions can be drawn about that mindfulness as a workplace health promotion in this context has a positive impact on employees work situation. The respondents stated that their relationships, work environment and ability to handle work-related strains had improved thanks to the implementation of mindfulness at work. They also stated that factors as their presence, openness and the ability to find their values had improved. The result is also supported by previous research which says that mindfulness has a positive impact on how employees experience their work situation.

  • 285.
    Jantunen, A.
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Tarkiainen, A.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Chari, S.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Dynamic capabilities, operational changes, and performance outcomes in the media industry2018In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 89, p. 251-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic capabilities theorem posits that rapidly changing operating environments necessitate dynamic capabilities (i.e. sensing, seizing and reconfiguring) for success. Dynamic capabilities reconfigure existing asset positions and create organizational renewal. We contend that higher performance outcomes can be achieved when dynamic capabilities interact with operational-level changes (i.e., changes in management and practices or changes in used technologies and target markets). The present study explores different pathways of dynamic capabilities and operational-level changes for performance success in a media industry context (i.e., magazines). Due to the digitalization of its business, the media industry has undergone significant changes the past years. We use a set-theoretic approach with fsQCA and data from 78 magazines to test our conceptualization. Our findings contribute to the literature of dynamic capabilities by providing empirical evidence on the relationship between dynamic capabilities, operational changes, and performance.

  • 286.
    Jarnbo, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ansvarsfull kreditgivning: En studie om bankers kreditgivning till företag ur ett miljö- och hållbarhetsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is something that affects us all. If we do not change our way of living, our planet will be damaged and our lifestyle dramatically changed. Over the past decade, public concern about the environment has increased significantly and companies have had to take measures to attract customers, investors and employees. The financial sector has also had to take action because climate change is a threat to financial stability and long-term prosperity. Banks must work with responsible lending, that is to say, protect their customers from over indebtedness but also work to reduce their indirect environmental impact. Banks have a crucial role for sustainable development because they choose which companies and projects they want to help finance. By examining corporate environmental impact and risk before a credit can be granted, banks can influence companies with a negative environmental impact to take action. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a deeper understanding of how banks with activities in Sweden work with responsible lending to companies, how it affects the assessment and how it differs between banks. The purpose is also to investigate what tools banks apply in their credit assessment to analyze companies’ environmental impact and risk.

    The study is based on a deductive method with a qualitative approach. The survey consists of interviews with six employees from three different banks. These banks are Nordea, Danske Bank and Handelsbanken.

    The survey's conclusions are that the investigated banks try to work with responsible lending from an environmental and sustainability perspective by reducing their indirect environmental impact. However, the survey shows that banks do not always investigate the environmental impact and risk of a company. This is when the credit analytics considers that there is an obvious risk within the industry in which the company operates or (in one bank) when the credit amount is at a certain level, as the environmental analysis is carried out. Environmental and sustainability factors affect the credit decision because banks do not want to finance companies that involve a high risk for them. The Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority believes that banks should start a dialogue with companies that have a negative environmental impact, to take actions. The survey shows, however, that banks do not currently demand such measures. The investigated banks work in a similar way with responsible lending, however, their tools differ. The survey shows that some banks do not have standardized internal tools for employees to assess companies’ environmental impact and risk. The credit analytics has to use own knowledge and experience to make the assessment. Tools should be introduced to ensure an objective assessment and work as a support for credit analytics. Credit analytics should be educated more regarding responsible lending and sustainability, also in order to engage in dialogue with companies about environmental risks. The survey shows that larger companies choose not to be financed by banks that do not have a clearly stated environmental and sustainability policy. The findings of the survey have been confirmed by the Swedish Bankers’ Association.

  • 287.
    Jarrolf, Isabelle
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Holm, Sonia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Känner du dig bevakad på internet? Klicka här: Studie om hur köpintentionen hos konsumenter tillhörande olika personlighetsdimensioner påverkas av Online Behavioral Advertising2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA), which fundamentally consists of collected data about a person’s online behavior. The phenomena are made possible via the use of cookies on webpages and social media, which the user needs to accept to access the platform. The saved information is then used by firms to present targeted advertising, so called Online Behavioral Advertising.

    The feeling of being watched over/controlled on the internet might seem intrusive, which studies show may have a negative effect on consumers purchase intentions. How the effect varies between different personalities has not been studied before. Previous studies have focused on studying correlation between personalities and purchase intention and correlation between OBA and purchase intention. Little light has been shed on the effects of OBA for different personalities, to complete previous studies this study aims to find out more by using an acknowledged personality model named Big Five.

    This study uses a quantitative research approach, a web survey has been constructed to collect data and enable the composed hypotheses to be tested. The collected data is being analyzed in SPSS into descriptive statistics and Spearman rank correlation between the personality dimensions of the Big Five and the effect of OBA on purchase intention.

    The results show that previous theories about the effect of OBA on purchase intention can be verified. The descriptive statistics also show a significant higher effect of OBA on men than women. Furthermore, Spearman rank correlation shows that the effect varies between the personality dimensions of Big Five. A positive correlation was found between the dimensions Openness and Extraversion and OBA's effect, which means that persons scoring higher in these dimensions also has a higher effect of OBA on purchase intention. A negative correlation was found between the dimension Conscientiousness and OBA's effect, which means that persons scoring higher in this dimension is not significantly affected by OBA.

  • 288.
    Jiverud, Lina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Vikström, Ida
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Revisorn och varning om fortsatt drift: En kvantitativ studie om faktorer som påverkar revisionskvaliteten.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After a numerous audit scandals over the years, it has become popular to criticize the auditor and question the audit quality. The auditor has a responsibility to inform if they have significant doubts about the continuity of a company. The issuing of a going-concern involves a lot of tough decisions and assessments for the auditor. However, there are factors that may affect the auditor’s actions such as the auditor’s closeness to the client, audit firm and the risk of legal action. Previous studies have also shown that there’s a difference in audit quality between men and women.

    The purpose with this paper is to study how different factors affect the auditor’s issuance of a going-concern and thus see how it affects the audit quality. The purpose is also to study any differences that exist in the Swedish context as compared to previous studies in other countries.

    To examine the relationship between going-concern and the variables, a quantitative study was conducted in which annual reports and audit reports from Swedish bankrupt companies were studied. The results of the study indicate that there is a relation between financial distress and a going-concern, but it was not possible to detect any relation to variables such as gender, audit firm and the age of the client. The result also shows that the audit quality and the issuance of a going-concern in Sweden differs from other countries.

  • 289.
    Johansson, Adam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sundell, Victor
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Konsten att förena en paradox: En kvalitativ studie om hur relationer mellan stabilitet och förändring ter sig inom en organisation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizations and companies face several challenges regarding adaptation to the rapid development that is taking place in today's society. It is vital for companies that are in fast-changing industries to act quickly and efficiently to stay at the forefront of their specific area.

    Purpose: This study intends to form an understanding of how the relationship between stability and change occurs in an innovative company, which work within a rapidly changing environment. Furthermore, the study intends to contribute deeper insights into the balance between organizational stability and short-term innovation processes as well as employees' views on this balance.

    Method: The study has embraced a qualitative approach where empirical gathering was conducted through twelve interviews with employees at different levels within the investigated organization.

    Conclusion: The study shows that the surveyed organization maintains stability through work based on routines, experiences and habits. Differences can be found in how employees perceive the relationship between stability and change, with different perspectives at management level and employee level.

  • 290.
    Johansson, Daniel
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Karlberg, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    AP-fonderna och de smutsiga investeringarna: En studie om målkonflikter och hur AP-fonderna legitimerar investeringar i fossila bolag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatkrisen är ett faktum. Sverige har, genom egna initiativ och internationella konventioner, gjort åtaganden mot att bli ett fossilfritt land med delmålet att minska utsläpp av koldioxid med minst 60 procent fram till 2030, för att ge kommande generationer och pensionärer möjligheten till en hållbar framtid. Samtidigt investeras miljardbelopp, genom svenska pensionsmyndigheter, i de allra smutsigaste fossila bolagen som genom sin verksamhet är en stor del av orsaken till den globala uppvärmningen. Att våra gemensamma pensionsmedel som ska säkra framtida pensioner är med och finansierar klimatkrisen är en paradox.

    Undersökningen syftar till att ta reda på vilka eventuella målkonflikter som finns i AP-fondernas uppdrag, hur de ser ut samt hur de använder sig av kommunikationsstrategier för att legitimera investeringar i fossila bolag. För att förstå och analysera fallet används framförallt legitimitetsteorin och intressentteorin, vilka bygger på det nyinstitutionella perspektivet. Metoden som används är en kvalitativ innehållsanalys av årsredovisningar och hållbarhetsrapporter samt observationer under en hållbarhetspresentation och paneldebatt arrangerad av AP-fonderna.

    Resultatet pekar på att det finns en betydande målkonflikt mellan uppdraget att förränta kapital, med hänsyn till etik och miljö, och investeringar i fossila bolag. I analys och slutsats diskuteras vilka kommunikationsstrategier, motiv och metoder som används för att legitimera agerandet. Huvudstrategin för att behålla legitimitet är att argumentera för, samt påvisa, möjligheter till påverkan genom aktiv ägardialog genom att driva, eller åtminstone påstå att man driver, hållbarhetsfrågor framgångsrikt. AP-fonderna och Etikrådet verkar systematiskt använda CSR- arbete och olika kommunikationsstrategier för att behålla legitimitet och resultatet pekar på att greenwashing används för att legitimera investeringar och finansiering av fossila bolag. 

  • 291.
    Johansson, Elena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Protection of Intellectual Property in the Russian Federation: Institutions and Organizations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Infringement in fields of Intellectual Property Rights is a global problem causing repeated and sustained attention at national and international levels. A number of different organizations and commissions are constantly control and counteract the growth of these infringements, but despite the taken measures counterfeit and piracy goods continue to be manufactured and sold around the world. The Russian Federation (RF) is a country that has close commercial ties with many foreign states, including Sweden. However the RF is one of the countries, included on the Special 301 Priority Watch List due to the continuing and large - scale of Property Rights and Intellectual Property Rights violations. In this connection, a study was conducted with the participation of collaborating Swedish - Russian enterprises, whose activities could be subjected to counterfeiting and IP piracy. The aim of the study is to determine how collaborating Swedish – Russian enterprises with branches in the Russian Federation perceive the situation in the country and assess the activities of Russian institutions that play an important role in controlling and combating violations against counterfeiting and IP piracy. Moreover the aim includes identifying the most vulnerable class of actors in the general mechanism of counterfeiting and IP piracy. The research based on elements of the New Institutional Economics Theory and conducted by using a combination of a literature review and semi- structured interview with representatives of Swedish - Russian enterprises. The study found that organizations are the most vulnerable class of actors in general mechanism of counterfeiting and IP piracy. International firms and companies are in a more difficult situation because they provide own activities simultaneously in several legal and political systems. Representatives of interviewed companies argue that activities of analyzed Russian institutions are insufficiently effective and the state should take a set of measures so the foreign collaborative organizations could feel confident in territory of the RF and Russian market would become more attractive for foreign business.

  • 292.
    Johansson, Janet
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    'Gender And Employment In Rural China' by J. Song. Abingdon2018In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 741-744Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Johansson Matikka, Joel
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Tok, Yuhan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Småföretagens syn på externt kapital: En kvalitativ studie om huruvida extern finansiering skapar intern osäkerhet i småföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka småföretagens syn på huruvida externa kapitalanskaffningsmetoder kan medföra risker som påverkar företagets interna stabilitet.

    Teoretisk referensram: I studien presenteras och diskuteras relevanta teorier som berör småföretagens kapitalanskaffningsmetoder.

    Metod: Studien använder sig av en kvalitativ metod som utgår från en ansats med inslag av både induktion och deduktion. Intervjufrågorna har formats efter en semistrukturerad karaktär där urvalet utgjordes av fyra småföretag inom Stockholmsområdet. Studiens primära data har inhämtats genom intervjuer och sekundärdata hämtats från existerande litteratur samt vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Resultat: Hälften av de tillfrågade företagen indikerar en misstro gentemot banken som institution. Där tre av fyra respondenter menar på att det förekommer en förhöjd uppkomst av osäkerhet vid bankfinansiering. Tre av de fyra undersökta företagen prefererar eget kapital som det mest optimala finansieringsalternativet. Möjligheten att följa denna preferensordning är dock en fråga huruvida det egna kapitalet finns tillgängligt eller inte. Samtliga respondenter håller informationsasymmetrins konsekvenser som en tänkbar osäkerhetsbarometer vilket medför att de tillfrågade företagen har en stor vaksamhet gentemot extern finansiering med hänsyn till den potentiella uppkomsten av asymmetrisk information.

    Slutsats: Hälften av de undersökta företagen har erfarenhet av extern finansiering. Trots detta menar samtliga respondenter att extern finansiering skapar förutsättningar för en ökning av intern osäkerhet. Den tydligaste indikatorn på detta är företagens inställning gällande aversionen mot förlust av kontroll vilken är starkast hos företag med långsiktiga företagsmål samt familjeägda företag. De tillfrågade företagen ser dock positivt på att extern finansiering möjliggör verksamheter där kapitalbehovet är större än det egna kapitalet.

    Ett företags finansiella sökbeteende är situationsanpassad och grundas i företagets huvudsakliga vision och målsättning. En vilja att nå en snabbt ökad tillväxt innebär ett stort kapitalbehov som måste tillfredsställas.

    Rädslan för informationsasymmetrins påverkan ökar småföretagens aktsamhet gentemot externa aktörer generellt. Vilket också skapar en svagare tillförlitlighet gentemot externa kreditgivare samt riskkapitalister.

  • 294.
    Johnson, Nickie B.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Facilitating Innovation in Technology Startups in Ghana: A Multiple Case Study of the Technology Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in Ghana2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thesis purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate which circumstances technology entrepreneurs believe facilitate innovation, in the context of developing countries, and in Ghana in particular. Additionally, to explore the institutional and environmental factors that enable or prevent innovative activity from taking place in the technology startup ecosystem.

    Methodology: Multiple case qualitative research study of the Ghanaian technology entrepreneurship ecosystem. Data collection by conducting semi-structured interviews with 20 technology entrepreneurs in Accra, Ghana. The data collection and analysis process is inspired by the phenomenography approach.

    Theoretical framework: Theoretical concepts found in the literature on entrepreneurship and innovation. The institutional pillars of the entrepreneurship ecosystem, developed by GEDI (Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute), are discussed and applied in the analysis of the interview results.

    Conclusions: This paper identifies a number of areas where the majority of the entrepreneurs reported having similar experiences and challenges. Many of the challenges are related to institutional factors such as regulation and bureaucratic processes. Despite this, the technology entrepreneurship system in Ghana is growing, and the country offers a lot of opportunities for entrepreneurs. Ultimately, to facilitate innovation further, the institutional environment requires change in a number of areas, in order to better support technology entrepreneurs, and to create an enabling environment in which they can act on and take advantage of the opportunities that exist. 

  • 295.
    Juma, Abid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sarkar, Leonardo
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    IFRS 15 - Ny intäktsredovisningsstandard2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The development of a new revenue recognition standard IFRS 15, began after a number of scandals that showed problems with the traditional approach of recognizing revenues. The comprehensive revenue standard has arisen many discussions of how the standard will impact the accounting of enterprises.   

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand why revenue streams gets affected and not gets affected of the transition to IFRS 15.   

    Method: The data for this study has been collected, through a quantitative research. The data has mainly been collected from the company´s annual reports 2017. The Q4 reports for 2017 has for some companies been used as a complement to the annual report. The study contained all Large Cap companies listed at Nasdaq Nordic STO.  

    Results: Of a total of 95 companies, 19 companies showed that they had a quantifiable effect of the new revenue standard. 75 companies reported that they would not have a quantifiable effect of the new standard, while one company was a loss for this study.  

    Conclusions: The new revenue standard has meant that companies need to observe a focus on control, which determines the timing of the revenue recognition. In this study, it is not possible to assess whether the characteristics of specific revenue streams have been the basis of the quantifiable effect that IFRS 15 has given, but this has rather been determined by the distributed transaction price on performance commitments, which set the value of the contract.

  • 296.
    Jönsson, Samuel
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Casadei, Gabriela
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Digital Marknadsföring: Google-annonsering och dess funktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att marknadsföra sitt företag via sökmotorer blir allt vanligare där Google är den mest använda sökmotorn. Företag kan skapa sig synlighet antingen genom att köpa en Google-annons, eller genom att lyckas placera sig högt upp på det organiska sökfältet. Frågan är vad som gäller när man som företag står inför valet av att använda båda alternativen. Många företag fortsätter att köpa annonser trots att de lyckats uppnå en synlig och kostnadsfri placering på det organiska sökfältet.

     

    Studien syftar till att bidra med ökad kunskap och förståelse för Google-annonser och dess funktion, till de företag som arbetar med sökmotormarknadsföring. Syftet är avgränsat till de företag som redan har högsta placeringen på den organiska sökträffen och på de sökord som saknar konkurrens. Studien fann att en Google-annons som placeras ovanför den egna organiska sökträffen tenderar ge en positiv inverkan på totala antalet hemsidebesökare där vi kunde se en ökning på 16 %. Samtidigt minskar antalet klick på den organiska sökträffen till förmån för annonsen vilket kan ge upphov till ökade kostnader. Från studiens utförda fokusgrupper framkom det att en deltagare var så pass negativt inställd till annonser att hen alltid undvek att klicka på dessa. Resterande fem deltagare angav att relevansen avgör vad hen kommer att klicka på. Detta pekar på att ett företags potentiella kunder, så länge annonsen är relevant och matchar kundens sökkriterier, inte uppfattar en Google-annons negativt.

     

    Studien har en deduktiv ansats och har använt sig av både kvantitativ och kvalitativ forskning. Studiens ena delfråga ”Hur uppfattar ett företags potentiella kunder Google-annonser?” besvarades med kvalitativ metod, fokusgrupp. Studiens andra delfråga “Hur förändras antalet hemsidebesökare?” besvarades med en kvantitativ metod och med en experimentell ansats. Mätning utfördes i Google analytics där själva experimentet bestod av att slå på och av en Google-annons för att se hur antalet hemsidebesökare förändrades.

  • 297.
    Kambourian, Kambourian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Andersson, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Förtroende i samband med influencer marketing: En kvalitativ studie om konsumenters förtroende gentemot influencers och företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to increase the understanding behind consumers trust towards influencers and companies while these two collaborate with each other. Two questions were developed to investigate the purpose. The first question investigates how different factors, developed in purpose of the study, affects the trust towards a company and an influencer. The second question focuses on the difference between the company and the influencer considering the effect of the consumers trust. In order to gather empirical material, eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with consumers between the age of 18 to 30 and who followed some influencers. The respondents were selected through a non-probability sample. From the collected material, conclusions could be drawn about the various factors and the company versus the influencer. As for the factors, the trust seemed to be affected both in positive and negative manners considering the situation and the specific factor. When it comes to the factor paid collaborations, the trust seems to decrease, but increase when the involvement of money is announced. The influencer falling into a scandal has a negative impact on the trust, depending on the specific situation. When the influencer is advertising something unexpected, the trust is most likely going to decrease. In the case of continuous advertising of a product, consumers suspect surreptitious advertising if they are highly involved and this affects the trust negatively due to dishonesty. It can be stated that how the trust is affected differs between the company and the influencer in conjunction with influencer marketing. This seems partly due to the fact that the expectations towards a company is not as high as for an influencer, which means that the trust is not affected to the same extent. An influencer on the other hand, is perceived to be more relatable which has a positive effect on the trust. 

  • 298.
    Karagiannis, Alexander
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Weitzberg, Natanael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Humankapitalets roll och betydelse för investerare i en investeringsprocess: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Investors that invest directly in companies need to manage risk as a part of their decision making. Studies have shown that the existence of entrepreneurs within companies is an important factor for investors when evaluating a potential investment. This study conducts qualitative research into the role and significance that human capital plays in the investment process for investors, which is not as common as quantitative studies in this particular field.

    Goal The goal of the study is to investigate the role, as well as the degree of importance, that human capital plays when making investment decisions. 

    Theoretical perspective The theoretical basis consists of several theories and scientific articles concerning asymmetrical information theory as well as the theory of human capital. Furthermore, relevant earlier research pertaining to the subject has been used. Asymmetrical information theory is handled through the Pecking Order theory, Agency Theory and the article ‘Market for Lemons’ (Akerlof, 1970). The Human capital theory is handled with the help, definitions and studies performed by Becker (1964, 1993), Schultz (1960), Cressy (1996), Mincer (1958) and Gardner (1973). Earlier research in the theoretical field consists of Hsu et. al (2014), Landström (1998), Mason & Stark (2004), and Mason & Harrison (2003). Two different explanatory models about decision-making were used – The Compensatory Model and ‘Elimination-by-aspect’.

    Method The study was conducted through an abductive approach and used a cross-sectional design where six cases were investigated. A qualitative research strategy was applied and the method of investigation was executed through semi-structured interviews which through an iterative work process generated empirical data.

    Conclusion The study finds that human capital plays a role in overcoming asymmetrical information when making investment decisions, but also as a tool for evaluating and learning from the entrepreneurs. For most investors, human capital plays a key role when deciding whether to invest or not.

  • 299.
    Karlsson, Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Björklund, Helena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kassagenerering hos svenska börsbolag: En studie om i vilken mån det redovisade resultatet genererar pengar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The study intend to examine the cash generation of 30 swedish listed companies during a seven years period between 2008 and 2014.

    Method

    The basis of the inquiry comes from a quantitative method were the information about the companies reported net income and cash flow from operation were retrieved. To calculate the cash conversion during the period the accumulated net income is divided with the accumulated cash flow from operation.

    Results

    The companies on the small-,mid- and large cap lists presents fluctuating cash conversion during the seven-year period. The fluctutation range of the 30 companies is -3,82 - (+) 7,73.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion is that there are bigger differences in the cash conversion for the companies listed on small cap collated to the mid-, and large cap.

  • 300.
    Karlsson, Michelle
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lehtinen, Ida
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Revisionsyrket i förändring: En kvalitativ studie om hur digitaliseringen påverkar revisorers arbetsmetodik och dess effekter för revisionsrisken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is a fast-paced phenomenon that is recognized to be of importance for the auditing profession. Research whether digitalization affects the auditor’s work process and what further impacts it has on the audit risk, is in a national context explored within a limited area. That contributed to identify the study's research question: How does digitalization affect the auditor's work process during the audit process and how does it impact the audit risk? In order to answer the research question, a qualitative study consisting of interviews with auditors at audit firms within the Big Four, was conducted.

    The findings of this study show that the digital progress has a positive impact on the work process due to increased efficiency where accessibility to information has increased and the need for the physical meeting with the client while gathering information has decreased. The audit process can also be carried out with safer samples by using various digital tools, which can reduce the audit risk due improved priority systems. Furthermore, the result shows that the ongoing digitalization has increased the requirements of auditor’s IT knowledge. It also enables a more automated process, which leads to a reduction of certain tasks. Automatized processes tend on the one hand lead to reduced understanding of the work, which may affect the audit risk negative if significant deviations may not be detected and on the other hand, an easier identification of deviations by using automated systems which can contribute to a reduced risk. 

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