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  • 251.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Waldman, Kyle
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, NY, USA.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Jacob, Louis
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Psychotic experiences and accidents, injuries, and poisonings among adults in the United States2019In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 282, article id 112610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotic experiences (PEs) have been linked to an increased risk for accidents and injuries. However, this association remains little researched in many countries. To address this research gap, the current study used cross-sectional data from the United States to examine the association between PEs and accidents, injuries, and poisoning in a general population sample. Data were analyzed from 2274 individuals who completed the psychosis screen as part of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information was obtained on PEs (hallucinations and delusions) and the experience of past 12-month accidents, injuries, and poisoning. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association while adjusting for demographic variables and common mental disorders (CMDs). In a fully adjusted model past 12-month PEs were associated with almost three times higher odds for reporting accidents, injuries, and poisoning (odds ratio [OR]: 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-7.74). The results of this study indicate that PEs are associated with higher odds for accidents and injuries among adults in the United States. Research is now needed to determine the direction of this association and the factors linked to it.

  • 252.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Waldman, Kyle
    Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Shirama, Aya
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Childhood physical neglect and psychotic experiences: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication2020In: Early Intervention in Psychiatry, ISSN 1751-7885, E-ISSN 1751-7893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Childhood adversities have been linked to an increased risk for psychosis. However, as yet, there has been comparatively little research on the effects of neglect. This study examined the association between childhood physical neglect and psychotic experiences (PEs) in a general population sample.

    METHODS: Data were analysed from 2308 individuals collected during the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information on lifetime PEs was collected with the WHO-CIDI Psychosis Screen. Respondents also reported on five forms of childhood neglect (went hungry, went without necessities, went unsupervised, lacked medical care, chores too difficult/dangerous). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations.

    RESULTS: In models adjusted for sociodemographic and psychiatric disorder variables, aggregated physical neglect scores (continuous/dichotomized) were associated with significantly increased odds for any lifetime PEs. All individual forms of neglect except went without necessities (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.50) were significantly associated with PEs with ORs ranging from 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08-1.51, went unsupervised) to 1.53 (95% CI: 1.19-1.97, went without medical care). In models that were further adjusted for co-occurring forms of neglect and childhood physical abuse, doing chores that were too difficult/dangerous continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for PEs (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.61).

    CONCLUSIONS: Childhood physical neglect is associated with significantly increased odds for PEs in the general population. Screening for childhood adversities and PEs among potential patients may be important for the early detection of individuals at high risk for psychosis, as well as for formulating comprehensive and effective treatment plans.

  • 253.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Waldman, Kyle
    Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Ueda, Michiko
    Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Childhood neglect and suicidal behavior: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.2020In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 103, article id 104400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although child neglect is common, there has been comparatively little research on it or its specific forms and their effects on mental health in adulthood.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between exposure to different forms of childhood neglect and lifetime suicidal behavior among a nationally representative sample of adults in the U.S. general population.

    METHODS: Data were analyzed from 5665 adults that were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information was obtained on 'care', 'supervisory' and 'medical' neglect in childhood and lifetime suicidal behavior (ideation, plan, attempt). Lifetime psychiatric disorders were based on the World Mental Health - Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations.

    RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, any neglect was associated with significantly increased odds for all forms of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, odds ratio [OR]: 1.80, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.29; plan, OR: 2.27, 95 % CI: 1.78-2.91; attempt, OR: 2.05, 95 % CI: 1.63-2.59, all p < 0.001). In unadjusted analyses all individual forms of neglect were significantly associated with all forms of suicidal behavior. However, when all forms of neglect were included together in the fully adjusted models, care neglect was no longer significantly associated with any form of suicidal behavior.

    CONCLUSION: Different forms of childhood neglect are associated with suicidal behavior in adults independent of common mental disorders. Future studies should focus on childhood neglect subtypes in order to better understand the effects of neglect on adult mental health.

  • 254. Stirbu, Irina
    et al.
    Kunst, Anton E
    Bopp, Matthias
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Regidor, Enrique
    Esnaola, Santiago
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Borrell, Carme
    Deboosere, Patrik
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Artnik, Barbara
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Educational inequalities in avoidable mortality in Europe2010In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 913-920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inequalities in avoidable mortality were present in all European countries, but were especially pronounced in CEE and Baltic countries. These educational inequalities point to an important role for healthcare services in reducing inequalities in health.

  • 255.
    Stjerna, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Education.
    Worth, A.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Harden, J.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Olin Lauritzen, S.
    Stockholm University.
    Risk as a relational phenomenon: a cross-cultural analysis of parents’ understandings of child food allergy and risk management2017In: Health, Risk and Society, ISSN 1369-8575, E-ISSN 1469-8331, Vol. 19, no 7-8, p. 351-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Western culture can be seen as permeated by risk-consciousness. In particular, parents are under scrutiny in their roles as risk managers. In this article, we address parental experiences of children more at risk than other children, children with food allergy, and the management of allergy risk in everyday life. Drawing on a notion of risk as ‘situated’ in local everyday life, we argue that a further exploration of parental understandings of child food allergy risk would benefit from an analysis of studies across different local contexts. In this article, we draw on a secondary qualitative cross-cultural analysis of interview data from several studies of parents in Sweden and Scotland through 2006–2010, which focused on parents’ understandings of the nature of food allergy and the children’s management of the allergy risk. We found some common themes in the different data sets. First, parents depicted food allergy as life-threatening, a ‘death risk’ lurking in the background, more or less constantly present in different everyday situations, amounting to an existential condition in parenting. Second, they talked about food allergy risk as a relational phenomenon, meaning that the risk emerged in the encounter between the young person’s individual competence to manage allergy risk and the understandings of allergy risk in others – thus depending on contexts and interaction between several actors. Finally, the analysis showed that unpredictability and risk in constant flux are the prominent aspects of living with food allergy. We also discussed the ways risk and trust are related, as well as how the involvement of others can be seen as both a risk and a safeguard. 

  • 256.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    A Defense of the Phenomenological Account of Health and Illness2019In: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, ISSN 0360-5310, E-ISSN 1744-5019, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 459-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large slice of contemporary phenomenology of medicine has been devoted to developing an account of health and illness that proceeds from the first-person perspective when attempting to understand the ill person in contrast and connection to the third-person perspective on his/her diseased body. A proof that this phenomenological account of health and illness, represented by philosophers, such as Drew Leder, Kay Toombs, Havi Carel, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Kevin Aho, and Fredrik Svenaeus, is becoming increasingly influential in philosophy of medicine and medical ethics is the criticism of it that has been voiced in some recent studies. In this article, two such critical contributions, proceeding from radically different premises and backgrounds, are discussed: Jonathan Sholl's naturalistic critique and Talia Welsh's Nietzschean critique. The aim is to defend the phenomenological account and clear up misunderstandings about what it amounts to and what we should be able to expect from it.

  • 257.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    A Heideggerian defense of therapeutic cloning.2007In: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, ISSN 1386-7415, E-ISSN 1573-0980, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 31-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates about the legitimacy of embryonic stem-cell research have largely focused on the type of ethical value that should be accorded to the human embryo in vitro. In this paper, I try to show that, to broaden the scope of these debates, one needs to articulate an ontology that does not limit itself to biological accounts, but that instead focuses on the embryo's place in a totality of relevance surrounding and guiding a human practice. Instead of attempting to substantiate the ethical value of the embryo exclusively by pointing out that it has potentiality for personhood, one should examine the types of practices in which the embryo occurs and focus on the ends inherent to these practices. With this emphasis on context, it becomes apparent that the embryo's ethical significance can only be understood by elucidating the attitudes that are established towards it in the course of specific activities. The distinction between fertilized embryos and cloned embryos proves to be important in this contextual analysis, since, from the point of view of practice, the two types of embryos appear to belong to different human practices: (assisted) procreation and medical research, respectively. In my arguments, I highlight the concepts of practice, technology, and nature, as they have been analyzed in the phenomenological tradition, particularly by Martin Heidegger. I come to the conclusion that therapeutic cloning should be allowed, provided that it turns out to be a project that benefits medical science in its aim to battle diseases. Important precautions have to be taken, however, in order to safeguard the practice of procreation from becoming perverted by the aims and attitudes of medical science when the two practices intersect. The threat in question needs to be taken seriously, since it concerns the structure and goal of practices which are central to our very self understanding as human beings.

  • 258.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Anorexia Nervosa and the Body Uncanny: A Phenomenological Approach2013In: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, ISSN 1071-6076, E-ISSN 1086-3303, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anorexia nervosa is a disorder that is closely related to questions of selfhood and social roles. The pursuit of excessive thinness is part of a search for identity in which the control of the body—its size and needs— becomes central. This need for control appears to be triggered by a state of bodily alienation in which the body is perceived to be foreign and horrifying to its bearer. The relentless dieting and excessive exercise pursued by the anorexic person eventually leads to a state of starvation in which the relationship of control between the person and her body becomes reversed: the body now controls the thoughts, feelings and actions of the anorexic person in an uncanny and life threatening way. In this paper an attempt is made to better understand the ways in which the body becomes alien in anorexia nervosa by way of a phenomenological analysis. The analysis is exemplified and supported by stories told by girls suffering from the illness. The aim of the paper is to show that anorexia nervosa is neither a bodily dysfunction, nor a cultural product, only. Rather, the disorder is best understood as an illness in which the autonomous nature of one’s own body becomes overwhelming in a fatal and characteristic way. The different ways of becoming bodily alienated interact in anorexia in establishing an uncanniness of the body that is both conspicuous—to people around the ill person—and hard to escape—for the person herself.

  • 259.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Att förändra sig själv: Tabletter eller psykoterapi?2009In: Psykoterapeutens och psykoanalytikerns praktiska kunskap / [ed] Nilsson, Christian, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2009, 1, p. 120-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Autonomi och empati: två missbrukade och missförstådda ideal2011In: Omtankar: Praktisk kunskap i äldreomsorg / [ed] Lotte Alsterdal, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2011, p. 194-219Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 261. Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Das unheimliche: towards a phenomenology of illness2000In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I aim at developing a phenomenology of illness through a critical interpretation of the works of Sigmund Freud and Martin Heidegger. The phenomenon of "Unheimlichkeit"--uncanniness and unhomelikeness--is demonstrated not only to play a key role in the theories of Freud and Heidegger, but also to constitute the essence of the experience of illness. Two different modes of unhomelikeness--"The mind uncanny" and "The world uncanny"--are in this connection explored as constitutive parts of the phenomenon of illness. The consequence I draw from this analysis is that the mission of health care professionals must be not only to cure diseases, but actually, through devoting attention to the being-in-the-world of the patient, also to open up possible paths back to homelikeness. This mission can only be carried out if medicine acknowledges the basic importance of the meaning-realm of the patient's life--his or her life-world characteristics.

  • 262.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Depression and the Self: Bodily Resonance and Attuned Being-in-the-World2013In: Journal of consciousness studies, ISSN 1355-8250, E-ISSN 2051-2201, Vol. 20, no 7-8, p. 15-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will explore the relationship between selfhood and depression, by focusing upon the lived body’s capacity to “resonate” with the world and thus open up an “attuned” space of meaning. Persons will become differently tuned in different situations because they embody different patterns of resonance—what is most often referred to as different temperaments—but the self may also suffer from idiosyncrasies in mood profile that develop into deficiencies of resonance, making the person in question ill. In many cases of depression one might describe this as a being out of tune in the sense of being oversensitive to the sad, anxious and boring tune qualities of the world. This phenomenological model allows us to describe a spectrum of various normal sensitivities which might favor certain moods over others, but also to identify pathologies, like depression, in which the body is out of tune and makes the being-in-the-world overwhelmingly unhomelike.

  • 263.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Diagnosing mental disorders and saving the normal: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. American Psychiatric Publishing: Washington, DC. 991 pp., ISBN: 978-0890425558. Price: $122.702014In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 241-244Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Do antidepressants affect the self?: A phenomenological approach2007In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 153-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I explore the questions of how and to what extent new antidepressants (selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs) could possibly affect the self. I do this by way of a phenomenological approach, using the works of Martin Heidegger and Thomas Fuchs to analyze the roles of attunement and embodiment in normal and abnormal ways of being-in-the-world. The nature of depression and anxiety disorders - the diagnoses for which treatment with antidepressants is most commonly indicated - is also explored by way of this phenomenological approach, as are the basic structures of self-being. Special attention is paid in the analysis to the moods of boredom, anxiety and grief, since they play fundamental roles in depression and anxiety disorders and since their intensity and frequency appear to be modulated by antidepressants. My conclusion is that the effect of these drugs on the self can be thought of in terms of changes in self-feeling, or, more precisely, self-vibration of embodiment. I present the idea of a spectrum of bodily resonance, which extends from the normal resonance of the lived body, in which the body is able to pick up a wide range of different moods; continuing over various kinds of sensitivities, preferences and idiosyncrasies, in which certain moods are favored over others; to cases that we unreservedly label pathologies, in which the body is severely out of tune, or even devoid of tune and thus useless as a tool of resonance. Different cultures and societies favor slightly differently attuned self-styles as paradigmatic of the normal and good life, and the popularity of the SSRIs can therefore be explained, not only by defects of embodiment, but also by the presence of certain cultural norms in our contemporary society.

  • 265.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Döden går att dela: viktig bok om den svåra vården. [Recension av: Mazzarella, Merete, Den goda beröringen : om kropp, hälsa, vård och litteratur]2006In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, Vol. Annex, vår, p. 43-44Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 266.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Empathy as a necessary condition of phronesis: a line of thought for medical ethics2014In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 293-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empathy is a thing constantly asked for and stressed as a central skill and character trait of the good physician and nurse. To be a good doctor or a good nurse one needs to be empathic-one needs to be able to feel and understand the needs and wishes of patients in order to help them in the best possible way, in a medical, as well as in an ethical sense. The problem with most studies of empathy in medicine is that empathy is poorly defined and tends to overlap with other related things, such as emotional contagion, sympathy, or a caring personality in general. It is far from clear how empathy fits into the general picture of medical ethics and the framework of norms that are most often stressed there, such as respect for autonomy and beneficience. How are we to look upon the role and importance of empathy in medical ethics? Is empathy an affective and/or cognitive phenomenon only, or does it carry moral significance in itself as a skill and/or virtue? How does empathy attain moral importance for medicine? In this paper I will attempt to show that a comparison with the Aristotelian concept of phronesis makes it easier to see what empathy is and how it fits into the general picture of medical ethics. I will argue that empathy is a basic condition and source of moral knowledge by being the feeling component of phronesis, and, by the same power, it is also a motivation for acting in a good way.

  • 267.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    En revolution för reproduktionen2014In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 18 juniArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 268.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Evidensbaseringsrörelsen och det goda omdömet: en kritisk betraktelse2010In: Ikaros : tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen, ISSN 1796-1998, no 2, p. 33-38Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 269.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 1, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Fenomenologiska perspektiv på hälsa och sjukdom2002In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 540-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för medier, konst och filosofi, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Gadamerian Hermeneutics of Medicine: A Phenomenology of Health and Illness2005In: Between Description and Interpretation: the hermeneutic turn in phenomenology / [ed] Andrzej Wierciński, Toronto: Hermeneutic Press , 2005, p. 169-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för medier, konst och filosofi, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Heidegger och sjukdomens fenomenologi2005In: Sjukdomsvärldar: om människors erfarenhet av kroppslig ohälsa / [ed] Bengt Richt, Gunilla Tegern, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, p. 51-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 272. Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Hermeneutics of clinical practice: the question of textuality.2000In: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, ISSN 1386-7415, E-ISSN 1573-0980, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 171-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I scrutinize the question whether clinical medicine, in order to be considered a hermeneutical enterprise, must be thought of as a reading of different "texts." Three different proposals for a definition of the concept of text in medicine, suggested by other hermeneuticians, are discussed. All three proposals are shown to be unsatisfying in various ways. Instead of attempting to find a fourth definition of the concept of text suitable to a hermeneutics of medicine, I then try to show that the assumption that one needs to operate with the concept of text in order to develop a hermeneutics of medicine is false. Clinical interpretation can be shown to essentially consist in a dialogical hermeneutics, the pattern of which can be found in the philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer. This kind of hermeneutics is not a methodology of text reading, but an ontological, phenomenological hermeneutics in which understanding is a necessary feature of the being-together of human beings in the world. This being-together in and through language takes on a peculiar form in the clinical encounter, since the medical meeting is typically characterized by an asymmetrical enstrangement and has a specific goal--health for the patient--absent in other forms of hermeneutics. Central issues of Gadamer's philosophy, e.g. "fusion of horizons," are shown to fit the structure of clinical practice.

  • 273.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 1, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Hermeneutics of medicine in the wake of Gadamer: the issue of phronesis.2003In: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, ISSN 1386-7415, E-ISSN 1573-0980, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 407-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of the Aristotelian concept of phronesis--practical wisdom--for medicine and medical ethics has been much debated during the last two decades. This paper attempts to show how Aristotle's practical philosophy was of central importance to Hans-Georg Gadamer and to the development of his philosophical hermeneutics, and how, accordingly, the concept of phronesis will be central to a Gadamerian hermeneutics of medicine. If medical practice is conceived of as an interpretative meeting between doctor and patient with the aim of restoring the health of the latter, then phronesis is the mark of the good physician, who through interpretation comes to know the best thing to do for this particular patient at this particular time. The potential fruitfulness of this hermeneutical appropriation of phronesis for the field of medical ethics is also discussed. The concept can be (and has been) used in critiques of the conceptualization of bioethics as the application of principle-based theory to clinical situations, since Aristotle's point is exactly that problems of praxis cannot be approached in this way. It can also point the way for alternative forms of medical ethics, such as virtue ethics or a phenomenological and hermeneutical ethics. The latter alternative would have to address the phenomena of health and the good life as issues for medical practice. It would also have to map out in detail the terrain of the medical meeting and the acts of interpretation through which phronesis is exercised.

  • 274.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Livet, tänkandet och driften mot oordning2013In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 18 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 275.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Medical technologies and the life world: an introduction to the theme2009In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 121-123Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Medicine2006In: A companion to phenomenology and existentialism / [ed] Hubert L. Dreyfus & Mark A. Wrathall, Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. , 2006, p. 412-424Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för medier, konst och filosofi, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Medicinens hermeneutik: att förstå den sjuka människan2004In: När människan möter medicinen: livsvärldens och berättelsens betydelse för förståelsen av sjukdom och medicinsk teknologi / [ed] Sonja Olin Lauritzen, Fredrik Svenaeus & Ann-Christine Jonsson, Stockholm: Carlsson , 2004, Vol. S. 31-48, p. 31-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Medicinens humaniora: vad skulle det kunna vara? = The Humanities of Medicine: What Could This Be?2010In: En annan humaniora - en annan tid = Another humanities - another time / [ed] Carl Cederberg & Hans Ruin, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2010, p. 53-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 279. Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Narrativ medicin: berättelsen om patienten och hennes sjukdom2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, no 34, p. 3629-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Naturalisticand Phenomenological Theories of Health: Distinctions and Connections2013In: Human Experience and Nature: Examining the Relationship between Phenomenology and Naturalism / [ed] Havi Carel and Darian Meacham, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I present and compare the philosophies and ideas behind naturalistic theories of health on the one hand and phenomenological theories of health on the other. The basic difference between the two sets of theories is no doubt that whereas naturalistic theories claim to rest on value neutral concepts, such as normal biological function, the phenomenological suggestions for theories of health take their starting point in what is often named intentionality: meaningful stances taken by the embodied person in experiencing and understanding her situation and taking action in the world.

    Although naturalism and phenomenology are fundamentally different in their approach to understand and define health, they are not necessarily opposed when it comes to understanding the predicament of ill persons. Naturalism can afford phenomenology an important strategic importance in finding clues for medical investigations, just as phenomenology can envelop a naturalistic understanding of diseases. Furthermore, the two theories display similarities in their emphasis of embodiment as the central element of health theory and in their stress on the alien nature of the body displayed in illness. Theories of biology and phenomenology are, indeed, companionable and in many cases also mutually supportive in the realms of health and illness.

  • 281.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Phenomenological bioethics: medical technologies, human suffering, and the meaning of being alive2017Book (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för medier, konst och filosofi, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Phenomenology and Psychiatry: A Contemporary Diagnosis Introducing the Work of Thomas Fuchs2005In: Sats: Nordic Journal of Philosophy, ISSN 1600-1974, E-ISSN 1869-7577, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 202-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 283.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Phenomenology listens to Prozac: analyzing the SSRI revolution2007In: Medical technologies and the life world: the social construction of normality / [ed] Sonja Olin Lauritzen, Lars-Christer Hydén, Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge, 2007, p. 164-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Focuses on the ways new health technologies intervene into our lives. This book explores: how new health technologies are understood by lay people and patients; how the outcomes of these technologies are communicated in various clinical settings; and, how these technologies can alter our notions of health and illness and create 'new illness'.

  • 284.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Phenomenology of pregnancy and the ethics of abortion2018In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I investigate the ways in which phenomenology could guide our views on the rights and/or wrongs of abortion. To my knowledge very few phenomenologists have directed their attention toward this issue, although quite a few have strived to better understand and articulate the strongly related themes of pregnancy and birth, most often in the context of feminist philosophy. After introducing the ethical and political contemporary debate concerning abortion, I introduce phenomenology in the context of medicine and the way phenomenologists have understood the human body to be lived and experienced by its owner. I then turn to the issue of pregnancy and discuss how the embryo or foetus could appear for us, particularly from the perspective of the pregnant woman, and what such showing up may mean from an ethical perspective. The way medical technology has changed the experience of pregnancy-for the pregnant woman as well as for the father and/or other close ones-is discussed, particularly the implementation of early obstetric ultra-sound screening and blood tests (NIPT) for Down's syndrome and other medical defects. I conclude the article by suggesting that phenomenology can help us to negotiate an upper time limit for legal abortion and, also, provide ways to determine what embryo-foetus defects to look for and in which cases these should be looked upon as good reasons for performing an abortion.

  • 285.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Psychopharmacology and the Self2013In: Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry / [ed] K. W. M Fulford et al., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 1171-1184Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Psychopharmacology and the Self: An Introduction to the Theme2007In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 115-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Psykiatrins etik2016In: Psykiatri / [ed] Jörgen Herlofson et al., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 2 omarb., p. 69-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    På spaning efter det goda dödandet2015In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 5 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 289.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Sjukdomsbegreppet i psykiatrin2016In: Psykiatri / [ed] Jörgen Herlofson et al., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 2 omarb., p. 37-43Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Smärtans mening: en Medicinfilosofisk betraktelse2009In: Att tänka smärtan / [ed] Marcia Sá Cavalcante Schuback, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2009, 1, p. 31-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 291.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Tabletter för känsliga själar: den antidepressiva revolutionen2008Book (Other academic)
  • 292.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    The Body as Alien, Unhomelike and Uncanny: Some Further Clarifications2013In: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, ISSN 1071-6076, E-ISSN 1086-3303, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 99-101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    The Body as Gift, Resource or Commodity?: Heidegger and the Ethics of Organ Transplantation2010In: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, ISSN 1176-7529, E-ISSN 1872-4353, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three metaphors appear to guide contemporary thinking about organ transplantation. Although the gift is the sanctioned metaphor for donating organs, the underlying perspective from the side of the state, authorities and the medical establishment often seems to be that the body shall rather be understood as a resource. The acute scarcity of organs, which generates a desperate demand in relation to a group of potential suppliers who are desperate to an equal extent, leads easily to the gift’s becoming, in reality, not only a resource, but also a commodity. In this paper, the claim is made that a successful explication of the gift metaphor in the case of organ transplantation and a complementary defence of the ethical primacy of the giving of organs need to be grounded in a philosophical anthropology which considers the implications of embodiment in a different and more substantial way than is generally the case in contemporary bioethics. I show that Heidegger’s phenomenology offers such an alternative, with the help of which we can understand why body parts could and, indeed, under certain circumstances, should be given to others in need, but yet are neither resources nor properties to be sold. The phenomenological exploration in question is tied to fundamental questions about what kind of relationship we have to our own bodies, as well as about what kind of relationship we have to each other as human beings sharing the same being-in-the-world as embodied creatures.

  • 294. Svenaeus, Fredrik
    The body uncanny: further steps towards a phenomenology of illness.2000In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 125-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an attempt to analyse the experience of embodiment in illness. Drawing upon Heidegger's phenomenology and the suggestion that illness can be understood as unhomelike being-in-the-world, I try to show how the way we live our own bodies in illness is experienced precisely as unhomelike. The body is alien, yet, at the same time, myself. It involves biological processes beyond my control, but these processes still belong to me as lived by me. This a priori otherness of the body presents itself in illness in an uncanny and merciless way. The unhomelike breakdown of our everyday being-in-the-world suffered in illness is explored through Heidegger's notion of the world being a "totality of relevance", a pattern of meaning played out between different "tools". The lived body is compared to a broken tool that alters and obstructs our way of being "thrown" and "projecting" ourselves in the meaning patterns of the world through feelings, thoughts and actions. The similarities and differences between this unhomelikeness of illness and the specific unhomelikeness of authentic understanding, reached according to Heidegger in existential anxiety, are discussed. In order to illustrate how the lived body can present itself as "broken" and "other" to its owner, and in what way this unhomelike experience calls for help from health-care professionals, I make use of a clinical example of a severe and common disease: stroke.

  • 295.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    The ethics of self-change: becoming oneself by way of antidepressants or psychotherapy?2009In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 169-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the differences between bringing about self-change by way of antidepressants versus psychotherapy from an ethical point of view, taking its starting point in the concept of authenticity. Given that the new antidepressants (SSRIs) are able not only to cure psychiatric disorders but also to bring about changes in the basic temperament structure of the person—changes in self-feeling—does it matter if one brings about such changes of the self by way of antidepressants or by way of psychotherapy? Are antidepressants a less good alternative than psychotherapy because antidepressants are in some way less authentic than psychotherapy? And, if so, what does this mean exactly? In this paper I try to show that the self-change brought about by way of antidepressants challenges basic assumptions of authentic self-change that are deeply ingrained in our Western culture: that changes in self should be brought about by laborious ‘self-work’ in which one explores the deep layers of the self (the unconscious) and comes to realise who one really is and should become. To become oneself has been held to presuppose such a journey. While the assumed importance of self-work appears to be badly founded on closer inspection, the notions of exploring and knowing oneself appear to be more promising in fleshing out an ethical distinction between psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic practice with the help of the concept of authenticity. Psychotherapy, to a much greater extent than psychopharmacological interventions, involves the whole profile of the self in its attempts to effect a change, not only in the temperament but also in the character of the person in question, and this is important from an ethical point of view. In the article, the concepts of self-change, authenticity, temperament and character are presented and used in order to understand and flesh out the relevant ethical differences between the practice of psychotherapy and the use of antidepressants. Looping, collective effects of psychopharmacological self-change in a cultural context are also considered in this context.

  • 296. Svenaeus, Fredrik
    The Hermeneutics of Medicine1996In: The Goals and Limits of Medicine / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt and Per-Anders Tengland, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International , 1996, p. 117-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 297. Svenaeus, Fredrik
    The hermeneutics of medicine and the phenomenology of health: steps towards a philosophy of medical practice2001Book (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    The Hermeneutics of Medicine and the Phenomenology of Health: Steps towards a Philosophy of Medical Practice1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    The phenomenology of empathy in medicine: an introduction2014In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 245-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an introduction to a thematic section on the phenomenology of empathy in medicine, attempting to provide an expose of the field. It also provides introductions to the individual articles of the thematic section.

  • 300.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    The Phenomenology of Falling Ill: An Explication, Critique and Improvement of Sartre’s Theory of Embodiment and Alienation2009In: Human Studies, ISSN 0163-8548, E-ISSN 1572-851X, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I develop a phenomenology of falling ill by presenting, interpreting and developing the basic model we find in Jean-Paul Sartre’s Being and Nothingness (1956). The three steps identified by Sartre in this process are analysed, developed further and brought to a five-step model: (1) pre-reflective experience of discomfort, (2) lived, bodily discomfort, (3) suffered illness, (4) disease pondering, and (5) disease state. To fall ill is to fall victim to a gradual process of alienation, and with each step this alienating process is taken to a new qualitative level. Consequently, the five steps of falling ill have not only a contingent chronological order but also a kind of logical order, in that they typically presuppose each other. I adopt Sartre’s focus on embodiment as the core ground of the alienation process, but point out that the alienation of the body in illness is not only the experience of a psychic object, but an experience of the independent life of one’s own body. This facticity of the body is the result neither of the gaze of the other person, nor of a reflection adopting the outer perspective of the other in an indirect way, but is a result of the very otherness of one’s own body, which addresses and plagues us when we fall ill. I use examples of falling ill and being a patient to show how a phenomenology of falling ill can be helpful in educating health-care personnel (and perhaps also patients) about the ways of the lived body.

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