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  • 251.
    Schenk, Linda
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Comparison of Data Used for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits2010In: International journal of occupational and environmental health, ISSN 1077-3525, E-ISSN 2049-3967, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 249-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has previously been shown that occupational exposure limits (OELs) for the same substance can vary significantly between different standard-setters. The work presented in this paper identifies the steps in the process towards establishing an OEL and how variations in those processes could account for these differences. This study selects for further scrutiny substances for which the level of OELs vary by a factor of 100, focussing on 45 documents concerning 14 substances from eight standard-setters. Several of the OELs studied were more than 20 years old and based on outdated knowledge. Furthermore, different standard-setters sometimes based their OELs on different sets of data, and data availability alone could not explain all differences in the selection of data sets used by standard-setters. While the interpretation of key studies did not differ significantly in standard-setters' documentations, the evaluations of the key studies' quality did. Also, differences concerning the critical effect coincided with differences in the level of OELs for half of the substances.

  • 252.
    Seppälä, Jimmy
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
    G som i gemenskap: En kvalitativ studie om gemenskapande i dataspel ur ett produktionsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Denna studie handlar om att undersöka hur man bygger gemenskap via dataspel, hur man tänker när man designar dessa, hur dataspelsföretagen håller ihop gemenskapen genom att uppmana till deltagande både inom dataspelen samt externa plattformar som Facebook, Twitter och diverse diskussionsforum. Studien utgår från ett produktionsperspektiv där tanken är att få veta vad de som arbetar på dataspelsföretag har för syn på gemenskap och arbetar för att skapa och bibehålla den. Till det används två begrepp, gemenskap och deltagande. Gemenskapande är en ständigt pågående process som vi människor utövar medan deltagande är något som har blivit allt vanligare inom produktionen där användarna bjuds in till att vara en del av den. Metoden som används för att ta reda på detta är semistrukturerade intervjuer med personer inom dataspelsindustrin eftersom det som undersökes krävs att man frågar någon professionell inom området. Studien visar att gemenskap inte är en primär del i början av dataspelets design men att företagen vet om hur viktig den är under dataspelets livstid. Genom att företagen själva engagerar sig i gemenskapen och genom att uppmuntra till deltagande knyter de an gemenskaper kring sig. Det skapas en så kallad fangemenskap vilket gör att användarna identifierar sig med företagen och knyter sig runt dessa och då sker gemenskapande.

  • 253.
    Shahin, Dana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Fadhil, Mimmi
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Scrolla, kommentera eller gilla?: En studie av hur användare reagerar på inlägg på sociala medier som rör samhällsdiskussioner.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis addresses social matters linked to social media, such as how users share their views on social issues and their reaction to these discussions in social media. In this study, we used the survey methodology for data collection. Afterwards, we analyzed the data through a thematic analysis.

    The result showed that the respondents reacted differently to contributions to social discussions on social media. The result was analyzed in two themes; theme 1 answers how users react to social discussions on social media, and theme 2 answers the question of how willing users are to participate in social discussions on social media. Some respondents believe that being able to participate in social discussions on social media gives them an opportunity to express themselves and educate their followers. Other respondents choose not to participate in these discussions as they consider that it is a waste of time and that it will have no positive impact but instead start unnecessary discussions and conflicts. Therefore, these respondents choose to keep their opinions private.

  • 254.
    Shen, Biao
    et al.
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Yamada, Masayuki
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Hidaka, Sumitomo
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Liu, Jiewei
    KTH.
    Shiomi, Junichiro
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH.
    Kohno, Masamichi
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Takahashi, Koji
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Takata, Yasuyuki
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Early Onset of Nucleate Boiling on Gas-covered Biphilic Surfaces2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 2036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For phase-change cooling schemes for electronics, quick activation of nucleate boiling helps safeguard the electronics components from thermal shocks associated with undesired surface superheating at boiling incipience, which is of great importance to the long-term system stability and reliability. Previous experimental studies show that bubble nucleation can occur surprisingly early on mixed-wettability surfaces. In this paper, we report unambiguous evidence that such unusual bubble generation at extremely low temperatures-even below the boiling point-is induced by a significant presence of incondensable gas retained by the hydrophobic surface, which exhibits exceptional stability even surviving extensive boiling deaeration. By means of high-speed imaging, it is revealed that the consequently gassy boiling leads to unique bubble behaviour that stands in sharp contrast with that of pure vapour bubbles. Such findings agree qualitatively well with numerical simulations based on a diffuse-interface method. Moreover, the simulations further demonstrate strong thermocapillary flows accompanying growing bubbles with considerable gas contents, which is associated with heat transfer enhancement on the biphilic surface in the low-superheat region.

  • 255.
    Shiomi, J.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Active control of a global thermocapillary instability2002In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 3039-3045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active control was applied to oscillatory thermocapillary flow in an open cylindrical container filled with Silicone oil. Thermocapillary convection was driven by imposing a radial temperature gradient on a flat free surface. This is an extension of the previous work by Shiomi who applied proportional feedback control by locally heating the surface at a single position using the local temperature signal at a different position fed back through a simple algorithm. Although significant attenuation of the oscillation was detected, an uncertainty remained if global stabilization was achieved. In the present paper, two sensor/heater pairs were installed to achieve the global suppression of the oscillation. Successful global stabilization of the oscillation was achieved in a range of Marangoni number, with the best performance in the weakly nonlinear regime. Using a reliable temperature measurement method, quantitative analysis is carried out to quantify the performance of the control. The optimal values of gain and relative position of sensor/heater pairs were identified.

  • 256.
    Shiomi, J.
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Numerical investigation of feedback control of thermocapillary instability2005In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 17, no 5, article id 054107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control of oscillatory thermocapillary convection in an annular geometry with a horizontal free surface is investigated by means of a numerical simulation. The objective is to suppress oscillations using a feedback opposition control. The temperature is measured at certain positions on the interface, this signal is amplified and used to apply local heating on the free surface. Many features of the controlled system observed in previous experiments could be reproduced by the simulation. The numerical simulation allows us to clarify the picture of the spatial structures of the controlled oscillation, which was not accessible in the experiments. In addition to what was found in the previous experiments, the present simulations also permit us to investigate the importance of the positioning of sensors and heaters, and the influence of the properties of the heaters.

  • 257.
    Shiomi, J.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Proportional control of oscillatory thermocapillary convection in a toy model2005In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 296-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple model equations were formulated to examine the influence of linear feedback control on oscillations in thermocapillary convection. Limiting the solutions to have a few wavenumbers and roughly assuming the other spatial profiles, the system of equations is reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations. This toy model is able to recreate basic features of the uncontrolled system such as standing/traveling wave structures and bifurcation characteristics. The control was realized by locally heating and cooling the free surface by linearly feeding back the temperature signals measured in local positions. Implementing the proportional feedback control in this toy model, we could capture some of the essential qualitative features of the influence of the control observed in the previous experiments, including the limitation of the control. The formulation of the toy model can be used to gain physical insight in the control problem.

  • 258.
    Shiomi, J.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, Mekanik.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH.
    Active control of oscillatory thermocapillary convection2001In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics: Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Vol. 6403, no 3, article id 31205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active control of oscillatory thermocapillary flow was applied in an open cylindrical container filled with silicone oil. Thermocapillary convection was driven by imposing a radial temperature gradient on a flat free surface. The control was realized by locally heating the surface at a single position using the local temperature signal at a different position fed back through a simple algorithm. Significant attenuation of the oscillation was achieved in a wide range of supercritical Marangoni numbers, with the best performance in the weakly non-linear regime. Simultaneously measuring the temperature oscillation at two positions gives us a good insight in how the control influences the whole temperature field on the free surface. Quantitative analysis was done to characterize the optimal feedback amplification and the required power.

  • 259.
    Shiomi, J.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kudo, M.
    Tokyo University of Science, Chiba, Japan.
    Ueno, I.
    Tokyo University of Science, Chiba, Japan.
    Kawamura, H.
    Tokyo University of Science, Chiba, Japan.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Feedback control of oscillatory thermocapillary convection in a half-zone liquid bridge2003In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 496, p. 193-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active feedback control was applied to suppress oscillations in thermocapillary convection in a half-zone liquid bridge. The experiment is on a unit-aspect-ratio liquid bridge where the most unstable azimuthal mode has wavenumber 2 when control is absent. Active control was realized by locally modifying the surface temperature using the local temperature measured at different locations fed back through a simple control law. The performance of the control process was quantified by analysing local temperature signals, and the flow structure was simultaneously identified by flow visualization. With optimal placement of sensors and heaters, proportional control can raise the critical Marangoni number by more than 40%. The amplitude of the oscillation can be suppressed to less than 30% of the initial value for a wide range of Marangoni number, up to 90% of the critical value. The proportional control was tested for a period-doubling state and it stabilized the oscillation to a periodic state. Weakly nonlinear control was applied by adding a cubic term to the control law to improve the performance of the control and alter the bifurcation characteristics.

  • 260.
    Shiomi, Junichiro
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Lin, Yuan
    KTH.
    Carlborg, Carl Fredrik
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Maruyama, Shigeo
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Low dimensional heat and mass transport in carbon nanotubes2010In: Proceedings of the ASME Micro/Nanoscale Heat and Mass Transfer International Conference 2009, MNHMT2009, 2010, p. 337-346Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers various issues related to heat and mass transport in carbon nanotubes. Heat and mass transport under quasi-one-dimensional confinement has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that the quasi-ballistic heat conduction manifests in the length and diameter dependences of carbon nanotube thermal conductance. Such quasi-ballistic nature of carbon nanotube heat conduction also influences the thermal boundary conductance between carbon nanotubes and the surrounding materials. The quasi-one-dimensional structure also influences the mass transport of water through carbon nanotubes. The confinement gives rise to strongly directional dynamic properties of water. Here, it is demonstrated that the confined water can be efficiently transported by using the temperature gradient. Furthermore, the simulations reveal the diameter-dependent anisotropic dielectric properties, which could be used to identify intrusion of water into carbon nanotubes.

  • 261.
    Singer, H. M.
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Singer-Loginova, I.
    KTH.
    Bilgram, J. H.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Morphology diagram of thermal dendritic solidification by means of phase-field models in two and three dimensions2006In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 296, no 1, p. 58-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have determined morphology diagrams in two and three dimensions for two different phase-field models [A.A Wheeler, B.T. Murray, R.J. Schaefer, Physica D 66 (1993) 243; A. Karma, W.-J. Rappel, Phys. Rev. E 57 (1998) 4323] for the parameters undercooling and anisotropy of surface tension. The comparison with analytical predictions show a qualitative correspondence, however, the predicted shape of the morphology boundary differs significantly from the shape found in our simulations. The two investigated models show the same quantitative behavior. Our simulations in 3D have shown that the shape of the morphology boundary is qualitatively similar to the one in 2D. However, we find that the border is shifted by an amount of 0.3% on the anisotropy axis. Our simulated 3D structures show a qualitative correspondence to the ones we have found in in situ experiments with xenon.

  • 262.
    Sjöström, Josefin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Moreira, Juliana
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Rätt information vid rätt tillfälle The right information at the right time: En studie av individanpassning av informationsåtkomst på webbplatser An essay on personalization of information access on websites2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this essay is active personalization of information access. Its main goals are to make it easier for developers to create new, customized solutions for the web. The essay tries to find an answer to the question if personalization of information-access makes it easier for the user to find the information they need. The researchers developed a personalized-access prototype of the Swedish Tax Agency’s website and, through observations compared it with the original. The researchers applied the think-aloud-method in five observations documented as video recordings and observation schedules. In addition, a follow-up with a questionnaire was made after each observation in order to collect additional qualitative data. The observations showed that although the respondents found the information quickly at the Swedish Tax Agency’s website, they experienced the prototype as easier to use. The conclusion is that active personalization can make it easier for the users to find the right information, and that a prerequisite for creating an active personalization is that it takes better into account the user's needs by means of contextualization, categorization and filtering.

  • 263.
    Skripcevska, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    SH Karriär: Framtagning av designförslag till visningsvy för karriärforum2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the implementation for re-designing a career forum called SH Karriär, that has been working since fall 2011.  SH Karriär has in the current state experienced that students at Södertörn University don’t return to the career forum, which initiated a user study to evaluate the issue. The goal was to produce a design proposal for the career forum that presents their range of services in a representative manner.  The re- design allows users to get a clearer view of the content presented on the career forum and creates an interest in revisiting after registering at SH Karriär. The report describes my methodology through a questionnaire survey and usability testing. These methods have given me a foundation for the production of the design proposal that was created in Adobe Photoshop CS5. The result of the design proposal presents a more structured career forum that elucidates SH Karriär’s services with a new colorful approach.

  • 264.
    Solbrand, Emilie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Framtida utveckling och byte av teknisk plattform: Produktion av digitala läromedel ur ett förlagsperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project was performed from a publisher's perspective and explains Natur & Kultur's technical platform change for their digital learning materials. This project was a subproject and was divided into three phases: Phase 1: Pilot Study, Phase 2: Implementation and Phase 3: Analysis and evaluation. The project’s purpose was to provide a comprehensive view of how this change took place within the publisher’s practice, and to examine the target group's expectations of the new technical platform. The project aims to produce two titles in the production and publishing tool 3D Issue by autumn 2015. The methods used on this project were: interview and a summary of Natur & Kultur’s survey and a variety of participant observations. The result produced future development guidelines and production of digital learning materials from a publisher's perspective.

  • 265.
    Steindorsdottir, Rebekka
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    von Feilitzen-Roos, Veronica
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    ”Andra kan tydligen se var man är”: En studie om hur lokaliseringsteknik påverkar användning och beteende hos datormobilanvändare2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of GPS technology has during the last couple of years made significant progress. Today GPS is a standard function in modern cellphones. The GPS function in the cellphones enables tracking and is also one of the fundamental building stones in many smartphone applications. This essay investigates how users are affected by the GPS function in modern smartphones.

    Technology is always changing, smartphones and GPS are no exceptions. During the last year the sales and usage of smartphones has increased significantly. As the Internet gets more and more available and people have the possibility to go online with their mobile phones, the usage of smartphone applications also have increased. As of this, applications are now a well-known concept. Many applications need location data in order to function. It’s the smartphones GPS-functionality, built in to whatever application that provides data for positioning. Different social media provides users with their location, which can be used in status updates. A question that often comes up is about the personal integrity and monitoring that follows with GPS tracking. In this essay smartphone users share their comments about the technology. The primary advantages and disadvantages are discussed in proportions to each other. 

  • 266.
    Stenbacka, Erik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Cubieo: Observations of Explorative User Behavior with an Abstract Tangible Interface2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have shown a broad spectra of tangible interfaces or TUI's, based upon interaction with music, but also other interfaces containing ubiquitous computing. This is an interesting field due to how engaging music can be and work as connector between people. But the field of human computer interaction has some explorational properties. This paper presents an idea of abstraction with a tangible interface for creating music. The idea behind abstraction of the interface is to engage the user(s) in exploring the artifact, rather than explaining the artifact to the user what can and cannot be done with the artifact.

  • 267.
    Sterner, Manne
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Löfgren, Viktor
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    “For your boards!”: Att skapa ett samarbetsverktyg för att stödja designers i skapandet av moodboards.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar utvecklingen av en webbapplikation för att skapa moodboards. Sy!et med webbapplikationen var att skapa ett verktyg som gör det möjligt på ett enkelt sätt att spara bilder digitalt, samt samarbeta med andra i skapandet av moodboards. Rapporten beskriver hur vi arbetat med allt från konceptet till utveckling av själva applikationen. Resultatet blev en funge- rande version av applikationen. Utvecklingen av applikationen skedde i programmeringsspråket Pyton, webbapplikationsramverket Django och presentationsdelen gjordes med HTML, CSS samt javascript. 

  • 268.
    Strömgren, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH.
    Benavides, Aldo
    van Wachem, Berend
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH.
    Numerical computation of turbulent gas-particle flow in a backward-facing step. Model comparison with experimental data.2008In: Proceedings 11th international conference Multiphase flow in industrial plants: Splendid Hotel "La Torre" - Palermo, Italy September 7-10, 2008, Milano: ANIMP SERVIZI SRL , 2008, p. 63-70Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Strömgren, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, Mekanik.
    A modelling study of evolving particle-laden turbulent pipe-flow2009In: Turbulence, Heat And Mass Transfer 6, Begell House , 2009, p. 713-716Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Eulerian turbulent two phase flow model in cylindrical coordinates was developed in order to study evolving turbulent gas particle flows in a downward pipe flow. The model takes the feedback of the particles into account. Simulations shows good agreement with experiments and showed that the pipe length required for particle laden turbulent pipe flow to become fully developed is four times longer than for unladen flows, even for rather low mass loadings. The accumulation of particles in the near wall region showed a nonmonotonic behaviour and was found to be strongest for St=0.5.

  • 270.
    Strömgren, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH.
    A modelling study of evolving particle-laden turbulent pipe-flow2011In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 86, no 3-4, p. 477-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Eulerian turbulent two phase flow model using kinetic theory ofgranular flows for the particle phase was developed in order to studyevolving upward turbulent gas particle flows in a pipe. Themodel takes the feedback of the particles into account and its resultsagree well with experiments. Simulations show that the pipe length required for particle laden turbulent flow to become fully developed is up to five times longer than an unladen flow. To increase theunderstanding of the dependence of the development length on particlediameter a simple model for the expected development length wasderived. It shows that the development length becomes shorter forincreasing particle diameters, which agrees with simulations up to aparticle diameter of 100 μm. Thereafter the development lengthbecomes longer again for increasing particle diameters because largerparticles need a longer time to adjust to the velocity of the carrierphase.

  • 271.
    Strömgren, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH.
    Deriving fluid-particle correlation closures for Eulerian two-fluid models through use of Langevin equations2011In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 275-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The correlation correlation between the fluctuating particle and gas velocity in isotropic turbulence is studied with a set of stochastic differential equations taking into account both particle-particle collisions and the particle feedback on the turbulence. The principal aim of this work is to use the Langevin equations to formulate closures for two-fluid gas-particle flow models. Using Ito calculus we derived solutions for the turbulent kinetic energy of the particle phase and the particle-gas velocity correlations. If particle-particle collisions and particle feedback on the turbulence are neglected the new relations approach the ones derived by Tchen and Hinze but if these effects are included additional terms in the relations appear. In this study we only use a very simple model for the particle-particle collisions. The new relation and the classical relation of Tchen and Hinze for the particle turbulent kinetic energy as well as a relation based on the kinetic theory of granular flows have been implemented in a two-fluid model for turbulent gas-particle flow in a channel in order to make comparison for different particle Stokes numbers. Results show that while the two-fluid model using Hinze's relations only gives good results for small Stokes numbers, the new relation yields significant improvements for a large range of Stokes numbers.

  • 272.
    Strömgren, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH.
    Modelling of turbulent gas-particle flows with focus on two-way coupling effects on turbophoresis2012In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 224, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Eulerian model was developed for turbulent gas-particle flow that takes into account the influence of particles on the gas-phase turbulence. For the description of the particle-phase stress the kinetic theory of granular flow and the simpler Hinze model were adopted. A K-ω model was used as the gas phase turbulence model. The difference between one- and two-way coupling was investigated for different particle volume fractions and particle diameters. It was found that particles with a much higher density than the fluid substantially affect the gas-phase in turbulent channel flow for particle volume fractions as low as 10 -4. The models with the particle-phase stress described by the kinetic theory of granular flow and the simpler Hinze model produce similar results for particles with small response times but deviate for larger response times. The study shows that two-way coupling and the turbophoretic effect must be taken into account in models even at relatively low particle volume fractions.

  • 273.
    Sumaiya Alam, Mirza
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Social Interaction among Strangers: Boost by FriendFinder (FF)2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper tries to explore that my designed software (FriendFinder) which I have done in my Design Project can be used to improve the social interaction rate among strangers. In today´s society human being make more interaction with technology in their daily life than before. It can be an easy way to use that technology to increase the social interaction among human beings. Many attempts were made and also some ongoing projects try to use the Smart Phone as a tool to increase the social interaction among strangers. In my designed project I also developed such software which will work along with the Smart Phone, to enhance the social interaction among strangers. In my designed application I have tried to design the functionalities which can be used in a public place i.e. café or bar and by using this application people can be able to interact with strangers easily, discover new people as friends and finally can be able to increase social interaction. To support the papers goal I have also conducted a field survey about my designed application’s possible demand and impact on mass people. In this paper I will also analyze the survey result.

  • 274.
    Sundell, Alexandra
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Karlsson, Ida
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Färgkonnotationer i spel: Hur val av färg påverkar hur vi upplever en spelkaraktär2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to identify the relationship between color and semiotics and how a person’s opinon, regarding a game character’s different characteristics, can be affected by the use of various colors. Prior to this study people were asked, through an online survey, to write down words that they associated with different colors. The colors were then divided into four different groups depending on whether they had been associated with positive-strong words, positive-weak words, negative-strong words or negative-weak words. In order to further shed light on the effect of colors, the four palettes, consisting of the colors associated with the different words, were then used separately to give color to two characters: a man and a woman. People were then asked to describe what kind of characteristics they felt that the different color versions of the characters portrayed and if they believed that there was a link between colors and how we view different characters’ personalities. The results showed that all of the respondents believed that such link existed and showed different reactions towards the characters’ images depending on what colors were used while creating them. The majority associated an intensive shade of red with powerful and slightly negative personality traits while bright pastel colors such as light green, pink and sky blue had a tendency to make the characters appear more naive and childish. The results also showed that darker, dusty shades of grey and brown gave the characters a more negative and weak expression.

  • 275.
    Svensson, Anna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Zetterman, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Kommunikation på sociala medier: En studie om fem svenska TV-kanalers strategi på Facebook2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag och organisationer använder sig allt mer utav sociala medier i syftet att kommunicera med sin tänkta målgrupp. Oavsett om företag väljer att delta i diskussionerna eller ignorera samtalen online är det definitivt att konversationerna kommer att äga rum. Denna studie fokuserar på kommunikationen mellan användare och fem svenska TV-kanaler samt hur denna kommunikation kan förbättras med hjälp av sociala medier. Vidare utreds strukturen i de undersökta företagen, det vill säga om ansvarsområdet för sociala medier ligger hos en specifik person eller som en bisyssla hos ett flertal. Denna studie undersöker om en utvecklad, ihållande strategi för sociala medier bidrar till en större andel aktiva användare. 

  • 276.
    Swenson, Johannes
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Webdesign och SEO i praktiken: Utvecklande av webbplats och optimering för sökmotorer åt ett företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes my work with a website for a company that helps other companies book conferences. Creating this website, I have worked from a Mobile First perspective to create an interface. The interface was then tested on potential users. I then used guidelines from Googles own documentation on search engine optimization. The purpose of this work is to create and deliver a website where users can turn to MH Konferens and let them handle booking and planning of their conferences.

  • 277.
    Söderström, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Regional Environmental Governance and Avenues for the Ecosystem Approach to management in the Baltic Sea Area2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the avenues for the ecosystem approach to management in the Baltic Sea Region. This region is one of the most contaminated water bodies in the world, although the first Regional Seas Convention was created here and theregion has a long history of cooperation and environmental protection. The current environmental governance arrangements are examined with specific focuson governance structures, cross-sectoral integration and ecological boundaries.The ecosystem approach to management as both a tool and vision of holistic management of natural resources is traced through the evolution of environmental governance, as well as its manifestation in contemporary environmental policies in the region. It is found that the major EU directives, as well as HELCOM polices, promote the ecosystem approach and that its presence has increased inrecent years; it is now the major guiding principle in European marine governance. However, the governance structures impede implementation indifferent ways. The environmental problem areas in the region all require different governance arrangements, thus obstructing a holistic approach. The environmental problems per se also affect each other, necessitating far-reaching sectoral integration and cross-border cooperation, which at present is the major obstacle regarding implementation. The contemporary trends combining solid regionalisation through HELCOM with increased Europeanisation and macro regionalisation by different EU initiatives offer some promise, but the cross sectoral impediments must be resolved if the ecosystem approach is to become apractical approach and not just a policy principle.

  • 278.
    Taffazoli, Hosein
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Tiedemann, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Confined and Condemned: The Impact a Restricted User Interface Has on the Player Experience in Survival Horror Games2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we will explore how a restricted user interface affects the player experience in survival horror games. To test this, we created a digital survival horror game. The restricted user interface in the prototype resides in the player controller who has access to five different user interface elements. These elements are health, revolver, flashlight, compass and a watch. The results showed that the restriction and making the user interface diegetic did affect the player experience. This was presented through dividing the participant's experiences with the prototype in four categories: Challenge, Analytical, Safety and Control. Participant’s enjoyed the added challenge from the restricted user interface which also helped promote the horror experience. As a drawback, a restricted user interface resulted in participants having a harder time learning the game and understanding certain game mechanics and elements.

  • 279.
    Tahir, Abdul Malik
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH.
    Initial rapid wetting in metallic systems2013In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 61, no 14, p. 5375-5386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial rapid wetting of a solid surface by a liquid phase is an important step in many industrial processes. Liquid-phase sintering of powder metallurgical steels is one such industrial process, where metallic powders of micrometer size are used. Investigating the dynamic wetting of a high-temperature metallic drop of micrometer size experimentally is very challenging. Here, a phase-field-based numerical model is first implemented and verified by accurately capturing the initial dynamic wetting of millimeter-sized metal drops and then the model is extended to predict the dynamic wetting of a micrometer-sized metal drop. We found, in accordance with recent observations, that contact line friction is required for accurate simulation of dynamic wetting. Our results predict the wetting time for a micrometer-sized metal drop and also indicate that the dynamic wetting patterns at the micro- and millimeter length scales are qualitatively similar. We also found that the wetting process is much faster for a micrometer-sized metal drop compared to a millimeter-sized metal drop.

  • 280.
    Tahir, Abdul Malik
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH.
    Bergman, O.
    Höganäs AB.
    Chasoglou, D.
    Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Frisk, K.
    Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Behaviour of master alloy during sintering of PM steels: redistribution and dimensional variations2015In: Powder Metallurgy, ISSN 0032-5899, E-ISSN 1743-2901, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of alloying elements in low alloyed PM steels in the form of a master alloy gives the advantage of introducing oxidation sensitive but less expensive elements and also allows manipulation in composition adjustment to achieve desired properties. In this work, interrupted sintering trials of the Fe-2MA-0.5C (%) (MA = Cu based master alloy) are performed. The behaviour of the liquid forming master alloy, for instance in terms of liquid phase formation, alloying element redistribution and effect on the dimensional changes, is investigated. The results show that master alloy particles melt over a range of temperature, which is also supported by the thermodynamic calculations. The low swelling in the master alloy system, compared to a reference system of Fe-2Cu-0.5C, is attributed to the progressive melting of the master alloy. The mean diffusion distance of Cu in Fe at the interparticle boundaries is 5.8 mu m after 34 min of isothermal holding.

  • 281.
    Tahir, Abdul Malik
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH.
    Bergman, Ola
    Höganäs AB.
    Frisk, Karin
    Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Cu redistribution during sintering of Fe–2Cu and Fe–2Cu–0·5C compacts2014In: Powder Metallurgy, ISSN 0032-5899, E-ISSN 1743-2901, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 373-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective use of alloying elements in powder metallurgical steels requires a deep understanding of their redistribution kinetics during sintering. In this work, interrupted sintering trials of Fe–2Cu and Fe–2Cu–0·5C compacts were performed. Moreover, diffusion simulations of Cu in γ-Fe using Dictra were performed. It is found that transient liquid phase penetrates the Fe interparticle and grain boundaries in less than 3 min of holding time. However, C addition limits the penetration of liquid Cu, particularly into grain boundaries of large Fe particles. The results also show that the mean diffusion distance of Cu in γ-Fe in the C added system is slightly lower than that in the C-free system at 3 min of holding time; however, after 33 min, the mean diffusion distance is similar in both systems. The diffusion distances of Cu in γ-Fe, predicted by Dictra, are in good agreement with the measured values.

  • 282.
    Tahir, Abdul Malik
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH.
    Bergman, Ola
    Höganäs AB.
    Frisk, Karin
    Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Investigation of Cu distribution and porosity in Fe-2Cu and Fe-2Cu-0.5C compacts2013In: International Powder Metallurgy Congress and Exhibition, Euro PM 2013, EPMA , 2013, Vol. 2, p. 291-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of the alloying element Cu in steel compacts is important in determining the properties of the sintered products. In this work, mixtures of Fe-2Cu and Fe-2Cu-0.5C were compacted at 600 MPa and sintered at 1120oC for the holding times of ts= 3, 13, 23, and 33 min. Dilatometry and light optical microscopy is used to investigate porosity, Cu distribution and its effect on the dimensional changes during sintering. The result shows that the molten Cu penetrates into the Fe interparticle and grain boundaries in less then 3 min holding time at 1120°C, however C addition hinders the liquid penetration of Cu. Furthermore, it is found that the C-added compact has lower volume expansion and porosity compared to the C-free system, after 33 min of holding time at 1120°C.

  • 283.
    Tahir, Abdul Malik
    et al.
    KTH.
    Malik, Amer
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    Modeling of the primary rearrangement stage of liquid phase sintering2016In: Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 0965-0393, E-ISSN 1361-651X, Vol. 24, no 7, article id 075009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dimensional variations during the rearrangement stage of liquid phase sintering could have a detrimental effect on the dimensional tolerances of the sintered product. A numerical approach to model the liquid phase penetration into interparticle boundaries and the accompanied dimensional variations during the primary rearrangement stage of liquid phase sintering is presented. The coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and the Navier-Stokes equations is used to model the penetration of the liquid phase, whereas the rearrangement of the solid particles due to capillary forces is modeled using the equilibrium equation for a linear elastic material. The simulations are performed using realistic physical properties of the phases involved and the effect of green density, wettability and amount of liquid phase is also incorporated in the model. In the first step, the kinetics of the liquid phase penetration and the rearrangement of solid particles connected by a liquid bridge is modeled. The predicted and the calculated (analytical) results are compared in order to validate the numerical model. The numerical model is then extended to simulate the dimensional changes during primary rearrangement stage and a qualitative match with the published experimental data is achieved.

  • 284.
    Tholander, Jakob
    et al.
    Data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Normark, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Rossitto, Chiara
    Data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Understanding Agency in Interaction Design Materials2012In: CHI '12 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, p. 2499-2508Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Thorsell, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Aktiebolaget Marlot: Att skapa en grafisk profil och en Wordpress-sida.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Marlot Company Limited is a company in the sector household services. It is a new company where the owners, and also the clients, felt that the company was in need of a distinct platform where they could communicate with their current and prospective customers. The assignment was to create a platform consisting of a graphic profile and a Wordpress site for the company. The graphic profile's task was to distinctly profile the company in the market, and visualizing the conceptions that the company wants to be associated with. The purpose of the Wordpress site was to create a showcase for Marlot towards their customers, and thecompany itself could manage after completion.

    These two products have been created with the help of a pilot study which included an analysis in which the competitors in the market has been scanned, and reports of the household services sector has been studied. The result is an appealing and modern graphical profile that stands out in the sector household services, and a Wordpress site where the company can communicate with their market in a distinct and appealing manner.

  • 286.
    Thorsell, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Kommentera här!: En kvalitativ studie om nyhetssajters kommentarsfunktioner2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study builds on the discussion of the comment field that is related to news sites articles. The debate culminated in the summer of 2011 when several news sites changed their conduct and in some cases also the technologies used. This study intended to investigate whether the choice of technology for annotation affects users' willingness to communication on newssites, but also to elucidate possible underlying factors for this. This has been carried out by obseravtions and interview studys. The results of this study indicate that communication is affected by the choice of technical solution. And that lack of control is one of the determining factors of whether the user is willing to comment on an article.

  • 287.
    Tikka, Pia
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland .
    Kaipainen, Mauri Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    From naturalistic neuroscience to modeling radical embodiment with narrative enactive systems2014In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 8, p. 794-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstream cognitive neuroscience has begun to accept the idea of embodied mind, which assumes that the human mind is fundamentally constituted by the dynamical interactions of the brain, body, and the environment. In today’s paradigm of naturalistic neurosciences, subjects are exposed to rich contexts, such as video sequences or entire films, under relatively controlled conditions, against which researchers can interpret changes in neural responses within a time window. However, from the point of view of radical embodied cognitive neuroscience, the increasing complexity alone will not suffice as the explanatory apparatus for dynamical embodiment and situatedness of the mind. We suggest that narrative enactive systems with dynamically adaptive content as stimuli,may serve better to account for the embodied mind engaged with the surrounding world. Among the ensuing challenges for neuroimaging studies is how to interpret brain data against broad temporal contexts of previous experiences that condition the unfolding experience of nowness. We propose means to tackle this issue, as well as ways to limit the exponentially growing combinatoria of narrative paths to a controllable number.

  • 288.
    Tillberg, Margareta
    KTH.
    Made in the USSR: Design of electronic/electrical systems in the Soviet Union from Khruschev's thaw to Gorbachev's perestroika2010In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 34-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Tjörnebro, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Systemutveckling av Trouble Report: Hur väljer och prioriterar man tekniska funktioner i vidareutveckling av ett etablerat system?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As part of an internship at Ericsson, this report was written to enhance the understanding of how it is to develop a system that is well established at the workplace. To improve an already existing system is not always as easy as many developers may think. In this report the pros and cons of developing an already existing system has been researched and analyzed. Do note that the results are only from one development of a specific system and that comparison of other developments has been made from other reports and not from experiencing it firsthand. It was found that the choices made can have an impact on further developing and it is important to write down what has been done. Writing down why you choose to do something may help you further down the process why you did what you did.

  • 290.
    Troost, Robbert
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Exploring the value of adding airflow to the VR-developer’s toolkit2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve the highest levels of immersion and presence possible in a Virtual Reality experience, all of the sensory input we receive in the real world must be simulatable in Virtual Environments (VE) as well. Foregoing the more popular audio-visual feedback, this project aims to better understand the benefits of adding tactile feedback (namely that of airflow) to the VR-developer‟s toolkit. Through user tests, involving a hairdryer to produce a strong airflow that is easily redirected and changed in temperature, feedback was collected on the user experiences and applications of airflow in a VE made to simulate a walk through river lands similar to the ones found in Sweden. While there was no singular way that the participants experienced the added sensory input, most reported the airflow as being equally important to feeling immersed as background music, and on average almost as important as other audio cues. Perhaps most importantly, rich insights were gathered that can guide further research.

  • 291.
    Tönhardt, R.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Dendritic growth of randomly oriented nuclei in a shear flow2000In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 213, no 1-2, p. 161-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical study of the effect of an external mean flow on dendritic growth has been performed. All simulations are 2D phase-field computations using an adaptive finite element method. The dendritic growth starts from a small nucleus that is attached to a solid insulated wall. A flow of melt past the wall is maintained by prescribing a shear stress far from the wall. The orientation of the preferred growth directions of the nucleus is varied. In the simulations, a non-dimensional undercooling of 0.1 is used. The Prandtl number of the melt is taken to be 23, which corresponds approximately to that of SCN. Different initial orientations of the preferred growth directions of the nucleus gives different vertical growth velocities. The results depend also on the flow strength (the flow Peclet number) and the degree of anisotropy. The maximal vertical growth velocity tends to be achieved for crystals with a preferred growth direction that is moderately inclined in the upstream direction.

  • 292.
    Tönhardt, R
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Simulation of natural convection effects on dendritic growth2001In: Interactive Dynamics Of Convection And Solidification / [ed] Ehrhard, P; Riley, DS; Steen, PH, Springer Netherlands, 2001, p. 57-58Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Tönhardt, R.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Simulation of natural convection effects on succinonitrile crystals2000In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics: Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 828-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical study of the effect of natural convection on the growth of succinonitrile crystals has been performed. All simulations are two-dimensional phase-field computations using an adaptive finite element method. The undercooling has been varied between 1.92 to 0.12 K, which is within the range used in experiments. The thermal natural convection has minor effects at 1.92 K, but the influence increases with decreasing undercooling, due to the fact that the size of the crystal increases. The simulation results show a decrease of the growth Peclet number with decreasing undercooling that is very similar to that observed in terrestrial experiments. Also, the simulation results for the orientation effect of the gravity vector agree qualitatively with experiments.

  • 294.
    Törnquist, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Ett ordersystem för reklamfilm2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report has explored how to design and develop an ordering system for television and DOOH commercials. Usability theories have been considered and also guidlines for system devoloping, this includes the making of a PACT analysis and a demand specifcation. To ensure that the users of the systems are in focus a pre studie has been performed on location of the company which is the intended user of the system. Finally an interactive prototype of an orderingsystem has been created to illustrate the functions and tools which the fnal product should have.

  • 295.
    Uhlán, Angelica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Larsson, Elias
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Musik som designverktyg: En analys av hur sex plattformsspel karaktäriserar platser och gameplay2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Musik är en stor del av digitala spel och kan användas i flera syften. Vi har i denna uppsats undersökt hur sex olika plattformsspel använder musik för att karaktärisera olika platser i spelvärlden. Vissa av dessa platser, till exempel bossbanor, karaktäriseras även av ett visst spelmoment, därför har vi även undersökt ifall musiken förändras i samband med en förändring i gameplay. Den musikaliska komponent vi fokuserat på är tempo. De spel vi analyserat kommer från ett brett spektrum inom två generationer, tre som anses vara klassiker för sina respektive plattformar och tre moderna titlar. Vi fann att det finns likheter i användningen av musik för att gestalta en tematisk miljö mellan de äldre och yngre spelen, men hur musiken används i relation till gameplay är mer individuellt utefter spelets typ.

  • 296.
    Vass, Miriam Munnich
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    An equity assessment of introducing uncertain forest carbon sequestration in EU climate policy2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 61, p. 1432-1442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to cause major environmental problems in the future. European policy makers have therefore declared that they aim to implement cost-efficient and fair policies to reduce carbon emissions. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the cost of the EU policies for 2020 can be reduced through the inclusion of carbon sequestration as an abatement option while equity is also improved. The assessment is done by numerical calculations using a chance-constrained partial equilibrium model of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and national effort-sharing targets, where forest sequestration is introduced as an uncertain abatement option. Fairness is evaluated by calculation of Gini-coefficients for six equity criteria to policy outcomes. The estimated Gini-coefficients range between 0.11 and 0.32 for the current policy, between 0.16 and 0.66 if sequestration is included and treated as certain, and between 0.19 and 0.38 when uncertainty about sequestration is taken into account and policy-makers wish to meet targets with at least 90 per cent probability. The results show that fairness is reduced when sequestration is included and that the impact is larger when sequestration is treated as certain.

  • 297.
    Villanueva, Walter
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Phase-field Simulations Of Free Boundary Microflow2006In: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Transport Phenomena in Micro and Nanodevices, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 298.
    Villanueva, Walter
    et al.
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Some generic capillary-driven flows2006In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1072-1086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with numerical simulations of some capillary-driven flows. The focus is on the wetting phenomenon in sintering-like flows and in the imbibition of liquids into a porous medium. The wetting phenomenon is modeled using the coupled Cahn-Hilliard/Navier-Stokes system. The Cahn-Hilliard equation is treated as a system where the chemical potential is solved first followed by the composition. The equations are discretised in space using piecewise linear functions. Adaptive finite element method is implemented with an ad hoc error criterion that ensures mesh resolution along the vicinity of the interface. In the 3D case we use parallel adaptive finite element method. First, a basic wetting of a liquid drop on a solid surface is shown and is established the independence of the dynamic contact angle on the interface width. In addition, the dependence of the dynamic contact angle on the Capillary number is matched with experimental data. Next, some generic sintering-like flows with a fixed matrix is presented. Different geometries in 2D and 3D are considered. We observed rapid wetting, precursor films, coalescence, breakup of melt drops as well as pore migration and elimination that are all microstructural characteristics of a liquid phase sintering. Finally, the effect of equilibrium contact angles on imbibition of liquid into a porous medium is studied.

  • 299.
    Villanueva, Walter
    et al.
    Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, USA.
    Boettinger, W. J.
    National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, USA.
    Warren, J. A.
    Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, USA.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Effect of phase change and solute diffusion on spreading on a dissolving substrate2009In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 57, no 20, p. 6022-6036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolutive wetting is investigated numerically using a diffuse-interface model that incorporates fluid flow, solute diffusion and phase change. A range of materials parameters are investigated: (1) permitting recovery of the hydrodynamic limit by suppressing the dissolution of the substrate and (2) evaluating the role of diffusion. The time history of droplet size, droplet concentration and angles between the interfaces are given. For cases in which convection dominates, the dynamics of spreading agrees with a known hydrodynamic model for spreading of inert fluids. A phase change increases wetting speed, due to a condensation that takes place near the triple junction. There is also a strong dependence of the wetting kinetics on the solute diffusivities. Details of composition changes during spreading are also discussed, such as the composition path of the bulk liquid probed at different locations in the drop. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.

  • 300.
    Villanueva, Walter
    et al.
    KTH.
    Grönhagen, Klara
    KTH.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH.
    Ågren, John
    KTH.
    Multicomponent and multiphase modeling and simulation of reactive wetting2008In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics: Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Vol. 77, no 5, article id 056313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multicomponent and multiphase model with fluid motion is developed. The model is used to study reactive wetting in the case where concentration change of the spreading liquid and the substrate occurs. With the introduction of a Gibbs energy functional, the governing equations are derived, consisting of convective concentration and phase-field equations which are coupled to the Navier-Stokes equations with surface tension forces. The solid substrate is modeled hydrodynamically with a very high viscosity. Arbitrary phase diagrams, surface energies, and typical dimensionless numbers are some input parameters into the model. An axisymmetric model with an adaptive finite element method is utilized. Numerical simulations were done revealing two stages in the wetting process. First, the convection-dominated stage where rapid spreading occurs. The dynamics of the wetting is found to match with a known hydrodynamic theory for spreading liquids. Second, the diffusion-dominated stage where we observed depression of the substrate-liquid interface and elevation of the contact line region.

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