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  • 251.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. WageningenUniversity and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bregt, Arnold K.
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ligtenberg, Arend
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Pérez-Soba, Marta
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Verweij, Peter
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    The social side of spatial decision support systems: Investigating knowledge integration and learning2017In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 76, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) represent a step forward in efforts to account for the spatial dimension in environmental decision-making. The aim of SDSS is to help policymakers and practitioners access, interpret and understand information from data, analyses and models, and guide them in identifying possible actions during a decision-making process. Researchers, however, report difficulties in up-take of SDSS by the intended users. Some suggest that this field would benefit from investigation of the social aspects involved in SDSS design, development, testing and use. Borrowing insights from the literature on science-policy interactions, we explore two key social processes: knowledge integration and learning. Using a sample of 36 scientific papers concerning SDSS in relation to environmental issues, we surveyed whether and how the selected papers reported on knowledge integration and learning. We found that while many of the papers mentioned communication and collaboration with prospective user groups or stakeholders, this was seldom underpinned by a coherent methodology for enabling knowledge integration and learning to surface. This appears to have hindered SDSS development and later adoption by intended users.

  • 252.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Gerger Swartling, Å.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Environmental governance in an increasingly complex world: Reflections on transdisciplinary collaborations for knowledge coproduction and learning2019In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 83-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm Environment Institute .
    Environmental governance in an increasingly complex world: An Interdisciplinary Exchange on Adaptation, Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Integration2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this event was to bring together scholars and practitioners in order to create opportunities for an exchange of ideas, methodologies and experience. Participants  with expertise in different areas i.e., adaptation research, resource management, policy studies, and adult learning, were invited to share latest research outcomes and engage in a collaborative reflection around the challenges of environmental governance in an increasingly complex world. Adaptation, collaborative learning and knowledge integration were the topics on which the event has focused. 

  • 254.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ligtenberg, A.
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bosma, R.
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Conceptualizing serious games as a learning-based intervention in the context of natural resources and environmental governance2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of serious games in the governance of natural resources and the environment is progressively increasing and includes games used for research and data collection, teaching and training, and fostering a change of practices. However, this diversity remains underexplored and underreported. In view of a growing interest in the use of serious games in natural resource and environmental governance, the absence of discussions about how differences in intended use and delivery influence the performance, assessment, and outcomes of games is problematic. Here we present an inventory, and a description, of such different uses then, by focusing on serious games used as interventions, we discuss when, and how, games could be used to generate learning and social learning. To that end we use a narrative review of selected literature, and insight from research on social learning, to develop an inventory of game use, and within that inventory we conceptualize the use of serious games as a social learning intervention. Also, by means of an illustrative case of a serious game (developed as part of the Assessing the Learning Effects of Games on Attitude of Stakeholders toward Sustainable Shrimp Farming - ALEGAMS research project) we reflect on a few key aspects of game use. We suggest that developing a serious game needs several iterations and, although the learning outcomes can be assessed, the impact of games aiming at changes in current practice and policy will likely fall beyond the timespan of usual project periods. This is something future research should consider as it has implications for the research design and methodology.

  • 255.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Reinecke, S.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Bregt, A.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Kilham, E.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Lapeyre, R.
    Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales (IDDRI) - Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, France.
    Challenges to and opportunities for biodiversity science-policy interfaces2015In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 54, p. 483-486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Tucker, Catherine May
    University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
    Šmid-Hribar, Mateja
    Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sigura, Maurizia
    University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Bogataj, Nevenka
    Slovenian Institute for Adult Education, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Urbanc, Mimi
    Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Gunya, Alexey
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Intersections of ecosystem services and common-pool resources literature: An interdisciplinary encounter2019In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 94, p. 72-81Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interdisciplinary research is understood to be the preferred way for scientific research to deepen understanding about environmental issues and challenges for sustainability. Two well-defined interdisciplinairy research fields, Ecosystems services (ES) and Common-pool resources (CPR), have taken different approaches that integrate the natural and social sciences to address environmental conundrums collaboratively. Several recent studies bring together insight from each, yet little is known about the breadth or directions, of the interdisciplinary conversation between the two fields of research. Moreover, the potential of this interaction to advance theory and practice relevant for sustainability is underexplored. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by addressing three questions: 1) What are the motives for the interaction between CPR and ES fields?, 2) How are these two fields of research interacting?, and 3) How does the interaction of CPR and ES contribute to research on sustainability? We conducted a systematic map to identify, select, describe and analyse research of our interest. We mapped out motivations for researchers to bring together insights from these two lines of inquiry and examined how they are doing so.

  • 257.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Udovč, A.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Developing Environmental NGO Power for Domestic Battles in a Multilevel Context: Lessons from a Slovenian case2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 244-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many have discussed the crucial role that environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) have played in the implementation of nature protection policies across European member states. However, there are important differences in the opportunity structures among new and old member states that influence how ENGOs can act and undertake activities. This article seeks to clarify the role of ENGO capacity building within the context of multilevel environmental governance and focuses on a case in which Slovene ENGOs mobilized against the siting of 80 windmills in a natural area suggested for protection under the EU Birds and Habitats Directive. The dispute involved ENGOs seeking to pursue nature protection objectives against state authorities who prioritized green energy infrastructural development. The article analyses the mobilization strategies pursued and the combination of material, cognitive, social and symbolic resources used. The results suggest that these resources had to be mobilized and organized along both horizontal (domestic) and vertical (international) axes, and that this combination appears key in advancing an environmental protection agenda.

  • 258.
    Rodin, Johnny
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Fertility Intentions and Risk Management: Exploring the Fertility Decline in Eastern Europe During Transition2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 221-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1985 and 1995, fertility in Eastern Europe declined from 2.2 children per woman to merely 1.5 on region-average. Previous research has emphasized mainly the economic turmoil during transition or the influx of new ideas regarding fertility and family relations. This article suggests that applying a risk management perspective on fertility patterns may put additional light on the reasons behind the fertility decline in post-communist Europe. The complexity of modern social systems has made people increasingly dependent on the state for risk evaluation and risk management. The article formulates the hypothesis that transition itself disrupted the mental models that helped people to navigate among the risks associated to having and raising children. Left to their own devices, women in Eastern Europe became more inclined to postpone childbirth or discard this option altogether.

  • 259.
    Rosenberg, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hand Hygiene Barriers faced byHealth Care Workers in The Gambia:: A Health Belief Model Approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health care associated infections cause major challenges to the provision of health care. This isdue to the burden placed on individuals, their families, and health services. Hand hygiene actions are cost effective measures towards reducing the spread of health care associated infections and have proven very effective in preventing microbial transmission during patient care. It has beenproven that health care workers hands are the main routes of transmission of health care associated infections. Despite this, hand hygiene is still frequently overlooked by health careworkers especially in settings with limited resources. This paper therefore explores hand hygieneknowledge and behaviours of public and private health care workers in The Gambia with focuson the health belief model. The required information has been gathered from 4 public and 2 private health care facilities through the use of a questionnaire based on the WHO evaluation toolkit. Hand hygiene knowledge of health care workers corresponded with their hand hygiene behaviour. Inadequate hand hygiene performance was noted in many health care workers as wellas limited availability of hand hygiene resources from health care facilities. Private health care facilities provided better hand hygiene opportunities for their health care workers yet neither private nor public health care facilities offered adequate hand hygiene training and feedback on hand hygiene performances to their health care workers.

  • 260.
    Rosenberg, Anna Charlotta
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Overlooking Girls’ Wellbeing: The opportunity cost of education encountered by menstruating schoolgirls in Sub Saharan Africa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Educating girls is advantageous for future livelihood security and socio economic development. Menstruating schoolgirls especially need to experience improved menstrual hygiene management (MHM) within schools in order to obtain quality education towards securing future as well as present wellbeing. This paper explores how menstruating schoolgirls’ opportunities are affected by insufficient water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities in schools within Sub-Saharan Africa. The required information has been gathered through a qualitative research method using scientifically based material on the situation of MHM in Sub-Saharan African schools as well as semi-structured questionnaires alongside my personal recollection of MHM. Focus has been given to the capabilities of menstruating schoolgirls under existing WASH facilities in schools analysed through the Capability Approach. Effects of poor MHM in schools are known to cause discomfort and poor constructive participation during lessons as well as decreased school attendance. A gender-based approach has also been examined which presents most schools as non-conducive towards girl’s education promotion.

  • 261. Rudén, Christina
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Scientific uncertainty and science-policy interactions in the risk assessment of hazardous chemicals2010In: Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges / [ed] Johan Eriksson, Michael Gilek, Christina Rudén, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 151-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Rönnow, Carl
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Avsiktlig klimatmanipulering: Geoingenjörskonstens pro- och contraargument i den miljöetiska litteraturen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic activities have made a decisive contribution to the climate change that today is considered to be our greatest challenge. Disturbingly social, economic and ecological consequences will follow unless steps effectively regulate greenhouse gas emissions. As the international negotiations in recent time have not managed to achieve effective binding agreements, attention has been directed towards geoengineering. Geoengineering is defined as the “deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth´s climate system”, and thus offers the possibility of using various techniques to achieve quick temporary solutions to cool the planet. Geoengineering does raise foundational environmental ethical questions about whether implementation should take place or not. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify how geoengineering is produced in the environmental ethical literature, the arguments that are highlighted and its potential to mitigate climate change.

    The study´s methodology consists of a pro et contra analysis, where seven selected articles were analyzed and their pro respective contra arguments against the lace formulation “geoengineering should be implementedwas highlighted. Arguments discussed in relation to each other and by the two selected theories, constructivism and rationalism. The conclusion shows that geoengineering has great potential to mitigate climate change with a wide range of possible techniques. However, considerable disagreements between environmental ethics are whether the implementation should take place, when strong arguments both for and against were found of ethical and socio-political character. 

  • 263. Sandahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Riskbedömning i Östersjön2012In: HavsUtsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 8-9Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöproblemen i Östersjön är allvarliga, och kunskapen om exakt vilka risker de innebär är omdebatterad. I ett forskningsprojekt har vi kartlagt hur miljöriskerna bedöms och hanteras idag, och konstaterar att det finns ett behov av att den traditionella riskbedömningen kompletteras med ett större mått av försiktighet och ett ökat deltagande av samhällets olika aktörer.

  • 264.
    Sandberg, Disa
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Effects of the copper-based antifouling paint "Fabi" on growth of the red alga Ceramium tenuicorne2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The antifouling paint Fabi 3959 is painted on the hulls of vessels to avoid fouling caused by marine organisms attached to surfaces. The paint is registered for use on pleasure boats and other vessels weighing over 200 kg which are mainly running on the Swedish west coast (www.kemi.se).

    Fabi 3959 contains copper as its active component, which is highly toxic to marine organisms and thus classified as a biocide.

    Fabi antifouling paint was tested under laboratory conditions on the red macro alga Ceramium tenuicorne, in natural brackish water taken from the Baltic Sea. The Ceramium growth inhibition-test was performed using cloned algae exposed to leakage water with and without sediment. The samples containing only water held concentrations in the range of 0.11% of volume-18% of volume per liter, while the samples using sediment held doses measuring between 0.11% of volume-36% of volume leakage water per liter.

    The study showed a growth inhibiting effect on the Ceramium in both water and sediment samples down to the lowest concentration used in the test. There was a difference between the water series and the sediment series in the EC50 values of the leakage water. The mean EC50 value was almost 10 times lower within the sediment series compared to the water series (0.114±0.10 and 1.024±0.75, respectively). This indicates that the sediment series are more toxic to Ceramium than the water series. However, if the mean values of EC50 are expressed as copper-concentration, there is no clear difference between the two series (0.59 ± 0.13µg/l for the sediment series and 0.62 ± 0.12 µg/l for the water series). Apparently, the test did not indicate that the sediment was absorbing the copper. Instead it cannot be excluded that another substance involved could have a growth inhibiting impact on Ceramium.

     

  • 265.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    A Political Ecology Inspired Critique of Common Pool Resource Research and Practice2010In: Politicized Nature: Global Exchange, Resources and Power : an anthology / [ed] Friman, E. and Gallardo Fernández, G., Uppsala: CSD Uppsala , 2010, p. 23-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    It's Like Herding Monkeys into a Conservation Enclosure: The Formation and Establishment of the Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Zanzibar2011In: Conservation and Society, ISSN 0972-4923, E-ISSN 0975-3133, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 267.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Seeing and Doing Conservation Differently: A Discussion of Landscape Aesthetics, Wilderness, and Biodiversity Conservation2013In: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that conservation agendas need to be informed by a landscape aesthetics that embraces the cultural and material richness of people’s relationship to place to better inform conservation agendas. Historical and contemporary views of landscape aesthetics and their relationship to nature conservation and notions  of wilderness need to be included to complement a scientific expert assessment of conservation needs and approaches. Recent examples of conservation projects in Zanzibar are used to reveal how representations and symbols in nature are deeply embedded in biodiversity conservation aspirations and practices promoted by conservation experts. The article posits that an embodied and pluralistic approach to landscape aesthetics can more profoundly contextualize the specificity of interaction between people and between people and their environments and lead to more viable conservation and development outcomes. This would provide a contingent perspective that would to help elucidate nuanced understandings of social relations and place, thereby better serving both conservation and development agendas.

  • 268.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    The Politics of People - Not Just Mangroves and Monkeys: A study of the theory and practice of community-based management of natural resources in Zanzibar2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Community-based management of natural resource (CBNRM) projects have commonly failed to deliver conservation and development benefits. This thesis examined how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory have contributed to the indifferent performance of CBNRM projects. Evidence was gathered from two CBNRM case studies in Zanzibar to show that CPR institutional design does not sufficiently acknowledge the politics or social relations of project sites. Moreover, these limitations reduce CPR theory's explanatory power and the functionality of CBNRM projects. This is because CPR theory's influence on CBNRM projects is to frame people with fixed identities and related interests as 'rational resource users', rather than people enrolled in multiple network relations with differentiated means of influence, interests and responsibilities. Actor-oriented theory is used to show that CBNRM would benefit from a shift in the correlation with institutional design factors to understanding the operation of power and conflict at project sites. These findings suggest that currently CBNRM projects are too mired in concern about regulating the 'direct' relationship between resource users and conservation objectives, with problematic implications. It is shown that actor-oriented theory is more sensitive to the different capacities, interests and strategies of actors in CBNRM institutional transformation processes. While actor-oriented theory does not offer a parsimonious or predictive theory to reform CPR theory or CBNRM policy, it can provide insights into pre-project conditions and emergent practice useful for explaining project interventions. 

  • 269.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Fred Saunders.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Day, Jon. C.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    McCann, Jennifer
    Coastal Resources Center, The University of Rhode Island, USA.
    Smythe, Tiffany
    United States Coast Guard Academy, USA.
    Examining the role of integration in marine spatial planning: Towards an analytical framework to understand challenges in diverse settings2019In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 169, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Dahl, K.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, H.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D2.4: MSP as a governance approach? Knowledge integration challenges in MSP in the Baltic Sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing integrative decision-making underpinned by a diverse knowledge base is seen as essential to meet marine spatial planning’s (MSP) sustainable development aspirations. In contributing to a better understanding of how this might be achieved, this report considers knowledge integration challenges drawing on several MSP empirical cases across the Baltic Sea Region. Each case-study, involves Baltic Sea states at different stages of developing national marine spatial plans. At the Baltic-wide level, HELCOM-VASAB has interpreted the Ecosystem Approach in MSP as relying heavily on an evidence-base informed by natural scientific and expert knowledge. The results of the report show that challenges arise when trying to apply scientific knowledge to MSP events or processes for a number of reasons such as, incomplete data and associated substantial uncertainty or because stakeholders contest the policy interpretation of the data. This raises questions of how to assess or evaluate the quality and comprehensiveness/sufficiency of scientific and stakeholder knowledge or input into MSP decision-making, particularly in highly politicised, conflictual contexts, such as the integration of parts of the fishing sector in MSP in Poland. MSP in German territorial waters provides a positive example, where science and stakeholder knowledge input have been integrated in decision-making through informal and formal processes. This case exhibits evidence of social learning where authorities have reflected on previous experiences and invested in actively nurturing the meaningful participation of a wide variety of stakeholders (to form a community of practice) over an extended period of time. The key findings of the report call for more attention to be paid to ways that scientific and stakeholder knowledge can be fruitfully incorporated in MSP, through initiatives such as: the development of knowledge evaluation measures; drawing more actively on social science expertise to help facilitate processes of stakeholder engagement and knowledge inclusion; and paying more attention to how to include heterogeneous socio-cultural values and knowledge (placed-based) in a way that improves the salience of scientific knowledge and the legitimacy of MSP decision-making.

  • 271.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, A.
    c Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D1.3: Evaluating the sustainability of governance: a proposal for evaluating marine spatial planning in the Baltic Sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Deliverable elaborates an evaluation design for MSP that responds to a growing call for a more nuanced and critical conceptualisation and implementation of MSP as complex sites of governance. Here we posit that such an evaluation design should be based on 'sustainability of governance' in MSP. Furthermore, that such an evaluation approach should be built on good governance principles of participation, coordination, openness and collaboration in governance processes with the aim to strengthen MSP on both democratic and functionality grounds. To advance this position, we elaborate the relationship between integration as a concept that can be used to examine the sustainability of governance in practice. The conceptual framework is then used to structure a discussion of illustrative examples of the relationship between integration and sustainability of governance across several Baltic Sea case-studies. The results of these case studies are then framed in a discussion on aspects that need to be considered when designing an evaluation process for MSP. Points highlighted here are the need to adopt a deliberative and reflexive approach that draws on a wide body of evidence in evaluation. A set of clustered evaluative criteria (CEC), referring to practices deemed to be desirable for sustainability of MSP governance, are proposed to guide or direct an evaluation process. The CEC were derived through an assessment of what is deemed important in the relevant literature as well as through consideration of the experience of the Baltic cases. The CEC could be seen as indicators of integration that relate to aspects of sustainability of governance in MSP, as well as, in more instrumental terms to support problem-solving aimed at improving MSP coherence. The evaluation design outlined here would require to be tested and trialled in MSP settings to assess its saliency and refine its usability in practice.

  • 272.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    A Discussion of the Debates Underpinning Agri-Environmental Schemes as a form of Payment for Ecological Services2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Payments for Ecological Services (PES) has rapidly emerged around the world as a key environmental governance approach. This paper is concerned with Agricultural Environmental Schemes (AES) as a particular form of PES to improve the environmental performance of agriculture particularly in relation to water quality in Sweden. Win-win descriptions prevail in AES policy discourse to describe the simultaneous achievement of environmental goals and economic outcomes for farmers. AES are underpinned by an instrumental assumption that farmer behaviour can be influenced towards adopting better environmental practice by providing monetary incentives (or at least compensation). This paper has touched on a number of contentions in the PES literature, including: doubts about how well standardised PES schemes link with local conditions; how and whether PES schemes can engender local innovation; procedural and distributive equity concerns; claims that monetary incentives may ‘crowd out’ socially derived sources of motivation (local norms); and doubts about whether PES schemes, disembedded from local institutions, can deliver ‘sufficient’ environmental behavioural change. Given the relatively recent emergence of AES schemes, it is important that we learn more from the experience of implementation. Critically oriented empirically-based research then has the capacity to work as a circuit breaker between ideologically driven arguments that side either for or against the use of market mechanisms, such as AES for environmental governance. Such insights may be useful to help focus research on farmer engagement with AES that subjects it to greater empirical scrutiny and validation.

  • 273.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala University, Centre for Sustainable Development.
    Van Tuyen, Truong
    Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietman.
    Raemaekers, Serge
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Marciniak, Boguslaw
    Dıaz Pla, Rodrigo
    Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Chile.
    Transformation of small-scale fisheries: critical transdisciplinary challenges and possibilities2016In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 20, no June, p. 26-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to confront the global marginalisation of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is to support a sustainable transformation of these coastal communities. In 2014/15, a network of researchers and SSF communities from four countries cooperated in a transdisciplinary research approach to examine governance shifts, fish stock collapses, power structures, future visions and transformation strategies. We combined a political ecology approach with transformation theory to: (i) consider how local context is affected by structural changes and (ii) identify place-based transformational strategies for each case. The global emergence of large-scale fisheries and associated free markets appeared as key factors negatively affecting SSF and coastal sustainability. Through envisioning exercises and context dependent analysis, SSF communities articulated possible and actual strategies towards sustainability that will require ongoing support.

  • 274.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lenninger, Paula
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Schiele, Kerstin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk.
    BALTSPACE Deliverable: D1.2: Final Guidance Document on Analysing Possibilities and Challenges for MSP Integration2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP) contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes. Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions. Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies, national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region. Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised; the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report, which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts, beyond the Baltic Sea.

  • 275.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg.
    Knowledge for environmental governance: probing science–policy theory in the cases of eutrophication and fisheries in the Baltic Sea2017In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 769-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How science and policy interact has been a major research focus in the International Relations (IR) tradition, using the epistemic community (EC) concept, as well as in the alternative perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Should science be autonomous and as apolitical as possible in order to ‘speak truth to power’, as suggested by EC or should the inevitable entanglement of science and politics be accepted and embraced so as to make advice more conducive to negotiating the explicit travails of political decision-making as suggested by STS? With this point of departure, we compare similarities and differences between science–policy interactions in the issue areas of eutrophication and fisheries management of the Baltic Sea. To examine how knowledge is mobilised, the concepts of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘coherence’ are developed, drawing on both EC and STS thinking. We then reflect on the explanatory value of these approaches in both cases and discuss how a separation of science and policy-making in the pursuit of achieving scientific consensus leads to ineffectual policies. Drawing on STS thinking, we urge for a re-conceptualisation of coherence in order to accommodate a more reflexive practice of science–policy interactions.

  • 276.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Adding People to the Sea: Conceptualizing Social Sustainability in Maritime Spatial Planning2019In: Maritime Spatial Planning: past, present, future / [ed] Jacek Zaucha & Kira Gee, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 175-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is growing critique emerging to address social sustainability in marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP), overwhelmingly attention has been on governance, economic and environmental aspects. This chapter redresses this by proposing a conceptual framework to elucidate key features of social sustainability in MSP. The ambition is to both note the existing critique of MSP and go beyond it by more clearly and comprehensively articulating how social sustainability could be conceived in MSP, as well as how this framework could be applied to analyse MSP practice. Key features of social sustainability elaborated are: deepening democratic decision-making, inclusion of socio-cultural values and knowledge, equitable distribution and social cohesion. Finally, the chapter concludes by nominating strategies to give greater visibility to social sustainability as a key MSP concern.

  • 277.
    Sayeed, Abu
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Causes and Consequences of Land Degradation: Conversion of Agricultural land to Non-Agricultural usages in Bangladesh: A case study on ‘Keyain’ village of Munshigonj District2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few years the agriculture sector is facing danger in many ways. Conversion of agricultural land in non-agricultural uses is one of the main reasons to follow. Why the land is decreasing, how it is converted to non-agricultural purposes is the important matter of concern at present. The study is going to answer why the land is decreasing, how it is converted to non-agricultural uses and what might be the consequences for improper uses of agricultural land. In Bangladesh most of the people live in rural areas and makes Bangladesh predominantly rural. The development in rural seems development of agriculture. But the agricultural land is decreasing day by day. Poverty, rapid population growth, improper uses of land, lack of interest in agriculture, conventional system of irrigation, Real Estate companies etc are playing a critical role for decreasing agricultural land. Besides this, a nature itself is also responsible for land degradation. Flood, drought and salinity due to climate change are very common in Bangladesh thus the result is land degradation. As a result, soil fertility, crop productivity, and food security might be seriously in danger. But it is important to keep full of life this sector for land-scarce country like Bangladesh or else the consequences might be terrible. Food insecurity, unsustainable environment, economic downturn, agricultural productivity decrease and social decay etc are the important matters to consider.

     

    Key words: Land degradation, Agriculture, Land Zoning

  • 278.
    Schenk, Linda
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Occupational exposure limits in comparative perspective: Unity and diversity within the European Union2010In: Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges / [ed] Johan Eriksson, Michael Gilek, Christina Rudén, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 133-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a book about the regulation of chemical risks; this chapter specifically concerns the regulation of chemicals in the occupational setting. People are exposed to a variety of chemicals during their life; some are to our knowledge not harmful while others are. Working life may be a major contributor to a person's accumulated chemical exposure. A number of diseases have been related to the occurrence of harmful- substances in the occupational setting, for instance asthma, allergies and several forms of cancer. One can conclude that the risks associated with chemicals exposure and their regulation in the work place is well worth scientific scrutiny. Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are limits of concentrations of specific substances in the air, averaged over a period of time. The rationale behind OELs is that if the dosage of a chemical is -sufficiently low, no or acceptably low adverse health effects will arise. The dose-response relationship differs of course with the different inherent traits of the specific chemical. For some chemicals evidence suggests that a negative health effect only occurs above a certain level of exposure, this means that a safe level exposure is possible- to achieve. For many chemicals this is not the case though, either there is not enough knowledge to derive a no effect level (NOAEL), if such one does indeed exist, or there is in fact a linear dose-response relationship without any threshold. In the -latter case low-level exposure might only lead to very low individual risks but if many -persons are exposed the collective exposure result in substantial population effects.

  • 279.
    Siebenhüner, B.
    et al.
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlan.
    Ecker, F.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Social learning research in ecological economics: A survey2016In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 55, p. 116-126Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding of human behaviour in contrast to the limited focus on incentive-driven behaviour. Our study analyses the emergence and thematic foci of social learning studies within ecological economics over the past 15 years. We selected and analysed 54 articles published after peer review in established journals adhering to the epistemological tradition of ecological economics. This study is guided by the interest in how social learning is conceptualised, how this research is positioned in terms of process dynamics, causal factors and outcomes of learning. Results show, that the number of related papers grew substantially in recent years. Also the role of formal or informal institutions has been found to be a strong causal factor for social learning and change processes vis-à-vis technological, economic or political factors. In addition, there is a growing awareness of social learning processes in various environmental policy fields such as biodiversity governance, water and land management, fisheries, and climate adaptation. We conclude that these insights can give new impulses to research on socio-ecological transition and to the related debate on societal change and transformation processes as core topics for ecological economics.

  • 280.
    Singh, D. K.
    et al.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, P.R. China.
    Singh, Nandita
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Drying Urban lakes: A consequence of climate change, urbanization or other anthropogenic causes? An insight from northern India2019In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, ISSN 1320-5331, E-ISSN 1440-1770, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 115-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban lakes in many places around the world are rapidly becoming vulnerable because of such factors as urbanization, climate change, anthropogenic pollutant inputs, etc. The influence of such forcing factors on lakes hydrology must be correctly recognized and addressed in order to protect them over the long term. Facing similar challenges, Sukhna Lake, an urban lake in northern India, has apparently dried up frequently in the recent past. Numerous hypotheses were subsequently proposed to isolate the possible factors affecting the lake and its water budget, including the potential impacts of land use changes, climate change, anthropogenic activities and other natural processes. Using meteorological data, lake-catchment information and a hydrologic model, these hypotheses were comprehensively analysed. Relevant data on rainfall, wind, temperature, lake inflows, groundwater, lake physical characteristics, catchment land uses, soil texture, etc., were gathered for the analysis. A temporal trend analysis of factors relevant to these hypotheses was undertaken to identify critical drivers of hydrological changes. A sensitivity analysis also was performed, using the lake water budget, to determine and prioritize the predominant factors affecting the lake, leading to the creation of an annual lake water budget for the period from 1971 to 2013, highlighting the lake inflows and outflows. The lake annual inflow (catchment run-off) was computed by adopting a rainfall–run-off model based on the SCS-curve number. Lacking any anthropogenic water withdrawals, the outflow was quantified by estimating the evaporation loss (using the FAO-based Penman–Monteith Equation). The results of the present study indicate that the process of siltation and the construction of check dams in the catchment, rather than urbanization and climate change, were the dominating reasons contributing to changes in the lake hydrology, and affecting the lake most in recent years. 

  • 281.
    Sjöling, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Thureborn, Petter
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Livet i havets djup2016In: HavsUtsikt- Om havsmiljön och Svensk havsforskning, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 16-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 282.
    Skaring, Ida
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the Baltic Sea region: The effects of SSRI on teleost fish2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals, enter the aquatic environments through sewage treatment plants and may affect fish. This examination paper is a literature study that focuses on Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs, exposure and the impacts on teleosts in the Baltic Sea by assessment of peer-reviewed literature and material. Teleosts affected by exposure of these substances may demonstrate physiologically as well as behavioral alterations. These can be observed as alterations in aggression, boldness, mobility, growth, feeding rate or in endocrine processes. The potential of which SSRI may effect teleosts depends on the pH of the aquatic environment, temperature, other contaminants and the fat solubility of the substances. Some effects caused by SSRI exposure may elicit ecological impacts. These particularly concern changes and effects in terms of evasiveness, reproductive capacity and ability to find food as well as alterations of interspecificity. Even the balance between population density, individual fitness and by extension survival might be affected. Effects in interspecificity may potentially lead to local extinctions and changes in food webs. Furthermore, results demonstrated that when a substance is bioaccumulated and the teleosts are eaten by predators on higher trophic levels, marine ecosystems can also be affected. Moreover a conclusion could be drawn the level of concentration of SSRIs in the aquatic environment may be of less significance since teleosts have the potential to bioaccumulate SSRIs in tissue over time and in this sense concentrations may reach harmful levels that can cause physiological or behavioural alterations. Continuous studies should refer to chronic tests studies with focus on a field testing environment for understanding of natural conditions and exposure. Furthermore, studies on how ecosystems may be affected should be important to give an overview of the problem with SSRI exposure. As the Baltic Sea is a sensitive environment, studies should preferable be made on species living in this environment.

  • 283. Skarpheoinsdottir, H
    et al.
    Ericson, G
    Dalla Zuanna, L
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Tissue differences, dose-response relationship and persistence of DNA adducts in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene2003In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 165-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea blue mussels Mytilus edulis) were experimentally exposed to the genotoxic model substance benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) to study DNA adduct formation. The specific aims were (a) to examine where in the mussels the DNA adducts were formed, in gills or digestive glands (b) to study the dose-response relationship between B[a]P exposure and DNA adduct formations and (c) to examine the persistence of the formed adducts. A Scope for growth (SFG) study was also run to compare physiological responses of the mussels with the degree of DNA adduct formation. In an initial dose-response experiment, the mussels were exposed to 0.5, 50, and 100 mug/l of tritium labelled B[a]P under semi-static conditions for 4 days, and thereafter the bioaccumulation of B[a]P and DNA adduct formation in different tissues was determined using liquid scintillation counting and P-32-postlabelling analysis. respectively. In a following exposure-depuration experiment, mussels were exposed to 17 mug/l of radiolabelled B[a]P under semi-static conditions for 6 days. B[a]P accumulation and DNA adduct formation were determined during the exposure, and B[a]P elimination and persistence of DNA adducts were studied during 28 days of depuration in uncontaminated water, The results revealed large tissue differences in DNA adduct formation. DNA adduct levels were not elevated in the digestive gland of the mussels at any exposure concentration (0-100 mug/l). even though the highest B[a]P tissue concentrations were found in the digestive gland (1.0+/-0.1 mg B[a]P/g tissue dry wt at 100 mug/l, mean+/-SE. n = 12). DNA adducts were on the other hand formed in the gills, with the highest levels found in mussels exposed to 50 and 100 mug B[a]P/l. and a dose dependent increase in adduct levels (from 1.6 to 5.9 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides) from 0 to 50 mug B[a]P/l, In gills, DNA adduct levels increased with time during the 6-day exposure period in the exposure-depuration experiment, and then persisted for at least 2 weeks after exposure cessation while B[a]P tissue levels exhibited a rapid decrease (half-life of 8 days). No significant differences were observed in SFG between the control and exposed groups. Since DNA adducts exhibited a relatively high persistence in gills compared to B[a]P tissue concentrations, they seem to be a more integrated measure of genotoxic exposure than only chemical analysis of the contaminant bioaccumulation. The results also suggest that if using analysis of DNA adducts in H. edulis for monitoring purposes. analysis of gills in addition to the more commonly used digestive gland should be taken into consideration.

  • 284.
    Smolander, Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Grigoryeva, Viktoria
    St. Petersburg State University.
    Economics and environmental sciences: a key tool for improvement of interdisciplinary education for sustainable development in the Baltic Sea region2011In: XII International Environmental Forum "Baltic Sea Day": Thesis collection, St. Petersburg: Tsvetprint , 2011, p. 421-422Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Why is the Baltic Sea so special to live in?2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline; Schubert, Hendrik; Radziejewska, Teresa, Springer Netherlands, 2017, p. 23-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Why is the Baltic Sea so special to live in", is the main question the authors here give several arguments or answers for. Geographical position, geological development, hydrographical features, climate and physical drivers together create the Baltic Sea environment. The Baltic Sea water is brackish and characterized by pronounced salinity gradients, both in horizontal and vertical directions, because of the large volume of freshwater runoff from over 100 rivers, which mixes with the saline water from the Kattegat that enters the Baltic Sea via narrow shallow straits. Being a semi-enclosed continental sea with a large drainage area compared to its water volume , the Baltic Sea ecosystem is heavily impacted by the surrounding landmasses. The water residence time in the Baltic Sea is long (30–40 years), and therefore discharged nutrients and toxic compounds circulate within the sea for a long time, which contributes to its vulnerability to eutrophication and chemical contamination by hazardous substances. The Baltic Sea Area is geologically young and the Baltic Sea ecosystem is extremely young in an evolutionary perspective. Only few macroscopic species are fully adapted to its low-salinity environment. In an ecosystem-wide perspective, the large-scale Baltic Sea gradient is the principal ecological characteristic of the Baltic Sea.

  • 286.
    Sommer, Christian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sex odour preference in guppy (Poecilia wingei) males are influenced by the social environment2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, p. E47-E47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Strand, Emelie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Söderström, Hedvig
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Trafikreducerande åtgärder i Stockholms stad: Hur Stockholms stad arbetar med att minska trafiken för att nå miljökvalitetsmålet Frisk luft2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic is a major source of carbon dioxide emissions and air pollution. Travelling will always be needed in cities, but it needs to be sustainable. A shift from private cars to more efficient forms of transportation is one of the most important strategies to create a sustainable transportation system.

    Some of the worst air quality in Sweden is found in Stockholm and the levels of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide fails to reach the national environmental objective Clean air. This case study examines the work done by the city of Stockholm to achieve sustainable traffic. The aim is to identify deficiencies and obstacles to achieving the goal of Clean air. Air quality data, the planning documents used by the city of Stockholm, and interviews have been analyzed using a broad theory on public management and sustainable traffic.

    The results show a great variety in how the traffic-related goals are set and that overarching visions are not translated into direct action. More coordinated measures are needed to achieve synergies. Finally, five primary obstacles to achieving the goal Clean air have been identified.

  • 288.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish Forest Agency, Umeå; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University.
    Beland-Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Rist, Lucy
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    From ecological knowledge to conservation policy: a case study on green tree retention and continuous cover forestry in Sweden2019In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 28, no 13, p. 3547-3574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which scientific knowledge translates into practice is a pervasive question. We analysed to what extent and how ecological scientists gave input to policy for two approaches advocated for promoting forest biodiversity in production forests in Sweden: green-tree retention (GTR) and continuous-cover forestry (CCF). GTR was introduced into forest policy in the 1970s and became widely implemented in the 1990s. Ecological scientists took part in the policy process by providing expert opinions, educational activities and as lobbyists, long before research confirming the positive effects of GTR on biodiversity was produced. In contrast, CCF was essentially banned in forest legislation in 1979. In the 1990s, policy implicitly opened up for CCF implementation, but CCF still remains largely a rare silvicultural outlier. Scientific publications addressing CCF appeared earlier than GTR studies, but with less focus on the effects on biodiversity. Ecological scientists promoted CCF in certain areas, but knowledge from other disciplines and other socio-political factors appear to have been more important than ecological arguments in the case of CCF. The wide uptake of GTR was enhanced by its consistency with the silvicultural knowledge and normative values that forest managers had adopted for almost a century, whereas CCF challenged those ideas. Public pressure and institutional requirements were also key to GTR implementation but were not in place for CCF. Thus, scientific ecological knowledge may play an important role for policy uptake and development, but knowledge from other research disciplines and socio-political factors are also important.

  • 289.
    Sukovich, Ninél
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Backman, Jennifer
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kan musselextrakt (Mytilus edulis) inducera födosök hos omnivoren ruda, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last three decades there has been a significant increase in aquaculture production and the demand for farmed fish is predicted to rise further. More fish are being caught to become fishmeal in aquaculture, than for direct human consumption use, while a large number of fish stocks are being depleted. Many popular farmed species are carnivores and thus brought up on a diet consisting of fishmeal and fish oil. However, several studies have shown that several fish species can be brought up on a diet consisting of mussel meal instead of fishmeal. If so, this finding can possibly lead to a more sustainable fishing in the future by reducing the number of wild-caught fish. The purpose of this study has been to examine if mussel meal extract can induce foraging in the omnivorous species crucian carp (Carassius carassius), a commercial fish that is mainly farmed in China. Induced foraging can indicate that crucian carp could become accustomed to mussels, even though mussels are not part of its natural food source. The results revealed that foraging was induced in the crucian carp by conventional feed for carp, the control diet, but not by extract of mussels.

  • 290.
    Suškevičs, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Process and Contextual Factors Supporting Action-Oriented Learning: A Thematic Synthesis of Empirical Literature in Natural Resource Management2019In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 731-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a long-term focus on learning in natural resource management (NRM), it is still debated how learning supports sustainable real-world NRM practices. We offer a qualitative in-depth synthesis of selected scientific empirical literature (N = 53), which explores factors affecting action-oriented learning. We inductively identify eight key process-based and contextual factors discussed in this literature. Three patterns emerge from our results. First, the literature discusses both facilitated participation and self-organized collaboration as dialogical spaces, which bridge interests and support constructive conflict management. Second, the literature suggests practice-based dialogs as those best able to facilitate action and puts a strong emphasis on experimentation. Finally, not emphasized in existing reviews and syntheses, we found multiple evidence about certain contextual factors affecting learning, including social-ecological crises, complexity, and power structures. Our review also points at important knowledge gaps, which can be used to advance the current research agenda about learning and NRM.

  • 291.
    Suškevičs, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Macura, Biljana
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pahl-Wostl, Claudia
    University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Learning for social-ecological change: a qualitative review of outcomes across empirical literature in natural resource management2018In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 1085-1112Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is considered as a promising mechanism to cope with rapid environmental change. The implications of learning for natural resource management (NRM) have not been explored in-depth and the evidence on the topic is scattered across multiple sources. We provide a qualitative review of types of learning outcomes and consider their manifestations in NRM across selected empirical literature. We conducted a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature (N = 1,223) and a qualitative meta-synthesis of included articles, with an explicit focus on learning outcomes and NRM changes (N = 53). Besides social learning, we found several learning concepts used, including policy and transformative learning, and multiple links between learning and NRM reported. We observe that the development of skills, together with a system approach involving multi-level capacities, is decisive for implications of learning for NRM. Future reviews could systematically compare how primary research applies different learning concepts and discusses links between learning and NRM changes.

  • 292.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    et al.
    Institutionen för rysslandsstudier Uppsala universitet.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Cios, Stanislaw
    Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs,Warsaw, Poland.
    Fishing For Smelt, Osmerus Eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758): A traditional food fish – possible cuisinein post-modern Sweden?2016In: Slovak Ethnology, ISSN 1335-1303, Vol. 2, no 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the rural population in Sweden, fishing in lakes and rivers was of great importanceuntil recently. Many fish species served as food or animal fodder, or were used tomake glue and other useful products. But the receding of lakes in the nineteenthcentury, and the expansion of hydropower and worsening of water pollution in thetwentieth, contributed to the decline of inland fisheries. At the same time, marinefish became more competitive on the Swedish food market. In some regions, however,certain freshwater species continued to be caught for household consumption wellinto the twentieth century. One such species was the smelt (Osmerus eperlanus),which fifty years ago was still of economic importance. Nowadays, however, smeltis only caught in very low volumes; its role is therefore insignificant. In neighbouringcountries, however – such as Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia – it is still being exploitedcommercially. In Germany, where water quality has improved in rivers and restaurantshave shown increasing interest in smelt, a successful revival for the fish as a regionaland seasonal food can be seen. Smelt fishing has dimensions which are not onlyculinary, but social and cultural as well. Traditional ways of food preparation can betransformed into modern haute cuisine. Smelt fishing has the potential to developcommercially in Sweden also.

  • 293.
    Svensson, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Conflicting interests in natural resource management: - A case study on mining in northern Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the leading mining country in Europe and the Swedish government intends to retain this position by fostering innovation, investments and cooperation. However, mining is an extractive industry with massive consequences on the surrounding environment and the people living there. In resource abundant northern Sweden mineral extraction is a contested subject, not least in respect to the traditional land use by the Sami population. This study intends to increase the understanding of the current mining trial process in Sweden, the effects on sustainable regional development and the implications for local communities. To do so, this study aims to identify which aspects that are brought forward during the trial for exploitation concession and how different interests are evaluated. For the purpose of this study, the bureaucratic mining trial process is examined and 15 mining cases studied in detail considering the exploitation concession phase. The material indicates that conflicts over the bureaucratic process is based both in what aspects that should be included in the assessment, how these aspects are evaluated and at what stage in the formal process various aspects should be brought up. Guided by the concepts of extractivism and subnational resource curse, the main finding identified is that the mining trial process is state-centred. This is displayed in the limited influence of local actors on the decision and in the use of national interest as a policy tool to evaluate conflicting land use claims. These characteristics can in turn increase the risk of a subnational resource curse in northern Sweden. 

  • 294. Söderström, Sara
    Institutional Interplay in Governing the Baltic Sea Environment: The Role of IMO, EU, HELCOM and Classification Societies as Quasi-governmental OrganizationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 295.
    Söderström, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Regional Environmental Governance and Avenues for the Ecosystem Approach to management in the Baltic Sea Area2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the avenues for the ecosystem approach to management in the Baltic Sea Region. This region is one of the most contaminated water bodies in the world, although the first Regional Seas Convention was created here and theregion has a long history of cooperation and environmental protection. The current environmental governance arrangements are examined with specific focuson governance structures, cross-sectoral integration and ecological boundaries.The ecosystem approach to management as both a tool and vision of holistic management of natural resources is traced through the evolution of environmental governance, as well as its manifestation in contemporary environmental policies in the region. It is found that the major EU directives, as well as HELCOM polices, promote the ecosystem approach and that its presence has increased inrecent years; it is now the major guiding principle in European marine governance. However, the governance structures impede implementation indifferent ways. The environmental problem areas in the region all require different governance arrangements, thus obstructing a holistic approach. The environmental problems per se also affect each other, necessitating far-reaching sectoral integration and cross-border cooperation, which at present is the major obstacle regarding implementation. The contemporary trends combining solid regionalisation through HELCOM with increased Europeanisation and macro regionalisation by different EU initiatives offer some promise, but the cross sectoral impediments must be resolved if the ecosystem approach is to become apractical approach and not just a policy principle.

  • 296.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Linköping University.
    Kern, Kristine
    Leibniz Institute for Research on Society and Space (IRS), Germany; Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Marine Environmental Governance: Institutional Interplay in the Baltic Sea Region2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 619-631Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 297.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kern, Kristine
    eibniz Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning (IRS) & University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    ‘Environmental Governance’ and ‘Ecosystem Management’: Avenues for Synergies between Two Approaches2016In: Interdisciplinary Environmental Review, ISSN 1521-0227, E-ISSN 2042-6992, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a literature review of over 160 journal articles and books, this paper examines the ecosystem management and environmental governance approaches, and looks for common topics and integrated research agendas. While scientific articles on environmental governance stem primarily from social science research, the ecosystem management approach is more natural-science-oriented. A review of journal articles from the ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science) reveals that the two research communities hardly interact. The paper discusses two thematic linkages between the two approaches: the debates dealing with the scale and level of environmental policy; and the discussions surrounding multi-stakeholder participation. Moreover, the article identifies areas with a high potential for the establishment of common ground, such as the current discussion on science-policy interfaces. We argue for more interaction, claim that the two research approaches can learn from each other, and discuss the potential for the development of interdisciplinary research agendas

  • 298.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kern, Kristine
    Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Marine Governance in the Baltic Sea: Current Trends of Europeanization and Regionalization2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, p. 163-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 299.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Small-scale fishers as allies or opponents?: Unlocking looming tensions and potential exclusions in Poland’s marine spatial planning2019In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 637-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) depends on the effective participation of small-scale fishers (SSFs), and the extent to which marine governance in general can address the problems they face. As Poland's MSP in areas that are key to small-scale fisheries are yet to begin, this paper explores tensions in the country's looming coastal MSP processes through clarifying both the risks faced by SSFs and their perspectives on MSP. Using semi-structured interviews with SSFs and analytical literature reviews on small-scale fisheries, it is found that Poland's MSP is cast against a contentious history of marine resource management that shapes negative perceptions of and attitudes towards both the European Union-mediated MSP and marine scientists. Notably, SSFs believe that (1) authorities often undervalue and underutilize their experiential knowledge, (2) MSP is intended primarily to facilitate the siting of offshore wind farms and, (3) scientific knowledge is either not effectively communicated or is at the service of investors. A discussion follows that proposes measures through which planners can ensure procedural fairness. The paper concludes by offering TURF-Reserves as a novel and integrated co-management system within MSP which has potentials for empowering SSFs and revitalizing Poland's small-scale fisheries, while ensuring effective marine protection.

  • 300.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The “Dark Side” of Marine Spatial Planning: A study of domination, empowerment and freedom through theories of discourse and power2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to contribute to the marine spatial planning (MSP) literature by elaborating a robust theoretical account of power for a more rigorous and balanced critical analysis of MSP. Conceived as a problem-solving regime, MSP has emerged as a radical approach to govern the use and protection of marine resources. However, critics are questioning the radicalness of MSP, particularly its ability to address issues around knowledge, stakeholder and land-sea integration, as well as power asymmetry, distributive justice and equity. Nonetheless, critics largely conceive power in MSP as restricting agency. Even so, insidious mechanisms of power remain under-examined, as are the productive power and potential of planning. This thesis brings concepts from discourse and power theories together (drawing on Foucault, Laclau and Mouffe, and Haugaard) to conceptualize various mechanisms of power in MSP. The framework is then brought into dialogue with planning issues in Estonia and Poland. Empirical data are drawn from semi-structured interviews, legal judgments, planning and policy documents, as well as position papers and media statements, which are produced by planners, officials, developers, fishers and coastal residents. The following findings and conclusions are reached. First, MSP’ing (verb form) restricts agency because (a) in planning encounters, powerful actors misuse opportunities for concerted action to reach sectoral rather than collective goals; (b) in setting the agenda, various biases are mobilized in favor of vested interests; and (c) the fantasmatic power of planning conjoin with the planner’s cognitive limitation to naturalize and sustain subjugation. Second, MSP is a laudable system. It provides stakeholders with the dispositional power to get things done in concert, which entails a normatively felicitous move from the risks of open commons-type conflicts and chaos to structuring and predictability. Third, when planning is rigidly done within the confines of legality and programmatic norms, “free” subjects of planning may be transformed into immovable subjects of resistance, who may develop contestatory strategies that have transformatory potentials. Fourth, to both facilitate equitable planning processes and outcomes, and ensure efficiency and stability, not only must the planner be reflective of the norms and ideologies that shape her actions and/or inactions, but the state as the ultimate governing authority in MSP must also take measures to minimize asymmetries in the distribution of social resources. The thesis makes a call for scholars to contribute towards planning praxis through analyzing who the weakest actors are in each MSP setting, what their context-specific needs are, and what empowerment may entail for them.

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