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  • 251.
    Rabe, Linn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Community-based Natural Resource Management of the Jozani-Pete Mangrove Forest: Do They Have a Voice?2013In: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 133-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local participation, especially in natural resource management, has been promoted as a key strategy in the quest for sustainable development. Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is an approach that has generally been promoted as an institution that genuinely includes and empowers ‘local people' in natural resource use and management. This paper examines how local participation in conservation projects works in practice by drawing on concepts from institutional and actor-oriented theories and applying a case study approach to examine community-based mangrove management at Jozani-Pete, Zanzibar. Here CBNRM became embedded within a conservation agenda that resulted in conflict, resistance, frustration and uncertainty amongst community members. The paper offers insight into how exogenously initiated CBNRM projects have difficulty gaining traction unless they both address existing power relations and deliver on promises of material benefits. If they fail to do so the experience of the Jozani-Pete case study suggests that CBNRM may work to further marginalize already marginalized people.

  • 252.
    Rehnlund, Mathilde
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Getting the transport right - for what?: What transport policy can tell us about the construction of sustainability2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies transport as a governing tool that shapes the physical environment and human society, as well as having environmental impacts. The aim is to learn what policy for transport can say about what sustainability means and does. My focus is Stockholm municipal policy between 2007 and 2017, a period of sustainability concerns and large transport project agreements.

    Using the What’s the problem represented to be? approach, I look at measures proposed for the ‘right’ transport of people and ask: what kind of ‘tool’ is transport produced to be, and how is sustainability constructed?

    The transport system is one of the most visible parts of the built environment and recognized for its negative impact on environmental and human health. As co-constitutive of social practices, transport is far from a mere technical issue. Despite this, transport policy studies are often technical in approach. Since policy is not a neutral response to pre-existing ‘problems’, I consider transport policy to be part of a creative process for the whole of society.

    A main contribution to the field of sustainable transport is a view of transport as a tool for governing and inherently political. Stockholm is frequently hailed as a ‘green’ city. I was interested to explore this ‘best case’ scenario and see what might consolidate the two seemingly opposing aims of greener transport and more car use. I find that Stockholm policy for transport is permeated with technological optimism, reliance on individual choices, and concern for economic growth. Policy measures construct transport as a tool to affirm the commuter paradigm and promote urban expansion. Attention to the sustainability of transport concentrates on emissions from transport work, which is to be addressed by individual consumption choices. Sustainability is associated with efficiency, technological innovation, and above all urbanity. The proposals paradoxically construct the subject as both co-responsible for problem and solution (the conscious or irresponsible consumer), and as a cog in the wheel for economic growth (the commuting worker). This disregards both the homo ludens and the citizen: play and the political. These aspects become subordinated while policy enhances the role of work.

  • 253.
    Reisner, Gunilla
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Conflicting Environmental Management Tools: Grazing of Semi-natural Grasslands vs. Wetland Conservation2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study explores the possibility of conflicts between conservation of wetlands and semi-natural grasslands in the county of Stockholm. Both habitats are important to protect from a biodiversity perspective. The species rich semi-natural grasslands have been created by agricultural practices like grazing and mowing. At the same time, wetlands have diminished due to earlier drainage in order to increase the area of arable land. Both habitats are incorporated in the Swedish Environmental Objectives and are parts of the EU’s Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES), where farmers get financial support to maintain or restore valuable habitats.

    Wetland conservation/restoration often requires raised water tables, but also maintenance with cattle grazing in certain areas. On the other hand, raised water tables can act as hinder for grazing animals and lead to conflict situations. Using a mixed method approach, this study scrutinized if the use of different management tools can result in conflicts between actors and objectives. The study is based on a literature review, interviews and the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Institutionalism and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework are used to analyze and evaluate the situation in the county of Stockholm.

    The quantitative results reveal that 12,8 % of all semi-natural grasslands of high biological value intersects with wetlands. However, these areas are maintained with environmental support to a larger extent than semi-natural grasslands outside wetlands. This indicates there is no conflict between wetland and semi-natural grassland conservation, a perception shared by authorities. From farmers’ perspective the situation is described differently, rule compliance for environmental support is hard to obtain specifically in wet areas. Increased dialogue between authorities and farmers rather than harsh inspections would be preferable as the county of Stockholm needs more farmers and grazing cattle to maintain biologically important habitats.

    Grazing in wetlands is needed from a biodiversity perspective but can at the same time disturb the wetlands functioning of nutrient reduction. There is a risk of authorities prioritizing water quality in front of biodiversity in conflicting situations. Water, as a common-pool recourse, is surrounded by stricter regulation and also easier to monitor.

  • 254.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Adaptation, now?: Exploring the Politics of Climate Adaptation through Poststructuralist Discourse Theory2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence of anthropogenic climate change and the recognition that warming is likely to go beyond 2°C raises the need for responses that help people cope with the anticipated changes. The rise of attention to so-called climate adaptation on political agendas at the local, national and international scale has come about with a hastily growing field of academic knowledge production. But while adaptation choices are inherently political, adaptation has been largely considered a ‘problem free’ process and ‘tame’ challenge; only a relatively small strand of scholarly work engages in critical enquiry into the idea of adaptation, the discursive practices through which it is imagined, and related questions of power and politics.

    Responding to calls for more attention to the socio-political dimensions of adaptation and for conceptually embedded research, this thesis investigates the creation, interpretation and use of adaptation as a concept in research, policy and practice. Drawing on Poststructuralist Discourse Theory and the so-called Logics of Critical Explanation in particular, it develops a perspective through which the politics of adaptation can be investigated in a theoretically and methodologically consistent and transparent manner. Through a close analysis of official adaptation discourses at the international level, the EU level, and the national level in Germany, the thesis enquires into the discursive practices around adaptation responses and what these different discourses open up or limit in terms of broader implications for political action.

    The contributions of the thesis are empirical, methodological and conceptual. In addition to providing critical insights into contemporary understandings of adaptation, including revealing some depoliticising ‘building blocks’ in conventional adaptation discourses, the thesis makes two important conceptual contributions to the growing field of critical adaptation studies: (1) It suggests that the increasing interconnectedness between people and places makes it impossible to know whether adaptation efforts undertaken have in reality reduced net vulnerability or simply shuffled vulnerability across the board. Ignoring the potential for such redistributive effects can have significant consequences in practice and will likely lead to unsustainable and, in the long run, maladaptive outcomes. (2) It argues that non-rational and affective dimensions are vital to the emergence of adaptation responses and that paying attention to them is important if critical scholarship is to understand and intervene in the persistence of techno-managerial approaches to adaptation. Furthermore, to the field of critical policy studies this thesis makes a methodological contribution by developing a new analytical framework for poststructuralist policy analysis.

  • 255.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Logics, assumptions and genre chains: a framework for poststructuralist policy analysis2017In: Critical Discourse Studies, ISSN 1740-5904, E-ISSN 1740-5912, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An unresolved aspect of the Logics Approach within Poststructuralist Discourse Theory (PDT) is how to operationalize its abstract theoretical concepts – of social, political and fantasmatic logics – for concrete textual analysis, especially of policy documents. Policies often institute new understandings, procedures or practices, something the logics, as originally articulated, fall somewhat short of capturing. To overcome these methodological challenges this article constructs a framework for poststructuralist policy analysis that brings together the Logics Approach with more textually oriented tools developed within Critical Discourse Analysis, namely assumptions and genre chains. For empirical illustration it draws on a case study of the European Union's adaptation policy in response to climate change. The resulting framework offers a means through which more implicit social and political logics can be examined, and contributes new insights to methodological debates around the use of the Logics Approach (and PDT more broadly), specifically in relation to critical policy analysis. The article concludes with seven observations of relevance for future studies and suggests avenues for further empirical and conceptual exploration.

  • 256.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Migration as climate adaptation? Exploring discourses amongst development actors in the Pacific Island region2020In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the perspectives of a set of actors devoted to development in the Pacific on climate change, migration, and adaptation. While much of the debate over climate and migration is centred around the Small Island Developing States in the Pacific, little is known about how the debate is articulated at that regional level. Drawing on poststructuralist discourse theory and using semi-structured interviews with a set of development actors working in the region, the paper discerns three distinctive discourses on climate and migration. These are (1) a main discourse that promotes international labour migration as an adaptation response and two alternative discourses that challenge the main discourse’s views, by suggesting (2) that migration is of marginal importance and engagement with socio-economic factors that influence Pacific Islands' vulnerability is more pressing, and (3) that out-migration is undesirable but that communities may have to be relocated within their countries. The paper further explores why the discourse on labour migration may have emerged and why it is being perpetuated by actors that originate outside the Pacific region. The paper concludes by suggesting that significant differentials in economic and political resources exist between the main discourse and the alternative discourses. In addition to these empirical insights, the paper adds new findings to the growing literature on the politics of climate migration discourses. Unlike earlier work that identifies a shift from an alarmist to an optimist framing, it illustrates that both alarmist and optimistic imaginaries operate simultaneously in the discourse on labour migration.

  • 257.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The affective dimensions of climate adaptation: Fantasy and future-making in German adaptation policyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Ring, Eva
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Bjarnadóttir, Brynhildur
    University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Finér, Leena
    Natural Resources Institute Finland-Luke, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lībiete, Zane
    LSFRI Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Lode, Elve
    Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stupak, Inge
    University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sætersdal, Magne
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic-Baltic region: Large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width.2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 878-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness. Sweden and Finland relied to a large extent on voluntary commitments. The prescribed zone widths within the region ranged from 1 m to 5 km. The results indicated that land-use distribution, forest ownership structure and historical and political legacies have influenced the varying degrees of prescriptiveness in the region.

  • 259. Ring, Irene
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Acar, Sevil
    Adeishvili, Malkhaz
    Albert, Christian
    Allard, Christina
    Anker, Yaakov
    Arlettaz, Raphaël
    Bela, Györgyi
    ten Brink, Ben
    Fischer, Anke
    Fürst, Christine
    Galil, Bella
    Hynes, Stephen
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Marta- Pedroso, Cristina
    Mendes, Ana
    Molau, Ulf
    Olschewski, Roland
    Pergl, Jan
    Simoncin, Riccardo
    Adem, Çiğdem (Contributor)
    Blackstock, Kirsty (Contributor)
    Hauck, Jennifer (Contributor)
    Johansson, Johanna (Contributor)
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lasson, Caroline (Contributor)
    Minchenko, Natalya (Contributor)
    Reimerson, Elsa (Contributor)
    Schläpfer, Martin (Contributor)
    Simonov, Eugene A. (Contributor)
    Snethlage, Mark (Contributor)
    Söderasp, Johanna (Contributor)
    Chapter 6: Options for governance and decision-making across scales and sectors2018In: IPBES: The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia / [ed] Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A., Mader, A., Bonn: Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services , 2018, p. 661-802Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the generic scope of the Regional Assessments of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, the key policy‑relevant questions of the Europe and Central Asia Assessment concern options and opportunities with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services and their role for human well-being. The assessment examines the opportunities for sectoral policies and policy instruments; managing production, consumption and economic development; and ecological infrastructures and ecological technologies. It explores opportunities to promote food security, economic development and equality while avoiding land and aquatic degradation and conserving cultural landscapes.

  • 260.
    Rodela, Romina
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, Netherlands / University of Nova Gorica, Slovenia.
    Social Learning, Natural Resource Management, and Participatory Activities: A reflection on construct development and testing2014In: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, ISSN 1573-5214, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis reflects on the use of multidimensional constructs for the study of social learning in natural resource management. Insight from deliberative democracy and adult learning literature are used to ground the identified four dimensions (the moral dimension the cognitive dimension, the relational dimension and trust). Then, a selection of empirical cases is surveyed with the aim to develop and understanding how well the empirical outcomes reported by these sit against the insights borrowed from the deliberative democracy and pedagogy literature. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research.

  • 261.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Alašević, Dušan
    University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia.
    Crossing disciplinary boundaries in environmental research: Interdisciplinary engagement across the Slovene research community2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 574, p. 1492-1501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary approaches to environmental research are calling for a type of scientific inquiry that is able to bring together the natural and social sciences. This with the aim to advance our understanding of environmental issues and produce synthetic and actionable knowledge meant to address these. Yet, interdisciplinarity research of this type is a demanding and challenging pursuit; many have shown that in certain thematic areas and geographic regions practice falls behind discourse. We bring together ideas about interdisciplinary research collaborations (after Patricia L. Rosenfield) and interdisciplinary epistemic synthesis (after Julie T. Klein) that are used to analyse a sample of research projects funded (from 2006 to 2013) by the Slovene Research Agency. We triangulated interview data (with principal investigators) with document analysis and integrated these with other secondary data. Our results suggest for the sample of environmental projects to be interdisciplinary in a narrow sense, this prevalently within natural and life sciences with little input from the humanities and social sciences. Also, the results obtained suggest that environmental research with unambiguous problem solving objectives is preferred over research with a high degree of abstraction, as involved in theoretical and conceptual work.

  • 262.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. WageningenUniversity and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bregt, Arnold K.
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ligtenberg, Arend
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Pérez-Soba, Marta
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Verweij, Peter
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    The social side of spatial decision support systems: Investigating knowledge integration and learning2017In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 76, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) represent a step forward in efforts to account for the spatial dimension in environmental decision-making. The aim of SDSS is to help policymakers and practitioners access, interpret and understand information from data, analyses and models, and guide them in identifying possible actions during a decision-making process. Researchers, however, report difficulties in up-take of SDSS by the intended users. Some suggest that this field would benefit from investigation of the social aspects involved in SDSS design, development, testing and use. Borrowing insights from the literature on science-policy interactions, we explore two key social processes: knowledge integration and learning. Using a sample of 36 scientific papers concerning SDSS in relation to environmental issues, we surveyed whether and how the selected papers reported on knowledge integration and learning. We found that while many of the papers mentioned communication and collaboration with prospective user groups or stakeholders, this was seldom underpinned by a coherent methodology for enabling knowledge integration and learning to surface. This appears to have hindered SDSS development and later adoption by intended users.

  • 263.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Gerger Swartling, Å.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Environmental governance in an increasingly complex world: Reflections on transdisciplinary collaborations for knowledge coproduction and learning2019In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 83-86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm Environment Institute .
    Environmental governance in an increasingly complex world: An Interdisciplinary Exchange on Adaptation, Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Integration2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this event was to bring together scholars and practitioners in order to create opportunities for an exchange of ideas, methodologies and experience. Participants  with expertise in different areas i.e., adaptation research, resource management, policy studies, and adult learning, were invited to share latest research outcomes and engage in a collaborative reflection around the challenges of environmental governance in an increasingly complex world. Adaptation, collaborative learning and knowledge integration were the topics on which the event has focused. 

  • 265.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ligtenberg, A.
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bosma, R.
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Conceptualizing serious games as a learning-based intervention in the context of natural resources and environmental governance2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of serious games in the governance of natural resources and the environment is progressively increasing and includes games used for research and data collection, teaching and training, and fostering a change of practices. However, this diversity remains underexplored and underreported. In view of a growing interest in the use of serious games in natural resource and environmental governance, the absence of discussions about how differences in intended use and delivery influence the performance, assessment, and outcomes of games is problematic. Here we present an inventory, and a description, of such different uses then, by focusing on serious games used as interventions, we discuss when, and how, games could be used to generate learning and social learning. To that end we use a narrative review of selected literature, and insight from research on social learning, to develop an inventory of game use, and within that inventory we conceptualize the use of serious games as a social learning intervention. Also, by means of an illustrative case of a serious game (developed as part of the Assessing the Learning Effects of Games on Attitude of Stakeholders toward Sustainable Shrimp Farming - ALEGAMS research project) we reflect on a few key aspects of game use. We suggest that developing a serious game needs several iterations and, although the learning outcomes can be assessed, the impact of games aiming at changes in current practice and policy will likely fall beyond the timespan of usual project periods. This is something future research should consider as it has implications for the research design and methodology.

  • 266.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Reinecke, S.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Bregt, A.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Kilham, E.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Lapeyre, R.
    Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales (IDDRI) - Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, France.
    Challenges to and opportunities for biodiversity science-policy interfaces2015In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 54, p. 483-486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 267.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Tucker, Catherine May
    University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
    Šmid-Hribar, Mateja
    Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sigura, Maurizia
    University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Bogataj, Nevenka
    Slovenian Institute for Adult Education, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Urbanc, Mimi
    Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Gunya, Alexey
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Intersections of ecosystem services and common-pool resources literature: An interdisciplinary encounter2019In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 94, p. 72-81Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interdisciplinary research is understood to be the preferred way for scientific research to deepen understanding about environmental issues and challenges for sustainability. Two well-defined interdisciplinairy research fields, Ecosystems services (ES) and Common-pool resources (CPR), have taken different approaches that integrate the natural and social sciences to address environmental conundrums collaboratively. Several recent studies bring together insight from each, yet little is known about the breadth or directions, of the interdisciplinary conversation between the two fields of research. Moreover, the potential of this interaction to advance theory and practice relevant for sustainability is underexplored. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by addressing three questions: 1) What are the motives for the interaction between CPR and ES fields?, 2) How are these two fields of research interacting?, and 3) How does the interaction of CPR and ES contribute to research on sustainability? We conducted a systematic map to identify, select, describe and analyse research of our interest. We mapped out motivations for researchers to bring together insights from these two lines of inquiry and examined how they are doing so.

  • 268.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Udovč, A.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Developing Environmental NGO Power for Domestic Battles in a Multilevel Context: Lessons from a Slovenian case2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 244-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many have discussed the crucial role that environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) have played in the implementation of nature protection policies across European member states. However, there are important differences in the opportunity structures among new and old member states that influence how ENGOs can act and undertake activities. This article seeks to clarify the role of ENGO capacity building within the context of multilevel environmental governance and focuses on a case in which Slovene ENGOs mobilized against the siting of 80 windmills in a natural area suggested for protection under the EU Birds and Habitats Directive. The dispute involved ENGOs seeking to pursue nature protection objectives against state authorities who prioritized green energy infrastructural development. The article analyses the mobilization strategies pursued and the combination of material, cognitive, social and symbolic resources used. The results suggest that these resources had to be mobilized and organized along both horizontal (domestic) and vertical (international) axes, and that this combination appears key in advancing an environmental protection agenda.

  • 269.
    Rodin, Johnny
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Fertility Intentions and Risk Management: Exploring the Fertility Decline in Eastern Europe During Transition2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 221-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1985 and 1995, fertility in Eastern Europe declined from 2.2 children per woman to merely 1.5 on region-average. Previous research has emphasized mainly the economic turmoil during transition or the influx of new ideas regarding fertility and family relations. This article suggests that applying a risk management perspective on fertility patterns may put additional light on the reasons behind the fertility decline in post-communist Europe. The complexity of modern social systems has made people increasingly dependent on the state for risk evaluation and risk management. The article formulates the hypothesis that transition itself disrupted the mental models that helped people to navigate among the risks associated to having and raising children. Left to their own devices, women in Eastern Europe became more inclined to postpone childbirth or discard this option altogether.

  • 270.
    Rosenberg, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hand Hygiene Barriers faced byHealth Care Workers in The Gambia:: A Health Belief Model Approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health care associated infections cause major challenges to the provision of health care. This isdue to the burden placed on individuals, their families, and health services. Hand hygiene actions are cost effective measures towards reducing the spread of health care associated infections and have proven very effective in preventing microbial transmission during patient care. It has beenproven that health care workers hands are the main routes of transmission of health care associated infections. Despite this, hand hygiene is still frequently overlooked by health careworkers especially in settings with limited resources. This paper therefore explores hand hygieneknowledge and behaviours of public and private health care workers in The Gambia with focuson the health belief model. The required information has been gathered from 4 public and 2 private health care facilities through the use of a questionnaire based on the WHO evaluation toolkit. Hand hygiene knowledge of health care workers corresponded with their hand hygiene behaviour. Inadequate hand hygiene performance was noted in many health care workers as wellas limited availability of hand hygiene resources from health care facilities. Private health care facilities provided better hand hygiene opportunities for their health care workers yet neither private nor public health care facilities offered adequate hand hygiene training and feedback on hand hygiene performances to their health care workers.

  • 271.
    Rosenberg, Anna Charlotta
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Overlooking Girls’ Wellbeing: The opportunity cost of education encountered by menstruating schoolgirls in Sub Saharan Africa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Educating girls is advantageous for future livelihood security and socio economic development. Menstruating schoolgirls especially need to experience improved menstrual hygiene management (MHM) within schools in order to obtain quality education towards securing future as well as present wellbeing. This paper explores how menstruating schoolgirls’ opportunities are affected by insufficient water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities in schools within Sub-Saharan Africa. The required information has been gathered through a qualitative research method using scientifically based material on the situation of MHM in Sub-Saharan African schools as well as semi-structured questionnaires alongside my personal recollection of MHM. Focus has been given to the capabilities of menstruating schoolgirls under existing WASH facilities in schools analysed through the Capability Approach. Effects of poor MHM in schools are known to cause discomfort and poor constructive participation during lessons as well as decreased school attendance. A gender-based approach has also been examined which presents most schools as non-conducive towards girl’s education promotion.

  • 272. Rudén, Christina
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Scientific uncertainty and science-policy interactions in the risk assessment of hazardous chemicals2010In: Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges / [ed] Johan Eriksson, Michael Gilek, Christina Rudén, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 151-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Rönnow, Carl
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Avsiktlig klimatmanipulering: Geoingenjörskonstens pro- och contraargument i den miljöetiska litteraturen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic activities have made a decisive contribution to the climate change that today is considered to be our greatest challenge. Disturbingly social, economic and ecological consequences will follow unless steps effectively regulate greenhouse gas emissions. As the international negotiations in recent time have not managed to achieve effective binding agreements, attention has been directed towards geoengineering. Geoengineering is defined as the “deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth´s climate system”, and thus offers the possibility of using various techniques to achieve quick temporary solutions to cool the planet. Geoengineering does raise foundational environmental ethical questions about whether implementation should take place or not. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify how geoengineering is produced in the environmental ethical literature, the arguments that are highlighted and its potential to mitigate climate change.

    The study´s methodology consists of a pro et contra analysis, where seven selected articles were analyzed and their pro respective contra arguments against the lace formulation “geoengineering should be implementedwas highlighted. Arguments discussed in relation to each other and by the two selected theories, constructivism and rationalism. The conclusion shows that geoengineering has great potential to mitigate climate change with a wide range of possible techniques. However, considerable disagreements between environmental ethics are whether the implementation should take place, when strong arguments both for and against were found of ethical and socio-political character. 

  • 274. Sandahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Riskbedömning i Östersjön2012In: HavsUtsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 8-9Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöproblemen i Östersjön är allvarliga, och kunskapen om exakt vilka risker de innebär är omdebatterad. I ett forskningsprojekt har vi kartlagt hur miljöriskerna bedöms och hanteras idag, och konstaterar att det finns ett behov av att den traditionella riskbedömningen kompletteras med ett större mått av försiktighet och ett ökat deltagande av samhällets olika aktörer.

  • 275.
    Sandberg, Disa
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Effects of the copper-based antifouling paint "Fabi" on growth of the red alga Ceramium tenuicorne2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The antifouling paint Fabi 3959 is painted on the hulls of vessels to avoid fouling caused by marine organisms attached to surfaces. The paint is registered for use on pleasure boats and other vessels weighing over 200 kg which are mainly running on the Swedish west coast (www.kemi.se).

    Fabi 3959 contains copper as its active component, which is highly toxic to marine organisms and thus classified as a biocide.

    Fabi antifouling paint was tested under laboratory conditions on the red macro alga Ceramium tenuicorne, in natural brackish water taken from the Baltic Sea. The Ceramium growth inhibition-test was performed using cloned algae exposed to leakage water with and without sediment. The samples containing only water held concentrations in the range of 0.11% of volume-18% of volume per liter, while the samples using sediment held doses measuring between 0.11% of volume-36% of volume leakage water per liter.

    The study showed a growth inhibiting effect on the Ceramium in both water and sediment samples down to the lowest concentration used in the test. There was a difference between the water series and the sediment series in the EC50 values of the leakage water. The mean EC50 value was almost 10 times lower within the sediment series compared to the water series (0.114±0.10 and 1.024±0.75, respectively). This indicates that the sediment series are more toxic to Ceramium than the water series. However, if the mean values of EC50 are expressed as copper-concentration, there is no clear difference between the two series (0.59 ± 0.13µg/l for the sediment series and 0.62 ± 0.12 µg/l for the water series). Apparently, the test did not indicate that the sediment was absorbing the copper. Instead it cannot be excluded that another substance involved could have a growth inhibiting impact on Ceramium.

     

  • 276.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    A Political Ecology Inspired Critique of Common Pool Resource Research and Practice2010In: Politicized Nature: Global Exchange, Resources and Power : an anthology / [ed] Friman, E. and Gallardo Fernández, G., Uppsala: CSD Uppsala , 2010, p. 23-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    It's Like Herding Monkeys into a Conservation Enclosure: The Formation and Establishment of the Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Zanzibar2011In: Conservation and Society, ISSN 0972-4923, E-ISSN 0975-3133, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 278.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Seeing and Doing Conservation Differently: A Discussion of Landscape Aesthetics, Wilderness, and Biodiversity Conservation2013In: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that conservation agendas need to be informed by a landscape aesthetics that embraces the cultural and material richness of people’s relationship to place to better inform conservation agendas. Historical and contemporary views of landscape aesthetics and their relationship to nature conservation and notions  of wilderness need to be included to complement a scientific expert assessment of conservation needs and approaches. Recent examples of conservation projects in Zanzibar are used to reveal how representations and symbols in nature are deeply embedded in biodiversity conservation aspirations and practices promoted by conservation experts. The article posits that an embodied and pluralistic approach to landscape aesthetics can more profoundly contextualize the specificity of interaction between people and between people and their environments and lead to more viable conservation and development outcomes. This would provide a contingent perspective that would to help elucidate nuanced understandings of social relations and place, thereby better serving both conservation and development agendas.

  • 279.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    The Politics of People - Not Just Mangroves and Monkeys: A study of the theory and practice of community-based management of natural resources in Zanzibar2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Community-based management of natural resource (CBNRM) projects have commonly failed to deliver conservation and development benefits. This thesis examined how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory have contributed to the indifferent performance of CBNRM projects. Evidence was gathered from two CBNRM case studies in Zanzibar to show that CPR institutional design does not sufficiently acknowledge the politics or social relations of project sites. Moreover, these limitations reduce CPR theory's explanatory power and the functionality of CBNRM projects. This is because CPR theory's influence on CBNRM projects is to frame people with fixed identities and related interests as 'rational resource users', rather than people enrolled in multiple network relations with differentiated means of influence, interests and responsibilities. Actor-oriented theory is used to show that CBNRM would benefit from a shift in the correlation with institutional design factors to understanding the operation of power and conflict at project sites. These findings suggest that currently CBNRM projects are too mired in concern about regulating the 'direct' relationship between resource users and conservation objectives, with problematic implications. It is shown that actor-oriented theory is more sensitive to the different capacities, interests and strategies of actors in CBNRM institutional transformation processes. While actor-oriented theory does not offer a parsimonious or predictive theory to reform CPR theory or CBNRM policy, it can provide insights into pre-project conditions and emergent practice useful for explaining project interventions. 

  • 280.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Fred Saunders.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Day, Jon. C.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    McCann, Jennifer
    Coastal Resources Center, The University of Rhode Island, USA.
    Smythe, Tiffany
    United States Coast Guard Academy, USA.
    Examining the role of integration in marine spatial planning: Towards an analytical framework to understand challenges in diverse settings2019In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 169, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 281.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Dahl, K.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, H.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D2.4: MSP as a governance approach? Knowledge integration challenges in MSP in the Baltic Sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing integrative decision-making underpinned by a diverse knowledge base is seen as essential to meet marine spatial planning’s (MSP) sustainable development aspirations. In contributing to a better understanding of how this might be achieved, this report considers knowledge integration challenges drawing on several MSP empirical cases across the Baltic Sea Region. Each case-study, involves Baltic Sea states at different stages of developing national marine spatial plans. At the Baltic-wide level, HELCOM-VASAB has interpreted the Ecosystem Approach in MSP as relying heavily on an evidence-base informed by natural scientific and expert knowledge. The results of the report show that challenges arise when trying to apply scientific knowledge to MSP events or processes for a number of reasons such as, incomplete data and associated substantial uncertainty or because stakeholders contest the policy interpretation of the data. This raises questions of how to assess or evaluate the quality and comprehensiveness/sufficiency of scientific and stakeholder knowledge or input into MSP decision-making, particularly in highly politicised, conflictual contexts, such as the integration of parts of the fishing sector in MSP in Poland. MSP in German territorial waters provides a positive example, where science and stakeholder knowledge input have been integrated in decision-making through informal and formal processes. This case exhibits evidence of social learning where authorities have reflected on previous experiences and invested in actively nurturing the meaningful participation of a wide variety of stakeholders (to form a community of practice) over an extended period of time. The key findings of the report call for more attention to be paid to ways that scientific and stakeholder knowledge can be fruitfully incorporated in MSP, through initiatives such as: the development of knowledge evaluation measures; drawing more actively on social science expertise to help facilitate processes of stakeholder engagement and knowledge inclusion; and paying more attention to how to include heterogeneous socio-cultural values and knowledge (placed-based) in a way that improves the salience of scientific knowledge and the legitimacy of MSP decision-making.

  • 282.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, A.
    c Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D1.3: Evaluating the sustainability of governance: a proposal for evaluating marine spatial planning in the Baltic Sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Deliverable elaborates an evaluation design for MSP that responds to a growing call for a more nuanced and critical conceptualisation and implementation of MSP as complex sites of governance. Here we posit that such an evaluation design should be based on 'sustainability of governance' in MSP. Furthermore, that such an evaluation approach should be built on good governance principles of participation, coordination, openness and collaboration in governance processes with the aim to strengthen MSP on both democratic and functionality grounds. To advance this position, we elaborate the relationship between integration as a concept that can be used to examine the sustainability of governance in practice. The conceptual framework is then used to structure a discussion of illustrative examples of the relationship between integration and sustainability of governance across several Baltic Sea case-studies. The results of these case studies are then framed in a discussion on aspects that need to be considered when designing an evaluation process for MSP. Points highlighted here are the need to adopt a deliberative and reflexive approach that draws on a wide body of evidence in evaluation. A set of clustered evaluative criteria (CEC), referring to practices deemed to be desirable for sustainability of MSP governance, are proposed to guide or direct an evaluation process. The CEC were derived through an assessment of what is deemed important in the relevant literature as well as through consideration of the experience of the Baltic cases. The CEC could be seen as indicators of integration that relate to aspects of sustainability of governance in MSP, as well as, in more instrumental terms to support problem-solving aimed at improving MSP coherence. The evaluation design outlined here would require to be tested and trialled in MSP settings to assess its saliency and refine its usability in practice.

  • 283.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Ikauniece, Anda
    Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology, Riga, Latvia.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Gee, Kira
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    University of Gdańsk, Sopot, Poland / Maritime Institute in Gdańsk, Gdynia Maritime University, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Theorizing Social Sustainability and Justice in Marine Spatial Planning: Democracy, Diversity, and Equity2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 2560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article elaborates a conceptual framework to examine social sustainability in marinespatial planning (MSP). Based on a critical literature review of key texts on social sustainabilityin MSP and the broader sustainable development literature we show the need to elaborate acogent and comprehensive approach for the analysis and pursuit of social sustainability linkedto the sea. We then theorize social sustainability by developing a conceptual framework throughintegrating three dimensions: Recognition, Representation and Distribution. While these three socialsustainability/justice features clearly overlap and are interdependent in practice, the conceptualthinking underpinning each of them is distinctive and when taken together they contributetowards conceiving social sustainability as a pillar of sustainability. Our approach can support ananalysis/evaluation of MSP in that, first, its broad scope and adaptability makes it suitable to examinethe wide range of claims, demands, and concerns that are likely to be encountered across dierentpractical MSP settings. Second, it acknowledges the opportunities and challenges of assessing,implementing, and achieving social justice within a broader sustainability framework.

  • 284.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    A Discussion of the Debates Underpinning Agri-Environmental Schemes as a form of Payment for Ecological Services2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Payments for Ecological Services (PES) has rapidly emerged around the world as a key environmental governance approach. This paper is concerned with Agricultural Environmental Schemes (AES) as a particular form of PES to improve the environmental performance of agriculture particularly in relation to water quality in Sweden. Win-win descriptions prevail in AES policy discourse to describe the simultaneous achievement of environmental goals and economic outcomes for farmers. AES are underpinned by an instrumental assumption that farmer behaviour can be influenced towards adopting better environmental practice by providing monetary incentives (or at least compensation). This paper has touched on a number of contentions in the PES literature, including: doubts about how well standardised PES schemes link with local conditions; how and whether PES schemes can engender local innovation; procedural and distributive equity concerns; claims that monetary incentives may ‘crowd out’ socially derived sources of motivation (local norms); and doubts about whether PES schemes, disembedded from local institutions, can deliver ‘sufficient’ environmental behavioural change. Given the relatively recent emergence of AES schemes, it is important that we learn more from the experience of implementation. Critically oriented empirically-based research then has the capacity to work as a circuit breaker between ideologically driven arguments that side either for or against the use of market mechanisms, such as AES for environmental governance. Such insights may be useful to help focus research on farmer engagement with AES that subjects it to greater empirical scrutiny and validation.

  • 285.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala University, Centre for Sustainable Development.
    Van Tuyen, Truong
    Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietman.
    Raemaekers, Serge
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Marciniak, Boguslaw
    Dıaz Pla, Rodrigo
    Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Chile.
    Transformation of small-scale fisheries: critical transdisciplinary challenges and possibilities2016In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 20, no June, p. 26-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to confront the global marginalisation of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is to support a sustainable transformation of these coastal communities. In 2014/15, a network of researchers and SSF communities from four countries cooperated in a transdisciplinary research approach to examine governance shifts, fish stock collapses, power structures, future visions and transformation strategies. We combined a political ecology approach with transformation theory to: (i) consider how local context is affected by structural changes and (ii) identify place-based transformational strategies for each case. The global emergence of large-scale fisheries and associated free markets appeared as key factors negatively affecting SSF and coastal sustainability. Through envisioning exercises and context dependent analysis, SSF communities articulated possible and actual strategies towards sustainability that will require ongoing support.

  • 286.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lenninger, Paula
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Schiele, Kerstin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk.
    BALTSPACE Deliverable: D1.2: Final Guidance Document on Analysing Possibilities and Challenges for MSP Integration2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP) contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes. Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions. Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies, national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region. Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised; the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report, which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts, beyond the Baltic Sea.

  • 287.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg.
    Knowledge for environmental governance: probing science–policy theory in the cases of eutrophication and fisheries in the Baltic Sea2017In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 769-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How science and policy interact has been a major research focus in the International Relations (IR) tradition, using the epistemic community (EC) concept, as well as in the alternative perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Should science be autonomous and as apolitical as possible in order to ‘speak truth to power’, as suggested by EC or should the inevitable entanglement of science and politics be accepted and embraced so as to make advice more conducive to negotiating the explicit travails of political decision-making as suggested by STS? With this point of departure, we compare similarities and differences between science–policy interactions in the issue areas of eutrophication and fisheries management of the Baltic Sea. To examine how knowledge is mobilised, the concepts of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘coherence’ are developed, drawing on both EC and STS thinking. We then reflect on the explanatory value of these approaches in both cases and discuss how a separation of science and policy-making in the pursuit of achieving scientific consensus leads to ineffectual policies. Drawing on STS thinking, we urge for a re-conceptualisation of coherence in order to accommodate a more reflexive practice of science–policy interactions.

  • 288.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Adding People to the Sea: Conceptualizing Social Sustainability in Maritime Spatial Planning2019In: Maritime Spatial Planning: past, present, future / [ed] Jacek Zaucha & Kira Gee, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 175-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is growing critique emerging to address social sustainability in marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP), overwhelmingly attention has been on governance, economic and environmental aspects. This chapter redresses this by proposing a conceptual framework to elucidate key features of social sustainability in MSP. The ambition is to both note the existing critique of MSP and go beyond it by more clearly and comprehensively articulating how social sustainability could be conceived in MSP, as well as how this framework could be applied to analyse MSP practice. Key features of social sustainability elaborated are: deepening democratic decision-making, inclusion of socio-cultural values and knowledge, equitable distribution and social cohesion. Finally, the chapter concludes by nominating strategies to give greater visibility to social sustainability as a key MSP concern.

  • 289.
    Sayeed, Abu
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Causes and Consequences of Land Degradation: Conversion of Agricultural land to Non-Agricultural usages in Bangladesh: A case study on ‘Keyain’ village of Munshigonj District2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few years the agriculture sector is facing danger in many ways. Conversion of agricultural land in non-agricultural uses is one of the main reasons to follow. Why the land is decreasing, how it is converted to non-agricultural purposes is the important matter of concern at present. The study is going to answer why the land is decreasing, how it is converted to non-agricultural uses and what might be the consequences for improper uses of agricultural land. In Bangladesh most of the people live in rural areas and makes Bangladesh predominantly rural. The development in rural seems development of agriculture. But the agricultural land is decreasing day by day. Poverty, rapid population growth, improper uses of land, lack of interest in agriculture, conventional system of irrigation, Real Estate companies etc are playing a critical role for decreasing agricultural land. Besides this, a nature itself is also responsible for land degradation. Flood, drought and salinity due to climate change are very common in Bangladesh thus the result is land degradation. As a result, soil fertility, crop productivity, and food security might be seriously in danger. But it is important to keep full of life this sector for land-scarce country like Bangladesh or else the consequences might be terrible. Food insecurity, unsustainable environment, economic downturn, agricultural productivity decrease and social decay etc are the important matters to consider.

     

    Key words: Land degradation, Agriculture, Land Zoning

  • 290.
    Schenk, Linda
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Occupational exposure limits in comparative perspective: Unity and diversity within the European Union2010In: Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges / [ed] Johan Eriksson, Michael Gilek, Christina Rudén, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 133-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a book about the regulation of chemical risks; this chapter specifically concerns the regulation of chemicals in the occupational setting. People are exposed to a variety of chemicals during their life; some are to our knowledge not harmful while others are. Working life may be a major contributor to a person's accumulated chemical exposure. A number of diseases have been related to the occurrence of harmful- substances in the occupational setting, for instance asthma, allergies and several forms of cancer. One can conclude that the risks associated with chemicals exposure and their regulation in the work place is well worth scientific scrutiny. Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are limits of concentrations of specific substances in the air, averaged over a period of time. The rationale behind OELs is that if the dosage of a chemical is -sufficiently low, no or acceptably low adverse health effects will arise. The dose-response relationship differs of course with the different inherent traits of the specific chemical. For some chemicals evidence suggests that a negative health effect only occurs above a certain level of exposure, this means that a safe level exposure is possible- to achieve. For many chemicals this is not the case though, either there is not enough knowledge to derive a no effect level (NOAEL), if such one does indeed exist, or there is in fact a linear dose-response relationship without any threshold. In the -latter case low-level exposure might only lead to very low individual risks but if many -persons are exposed the collective exposure result in substantial population effects.

  • 291.
    Siebenhüner, B.
    et al.
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlan.
    Ecker, F.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Social learning research in ecological economics: A survey2016In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 55, p. 116-126Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding of human behaviour in contrast to the limited focus on incentive-driven behaviour. Our study analyses the emergence and thematic foci of social learning studies within ecological economics over the past 15 years. We selected and analysed 54 articles published after peer review in established journals adhering to the epistemological tradition of ecological economics. This study is guided by the interest in how social learning is conceptualised, how this research is positioned in terms of process dynamics, causal factors and outcomes of learning. Results show, that the number of related papers grew substantially in recent years. Also the role of formal or informal institutions has been found to be a strong causal factor for social learning and change processes vis-à-vis technological, economic or political factors. In addition, there is a growing awareness of social learning processes in various environmental policy fields such as biodiversity governance, water and land management, fisheries, and climate adaptation. We conclude that these insights can give new impulses to research on socio-ecological transition and to the related debate on societal change and transformation processes as core topics for ecological economics.

  • 292.
    Singh, D. K.
    et al.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, P.R. China.
    Singh, Nandita
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Drying Urban lakes: A consequence of climate change, urbanization or other anthropogenic causes? An insight from northern India2019In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, ISSN 1320-5331, E-ISSN 1440-1770, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 115-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban lakes in many places around the world are rapidly becoming vulnerable because of such factors as urbanization, climate change, anthropogenic pollutant inputs, etc. The influence of such forcing factors on lakes hydrology must be correctly recognized and addressed in order to protect them over the long term. Facing similar challenges, Sukhna Lake, an urban lake in northern India, has apparently dried up frequently in the recent past. Numerous hypotheses were subsequently proposed to isolate the possible factors affecting the lake and its water budget, including the potential impacts of land use changes, climate change, anthropogenic activities and other natural processes. Using meteorological data, lake-catchment information and a hydrologic model, these hypotheses were comprehensively analysed. Relevant data on rainfall, wind, temperature, lake inflows, groundwater, lake physical characteristics, catchment land uses, soil texture, etc., were gathered for the analysis. A temporal trend analysis of factors relevant to these hypotheses was undertaken to identify critical drivers of hydrological changes. A sensitivity analysis also was performed, using the lake water budget, to determine and prioritize the predominant factors affecting the lake, leading to the creation of an annual lake water budget for the period from 1971 to 2013, highlighting the lake inflows and outflows. The lake annual inflow (catchment run-off) was computed by adopting a rainfall–run-off model based on the SCS-curve number. Lacking any anthropogenic water withdrawals, the outflow was quantified by estimating the evaporation loss (using the FAO-based Penman–Monteith Equation). The results of the present study indicate that the process of siltation and the construction of check dams in the catchment, rather than urbanization and climate change, were the dominating reasons contributing to changes in the lake hydrology, and affecting the lake most in recent years. 

  • 293.
    Sjöling, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Thureborn, Petter
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Livet i havets djup2016In: HavsUtsikt- Om havsmiljön och Svensk havsforskning, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 16-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 294.
    Skaring, Ida
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the Baltic Sea region: The effects of SSRI on teleost fish2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals, enter the aquatic environments through sewage treatment plants and may affect fish. This examination paper is a literature study that focuses on Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs, exposure and the impacts on teleosts in the Baltic Sea by assessment of peer-reviewed literature and material. Teleosts affected by exposure of these substances may demonstrate physiologically as well as behavioral alterations. These can be observed as alterations in aggression, boldness, mobility, growth, feeding rate or in endocrine processes. The potential of which SSRI may effect teleosts depends on the pH of the aquatic environment, temperature, other contaminants and the fat solubility of the substances. Some effects caused by SSRI exposure may elicit ecological impacts. These particularly concern changes and effects in terms of evasiveness, reproductive capacity and ability to find food as well as alterations of interspecificity. Even the balance between population density, individual fitness and by extension survival might be affected. Effects in interspecificity may potentially lead to local extinctions and changes in food webs. Furthermore, results demonstrated that when a substance is bioaccumulated and the teleosts are eaten by predators on higher trophic levels, marine ecosystems can also be affected. Moreover a conclusion could be drawn the level of concentration of SSRIs in the aquatic environment may be of less significance since teleosts have the potential to bioaccumulate SSRIs in tissue over time and in this sense concentrations may reach harmful levels that can cause physiological or behavioural alterations. Continuous studies should refer to chronic tests studies with focus on a field testing environment for understanding of natural conditions and exposure. Furthermore, studies on how ecosystems may be affected should be important to give an overview of the problem with SSRI exposure. As the Baltic Sea is a sensitive environment, studies should preferable be made on species living in this environment.

  • 295. Skarpheoinsdottir, H
    et al.
    Ericson, G
    Dalla Zuanna, L
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Tissue differences, dose-response relationship and persistence of DNA adducts in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene2003In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 165-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea blue mussels Mytilus edulis) were experimentally exposed to the genotoxic model substance benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) to study DNA adduct formation. The specific aims were (a) to examine where in the mussels the DNA adducts were formed, in gills or digestive glands (b) to study the dose-response relationship between B[a]P exposure and DNA adduct formations and (c) to examine the persistence of the formed adducts. A Scope for growth (SFG) study was also run to compare physiological responses of the mussels with the degree of DNA adduct formation. In an initial dose-response experiment, the mussels were exposed to 0.5, 50, and 100 mug/l of tritium labelled B[a]P under semi-static conditions for 4 days, and thereafter the bioaccumulation of B[a]P and DNA adduct formation in different tissues was determined using liquid scintillation counting and P-32-postlabelling analysis. respectively. In a following exposure-depuration experiment, mussels were exposed to 17 mug/l of radiolabelled B[a]P under semi-static conditions for 6 days. B[a]P accumulation and DNA adduct formation were determined during the exposure, and B[a]P elimination and persistence of DNA adducts were studied during 28 days of depuration in uncontaminated water, The results revealed large tissue differences in DNA adduct formation. DNA adduct levels were not elevated in the digestive gland of the mussels at any exposure concentration (0-100 mug/l). even though the highest B[a]P tissue concentrations were found in the digestive gland (1.0+/-0.1 mg B[a]P/g tissue dry wt at 100 mug/l, mean+/-SE. n = 12). DNA adducts were on the other hand formed in the gills, with the highest levels found in mussels exposed to 50 and 100 mug B[a]P/l. and a dose dependent increase in adduct levels (from 1.6 to 5.9 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides) from 0 to 50 mug B[a]P/l, In gills, DNA adduct levels increased with time during the 6-day exposure period in the exposure-depuration experiment, and then persisted for at least 2 weeks after exposure cessation while B[a]P tissue levels exhibited a rapid decrease (half-life of 8 days). No significant differences were observed in SFG between the control and exposed groups. Since DNA adducts exhibited a relatively high persistence in gills compared to B[a]P tissue concentrations, they seem to be a more integrated measure of genotoxic exposure than only chemical analysis of the contaminant bioaccumulation. The results also suggest that if using analysis of DNA adducts in H. edulis for monitoring purposes. analysis of gills in addition to the more commonly used digestive gland should be taken into consideration.

  • 296.
    Smolander, Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Grigoryeva, Viktoria
    St. Petersburg State University.
    Economics and environmental sciences: a key tool for improvement of interdisciplinary education for sustainable development in the Baltic Sea region2011In: XII International Environmental Forum "Baltic Sea Day": Thesis collection, St. Petersburg: Tsvetprint , 2011, p. 421-422Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Why is the Baltic Sea so special to live in?2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline; Schubert, Hendrik; Radziejewska, Teresa, Springer Netherlands, 2017, p. 23-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Why is the Baltic Sea so special to live in", is the main question the authors here give several arguments or answers for. Geographical position, geological development, hydrographical features, climate and physical drivers together create the Baltic Sea environment. The Baltic Sea water is brackish and characterized by pronounced salinity gradients, both in horizontal and vertical directions, because of the large volume of freshwater runoff from over 100 rivers, which mixes with the saline water from the Kattegat that enters the Baltic Sea via narrow shallow straits. Being a semi-enclosed continental sea with a large drainage area compared to its water volume , the Baltic Sea ecosystem is heavily impacted by the surrounding landmasses. The water residence time in the Baltic Sea is long (30–40 years), and therefore discharged nutrients and toxic compounds circulate within the sea for a long time, which contributes to its vulnerability to eutrophication and chemical contamination by hazardous substances. The Baltic Sea Area is geologically young and the Baltic Sea ecosystem is extremely young in an evolutionary perspective. Only few macroscopic species are fully adapted to its low-salinity environment. In an ecosystem-wide perspective, the large-scale Baltic Sea gradient is the principal ecological characteristic of the Baltic Sea.

  • 298.
    Sommer, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Processes and factors governing benthic community dynamics—environmental change in the Baltic Sea2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As drivers of biogeochemical cycles and nutrient recycling, such as carbon turnover, the microbial community is essential in sustaining functioning ecosystems. Together with the metazoan community, the microbial community constitute the majority of all life in the benthos. Environmental change in biotic and abiotic factors may influence the dynamics of these communities, for example through a sorting or driving effect on the community structure through assembly processes. Environmental change, e.g. change in dissolved oxygen concentration, salinity and temperature, can directly or indirectly affect community composition. How, in what way, and to what extent, benthic bacterial and meiofaunal community composition in the eutrophied, brackish benthic environments, in the Baltic Sea sub-basin the Baltic Proper, respond to environmental change is understudied, both at local and seascape scale. This thesis aimed to study and understand the effects of environmental variation on the diversity and biogeographic patterns of Baltic Sea sediment bacterial and meiofaunal communities. A further aim was to understand the links between the different community levels by studying the interaction between meiofaunal- and macrofaunal communities in relation to environmental variation. Community diversity was analysed along a latitudinal transect of national environmental monitoring stations in the Baltic Proper using a framework of metapopulation and metacommunity theory. The analyses were based on environmental genomics, with high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics

    and statistics. The total community genome was analysed using phylogenetic marker gene fragments as a proxy for taxonomic diversity, to investigate diversity, community structure and dynamics. Salinity and oxygen were found to be the main abiotic environmental drivers of benthic community composition and alpha- and beta-diversity patterns. Furthermore, macrofauna-meiofauna interactions were significantly more complex in higher salinity environments. Results also showed that both enhanced environmental gradients and dispersal following a major inflow of saline and oxygenated water from the Atlantic Ocean, influenced the composition of sediment bacterial communities at the seascape scale of the Baltic Sea, as shown by a reduced beta-diversity and increased alpha-diversity, and the development of a significant distance-decay of community similarity. This study also identified strong metapopulation dynamics of the benthic sediment bacterial communities with many satellite and a few core taxa. The outcomes from this study contribute to the understanding of how environmental variation and environmental change relate to changes in Baltic Sea benthic community diversity and composition, and important factors and processes governing community dynamics.

  • 299.
    Sommer, Christian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sex odour preference in guppy (Poecilia wingei) males are influenced by the social environment2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, p. E47-E47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 300.
    Strand, Emelie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Söderström, Hedvig
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Trafikreducerande åtgärder i Stockholms stad: Hur Stockholms stad arbetar med att minska trafiken för att nå miljökvalitetsmålet Frisk luft2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic is a major source of carbon dioxide emissions and air pollution. Travelling will always be needed in cities, but it needs to be sustainable. A shift from private cars to more efficient forms of transportation is one of the most important strategies to create a sustainable transportation system.

    Some of the worst air quality in Sweden is found in Stockholm and the levels of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide fails to reach the national environmental objective Clean air. This case study examines the work done by the city of Stockholm to achieve sustainable traffic. The aim is to identify deficiencies and obstacles to achieving the goal of Clean air. Air quality data, the planning documents used by the city of Stockholm, and interviews have been analyzed using a broad theory on public management and sustainable traffic.

    The results show a great variety in how the traffic-related goals are set and that overarching visions are not translated into direct action. More coordinated measures are needed to achieve synergies. Finally, five primary obstacles to achieving the goal Clean air have been identified.

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