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  • 251.
    Forsberg, Lars
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    Nilsson, Johan
    Kjellström, Karin
    Petersson, Erik
    Böhme, Jan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    A ‘good genes’ effect from MHC super-genotypes in brown trout mediated by male competition and not by ornamentsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 252.
    Forsberg, Victoria
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Effects of population size and environmental factors on habitat choice and migration patterns of the Eastern Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua callarias): consequences for stock assessment2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject matter of this Bachelor´s thesis is the Eastern Baltic Sea cod. A literature review has been done regarding how environmental factors such as salinity, oxygen supply and temperature but also the size of the cod populations affects the migration patterns and the habitat choice of the cod. The result of the review shows that, when the eastern Baltic cod population is small, its area of distribution is restricted to the southern parts of the Baltic Sea. Moreover, high salinity leads to a larger area of distribution, while low oxygen content in the Deep Basins leads to vertical migrations, as well as further migrations south and north, to areas with better hydrological conditions. Finally the the cod tend to prefer habitats with warmer water, if the oxygen and salinity conditions are suitable, at least during the spawning period.

    This thesis also include estimation on how well the annual scientific trawl surveys performed by coastal Baltic countries, reflects the actual cod population size. This estimation is partly based on a critical review of available information about the trawl survey design in relation to cod migration patterns, distribution and habitat choice. Furthermore, a test has been done of how well the annual stock size estimates for the latest year, presented in the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Annual Reports of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), between the years 1996-2009 reflected the best available stock size estimates from 2010. The results indicate that the scientific trawl surveys might not work satisfactory. This indicates that further research must be done in the field, therefore possible alternatives such as comparisons of positioning data of commercial and scientific trawls and interviews with fishermen are suggested.

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  • 253. Fox, K L
    et al.
    Yildirim, Håkan H
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Deadman, M E
    Schweda, Elke K H
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Moxon, E R
    Hood, D W
    Novel lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes containing tetranucleotide repeats in Haemophilus influenzae, identification of a gene for adding O-acetyl groups2005In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 207-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the genes for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis in Haemophilus influenzae are phase variable. The mechanism of this variable expression involves slippage of tetranucleotide repeats located within the reading frame of these genes. Based on this, we hypothesized that tetranucleotide repeat sequences might be used to identify as yet unrecognized LPS biosynthetic genes. Synthetic oligonucleotides (20 bases), representing all previously reported LPS-related tetranucleotide repeat sequences in H. influenzae, were used to probe a collection of 25 genetically and epidemiologically diverse strains of non-typeable H. influenzae. A novel gene identified through this strategy was a homologue of oafA, a putative O-antigen LPS acetylase of Salmonella typhimurium, that was present in all 25 non-typeable H. influenzae, 19 of which contained multiple copies of the tetranucleotide 5'-GCAA. Using lacZ fusions, we showed that these tetranucleotide repeats could mediate phase variation of this gene. Structural analysis of LPS showed that a major site of acetylation was the distal heptose (HepIII) of the LPS inner-core. An oafA deletion mutant showed absence of O-acetylation of HepIII. When compared with wild type, oafA mutants displayed increased susceptibility to complement-mediated killing by human serum, evidence that O-acetylation of LPS facilitates resistance to host immune clearance mechanisms. These results provide genetic and structural evidence that H. influenzae oafA is required for phase variable O-acetylation of LPS and functional evidence to support the role of O-acetylation of LPS in pathogenesis.

  • 254. Fox, Kate L.
    et al.
    Li, Jianjun
    Schweda, Elke K. H.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Vitiazeva, Arvara
    Makepeace, Katherine
    Jennings, Michael P.
    Moxon, E. Richard
    Hood, Derek W.
    Duplicate copies of lic1 direct the addition of multiple phosphocholine residues in the lipopolysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae2008In: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 588-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genes of the lic1 operon (lic1A to lic1D) are responsible for incorporation of phosphocholine (PCho) into the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Haemophilus influenzae. PCho plays a multifaceted role in the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles of a range of mucosal pathogens, including H. influenzae. Structural studies of the LPS of nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI) have revealed that PCho can be linked to a hexose on any one of the oligosaccharide chain extensions from the conserved inner core triheptosyl backbone. In a collection of NTHI strains we found several strains in which there were two distinct but variant lic1D DNA sequences, genes predicted to encode the transferase responsible for directing the addition of PCho to LPS. The same isolates were also found to express concomitantly two PCho residues at distinct positions in their LPS. In one such NTHI isolate, isolate 1158, structural analysis of LPS from lic1 mutants confirmed that each of the two copies of lic1D directs the addition of PCho to a distinct location on the LPS. One position for PCho addition is a novel heptose, which is part of the oligosaccharide extension from the proximal heptose of the LPS inner core. Modification of the LPS by addition of two PCho residues resulted in increased binding of C-reactive protein and had consequential effects on the resistance of the organism to the killing effects of normal human serum compared to the effects of glycoforms containing one or no PCho. When bound, C-reactive protein leads to complement-mediated killing, indicating the potential biological significance of multiple PCho residues.

  • 255.
    Fransson, Patrick
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    "Vi försöker dela upp oss. Vi tanter tycker bättre om att baka. IP, fotboll och gympasalen tar hellre dom manliga": En studie om förväntningar på manliga lärare och könsskapande i grundskolans tidigare år2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With this thesis I wanted to find out how a teacher-team in Stockholm reason about and whether they have specific expectations of male teachers in the early school years. Interviews with five teachers from pre-school to grade 3 and in after-school have shown that specific expectations of male teachers is something obvious. Are male teachers expected to enter into the role of male role models to contribute with masculinity and a male perspective? However, the informants are not able to define how a male role model is or should act. Men and women are often defined as two separate, and often as opposite, groups. According to Lpo´94 the school has to counteract traditional gender patterns, making specific expectations of male teachers problematic, when these rather helps to underpin these patterns. 

    The conclusion is, based on the perception of gender as a socially constructed phenomenon, that schools and teachers contribute to gender-building by setting, and constantly repeating and practicing the standards for what is considered male and female. As long as this continues, the school will remain an arena where these gender patterns are reinforced rather then counteracted.

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  • 256.
    Franzen, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. KTH.
    Kinell, Gerda
    Walve, Jakob
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Participatory Social-Ecological Modeling in Eutrophication Management: the Case of Himmerfjarden, Sweden2011In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 27-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholder participation is increasingly seen as central in natural resource management. It is also required by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which identifies three levels of participation; information, consultation, and active involvement. In this paper we discuss the active involvement of stakeholders, using our experience from a case study in the Himmerfjarden region, which is a coastal area southwest of Stockholm, Sweden. Our study used the systems approach proposed by the European Union research project called Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment (SPICOSA), in which local stakeholders and a study site team constructed an integrated simulation model of a crucial coastal management issue. In this case the issue was nitrogen enrichment. We showed how stakeholder participation in the modeling process helped identify interesting and currently relevant management scenarios, and how the modeling process facilitated communication of the likely ecological, economic, and social effects of these scenarios to the stakeholders. In addition, stakeholders also reported social gains in terms of network building. We managed to actively involve local stakeholders in water issues, and the research process clearly strengthened the social capital in the Himmerfjarden region, and created a basis for future collaboration regarding water management. Our experience indicates that the approach we tried is a useful tool for promoting active stakeholder involvement in water management projects. Also, the results of our science and policy integration approach indicated that the study site team assumed a leadership role, which is a commonly recognized factor in successful natural resource management.

  • 257.
    Franzén, Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Jansson, Tina
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Miljöbilens framtid: De alternativa drivmedlens påverkan och konsekvenser på regional och global nivå2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 258.
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Regionförstoringens effekt på den lokala kommunikationstillgängligheten: En fallstudie av Strängnäs och dess omland2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to describe the ongoing region enlargement process in the region Mälardalen, located in the east part of Sweden, and to investigate how this process can affect the local level. The study is especially orientated on public communications and accessibility. The intention has also been to examine how the local accessibility can affect the re-gional development in Mälardalen. The local investigation object that has been chosen for this research is the city Strängnäs, situated in the province of Södermanland. The city of Strängnäs and the cities in it’s near geographic surroundings has been the benchmark for this casestudy, in which the local accessibility with public transportation has been investigated. The cities that take part in the case-study have been chosen on their geographic relations to Strängnäs.

    The region enlargement process has caused several consequences for the region Mälardalen. One of the main reasons to region enlargement process is that cities and regions gradually have integrated into a more cohesive infrastructure system. There is also a general opinion that larger region has more potential to be dynamic and create economic growth. One effect of this development is that the number of local labor markets has decreased during the latest decades. The result of this is that the mobility on the labor market has increased for certain individuals in society. However the study has shown that the mobility on the labor mar¬kets in the region Mälardalen differs between individuals. Depending on education, income level and gender the mobility of individual changes in labor market.

    When it comes to how region enlargement can affect the local level, the conclusion is that the accessibility changes depending on the geographic direction, mode of transportation and the destination. The accessibility is better to and from the cities Stockholm, Södertälje and Eskilstuna because of the regional train, Svealandsbanan, that’s operates at this distance. The cities Katrineholm, Flen, Enköping and Västerås are not situated along this distance where the re-gional train passes, which delimits their accessibility to Strängnäs. The main reason of this problem is that Svealandsbanan, local busses and other regional trains not are correctly coor-dinated with each other.

    The final conclusion of this study is that if the region enlargement process does not develop in the entire region of Mälardalen, it might lead to an uneven regional development. If the com-munications systems are not developing in several geographic directions, the consequences may be polarization within the region.

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  • 259.
    Fuhrmann, Ingo
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Uppsatsinformanters tillgänglighet: Betydelsen av sociala nätverk betingade av mänskligt räckhåll och teknisk räckvidd2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att få kontakt med uppsatsinformanter är avgörande för en uppsats kvalité. Det kan vara nyttigt att förstå, vilka krafter som ligger bakom kontaktknytandet och vad som leder till framgång eller till misslyckande. Syftet med denna uppsats är att beskriva hur mina tidigare försök, att få till stånd kontakter med informanter, har genomförts. Dessutom gäller det att analysera den kulturella och medietekniska situationen som har präglat försöken för att förstå betydelsen av begreppen sociala nätverk, mänskligt räckhåll och teknisk räckvidd för till-komsten av intervjutillfällen och för informanters tillgänglighet. Genom deltagande ob-servationer under tre tidigare studier, där jag hade försökt knyta kontakter med olika informanter, har jag strävat efter att uppnå uppsatsens syfte. Under fasen av kontaktknytandet har jag dessutom försökt varsebli de faktorer som kan ha bidragit till beslutet för eller mot ett möte med mig. Observationerna har jag bearbetat så att de är förenliga med person-uppgiftslagen och offentlighetsprincipen. Denna studie knyter an till en aktuell kvantitativ studie av Statistiska centralbyrån som bland annat berör sociala nätverks betydelser. SCB:s studie kommer fram till att en stor andel högutbildade utrikes födda bedömer att avsaknad av kontakter är det största hindret för att få ett arbete som överensstämmer med deras utbildning. Som utgångspunkt för den här studien fungerar Gunnar Törnqvists teoretiska resonemang kring det mänskliga, begränsade räckhållet, format av ens erfarenheter och bakgrund, och den på grund av teletekniken nästan oändliga tekniska räckvidden, vilka utsätter samhället för territoriella spänningar med splittrande och integrerande krafter. En egen projicering ner på det individuella planet fungerar som ansats för hur enstaka personer påverkas av spänningsfältet vid knytandet av kontakter längs olika vägar. Närmare bestämt avhandlas uppsats-informanternas tillgänglighet kännetecknad av studerandenas kontaktväg hemifrån genom det medietekniska nätet eller från det offentliga rummet till domänen med informanten, som den studerande inom ramen för sina studier söker bland främmande personer såsom förenings-medlemmar eller i tjänst befintliga privat eller offentligt anställda utan kontakt till öppna personkretsar, såsom kunder, i dagens svenska kulturrum. Det undersökta materialet är de observerade personer som i tidigare studier fungerade som potentiella källor. Dessa är personer på en förskola, medlemmar i vänortsföreningar och många olika anställda på myndigheter och statliga verk i Storstockholm. Undersökningen och analysen tyder på att positiva associationer med den kontakt-sökandes bakgrund, direkt kontakt mellan fyra ögon eller redan befintlig tillgång till ett socialt nät är avgörande gynnsamma faktorer, medan negativa faktorer är e-post, som man lätt kan låta bli att svara på, och telefonen, där samtalen lätt kan avslutas av den tillfrågade. I båda fallen är kommunikationen också begränsad till antingen talat eller skrivet språk. Dessutom har det visat sig att en reception inte är någon garanti för någon mottagning. Det har dragits följande slutsatser: Mänskligt räckhåll och teknisk räckvidd i det territoriella spänningsfältet är avgörande drivkrafter bakom tillkomsten av kontakter inför vetenskapliga intervjun. Till-gängligheten påverkas av kontaktpersonens positiva associationer till skribentens kulturella bakgrund. Referenspersoner och anslutning till samma sociala nätverk är underlättande. Tekniska hjälpmedel förbättrar inte nödvändigtvis den tekniska räckvidden och informantens tillgänglighet. Användandet styrs av de involverades mänskliga räckhållen och leder inte alltid till en räckviddsökning. I synnerhet receptioners funktion är dubbeltydig och liknar ibland snarare telefonväxlar än mottagningar.

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  • 260.
    Fürtenbach, Karin
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Characterization of two Protein Disulfide Oxidoreductases from Thermophilic Organisms Pyrococcus furiosus and Aquifex aeolicus: Characterization of two Protein Disulfide Oxidoreductases2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Members of the thioredoxin superfamily of proteins catalyze disulfide bond reduction and oxidation using the active site C-X-X-C sequence. In hyperthermophilic organisms, cysteine side chains were expected in low abundance since they were not believed to endure the high temperatures under which they grow. Recently it has been found that disulfide bonds in hyperthermophiles are more frequent, the higher the growth temperature of the organism. This is perhaps used as an adaptation to high temperature in order to stabilize proteins under harsh conditions. A protein with sequence and structural similarities to mesophilic members of the thioredoxin superfamily, called protein disulfide oxidoreductases (PDO), has been found in the genomes of recently sequenced hyperthermophilic genomes. In this study PDOs from the hyperthermophiles Aquifex aeolicus (AaPDO) and Pyrococcus furiosus (PfPDO) have been investigated. The molecular weight is about 26 kDa and their structures are comprised of two homologous thioredoxin folds, referred to as the N-unit and the C-unit, each containing a C-X-X-C motif. The sequence identity between the two units and the two proteins is low, but they are still structurally very similar. The function of these proteins in vivo is unknown. As a first step in characterizing the activity of these proteins, the redox characteristics of these domains will be investigated. During this project, the genes for AaPDO and PfPDO have been cloned into overexpression vectors, expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. To allow for individual study of the activities of two units, mutated proteins were prepared in which the cysteine residues of the N-unit (AaPDOnm and PfPDOnm) and of the C-unit (AaPDOcm and PfPDOcm) and purified. Circular dichroism spectra recorded of the wild type and mutants indicate that all purified proteins are folded and that the N- and C-unit active site mutants are structurally similar to the corresponding wild type proteins.

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  • 261. Gabriel, J. P.
    et al.
    Mahmood, R.
    Walter, A. M.
    Kyriakatos, A.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Calabrese, R. L.
    El Manira, A.
    Locomotor pattern in the adult zebrafish spinal cord in vitro2008In: Journal of Neurophysiology, ISSN 0022-3077, E-ISSN 1522-1598, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The zebrafish is an attractive model system for studying the function of the spinal locomotor network by combining electrophysiological, imaging, and genetic approaches. Thus far, most studies have been focusing on embryonic and larval stages. In this study we have developed an in vitro preparation of the isolated spinal cord from adult zebrafish in which locomotor activity can be induced while the activity of single neurons can be monitored using whole cell recording techniques. Application of NMDA elicited rhythmic locomotor activity that was monitored by recording from muscles or ventral roots in semi-intact or isolated spinal cord preparations, respectively. This rhythmic activity displayed a left-right alternation and a rostrocaudal delay. Blockade of glycinergic synaptic transmission by strychnine switched the alternating activity into synchronous bursting in the left and right sides as well as along the rostrocaudal axis. Whole cell recordings from motoneurons showed that they receive phasic synaptic inputs that were correlated with the locomotor activity recorded in ventral roots. This newly developed in vitro preparation of the adult zebrafish spinal cord will allow examination of the organization of the spinal locomotor network in an adult system to complement studies in zebrafish larvae and new born rodents.

  • 262. Gabriel, Jens Peter
    et al.
    Mahmood, Riyadh
    Kyriakatos, Alexandros
    Söll, Iris
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Calabrese, Ronald L.
    El Manira, Abdeljabbar
    Serotonergic Modulation of Locomotion in Zebrafish-Endogenous Release and Synaptic Mechanisms2009In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 29, no 33, p. 10387-10395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in shaping the activity of the spinal networks underlying locomotion in many vertebrate preparations. At larval stages in zebrafish, 5-HT does not change the frequency of spontaneous swimming; and it only decreases the quiescent period between consecutive swimming episodes. However, it is not known whether 5-HT exerts similar actions on the locomotor network at later developmental stages. For this, the effect of 5-HT on the fictive locomotor pattern of juvenile and adult zebrafish was analyzed. Bath-application of 5-HT (1-20 mu M) reduced the frequency of the NMDA-induced locomotor rhythm. Blocking removal from the synaptic cleft with the reuptake inhibitor citalopram had similar effects, suggesting that endogenous serotonin is modulating the locomotor pattern. One target for this modulation was the mid-cycle inhibition during locomotion because the IPSPs recorded in spinal neurons during the hyperpolarized phase were increased both in amplitude and occurrence by 5-HT. Similar results were obtained for IPSCs recorded in spinal neurons clamped at the reversal potential of excitatory currents (0 mV). 5-HT also slows down the rising phase of the excitatory drive recorded in spinal cord neurons when glycinergic inhibition is blocked. These results suggest that the decrease in the locomotor burst frequency induced by 5-HT is mediated by a potentiation of mid-cycle inhibition combined with a delayed onset of the subsequent depolarization.

  • 263. Gardeström, Johanna
    et al.
    Dahl, Ulrika
    Kotsalainen, Ola
    Maxson, Anders
    Elfwing, Tina
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Evidence of population genetic effects of long-term exposure to contaminated sediments - A multi-endpoint study with copepods2008In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 426-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the environment, pollution generally acts over long time scales and exerts exposure of multiple toxicants on the organisms living there. Recent findings show that pollution can alter the genetics of populations. However, few of these studies have focused on long-term exposure of mixtures of substances. The relatively short generation time (ca. 4-5 weeks in sediments) of the harpacticoid copepod Attheyella crassa makes it suitable for multi generational exposure studies. Here, A. crassa copepods were exposed for 60 and 120 days to naturally contaminated sediments (i.e., Svindersviken and Trosa; each in a concentration series including 50% contaminated sediment mixed with 50% control sediment and 100% contaminated sediment), and for 120 days to control sediment spiked with copper. We assayed changes in FST (fixation index), which indicates if there is any population subdivision (i.e., structure) between the samples, expected heterozygosity, percent polymorphic loci, as well as abundance. There was a significant decrease in total abundance after 60 days in both of the 100% naturally contaminated sediments. This abundance bottleneck recovered in the Trosa treatment after 120 days but not in the Svindersviken treatment. After 120 days, there were fewer males in the 100% naturally contaminated sediments compared to the control, possibly caused by smaller size of males resulting in higher surface: body volume ratio in contact with toxic chemicals. In the copper treatment there was a significant decrease in genetic diversity after 120 days, although abundance remained unchanged. Neither of the naturally contaminated sediments (50 and 100%) affected genetic diversity after 120 days but they all had high within treatment FST values, with highest FST in both 100% treatments. This indicates differentiation between the replicates and seems to be a consequence of multi-toxicant exposure, which likely caused selective mortality against highly sensitive genotypes. We further assayed two growth-related measures, i.e., RNA content and cephalothorax length, but none of these endpoints differed between any of the treatments and the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that toxicant exposure can reduce genetic diversity and cause population differentiation. Loss of genetic diversity is of great concern since it implies reduced adaptive potential of populations in the face of future environmental change.

  • 264. Gardeström, Johanna
    et al.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    A multilevel approach to predict toxicity in copepod populations: Assessment of growth, genetics, and population structure2006In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the goals of environmental risk assessment (ERA) is to understand effects of toxicant exposure on individual organisms and populations. We hypothesized that toxicant exposure can reduce genetic diversity and alter genotype composition, which may ultimately lead to a reduction in the average fitness of the exposed population. To test this hypothesis, we exposed a copepod, Nitocra psammophila, to a toxic reference compound and assayed resulting alterations in genetic structure, i.e. expected heterozygosity and percent polymorphic loci, as well as other population- and fitness-related measures, i.e. population abundance, demographic structure and juvenile growth. The copepods were exposed to 0.11-1.1 mu g of the pentabromo-substituted diphenyl ether (BDE-47) mg(-1) freeze-dried algae for 24 days (i.e. > 1 generation). There was no significant decline in total population abundance. However, there were significant alterations in population structure, manifested as diminished proportion of nauplii and increased proportion of copepodites. In addition, individual RNA content in copepodites decreased significantly in exposed individuals, indicating declined growth. Finally, in the exposed populations, heterozygosity was lower and genotype composition was altered compared to the controls. These results therefore confirm the hypothesized reduction in overall genetic variability resulting from toxicant exposure. Multilevel approaches, such as the one used in the present study, may help unravel subtle effects on the population level, thus increasing the predictive capacity of future ERA.

  • 265. Garnier-Laplace, J.
    et al.
    Copplestone, D.
    Gilbin, R.
    Alonzo, F.
    Ciffroy, P.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Agueero, A.
    Björk, Mikael
    Oughton, D. H.
    Jaworska, A.
    Larsson, C. M.
    Hingston, J. L.
    Issues and practices in the use of effects data from FREDERICA in the ERICA Integrated Approach2008In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 99, no 9, p. 1474-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ERICA Integrated Approach requires that a risk assessment screening dose rate is defined for the risk characterisation within Tiers 1 and 2. At Tier 3, no numerical screening dose rate is used, and the risk characterisation is driven by methods that can evaluate the possible effects of ionising radiation on reproduction, mortality and morbidity. Species sensitivity distribution has been used to derive the ERICA risk assessment predicted no-effect dose rate (PNEDR). The method used was based on the mathematical processing of data from FRED (FASSET radiation effects database merged with the EPIC database to form FREDERICA) and resulted in a PNEDR of 10 mu Gy/h. This rate was assumed to ascribe sufficient protection of all ecosystems from detrimental effects on structure and function under chronic exposure. The value was weighed against a number of points of comparison: (i) PNEDR values obtained by application of the safety factor method, (ii) background levels, (iii) dose rates triggering effects on radioactively contaminated sites and (iv) former guidelines from literature reviews. In Tier 3, the effects analysis must be driven by the problem formulation and is thus highly case specific. Instead of specific recommendations on numeric values, guidance on the sorts of methods that may be applied for refined effect analysis is Provided and illustrated.

  • 266.
    Gatsinzi, Tom
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Ramberg, Veronica
    Stockholm University.
    Figueroa, Ricardo
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Iverfeldt, Kerstin
    Stockholm University.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Localized caspase sensors for live cell imaging of amyloid-β induced apoptosis2010In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 6, no 4, Supplement, p. S259-S260Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Apoptosis is an evolutionary conserved cellular process important for normal development, maintenance of tissue homeostasis and an effective immune system. Cysteine-aspartic proteases, or caspases, are the major mediators of apoptosis, triggering processes which lead to cellular disruption. Dysregulation of apoptotic signaling has been shown to be involved in several pathological conditions, like cancer and degenerative disorders. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia involving massive cell death of neurons. However, the cause of AD at the present time is still unknown, although, amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has been suggested to be the triggering factor. 

    Methods:In order to detect localized caspase activation in live cells we designed sensors for caspase-3, -6 and -9 utilizing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The FRET-ing sensor molecules, consisting of CFP and YFP separated by a linker containing a specific caspase cleavage motif, were designed to signal caspase cleavage by the loss of FRET. Differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were used as a model system for neurodegeneration. The cells were treated with oligomeric Aβ42 or staurosporine as a positive control of apoptosis. The cleavage of the sensors during induced apoptosis was verified by western blot analysis. Time-lapse FRET microscopy was used to monitor caspase activity in different parts of the cells. 

    Results: In our study, when the cells were exposed to staurosporine we were able to detect local activity of caspase-6 initially in the soma of the cells, whereas caspase-6 activity in the neurites was delayed. Furthermore, our study shows that oligomeric Aβ42 is able to activate caspase-3, -6 and -9. In contrast to staurosporine, in Aβ42 treated cells loss of FRET occurred globally indicating that caspase was activated simultaneously in soma and axons. 

    Conclusions: In conclusion, we show that our caspase-sensors are able to detect local caspase activity in vitro. We also show that exposure to oligomeric Aβ42 results in global activation of caspases in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

  • 267.
    Generoso Borglund, Jennifer
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Kärleksinvandring via Sverige: Hur man kringgår Danmarks stränga invandringspolitik2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines migration paths through Sweden. There has been a debate in August 2010 that Sweden is regarded as a backdoor for non European immigrants to come over Denmark. It has been discovered through Denmark’s statistics and is regarded as negative by the Danish government. Denmark and Sweden are two countries that are socio- , economically- and culturally similar, but went in two different directions, especially with immigration policy. Denmark created a strict immigration policy. It means that immigrants need to fulfill several requirements to be accepted in Denmark. This creates a difficulty for citizens in Denmark who wants to marry a non European Immigrant. The strict immigration policy cannot guarantee hundred percent that their spouse can stay in Denmark. This leads to that spouses move from Denmark and settle in Sweden to be able to live together. This kind of migration is today referred to as Love refugees.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 268.
    Georgiev, Alexander
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Stockholm University.
    Leipus, Arunas
    Umeå University.
    Olsson, Ida
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Berrez, Jean-Marc
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Mutvei, Ann
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Characterization of MYR1, a dosage suppressor of YPT6 and RIC1 deficient mutants2008In: Current Genetics, ISSN 0172-8083, E-ISSN 1432-0983, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 235-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane traffic is tightly regulated and the Rab protein family of small GTPases plays a central role in this regulation. One member of this family is the Saccharomyces cerevisae protein Ypt6. To search for new genes interacting with Ypt6-related pathways, we performed a genetic screen for high copy suppressors of ypt6 Delta temperature sensitivity at 35 degrees C. Among the suppressors, MYR1 was also able to suppress the temperature sensitive mutant lacking Ric1, a subunit of the Ypt6 guanine exchanging factor complex Ric1/Rgp1. Myr1 is characterized by a coiled coil region and a GYF domain, a protein module binding proline-rich sequences. Myr1 is able to bind membranes but is also associated with larger structures insoluble in Triton X-100. By immunofluorescence, Myr1 shows a network-like pattern as well as small foci. Overexpression of Myr1 influences nuclear envelope morphology and high levels are lethal. This lethality is rescued when the N-terminal region, containing the GYF domain, is deleted. The transcription profile of a myr1 Delta strain shows effects on genes involved in nuclear migration, Ras signalling and transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that Myr1 is a novel factor linked to the secretory pathway and important cellular regulatory mechanisms.

  • 269.
    Gerdt, Kristofer
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    "You need to trust no one": A study of the candidate selection method of the ruling political party of Tanzania, Chama Cha Mapinduzi2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the candidate selection method of the ruling party of Tanzania, Chama Cha Mapinduzi. The method was changed in 2008. Through interviews made with local politicians, state officials and voters in Babati an understanding of why and in what way the change was made is presented.

    The thesis also presents an understanding of in what way different stakeholders perceive this change. The changed candidate selection method is examined as part of Tanzania’s democratic consolidation. At the end of the thesis a discussion about obstacles and opportunities for a further democratic consolidation is presented.The thesis describes how the transformation of the candidate selection method is, by the party itself, presented as a way of widen democracy and fight corruption. While many of the informants believe that the transformation, at least to some extent, have contributed to increased democracy, most of them believe that the actual difference from the previous method is small, since the crucial decisions still are taken by the party elite.

    The informants' responses are describing a multi-party system with several major obstacles. They are also, however, describing how the situation slowly is changing for the better.

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    Kristofer Gerdt
  • 270. Gerremo, Inge
    et al.
    Wramner, Per
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences, Coastal Management Research Center (COMREC).
    Diskussion och vägen framåt2006In: Jordbruk, handel och utveckling: mot ökad samstämmighet, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och lantbruksakademien , 2006, p. 167-183Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 271.
    Giessler, Robert
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Havanna Viejas Trädgårdar: En lösning på urban matsäkerhet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High oil prices and bad harvests have led to dramatic increases in food prices and are now

    threatening millions of people in densely populated cities all over the world. To ensure that

    these people will have enough food without compromising the needs of future generations

    will be a demanding task for politicians and decision makers. is paper has shown that

    Havanas urban gardens have increased urban food security since the hunger crisis that

    occurred aer the fall of the Sovjet Union in 1989, and that they support the thesis of Amartya Sen and the Ryerson University. Urban gardens can be a good example for cities how to avoid hunger and famine if they are properly managed. But wrongly handled, they might create a disaster for thousands of poor people.

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  • 272.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Environmental Risk Governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Final report : Deliverable 122012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea area is still unable to fully support implementation of the ecosystem approach to management. Hence, the aims of the international RISKGOV project were: 1) to improve our understanding of environmental risk governance and its challenges in the Baltic Sea; 2) to suggest possible avenues for improvement.

    These aims were addressed by integrating social and natural science approaches on five strategically selected environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges).

    The findings, recommendations and dissemination products of RISKGOV are described in detail in the Final report (http://www.sh.se/riskgov). Researchers from Södertörn University were involved in all case studies and cross-case comparisons. In summary, RISKGOV concludes that it is necessary to improve the robustness and responsiveness of governance practices to achieve sustainable ecosystem management. Specifically, RISKGOV recommends that: (i) Governance structures need to move towards more reflexive governance by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration, and interaction space for reflexivity. This is, for example, exemplified by increased interactions between HELCOM and the EU aiming at the combination of mandatory regulation and voluntary agreements; (ii) Assessment-management interactions require improvements e.g. relating to the regional and interdisciplinary knowledge-base, stakeholder participation and coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement; (iii) Stakeholder participation and communication require improvements in terms of a more integrated system of stakeholder input possibly via an expansion of HELCOM’s stakeholder involvement policy and enhanced efforts to communicate environmental issues to the general public. Implications of these general recommendations for specific actors and stakeholders were analysed and developed through thematic roundtable discussions.

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    RISKGOV finalreport
  • 273.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    RISKGOV – Environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 274.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hassler, BjörnSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.Jönsson, Anna MariaSödertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.Karlsson, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    AMBIO Special Issue: Coping with Complexity in Baltic Sea Risk Governance2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Coping with complexity in baltic sea risk governance: Introduction2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 109-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jones, Celia
    Allard, Ann Sofie
    Gunnarsson, Jonas
    Lenoir, Linette
    Persson, Tryggve
    Taylor, Astrid
    Yesilova, Håkan
    Metodik för miljöriskbedömning av förorenade områden2009Report (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Kern, Kristine
    Wageningen University, Holland.
    Environment2011In: Political State of the Region Report 2011 / [ed] Bernd Henningsen & Tobias Etzold, Köpenhamn: Baltic Development Forum , 2011, p. 68-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Lundberg, Cecilia
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Lemke, Paulina
    Gdansk University, Poland.
    Interactions between risk assessment and risk management for environmental risks in the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 92011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been produced within the interdisciplinary RISKGOV project with the overall aim of comparing risk assessment – risk management interactions connected with five severe Baltic Sea environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges linked to marine transports).

    Specifically, we compare three major aspects connected with assessment  – management interactions and, based on this analysis, suggest possible routes for improving interaction between science-based advice and environmental (risk) management:

    1. Organisational structure of the risk assessment activities and the generation, selection and implementation of management options.
    2. The management of scientific uncertainties and disagreements.
    3. Implementation of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) and modes of ‘good governance’.

    In order to understand these aspects we started by describing and analysing the characteristics of the five risk cases. This revealed substantial differences in terms of sources, effects and complexities (in terms of scientific uncertainty and socio-political ambiguity). For example, chemical risks are associated with great uncertainty and oil spill with much lower; fisheries relate to very high socio-political ambiguity, whereas invasive species show the opposite nature and oil spill fit with more traditional risk parameters. Our analysis also revealed a great variation in the societal risk responses, which far from always seems rational in relation to the risk characteristics.

    When it comes to the organisational structures, we can conclude that different forms of institutions and institutional arrangements and relations have evolved over time in the various cases, for instance relatively well-formalised in the overfishing case, and rather informal for combating eutrophication. Similarly, we see different forms of expert dependencies. In the overfishing case there are institutionalised formal links between e.g. ICES and the EU Commission and the historic path-dependency is quite strong, thereby causing institutional inertia, even though the development of Regional Advisory Councils (RACs) such as the Baltic RAC are gradually changing the picture. In relation to many other environmental risk cases (e.g. eutrophication and chemicals) HELCOM provides a regional basis for assessment and management (although implementation of management recommendations have often proved complex). Still, assessment-management interactions seem more developed and better organised in the overfishing case, even though it is obvious that the last link, the political decision-making on quotas, has deviated substantially from the science-based advice, thereby opening for continued overfishing. Similarly, well-developed institutions seem to allow for improved deliberative processes for fisheries, including improved analysis of socio-economic dimensions, which we cannot find to the same extent for e.g. chemicals, eutrophication and invasive species.

    The assessment and management responses we see to the studied risks do not seem to be based on any thorough analysis of the specific risk characteristics, or on the suitability of different overall strategies (e.g. traditional science-based assessment, precautionary, deliberative). Instead, all studied assessment-management interactions can be classified as being built primarily on traditional science-based assessment of risks. Of course, we see elements of for example precaution in e.g. the chemicals case, and deliberation in the fish case, and the inclusion of the EAM as a starting point for assessment exercises and management decisions is becoming more common, but overall this happens only partially and infrequently.

    Thus, to summarise, we conclude that there are substantial differences among environmental risks in relation to, for example, complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity, and we argue that it is important to maintain a balance between ideals of holistic approaches such as EAM and context dependent requirements of various management objectives, environmental risks and sectors. For example, high levels of uncertainty (e.g. chemical pollution) and ambiguity (e.g. overfishing) can be assumed to require assessment-management approaches focussed on precaution and participatory deliberation, respectively.

    Furthermore, our analysis identifies six key issues and challenges that, if adequately addressed, may improve assessment-management interactions and facilitate the implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

    1. We see a need to further develop the regional and ecosystem basis of assessment-management interactions in terms of addressing prioritised knowledge gaps, as well as developing regional knowledge management and monitoring to strengthen regionally-based scientific advice.

    2. Integration of various forms of scientific knowledge is currently rather undeveloped in assessment and scientific advice, which reduces possibilities of addressing also the social dimension of sustainable development as well as possibilities of identifying and reducing ‘blind spots’.

    3. Stakeholder participation requires more consideration since incorporation of practitioner and local knowledge in risk assessments as well as stakeholder deliberation in risk management often are vital for the successful implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

    4. We identify substantial room for improvements linked to coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement in both risk assessment and risk management. We conclude that there in fact are examples of science-based precautionary approaches and methods, but that a comprehensive and coherent strategy for addressing uncertainty is often lacking.

    5. Interdependencies among environmental risk issues need to be more specifically addressed than today. Climate change will, for example, influence both the outcome of risk assessments as well as the possibilities for successful management in all the studied environmental risk cases.

    6. Despite a commonly expressed idea of a clear separation between assessment and management, the studied science-policy interactions are in general rather diffuse and politicised. This lack of transparency about how these interactions evolve and are constructed may mislead political decision makers and the public and thus potentially hamper management progress.

  • 279. Glinwood, R.
    et al.
    Gradin, Therese
    Karpinska, Barbara
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Ahmed, E.
    Jonsson, Lisbeth
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Ninkovic, V.
    Aphid acceptance of barley exposed to volatile phytochemicals differs between plants exposed in daylight and darkness2007In: Plant Signalling & Behavior, ISSN 1559-2316, E-ISSN 1559-2324, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 321-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that volatile cues from damaged plants may induce resistance in neighboring plants. Much less is known about the effects of volatile interaction between undamaged plants. In this study, barley plants, Hordeum vulgare cv. Kara, were exposed to volatiles from undamaged plants of barley cv. Alva or thistle Cirsium vulgare, and to the volatile phytochemicals, methyl salicylate or methyl jasmonate. Exposures were made either during natural daylight or darkness. Acceptance of exposed plants by the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi was assessed, as well as the expression of putative marker genes for the different treatments. Aphid acceptance of plants exposed to either barley or C. vulgare was significantly reduced, and an effect of the volatiles from undamaged plants was confirmed by the induction of pathogenesis-related protein, PR1a in exposed plants. However the effect on aphid acceptance was seen only when plants were exposed during darkness, whereas PR1a was induced only after treatment during daylight. Aphid acceptance of plants exposed to either methyl salicylate or methyl jasmonate was significantly reduced, but only when plants were exposed to the chemicals during daylight. AOS2 (allene oxide synthase) was induced by methyl jasmonate and BCI-4 (barley chemical inducible gene-4) by methyl salicylate in both daylight and darkness. It is concluded that (a) the effects on aphids of exposing barley to volatile phytochemicals was influenced by the presence or absence of light and (b) the response of barley to methyl salicylate/methyl jasmonate and to volatiles from undamaged plants differed at the gene and herbivore level.

  • 280.
    Golubeva, Tatiana
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Lund Nordström, Therese
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Volchik, Elena
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Stockholm goes gay: en studie om hur Stockholm marknadsför sig gentemot HBT-turister2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 281. Gorokhova, Elena
    et al.
    Edlund, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Zhivotova, Elena N.
    Nucleic acid levels in copepods: dynamic response to phytoplankton blooms in the northern Baltic proper2007In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 349, p. 213-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined changes in nucleic acids and concomitant population development of the copepods Acartia bifilosa and Eurytemora affinis in relation to the progress of the phytoplankton spring bloom in the northern Baltic proper. Individual RNA and DNA concentrations and their ratios in female copepods as well as copepod abundance and population structure were analyzed in 2 coastal areas that differed in the degree of eutrophication and phytoplankton development. During the study period (February to June 2002), bloom conditions were evident, with chlorophyll (chl) a values being 42% higher in the eutrophic area than in the reference area. In both areas, diatoms dominated; in the reference area, they were replaced by dinoflagellates toward the end of the bloom. Copepod RNA-DNA concentrations increased rapidly at the onset of the bloom and gradually decreased thereafter. Moreover, in the eutrophic area, both copepods had higher RNA content and RNA:DNA ratios throughout the study period, suggesting higher productivity in this area. In both species, we found positive correlations between RNA-based indices and chl a. Thus, as suggested by RNA dynamics, growth rates of A. bifilosa and E. affinis appear to respond rapidly to both temporal variation in spring phytoplankton stock and spatial variation due to the magnitude of the bloom. In addition, we found that species-specific RNA dynamics and RNA-chl a relationships differed between species, indicating possible differences in feeding preferences and growth potential.

  • 282.
    Gottberg, Ida
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Eco-labelling of houses and the concept of sustainable housing: A comparative study of the UK and Sweden2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this study is to evaluate if standardization of sustainable housing is a practical solution to address the objectives/reach the goals of sustainable housing. The point of departure is that eco-labelling of houses is a way to put sustainable housing into practice. The Nordic Swan criteria for small houses and the UK Code for Sustainable Homes are two recently developed schemes for sustainable construction and design. These two labelling systems are chosen as case studies in order to compare and examine the practice of sustainable housing. How can the goals of sustainable housing be met in the form of eco- labelling? What are the benefits and obstacles/limitations for the cases to be effective and sustainable?  What can explain differences between the two cases? And is the function and organisation of the cases best explained by sustainable development ideas or ecological modernization?  It is suggested in the view of path dependency theory that the UK’s and Sweden’s decisions based on their expectations concerning development of the EU flower has made their respective eco-labelling of houses to have different organisational structure. The Code as a sector-specific label has the advantage, compared to the Swan, of being able to change its structure depending on the needs of pressure in the network of government, business and consumers.  The Code has several criteria concerning sustainable living besides criteria concerning environmental construction of the house and can therefore be considered as part of the sustainable development discourse.

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  • 283.
    Goulas, Estelle
    et al.
    Umeå universitet / Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille 1, France.
    Schubert, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Kieselbach, Thomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Kleczkowski, Leszek A.
    Umeå universitet.
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå universitet.
    Schröder, Wolfgang P
    Umeå universitet.
    Hurry, Vaughan
    Umeå universitet.
    The chloroplast lumen and stromal proteomes of Arabidopsis thaliana show differential sensitivity to short- and long-term exposure to low temperature2006In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 720-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold acclimation and over-wintering by herbaceous plants are energetically expensive and are dependent on functional plastid metabolism. To understand how the stroma and the lumen proteomes adapt to low temperatures, we have taken a proteomic approach (difference gel electrophoresis) to identify proteins that changed in abundance in Arabidopsis chloroplasts during cold shock (1 day), and short- (10 days) and long-term (40 days) acclimation to 5 degrees C. We show that cold shock (1 day) results in minimal change in the plastid proteomes, while short-term (10 days) acclimation results in major changes in the stromal but few changes in the lumen proteome. Long-term acclimation (40 days) results in modulation of the proteomes of both compartments, with new proteins appearing in the lumen and further modulations in protein abundance occurring in the stroma. We identify 43 differentially displayed proteins that participate in photosynthesis, other plastid metabolic functions, hormone biosynthesis and stress sensing and signal transduction. These findings not only provide new insights into the cold response and acclimation of Arabidopsis, but also demonstrate the importance of studying changes in protein abundance within the relevant cellular compartment.

  • 284.
    Grahn, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Forsberg, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Homozygote disadvantage at the MHC: more evidence for outbreeding depressionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 285. Granhall, Ulf
    et al.
    Welsh, Allana
    Throbäck, Ingela Noredal
    Hjort, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hansson, Mikael
    Hallin, Sara
    Bacterial community diversity in paper mills processing recycled paper2010In: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 1367-5435, E-ISSN 1476-5535, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 1061-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper mills processing recycled paper suffer from biofouling causing roblems both in the mill and final product. The total bacterial ommunity composition and identification of specific taxa in the process ater and biofilms at the stock preparation and paper machine areas in a ill with recycled paper pulp was described by using a DNA-based pproach. Process water in a similar mill was also analyzed to nvestigate if general trends can be found between mills and over time. acterial community profiles, analyzed by terminal-restriction fragment ength polymorphism (T-RFLP), in process water showed that the dominant eaks in the profiles were similar between the two mills, although the verall composition was unique for each mill. When comparing process ater and biofilm at different locations within one of the mills, we bserved a separation according to location and sample type, with the iofilm from the paper machine being most different. 16S rRNA gene clone ibraries were generated and 404 clones were screened by RFLP analysis. rouping of RFLP patterns confirmed that the biofilm from the paper achine was most different. A total of 99 clones representing all RFLP atterns were analyzed, resulting in sequences recovered from nine acterial phyla, including two candidate phyla. Bacteroidetes epresented 45% and Actinobacteria 23% of all the clones. Sequences with imilarity to organisms implicated in biofouling, like Chryseobacterium pp. and Brevundimonas spp., were recovered from all samples even though he mill had no process problems during sampling, suggesting that they re part of the natural paper mill community. Moreover, many sequences howed little homology to as yet uncultivated bacteria implying that aper mills are interesting for isolation of new organisms, as well as or bioprospecting.

  • 286. Granlund, Irene
    et al.
    Storm, Patrik
    Schubert, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Garcia-Cerdan, Jose G.
    Funk, Christiane
    Schröder, Wolfgang P.
    The TL29 Protein is Lumen Located, Associated with PSII and Not an Ascorbate Peroxidase2009In: Plant and Cell Physiology, ISSN 0032-0781, E-ISSN 1471-9053, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1898-1910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The TL29 protein is one of the more abundant proteins in the thylakoid lumen of plant chloroplasts. Based on its sequence homology to ascorbate peroxidases, but without any supporting biochemical evidence, TL29 was suggested to be involved in the plant defense system against reactive oxygen species and consequently renamed to APX4. Our in vivo and in vitro analyses failed to show any peroxidase activity associated with TL29; it bound neither heme nor ascorbate. Recombinant overexpressed TL29 had no ascorbate-dependent peroxidase activity, and various mutational analyses aiming to convert TL29 into an ascorbate peroxidase failed. Furthermore, in the thylakoid lumen no such activity could be associated with TL29 and, additionally, TL29 knock-out mutants did not show any decreased peroxidase activity or increased content of radical oxygen species when grown under light stress. Instead we could show that TL29 is a lumen-located component associated with PSII.

  • 287.
    Granstedt, Artur
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Coastal Management Research Center (COMREC). Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Farming for the Future: with a focus on the Baltic Sea Region2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book Artur Granstedt - Ph.D. in Agronomics and Associate Professor at Södertörn University, and Coordinator of the BERAS project (Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society) - describes how ecologically adapted farming based on local recycling and renewable energy sources can reduce the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea and even help to reduce global warming. Widespread conversion to organic farming methods would furthermore stop the spread of toxic chemicals on farmland, benefit biodiversity and stimulate social and economic development in rural areas in the Baltic Sea region.

    The book starts with a description of the ecosystems that support the health of the biosphere - terrestrial and marine, the climate, and global food production. Granstedt also gives a historical overview of agricultural practices, noting the various ways in which human activity alters the natural order of things and, if we are not mindful, can deplete the resources that support our existence. But he also gives examples of how we can turn negative trends to the better, how we can restore fertility to the soil and bring depleted land to bloom once again and produce nourishing food that can feed the world.

    Artur Granstedt writes on the basis of decades of experience as an organic farmer, researcher, adviser and teacher of ecologically sustainable agriculture. The book reports the results of field trials and evaluation on farms in eight countries around the Baltic Sea that were conducted in the BERAS project. This comprehensive project, which was supported in part by funding from the European Union, is now continuing in an implementation phase, focusing on how agriculture throughout the region can be converted to profitable and ecologically sustainable methods of production.

    The publication of this book has been made possible through a grant from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) to the BERAS project at Södertörn University and the Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna, and funding from the Swedish Government and the Swedish Research Council, Formas.

     

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  • 288.
    Granstedt, Artur
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Coastal Management Research Center (COMREC). Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Morgondagens jordbruk: med fokus på Östersjön2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artur Granstedt, agronomie doktor, docent vid Södertörns högskola och koordinator för Östersjöprojektet BERAS beskriver här hur ett ekologiskt jordbruk, baserat på lokala kretslopp och förnyelsebar energi, kan minska övergödningen av Östersjön och även bidra till att minska den globala uppvärmningen. Det kan dessutom förhindra spridningen av kemiska bekämpningsmedel, gynna den biologiska mångfalden och stimulera social och ekonomisk landsbygdsutveckling i Östersjöområdet.

    Boken inleds med en beskrivning av de livsuppehållande ekosystemen och deras betydelse för jorden, havet, klimatet och vår mat. Författaren ger också en överblick över odlandets historia: hur vi människor griper in och förändrar det naturgivna och hur vi på kort tid kan förbruka det som naturen byggt upp. Han visar också på hur vi kan odla jord, skapa ökad bördighet, få jorden att blomstra och ge närande mat åt alla.

    Till grund för boken ligger Artur Granstedts mångåriga arbete med odling, forskning, rådgivning och undervisning i ekologiskt jordbruk. Här redovisas också resultat från studier av det rent praktiska arbetet på ett antal gårdar, dokumenterade och utvärderade i åtta länder i det av EU delfinansierade Östersjöprojektet BERAS (Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society). Detta arbete drivs nu vidare med fokus på hur en omläggning av jordbruket kan ske i hela Östersjöregionen i fortsättningsprojektet BERAS Implementation.

    Bokens utgivning har finansierats av Europeiska regionala utvecklingsfonden (ERUF) inom ramen för Östersjöprojektet BERAS vid Södertörns högskola samt Biodynamiska Forskningsinstitutet i Järna med bidrag från den svenska regeringen via det statiliga forskningsrådet Formas.

     

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  • 289.
    Grant Axén, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Fuel-efficiency and Efficient Aid: An analysis of factors affecting the spread of fuel-efficient cooking stoves in Northern Tanzania2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is the result of nine weeks fieldwork in Babati and Bukoba districts in Northern Tanzania during spring 2012. The purpose of this thesis is to study why development projects on fuel-efficient stoves have had a limited adoption in these two regions and what obstacles and opportunities there are for further spread of fuel-efficient cooking stoves. Semi-structured interviews were the main method used for collecting the empirical data, which was then analysed from a socio-economic perspective with help from the framework of Sustainable Rural Livelihoods.

    The Results showed that people’s perceptions of fuel-efficient stoves are positive but that projects face many obstacles connected to socio-economic conditions. Knowledge on how to get stoves and access to financial capital is main obstacles for further spreading. Social networks and organisations are channels for information, but to spread outside these networks will need complementing strategies from organisations promoting fuel-efficient stoves. Important are also finding ways of making the financial aspect of adopting stoves less, like using materials with lower costs, using stove-models with low costs and training people in building stoves so re-investments are unnecessary and dependency of funding from organisations less. Gender is a factor affecting the adoption of fuel-efficient stoves, regarding access to assets and generated benefits. There is therefore an importance of involving gender throughout the different stages of the projects. 

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  • 290.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship). Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Culinary arts and meal science.
    Wramner, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Landsbyggdsutveckling, entreprenörer och varumärkesstrategier - en pilotstudie om gårdsmejerier i Sverige2011In: Business History in Sweden: Näringslivshistoria i Sverige / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg and Paulina Rytkönen, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2011, p. 382-404Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Grundel, Ida
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Osynliga gränser i det urbana rummet: En fallstudie över de två barriosen Poble Sec och El Raval i Barcelona2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar ett urbant gränsområde i Barcelona. Studien syftar till att visa att det även i det urbana rummet finns gränser. Gränser som inte är tydligt utstakade, men skapade i tidsrummet och formade av olika processer som lett fram till dagens situation. De utvalda områdena för studien är barriosen Poble Sec och El Raval i stadens distrikt Sants Montjuïc respektive Ciutat Vella. De båda barriosen/kvarteren angränsar till varandra, men skiljs ändå åt av den stora avenyn Paral·lel. För att kunna visa på de skillnader och likheter som finns mellan de båda barriosen har en historisk översikt getts. Det har också fokuserats på hur den territoriella uppdelningen av staden ser ut i fråga om domäner som kan skapa administrativa gränser, hur planeringen ser ut i de båda områdena, om det finns en rumslig uppdelning av olika grupper i fråga om etnisk tillhörighet eller liknande och om det finns några andra viktiga skillnader mellan de båda områdena.

    Studien visar att de båda barriosen har präglats av deras historiska bakgrund. Detta visar också att det är svårt att förändra äldre strukturer om det inte finns starka grupper i samhället som trycker på för förändring. Raval har ett förflutet som arbetarkvarter med stor fattigdom. Befolkningstätheten har alltid varit hög och under vissa tider har människor till och med bott på gatan. Prostitutionen har alltid varit utbredd, vilket den trots åtgärder, ännu är i området. Under 1970- och 1980-talet var narkotikahandeln utbredd och en stor del av stadens missbrukare och drogtrafikanter vistades i barriot. Under 1980-talet förekom det också gängkrig mellan de olika drogtrafikanterna. Det var under dessa årtionden farligt att vistas i barriot. Även Poble Sec har en historia som arbetarkvarter och var under början av 1900-talet känt för att vara Barcelonas nöjeskvarter, men idag finns endast ett fåtal av de teatrar och nöjesställen som fanns under det föregående seklet kvar. Till skillnad från Raval har prostitution, droghandeln eller kriminaliteten aldrig varit lika utbredd som i Raval.

    De båda områdena är också offer för den tidigare planeringen som lett till tätt stående byggnader och smala gator, med få öppna ytor såsom parker och torg. Poble Sec har dock fördelen av närheten till parken Montjuïc. I Raval har problemen framförallt varit dålig ventilation. Idag riktas planeringen mot att skapa fler öppna ytor i fråga om parker och torg. Det satsas också på att skapa bättre ventilation genom att riva vissa byggnader som inte går att rädda, medan andra som har ett större kulturellt värde restaureras. I Poble Sec har det också skett en satsning på att renovera byggnader och skapa fler öppna ytor. Totalt sett har det skett en större satsning i Raval, men detta område har också haft äldre strukturer som är svårare att förändra.

    Det som har påverkat gränsen i störst utsträckning är den territoriella uppdelningen som trots mindre förändringar har stått sig genom århundradena. Detta har historiskt format och modifierat barriosen så att olika strukturer skapats. En av de allra största skillnaderna idag, mellan de båda barriosen ligger i den befolkningsförändring som ägt rum från slutet av 1980-talet. Båda områden har en hög befolkningstäthet, men i Poble Sec utgörs den största gruppen av katalaner och spanjorer. I Raval utgör invånare födda utomlands hälften av befolkningen i barriot. Den allra största av dessa grupper utgörs av Pakistanier. Detta har också satt en stor prägel på barriot genom att det finns många utländska charkuterier, restauranger och butiker.

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  • 292.
    Grönberg, Naima
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Induction of pathogenesis-related genes, PR-17a and N-methyltransferase, in barley infested by the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi 2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Plants produce a large diverse array of organic compounds that may function in protection against pathogens. Diverse antifungal compounds were reported to exist in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.); the indole alkaloid, gramine, and the pathogenesis-related proteins are some of them. Both the N-methyltransferase that is involved in gramine biosynthesis and PR-17a were studied in barley upon infestation by the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi).

    The effect of infestation by R. padi on induction of PR-17a and N-methyltransferase was investigated in different barley lines, susceptible and resistant.

    The gene expression of PR-17a was down-regulated in the susceptible cv. Golf and to some extent up-regulated at the first days in var. Lina and then down-regulated. The PR-17a was induced by the aphid infestation in the resistant line CI16145; the gene expression was stronger in the infested plants than in the controls. The different responses in resistant and susceptible lines indicate that the induced PR-17a may play a role in the resistance against aphid infestation. PR-17a was up-regulated systemically in the base in barley after infestation by R. padi.

    In the susceptible varieties Lina and Golf, the accumulation of N-methyltransferase did not increase with time from 1 day to 7 days after infestation, as determined by western blots with antibody raised against NMT from barley. The NMT-gene was down-regulated after 7 days infestation in both variety Lina and Golf both locally in the first leaf and in the base. Barley line CI16145 had no accumulation of NMT as was seen by western blotting. There was no induction of NMT in barley upon aphid infestation.

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  • 293.
    Grönkvist, Pamela
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Effects of overexpression of syndecan-1 in mesenchymal tumor cells2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundAll cells carry a transmembrane proteoglycan calledsyndecan. Syndecans influence many functions like cell migration, cell adhesionand cell proliferation and it is involved in cellular signaling andtumourigenesis.

    The common features of differentiation in twomesenchymal tumor cell types, malignant mesothelioma cells and fibrosarcoma cells,are connected to the synthesis of syndecans. By studying the overexpression ofsyndecan-1 we hope to discover new features of the syndecan-1 molecule that wecan add to the puzzle of mesenchymal tumors.

    Methods and findingsMalignant mesothelioma cells and fibrosarcoma cellswere cultured and transfected with full-length- and truncated syndecan-1 constructs.To detect the expression of syndecan-1 on RNA level Rt-Q-PCR was conductedfollowed by immunocytochemical analysis to establish the syndecan-1 expressionon protein level. The result showed a 2-7 fold increase of syndecan-1 in thetransfectants comparing to the control. The proliferation of transfectants was analyzedby cell proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis. All transfectants showed alower proliferation rate comparing to the controls and a slight increase inG0/G1 phase.

    Because of the high structural similarities ofsyndecan family members, I studied how overexpression of syndecan-1 affected theother syndecans using Rt-Q-PCR. Syndecan-2 and -4 were downregulated in thetransfectants carrying syndecan-1 ectodomain, whereas the truncated versionshad the opposite effect. The expression of syndecan-bound heparan sulfate wasstudied by FACS and indicated an upregulation for heparan sulfate whenmeasuring internal- and membrane bound syndecans simultanesly.

    ConclusionsIn this study I haveshown that overexpression of full-length syndecan-1 and the different truncatedvariants, had similar profound effects on mesenchymal cell proliferation. Syndecan-1also influences the other members of the syndecan family suggesting a complexregulation.

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    Examensarbete i Molekylär cellbiologi
  • 294. Gunnarsson, Urban
    et al.
    Shaw, Jon A.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Local-scale genetic structure in the peatmoss Sphagnum fuscum2007In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 305-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sphagnum (peatmoss) dominates huge areas of the Northern Hemisphere and acts as a significant carbon sink on a global scale, yet little is known about the genetic structure of Sphagnum populations. We investigated genetic structure within a population of the common peatmoss Sphagnum fuscum, to assess local patterns of genetic diversity and the spatial extent of clones. One hundred seventeen shoots were sampled from five transects in Fuglmyra, central Norway, and sequenced for three anonymous DNA regions. Five neighbourhood patches were marked along each transect, and from each patch, five stems were sampled for molecular analyses. Seventeen haplotypes could be distinguished and two major groups of haplotypes differed by 12 mutational steps. The two major haplotype groups differed significantly in microhabitat association along the distance to groundwater table and the pH gradients, indicating microhabitat differentiation. The haplotypes within these groups were all genetically similar, differing by one or two mutations. The most common haplotype occurred in four transects separated by 250-m distance. Most of the molecular variation in the population was found among transects, and within patches. Large dominating clones within each transect resulted in low variation explained by the among-patch-within-transect component of spatial structure. Mutation appears to account for a larger proportion of the population variation than recombination. Within the population, vegetative growth and asexual reproduction from gametophyte fragments dominate as the main reproductive mode

  • 295. Gupta, M P
    et al.
    Solis, P N
    Calderon, A I
    Guionneau-Sinclair, Francoise
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Correa, M
    Galdames, C
    Guerra, C
    Espinosa, A
    Alvenda, G I
    Robles, G
    Ocampo, R
    Medical ethnobotany of the Teribes of Bocas del Toro, Panama2005In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 389-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnomedical uses of 108 medicinal plant species, belonging to 52 families, 89 genera, used by the Teribe Amerindians of Bocas del Toro Province in Panama. along with their socio-cultural practices are reported here. The methods of administration of the herbal remedies, the plant parts used, their families and local names are also documented. The recorded medicinal plants were used mainly for fever, various type of pain and inflammation. The potential value of 26 plants and their traditional uses was elucidated through literature search.

  • 296.
    Gurajada, Deepthi
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to a damaged Human Cornea an in vitro study2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corneal dystrophies are commonly referred to as an congenital condition. Surgical complications are usually worse then the primary dysfunction and patients need to go through large surgical process. Only 25 % of the patients reach driving licence vision after a surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate if the application of human embryonic stem cells (hESc) could replace epithelial cells of the human cornea. Corneal markers such as cytokeratins CK3, CK15, CK19 and Pax - 6 were analysed by immunohistochemistry. HES - Cellect was used as indication of  stem cell potential of the transplanted cells. hESc transplanted onto the cornea could be seen to attach and expand dominantly  towards Bowman’s membrane. Human embryonic stem cells in culture were relatively positive for markers, contradictionally stem cells  in the epithelial trails lost their stem differentiation  potential  and appeared to be negative for all markers used in these trails. Optimization of stem cells differentiation into epithelial which may in the future may gives us the ability to perform clinical applications with successful outcome.

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  • 297.
    Gustafsson, Helene
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Grönområde kontra bebyggelse: grönområdenas förändring i Älta, Nacka kommun2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay shows how natural areas in Älta, a part of Nacka municipality southeast from Stockholm, been changed quantitatively and qualitative as a result of the increased housing construction in the area. Three issues are discussed. Namely: how has Ältas green areas been changed in sizes and quality in line with the settlement's expansion, what is the reason or the reasons to building of different types of accommodations, what has been and is the operators in connection with building of the different types of accommodations?

    The essay shows that the green areas has been decreased with over 2 km from 1901 to 2000 and in addition to these areas of approximately 1,1km been converted to a planned green structure. Älta has during the years gone through four eras of building types an era of small family houses – an era of building one million houses on a national scale – an era of terrace houses – an era of sporadic building of different housing types (one family houses, pair houses, terrace houses and small blocks of flats). From the result we can see how big surfaces are required by the different housing alternatives. We can also provide insight of the different reasons to that the municipality of Nacka chooses these different housing types, the economy reasons and tug-of-war of the population between municipalities by tempting with other alternative accommodations. With this paper we can see who has acted in the area, how this has influenced and which consequences it has led to in Älta, Älta which has had many private operators how has affected the area.

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  • 298.
    Gustafsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Blidberg, Eva
    Elfgren, Irene Karlsson
    Hellström, Anna
    Kylin, Henrik
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Direct and indirect effects of the fungicide azoxystrobin in outdoor rackish water microcosms2010In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 431-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin were studied in rackish water microcosms, with natural plankton communities and ediment. Two experiments were conducted: Experiment 1 (nominal conc. 0, 5 and 60 mu g/L, 24-L outdoor microcosms for 21 days) and a second, ollow-up, Experiment 2 (nominal conc. 0, 3, 7.5, 15 mu g/L, 4-L indoor icrocosms for 12 days). The microcosms represent a simplified brackish ater community found in shallow semi-enclosed coastal areas in gricultural districts in the Baltic Sea region. Measured water oncentrations of the fungicide (Experiment 1) were, on average, 83 and 2% of nominal concentrations directly after application, and 25 and 30% fter 21 days, for the low and high dose treatments, respectively, orresponding to mean DT50-values of 15.1 and 25.8 days, for low and igh dose treatments, respectively. In Experiment 1, direct toxic ffects on calanoid copepods at both test concentrations were observed. imilarly, in Experiment 2, the copepod abundance was significantly educed at all tested concentrations. There were also significant econdary effects on zooplankton and phytoplankton community structure, tanding stocks and primary production. Very few ecotoxicological tudies have investigated effects of plant protection products on Baltic rganisms in general and effects on community structure and function pecifically. Our results show that azoxystrobin is toxic to brackish ater copepods at considerably lower concentrations than previously eported from single species tests on freshwater crustaceans, and that irect toxic effects on this ecologically important group may lead to ascade effects altering lower food webs and ecosystem functioning.

  • 299.
    Göthlin, Ellinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Holmström, Jonas
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Nyköping, Sveriges nya turistort?: Destinationsutveckling och marknadsföring av Skavstaområdet2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nyköpings kommun är belägen på den svenska östkusten. Närheten till skärgården, det sörmländska kulturlandskapet och till städer i Europa via Skavsta flygplats gör Nyköping till en attraktiv plats.  Kommunen har dock varit dålig på att ta till vara på den mängd utländska turister som passerar via Skavsta. Ett problem är att området inte marknadsförs på ett sätt som når turisterna.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera Skavsta flygplats och dess närområde ur ett turistiskt perspektiv samt undersöka hur marknadsföringen ser ut gentemot Skavstaturisterna och vad som krävs för att få dem att stanna i Nyköping. I uppsatsen har en kvalitativ metod använts med både primära källor i form av intervjuer och sekundära källor i form av litteratur, forskningsrapporter och internetkällor. Vi genomförde semistrukturerade intervjuer med tre personer som är insatta i ämnet samt en intervju via e-post med ytterligare en person. Teorierna som legat till grund för arbetet är dels destinationsteorier såsom Göran Anderssons utvecklingsmodell och Kraftprocessen av Johan Graffman, dels marknadsföringsteorier som destinationsmarknadsföring av Yvonne von Friedrichs Grängsjö och platsmarknadsföring av Philip Kotler och Christer Asplund.

    Empirin visar ett antal problemområden. Aktörerna är till största del inriktade på sin egen verksamhet. Ett annat problem är idag att värdskapet på destinationen inte fungerar tillfredställande. Restauranger, caféer och andra turistverksamheter anpassar inte sina öppettider under turistsäsongen. Idag marknadsförs inte Nyköping i Skavstaturisternas hemländer, vilket skapar problem eftersom det är där resan bokas. resan När de anländer till Skavsta är boende etc. redan inbokat. Marknadsföringen av Nyköping bör riktas mot den internationella marknaden eftersom Nyköping kan uppfattas som unikt för dessa turister. Genom att utforma paket som inkluderar mat, boende och aktiviteter skulle naturturisterna generera intäkter.

     

     

     

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  • 300.
    Günther, Ellen
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Naturen - en plats du aldrig har varit på 2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige lever över 80% av befolkningen i städer. Det urbana livet är fyllt av bilder och fyllt av reklambilder. På många reklambilder visas natur, naturen tycks kunna sälja allt. Men vilka egenskaper har naturen i reklamens bilder och vad säger det om naturen i våra urbana sinnen? Kvinnan tycks också ha en given plats i reklamens bilder. Kan det tänkas att kvinnan tillskrivs samma egenskaper som naturen? För att få svar dessa frågor kommer reklamens bilder att analysera. Analysen är en näranalys, i form av bildanalys, med fokus på bildens inre och yttre kontext.

    Naturen kan vara ett rum eller en plats och upplevs som alla andra rum och platser genom våra sinnen. Hur vi upplever rum och plats är ett resultat av rådande kultur. Den urban kulturen påverkar således upplevelsen av naturen. Reklambilder påverkar också vår verklighetsuppfattning och vår upplevelse av naturen. Tidigare har det gjorts studiet om naturens egenskaper i resereklam och bilreklam. Mitt resultat har dock inte gått att helt förena med tidigare studier vilket visar bredden i ämnet.

    Fyra reklamkampanjer har valts ut för analys; Loka, Lumené, Bregott och Alprosoya. Alla är produkter som används i vardagen och kampanjerna kan sammanfattas som dagligvarureklam. Naturen och kvinnan bär på snarlika egenskaper i kampanjernas bilder. Båda är goda, harmoniska, starka och eviga. Den urban kulturen har gett bilderna kraft att reducera naturens (och kvinnans) egenskaper till upphovsmannens syfte. Den imaginära geografin tar allt större plats i vår kultur.

     

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