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  • 201.
    Hoflin, Malin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Övergödning i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde: En utvärdering av genomförda insatser för minskad näringsbelastning från enskilda avlopp och jordbruk2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att utvärdera och granska den första tidsperioden av det unika projektet Enskilda avlopp i kretslopp samt åtgärder som genomförts inom jordbruket för minskad näringsbelastning i Stavbofjärden tillrinningsområde i Södertälje kommun. Utmaningar med projektet redovisas också för att undersöka möjligheten för andra kommuner att ta efter initiativet. För att uppnå syftet har litteraturstudier och semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts. Arbetet är en fallstudie av utvärderande karaktär och har genomförts i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde.

    Problemen med övergödning är stora i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde och idag arbetar man aktivt för att minska näringsbelastningen. Sedan tre år tillbaka pågår projektet Enskilda avlopp i kretslopp för att försöka minska övergödningsproblematiken och möjliggöra återföring av näringsämnen till åkermark. Att avlopp kretsloppsanpassas innebär att klosettvatten samlas i en sluten tank skilt från bad, disk och tvättvatten (BDT- vatten). Därefter behandlas fraktionen för att göra den fri från smittämnen, bearbetad näring sprids slutligen på åkermark. I anslutning till detta har aktörer inom jordbruket arbetat med att försöka sluta kretsloppet och minska näringsutsläppen till Stavbofjärden. Flertalet åtgärder har genomförts under projektets första fas, bland annat har en kretsloppspolicy antagits, en lokal behandlingsanläggning har byggts och näringsämnen har börjat återföras till åkermark. Tydliga strukturella förändringar har skett under de första åren av projektet, framförallt har samarbetet mellan olika aktörer i tillrinningsområdet stärkts. Förutsättningarna för att nå en förbättrad vattenkvalitet i Stavbofjärden förbättras i och med genomförda och planerade åtgärder. Däremot uppstår en rad utmaningar i och med att avloppsfraktioner sprids på åkermark. Intervjuer och litteraturstudier har visat att användning av slam från reningsverk på åkermark inte är en helt okontroversiell fråga, mestadels på grund av en oro för eventuella effekter av de hormoner och läkemedel som kan förekomma i fraktionerna. Andra utmaningar är att byte av avloppssystem innebär en hög investeringskostnad och att människor ofta känner sig otrygga vid stora förändringar. Alla deltagande aktörer i projektet hänvisar till det faktum att människans avfall måste hamna någonstans och att det är betydligt bättre att lägga avfallet på jorden än att det läcker ut i vattnet eftersom det finns betydligt fler nedbrytande bakterier i jorden än i vatten.

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    Övergödning i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde: En utvärdering av genomförda insatser för minskad näringsbelastning från enskilda avlopp och jordbruk
  • 202.
    Holmström, Lisen
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    En rättvisa eller flera?: En studie av rättvisepluralism i samrådet inför bildandet av naturreservatet Gräsö östra skärgård2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Our perceptions of what is just and unjust varies depending on our experiences or ideological affiliation. The formation of the nature reserve Gräsö eastern archipelago was preceded by a debate highlighted in the media, where several of the people on Gräsö positioned themselves for and against the marine reserve. The claims of justice in the debate show variations in perceptions of environmental justice aspects of distribution, recognition and participation. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the pluralism in perceptions of justice may have contributed to the conflict by conducting interviews with advocates and opponents who participated in the deliberation that preceded the decision of the reserve. These are compared with the opinions of environmental justice expressed in interviews with employees of the provincial government who handled the deliberation. The results show a variation in ideas of justice in most aspects and many times the opinions of the advocates better with county government persons than the opponents. That the local population must be recognized as one of the parties to take the decision on reserve formation, if the reserve means a restriction of rights and whether compensation should be paid for these losses are aspects which perceptions of justice varies. In order to address conflicts that are rooted in the variations of justice perception attention must be paid to pluralism in interpretations of environmental justice and the rights that should be taken into account.

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  • 203.
    Holén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Hållbart nyttjande av vattenresurser på Gotland: vision och verklighet2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Fresh water has become more and more of a scarce commodity. Water scarcity isn't first and foremost a cause of drought and wasting, but a cause of inequality and mismanagement. This is not only a problem for developing countries, and there can also be variations within countries. The municipality of Gotland has a development program called Vision Gotland 2025, with goals for growth and sustainable development. The aim of this study is to examine whether the use and management of water resources on Gotland and Vision Gotland 2025 is conformed to the Water Framework Directive and the Ecosystem Approach in terms of sustainability. Focus is on the quantitative aspects of water supply. The study has mainly been done by studying publications from the authorities concerned. Although annual precipitation in general is enough to provide fresh water for the population, water shortage occurs in some areas during the summers. Three of the four main catchment areas on Gotland have unsatisfactory quantitative status, and is likely to have so also when the time limit of the next evaluation is due in 2015. Since both the population and tourism is presumed to increase, according to Vision Gotland 2025, the conclusion drawn is that the use of water resources is not sustainable, even though the management per se does conform to the ecosystem approach.

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    Hållbart nyttjande av vattenresurser på Gotland
  • 204.
    Hurst, Stephanie
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    The Impact of Climate Change and Man on the Spatial Distribution of Wildfire Events: A GIS and Ranking System Approach2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsbrand är ett destruktivt och förödande fenomen över hela världen och förutspås att öka i frekvens och geografisk utbredning med förändrade klimatförutsättningar under det tjugoförsta århundradet och framöver. Den här studien har använt GIS som metod för att analysera den förväntade förändringen av skogsbränders geografiska utbredning år 2050, baserat på värsta scenariot framtaget i en global klimatmodellering. Efter att nya skogsbrandsbenägna regioner identifierats, gjordes en analys av regionerna avseende mänskliga faktorer som ökar risken för antändning, för närvarande den största orsaken till skogbrandssutbrott. Riskanalyserna utfördes med ett rankingsystem av variabler som är kända för att öka risken, nämligen avfolkning av landsbygden, densitet av jordbruksmaskiner, förekomsten av tobaksrökning, och campingturismens popularitet. Studiens resultat stämmer överens med vetenskapliga studier avseende klimatförändringens effekter på geografisk utbredning av skogbrandssutbrott. I studien identifierades Europa som ett nyckelområde för framtida risker. Inom Europa hade Österrike den högsta risken för mänsklig antändning. Resultatet kan vara av yttersta vikt för europeiska, särskilt österrikare, förvaltningsorgan som försöker att begränsa den framtida inverkan av klimatförändringar på deras samhällen. Den här studien är ett exempel på hur rumsliga fördelningsmönster av extrema väderförhållanden och klimatförändringar kan projiceras genom att använda GIS.

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  • 205.
    Hyttinen, O.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Virtasalo, J. J.
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Kekäläinen, P.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki, Finland.
    Snowball, I.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Obrochta, S.
    Akita University, Akita City, Japan.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Holocene stratigraphy of the Ångermanälven River estuary, Bothnian Sea2017Ingår i: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 273-288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the Holocene depositional succession at the IODP Expedition 347 sites M0061 and M0062 in the vicinity of the Ångermanälven River estuary in the Bothnian Sea sector of the Baltic Sea in northern Scandinavia. Site M0061 is located in a coastal offshore setting (87.9 m water depth), whereas site M0062 is fully estuarine (69.3 m water depth). The dataset comprises acoustic profiles and sediment cores collected in 2007 and late 2013 respectively. Three acoustic units (AUs) were recognized. Lowermost AU1 is interpreted as a poorly to discontinuous stratified glaciofluvial deposit, AU2 as a stratified conformable drape of glaciolacustrine origin, and AU3 as a poorly stratified to stratified mud drift. A strong truncating reflector separates AU2 and AU3. Three lithological units (LUs) were defined in the sediment cores. LU1 consists of glaciofluvial sand and silt gradating into LU2, which consists of glaciolacustrine varves. A sharp contact interpreted as a major unconformity separates LU2 from the overlying LU3 (brackish-water mud). In the basal part of LU3, one debrite (site M0061) or two debrites (site M0062) were recognized. Information yielded from sediment physical properties (magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, dry bulk density), geochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon and nitrogen), and grain size support the LU division. The depositional succession was formally subdivided into two alloformations: the Utansjö Alloformation and overlying Hemsön Alloformation; the Utansjö Alloformation was further subdivided into two lithostratigraphic formations: the Storfjärden and Åbordsön formations. The Storfjärden (sandy outwash) and Åbordsön (glaciolacustrine rhythmite) formations represent a glacial retreat systems tract, which started at ca. 10.6 kyr BP. Their deposition was mainly controlled by meltwater from the retreating ice margin, glacio-isostatic land uplift and the regressive (glacial) lake level. The Hemsön Alloformation (organic-rich brackish-water mud) represents a period of forced regression, starting possibly at ca. 9.5 kyr BP. At about 7 kyr BP, brackish water reached the study area as a result of the mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin, but the rapid land uplift soon surpassed the associated (Littorina) transgression. Changed near-bottom current patterns, caused by the establishment of a permanent halocline, and the reduced sediment consistency caused by increased organic deposition resulted in a sharp and erosional base of the brackish-water mud. Estuarine processes and salinity stratification at site M0062 started to play a more important role. This study applies a combined allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic approach over the conventional Baltic Sea stages. This approach makes it more straightforward to study this Baltic Sea deglaciation–postglacial sequence and compare it to other formerly glaciated shallow sea estuaries.

  • 206.
    Hägglund, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Sustainable Food Production: Farmers’ management of their agroforestry  systems in Tanzania.2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The future of food production contains some challenges. The production needs to increase in order to feed a growing population, but at the same time there is an increased need to transi- tion to more sustainable ways of cultivation. This can be a challenge since increased intensity and sustainability is not always compatible. Agroforestry systems have shown potential as sustainable food production system in previous research. The area where this study was con- ducted, Haraa in Babati District, has a long history of agroforestry. The aim of this study was to answer what resources agroforestry farmers used to manage their farms, to determine if the agroforestry systems could be regarded as sustainable. Circular economy was used as a theo- retical framework and resource flow as an analytical tool. This study investigated how the resource flow looked like on six agroforestry farms in a Haraa, a village in Tanzania. The empirical data was gathered with semi-structured interviews from 8 informants. The analysis showed that the farmers were dependent on few external resources and could produce or pre- form most of the needed resources inside their own system. The farms had a circular flow to a large extent, but some of the farms have room for improvement in the management regarding sustainability.

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  • 207.
    Håkansson, John
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Att indexera hållbarhet: En metautvärdering av Miljöaktuellts rankning av svenska kommuners hållbarhetsarbete2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kandidatuppsats i miljövetenskap syftar till att undersöka kvaliteten hos tidningen Miljöaktuellts utvärderingssystem av svenska kommuners hållbarhetsarbete som de har granskat och rankat årligen i sex år. Detta index är antagligen den mest genomgripande utvärderingen av kommunalt hållbarhetsarbete i Sverige. Miljöaktuellts kommunrankning sätts in i New Public Management-paradigmet och utvärderingssamhällets kontext för att besvara frågeställningarna som lyder: ”Hur väl överensstämmer Miljöaktuellts kommunrankning med en uppsättning kvalitetskriterier för utvärdering av hållbar utveckling?" och ”Är kommunrankningen lämplig att använda som mått på, eller mål för kommuners interna hållbarhetsarbete?" Från ett utvärderingsteoretiskt perspektiv betraktas kommunrankningen som en kvalitetsutvärdering; denna studie kategoriseras därmed som en metautvärdering. Indexet analyseras som en tematisk innehållsanalys med utgångspunkt i de 8 BellagioSTAMP-principerna som utvecklats som ett mätverktyg av utvärderingar av hållbar utveckling. Även om Miljöaktuellt kommunicerar sina resultat väl bedöms tidningens index sakna metodologisk tyngd i behandlingen av dess indikatorer, brista i analytisk kapacitet då ekologiska indikatorer ges oproportionerlig tyngd på bekostnad av ekonomiska och sociala indikatorer, samt sakna nödvändig transparens då teoretiska överväganden inte uttrycks och motiveras. Dessa brister gör indexet olämpligt som underlag för politiska beslut inom svenska kommuners hållbarhetsarbete.

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  • 208.
    Högström, J.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Balfors, B.
    KTH.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Planning for sustainability in expansive metropolitan regions: exploring practices and planners’ expectations in Stockholm, Sweden2018Ingår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 439-457Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, local and regional planning practices are faced with the challenge of managing rapid growth in expansive urban regions. However, spatial planning should also contribute to the fulfilment of formalized sustainability objectives and support sustainable development. This includes addressing cross-cutting sustainability issues that transcend established administrative and territorial boundaries. Thus, the management of sustainability issues requires attention from actors at different levels, and challenges how contemporary planning practices plan for development. Based in the expansive Stockholm region, this study explores the cross-level interaction in spatial planning and decision-making and planning practitioners’ experiences and apprehensions of contemporary municipal planning practices with a focus on statutory plans to achieve sustainability targets and objectives. The results show that municipal planning organizations are under pressure because of rapid urban expansion. It is concluded that the role, format and content of statutory as well as informal planning instruments are decisive for the cross-level interaction between planning levels. Moreover, planning instruments find new trajectories resulting in mismatches in expectations from planners at adjacent planning levels. This influences the interplay and preconditions for achieving national and regional sustainability targets and objectives. 

  • 209.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Peckmann, Jörn
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Tehler, Anders
    wedish Museum of Natural History.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University.
    Bach, Wolfgang
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Behrens, Katharina
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Reitner, Joachim
    Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany.
    Böttcher, Michael E.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Warnemünde, Germany.
    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Zygomycetes in Vesicular Basanites from Vesteris Seamount, Greenland Basin - A New Type of Cryptoendolithic Fungi2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikel-id e0133368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungi have been recognized as a frequent colonizer of subseafloor basalt but a substantial understanding of their abundance, diversity and ecological role in this environment is still lacking. Here we report fossilized cryptoendolithic fungal communities represented by mainly Zygomycetes and minor Ascomycetes in vesicles of dredged volcanic rocks (basanites) from the Vesteris Seamount in the Greenland Basin. Zygomycetes had not been reported from subseafloor basalt previously. Different stages in zygospore formation are documented in the studied samples, representing a reproduction cycle. Spore structures of both Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes are mineralized by romanechite-like Mn oxide phases, indicating an involvement in Mn(II) oxidation to form Mn(III, VI) oxides. Zygospores still exhibit a core of carbonaceous matter due to their resistance to degradation. The fungi are closely associated with fossiliferous marine sediments that have been introduced into the vesicles. At the contact to sediment infillings, fungi produced haustoria that penetrated and scavenged on the remains of fragmented marine organisms. It is most likely that such marine debris is the main carbon source for fungi in shallow volcanic rocks, which favored the establishment of vital colonies.

  • 210.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm University.
    Noormets, Riko
    UNIS Univ Ctr Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Svalbard.
    Sturkell, Erik
    University of Gothenburg.
    In memoriam of Tom Flodén: obituary2017Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 139, nr 3, s. 241-242Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 211. Jakobsson, Martin
    et al.
    Björck, Svante
    Alm, Göran
    Andrén, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lindeberg, Greger
    Svensson, Nils-Olof
    Reconstructing the Younger Dryas ice dammed lake in the Baltic Basin: Bathymetry, area and volume2007Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 57, nr 3/4, s. 355-370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A digital 3D-reconstruction of the Baltic Ice Lake’s (BIL) configuration during the termination of the Younger Dryas cold phase (ca. 11700 cal. yr BP) was compiled using a combined bathymetric-topographic Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Scandinavian ice sheet limits, Baltic Sea Holocene bottom sediment thickness information, and a paleoshoreline database maintained at the Lund University. The bathymetric-topographic DTM, assembled from publicly available data sets, has a resolution of 500 X 500 m on Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection allowing area and volume calculations of the BIL to be made with an unprecedented accuracy. When the damming Scandinavian ice sheet margin eventually retreated north of Mount Billingen, the high point in terrain of Southern central Sweden bordering to lower terrain further to the north, the BIL was catastrophically drained resulting in a 25 m drop of the lake level. With our digital reconstruction, we estimate that approximately 7800 km(3) of water drained during this event and that the ice dammed lake area was reduced by ca. 18%. Building on previous results suggesting drainage over 1 to 2 years, our lake volume calculations imply that the freshwater flux to the contemporaneous sea in the west was between about 0.12 and 0.25 Sv. The BIL reconstruction provides new detailed information on the paleogeography in the area of southern Scandinavia, both before and after the drainage event, with implications for interpretations of geological records concerning the post-glacial environmental development.

  • 212.
    Jamil, Adnan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Biogas and Cattle Organs: An Alternative Significant Source of Energy for Sustainable Development in Rural Bangladesh2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    A study has been conducted to assess the possibilities to introduce dead cattle organs as the raw material for biogas generation at the rural household level in Bangladesh. At the same time, the present energy situation in Bangladesh is highlighted. The actors in the energy sector have been identified. The energy policy of Bangladesh is not transparent and there seems to be no energy strategy for the country. Possibilities of other renewable sources of energy are also discussed. Biomass fuels comprise the main source of energy for the rural people and the major share of energy use is consumed after cooking and household lightning. Enormous amount of labor is spent in gathering and collecting of fuel wood and agricultural residues that reduces productivity among women and young children. Besides, biogas is generated from agricultural residues and animal excreta in Bangladesh. Tremendous pressure on rural forests for fuel wood is increasing and environmental degradation is occurring. Agricultural lands are losing vital nutrients as people are using crop residues and animal excreta for energy. Under present condition, the possibilities of adopting biogas technology and dead cattle organs as the raw materials to generate biogas is analyzed in terms of availability of the raw material. Sustainable development using biogas is also considered. And lastly, some recommendation is suggested, based on the current energy situation of Bangladesh.

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  • 213.
    Jandovský, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Inga miljövinster med ekologisk produktion?: Lägesrapport över den svenska jordbruksdebatten2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic agriculture is financially promoted in Sweden by special environmental support and as consumers we are all encouraged to buy organic food. At the same time scholars at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences claim that organic farming does not provide any environmental benefits. The main criticism is that organic farming has lower yields than conventional, which means that more land is needed to produce the same amount of food as in conventional farming, leading to deforestation and loss of biodiversity. As for climate change, the critics claim that the significantly higher productivity in conventional crop production compared to organic, releases surplus land, which could be used for bio-fuel production and thereby replace the fossil fuels. The critics also claim that organic farming causes higher nutrient leaching than conventional. Scholars who advocate organic farming fight back against the criticisms and claim; that organic farming benefits biodiversity, as organic farms have on average 30% higher species richness than conventional farms, that conventional farming due to fertilizer use causes higher green house gas emissions than organic, and that the conventional farming causes higher nutrient losses than the organic one from a system perspective. The purpose of this essay is to present and analyze arguments of both sides of the Swedish agricultural debate and try to find answers to how scholars can have such widely differing views about which farming-system is preferable. At first glance, it may seem as if scholars totally disagree on the issues regarding scientific facts. This essay however, suggests that this is not the case at all. On the contrary, scholars agree on quite a lot when it comes to facts. The reasons for disagreement appear to be about much more than just a scientific controversy. My explanation to how they can have such different views is that agriculture, to a large extent, is a social and political issue, which means that scholars' values and view of nature also play a crucial role in their overall perception.

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  • 214.
    Jansson, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    An atomic adventure: A case study of the history of the Swedish nuclear policy using the theories of historical institutionalism and advocacy coalition framework2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of the first 35 years, 1945 to 1980, of the Swedish nuclear institution. The purpose is to discover which actors that have shaped the Swedish nuclear institution. By using the theories of historical institutionalism and advocacy coalition framework I have analyzed these 35 years in three separate parts. Historical institutionalism puts emphasis on the creation of an institution, and so have I. The creation phase goes from 1945 to 1972. The following two parts are critical junctures that spans the years 1973-1978 and 1978-1980. The first critical juncture deals with the Centre Party's reversal in their opinion on nuclear power, the 1976 election and the outcome of that election. The third juncture starts with the Harrisburg accident and ends after the 1980 referendum. Using the advocacy coalition framework to analyze the actions or actors and coalitions during these three phases, I have come to the conclusion that the industry actors, those that have built the reactors, have been the most successful in pushing their coalition's agendas, over the years. Their influence was considerable during the years of institutional creation, while the coalitions that opposed nuclear power were quite weak during this time frame, which is consistent with historical institutionalism's focus on the creation, and path dependence.

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    An atomic adventure
  • 215.
    Jansson, Matilda
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Miljömärkning av hotell: En studie av miljömässiga och ekonomiska effekter2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är turismen en av världens största näringar och den förväntas växa ytterligare framöver. Turismen bidrar på många sätt till den ekonomiska utvecklingen världen över men effekterna av tillväxten kan även få förödande konsekvenser för miljön. En ökad miljömedvetenhet inom turismbranschen har på senare tid resulterat i olika miljöledningssystem och miljömärkningar. En miljömärkning är Svanen som bildades som ett svar på den ökade miljömedvetenheten i samhället. År 1988 beslöt sig det Nordiska Ministerrådet att utreda möjligheterna att införa en frivillig nordisk miljömärkning. Svanens kriterier för miljömärkning av hotell blev klara år 1999 och det första Svanenmärkta hotellet öppnades i Sverige. Idag finns det över 250 Svanenmärkta hotell i Sverige.

    I uppsatsen undersöks huruvida en Svanenmärkning av ett hotell resulterar i positiva miljömässiga och ekonomiska effekter. Uppsatsen undersöker även varför hotellen har valt att miljömärka sig, vad de anser sig fått ut av miljömärkningen och vilka möjligheter och svårigheter miljömärkningen har bidragit med. Studien är avgränsad till Stockholmsområdet och behandlar tio hotell med Svanenmärkningen.

    Det finns flera anledningar varför ett hotell väljer att miljömärka sig men de flesta grundar sig i den ökande efterfrågan från samhället som avser att företag måste ta mer ansvar för miljön. Miljöarbete på ett hotell handlar ofta om att minska vatten-, energi-, och materialförbrukningen. I studien visar sig dessa vara en stor drivkraft bakom en miljömärkning då minskningen ofta leder till ekonomiska besparingar. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) är ett begrepp som fått genomslag de senaste åren och innebär att företag på en frivillig grund integrerar social och miljömässig hänsyn i sin verksamhet, utöver vad lagen kräver. I studien visar det sig att hotell som aktivt arbetar med CSR-frågor och integrerar dessa i sin verksamhet stärker relationen mellan anställda och ägare, och inte minst kunder, vilket i sin tur kan leda till en ökad lönsamhet och tillväxt.

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    fulltext
  • 216.
    Janzén, Therese
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Aspán, Anna
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA).
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in Southern Sweden: Associations with coniferous forest, water bodies and landscape heterogeneity2019Ingår i: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 285, artikel-id 106626Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscape characteristics influence both vector and host habitats affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of vector-borne diseases. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is one of the most widespread tick-borne diseases in Europe causing tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants, and granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and companion animals. The aim of this study was to identify landscape factors associated with Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (EGA) cases in a refined temporal and spatial analysis by combining land cover data and presence/absence disease data, using a geographical information system (GIS). This study is a retrospective analysis utilizing 1030 EGA diagnostic test results extracted from the National Veterinary Institute (SVA, Sweden). The association between EGA and different land cover types was analyzed with generalized linear models. To analyze the relation between landscape heterogeneity and EGA, we calculated the Gini-Simpson index. Our results showed a significant increase in the proportion positive EGA cases from 2002 to 2015 and marked differences in the seasonal within year distribution of EGA cases. The association with landscape configuration is shown by the positive relationship between A. phagocytophilum and coniferous forest, water bodies, and landscape heterogeneity, respectively. The information on the eco-epidemiological drivers for EGA can be central for disease control and prevention. Our method of linking land cover to disease risk may be applied to other vector-borne diseases and to other study regions.

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    fulltext
  • 217.
    Japsen, P.
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Green, P. F.
    Geotrack International, Victoria, Australia.
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Geografi. Mid Sweden University.
    Erlström, M.
    Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Lund.
    Episodic burial and exhumation of the southern Baltic Shield: Epeirogenic uplifts during and after break-up of Pangaea2016Ingår i: Gondwana Research, ISSN 1342-937X, E-ISSN 1878-0571, Vol. 35, s. 357-377Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cratons are conventionally assumed to be areas of long-term stability. However, whereas Precambrian basement crops out across most of the Baltic Shield, Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sediments rest on basement in southern Sweden, and thus testify to a complex history of exhumation and burial. Our synthesis of published stratigraphic landscape analysis and new apatite fission-track analysis data reveals a history involving five steps after formation of the extremely flat, Sub-Cambrian Peneplain. (1) Cambrian to Lower Triassic rocks accumulated on the peneplain, interrupted by late Carboniferous uplift and exhumation. (2) Middle Triassic uplift removed the Palaeozoic cover along the south-western margin of the shield, leading to formation of a Triassic peneplain with a predominantly flat relief followed by deposition of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic rocks. (3) Uplift that began during the Middle Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous caused denudation leading to deep weathering that shaped an undulating, hilly relief that was buried below Upper Cretaceous to Oligocene sediments. (4) Early Miocene uplift and erosion produced the South Småland Peneplain with scattered hills. (5) Early Pliocene uplift raised the Miocene peneplain to its present elevation leading to reexposure of the sub-Cretaceous hilly relief near the coast. Our results thus provide constraints on the magnitude and timing of episodes of deposition and removal of significant volumes of Phanerozoic rocks across the southern portion of the Baltic Shield. Late Carboniferous, Middle Triassic and mid-Jurassic events of uplift and exhumation affected wide areas beyond the Baltic Shield, and we interpret them as epeirogenic uplifts accompanying fragmentation of Pangaea, caused by accumulation of mantle heat beneath the supercontinent. Early Miocene uplift affected north-west Europe but not East Greenland, and thus likely resulted from compressive stresses from an orogeny on the Eurasian plate. Early Pliocene uplift related to changes in mantle convection and plate motion affected wide areas beyond North-East Atlantic margins.

  • 218.
    Japsen, P.
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Green, P. F.
    Geotrack International, Australia.
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Geografi. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, T. F. D.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chalmers, J. A.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    From volcanic plains to glaciated peaks: BURIAL, uplift and exhumation history of southern East Greenland after opening of the NE Atlantic2014Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 116, s. 91-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In southern East Greenland (68-70°N), voluminous flood basalts erupted onto a largely horizontal lava plain near sea level at the Paleocene-Eocene transition when sea-floor spreading started in the NE Atlantic. Based on synthesis of geological observations, stratigraphic landform analysis and apatite fission-track analysis data in 90 rock samples, we show how three regional phases of uplift and exhumation subsequently shaped the present-day margin and controlled the discontinuous history of the Greenland ice sheet. A late Eocene phase of uplift led to formation of a regional erosion surface near sea level (the Upper Planation Surface, UPS). Uplift of the UPS in the late Miocene led to formation of the Lower Planation Surface (LPS) by incision below the uplifted UPS, and a Pliocene phase led to incision of valleys and fjords below the uplifted LPS, leaving mountain peaks reaching 3.7. km above sea level. Local uplift affected the Kangerlussuaq area (~. 68°N) during early Eocene emplacement of the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion and during late Oligocene block movements, that may be related to the detachment of the Jan Mayen microcontinent from Greenland, while middle Miocene thermal activity, coeval with lava eruptions, heated rocks along a prominent fault within the early Cretaceous to Paleocene Kangerlussuaq Basin. The three regional uplift phases are synchronous with phases in West Greenland, overlap in time with similar events in North America and Europe and also correlate with changes in plate motion. The much higher elevation of East Greenland compared to West Greenland suggests support in the east from the Iceland plume. These observations indicate a connection between mantle convection, changes in plate motion and vertical movements along passive continental margins.

  • 219.
    Jernberg, Kersti
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Träd och buskar i kantzoner: en undersökning av kanteffekter i några av östersjöregionens skogar2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Around the world, forests are generally being fragmented and as plant populations decline in both sizeand number of individuals, the genetic variation will also decrease whitch in the end leads to totalextinction of the plant. In this paper, I wanted to investigate what specific species of trees and shrubsyou usually find in the edge and core habitats in some of the forests in the Baltic Sea region. I alsowanted to identify the edge effects and their sources and finally compare the results between thedifferent regions.The data sources used are derived from the ongoining research project Landscape structures, patterns ofbiodiversity and conservation strategies in the Baltic Sea region by Kari Lehtilä, Patrik Dinnétz ochTiina Vinter who have made a record of all herbaceous plant species in four randomly chosen forestregions situated around the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Skåne, Södermanland and Germany. I made statisticalanalyses, using the computer program R, concerning the distribution of species in the edge habitats ofthe forests as well as in the core habitats. I performed generalized linear models and then variationanalyses with the factors light and biomass in order to investigate wether edge effects might appear dueto these factors. I also used the ecological characteristics – Ellenberg indicators – light, soil pH andnitrogen performing linear regression models. I then compared the results – within the regions but alsobetween them.As the results showed great variancy both within the regions and between them no general explanationto the edge effects could be affirmed. The Ellenberg analyses showed no difference between the species,i. e. the ecological characteristics could not explain why some species were associated to edge habitatsand some were not. All four regions had in common that the greatest biodiversity were to be found inthe edge habitats, which is characteristical for a habitat in an early successional state. Due to the thefeatures of the forests, the specific species that received the label ”edge species” or ”core species” werenot always mutual in all regions. For example Quercus robur turned out to be a typical forest species inGermany while in Estonia it was strongly associated to edge habitats and in this investigation one mightdiscuss later states of successions in Germany rather than stronger edge effects in Estonia.

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  • 220.
    Joas, Marko
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Jahn, DetlefUniversity of Greifswald, Germany.Kern, KristineSödertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Governing a common sea: environmental policies in the Baltic Sea Region2008Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 221.
    Johansson, Jerker
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Proactivity and sustainable transition at the fish counter?: A study about ecological sustainability regarding fish at four ICA Kvantum supermarkets within the Stockholm region2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fisk och skaldjur är en viktig proteinkälla för världens befolkning. Nära hälften av fisk- och skaldjursprodukterna internationellt kommer idag från akvakultur (fiskodlingar). Resten kommer från traditionellt fiske. De marina fisk- och skaldjursbestånden hotas i olika grad av ohållbart fiske. Tillsammans med fisket utgör olika former av akvakultur påfrestningar mot fisk- och skaldjursbestånd och de marina ekosystemen. Akvakultur orsakar även andra ekologiska sidoeffekter. Internationella handelsregler tar idag inte tillräcklig hänsyn till de ekologiska problemen. Frivilliga initiativ såsom miljömärkningar har uppkommit och kan eventuellt utgöra en del av lösningarna på problemen. Denna kandidatuppsats gör utifrån ett miljövetenskapligt perspektiv ett försök att analysera hur ”fiskdiskarna” i fyra ICA Kvantumbutiker i Stockholms län arbetar med ekologisk hållbarhet vad gäller fisk och skaldjur. Övergripande syftet är att undersöka livsmedelsbutikernas historiska, nuvarande och potentiella framtida arbete med de ekologiska hållbarhetsfrågorna, samt att analysera om de arbetar utifrån ett proaktivt, reaktivt eller passivt angreppssätt. Huvudresultaten visar att arbetet mellan butikerna skiljde sig mycket med avseende på kunskaper, ekologiska hållbarhetsteman, proaktivitet/ reaktivitet/ passivitet, förändringar över tiden, samt vad gäller intentioner och planer för framtiden. Vidare så verkade flera av de studerade ekologiska problemområdena på olika sätt utgöra verkliga problem. Någon form av påtryckningar verkade vara nödvändigt om butikernas arbete, aggregerat sett, skulle ställas om till en mer ekologiskt hållbar status. Metoden utgjordes av fallstudier med semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer och studier av utvalda centrala dokument från ICA-koncernen relaterade till det tematiska undersökningsområdet. En mindre kvantitativ utvärdering av butikerna frysta sortiment gjordes också.

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    fish_counter
  • 222.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Collaborative governance for sustainable forestry in the emerging bio-based economy in Europe2018Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 32, s. 9-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a common theme in social science research, natural resource policies and practical management has been the increasing emphasis on partnerships and other forms of collaborative efforts as effective means to reach tangible and sustainable outcomes. Another significant trend is the increasing focus on the role of the forestry sector in managing the challenges of climate change, and the push towards a bio-based, low-carbon economy is at the epicenter of the public debate in several EU countries. Drawing on research on collaborative processes as well as research on policy design, this paper reviews the current trend to rely increasingly on collaborative efforts to improve sustainability, using forest governance in northern Europe as an illustrative case. It pays particular attention to efforts to balance concerned stakeholders through National Forest Programmes (NFPs), and considers these efforts in an international context. It concludes by elaborating on future research directions and policy recommendations that are critical to achieve intended outcomes in forest governance systems characterized by state-initiated collaborative processes as well as various forms of voluntary initiatives.

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    fulltext
  • 223.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Participation and deliberation in Swedish forest governance: The process of initiating a National Forest Program2016Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 70, s. 137-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades intergovernmental organizations have supported the initiation of National Forest Programs (NFPs): forums for joint deliberation by the state, private companies and NGOs that are intended to resolve conflicts over forestry and enhance sustainability. However, NFPs do not always reconcile conflicting perspectives or produce legitimate strategies for sustainable forestry. Thus, further analysis of NFPs' organization and processes is required, including exploration of effective means to address such challenges in early stages. These are key concerns of this paper, focusing on the first process to establish a Swedish NFP. Possibilities for an NFP to constitute a new arena for deliberation and consensus-building, producing forest policy statements and action plans considered legitimate by various stakeholders, are discussed. A number of key challenges are identified through a theoretical framework based on notions regarding the input and output legitimacy of collaborative governance. Analysis of official documentation, records of public hearings and stakeholder comments from the establishment phase in 2013–2015 suggests that the process will continually face a number of challenges, including balancing production and conservation values in the new bio-economy and securing equal stakeholder participation. The paper concludes with some remarks on the future of the NFP process.

  • 224.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University.
    Constructing and justifying risk and accountability after extreme events: public administration and stakeholders’ responses to a wildfire disaster2020Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 353-365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of extreme weather events, causing severe storms and wildfires, cascade across administrative borders within a country, challenging the steering capacity of governance networks at different political scales. This paper examines how accountability and risk were constructed and negotiated in the aftermath of Sweden’s largest wildfire. It draws on results from an interview study with executives of organizations and landowners involved, and an analysis of government reports about the wildfire’s cause and consequences. Although the fire was human-caused, public administrative bodies paid considerable attention to the local emergency services and their poor handling of the wildfire, caused by lack of knowledge of forest fire behavior. The study confirms many of the challenges associated with governance networks. It finds that issues about who to hold accountable, in what forum and for what issue are not fully addressed, being overwhelmed by demands for better knowledge of forest fire prevention and improved coordination and collaboration. To conclude, the paper calls for a better-informed public administration, forest sector and interrelated networks that take responsibility for their actions or lack thereof.

  • 225.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Biomass outtake and bioenergy development in Sweden: the role of policy and economic presumptions2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, nr 8, s. 771-778Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we review and analyse the policy design of biomass residue outtake in Sweden, focusing in particular on how public authorities specify and motivate rules and guidelines for the extraction of slash and stumps. The results show that the Swedish regulations are built on a mixed approach, including both voluntary, procedural and substantive requirements. The recommendations emphasize many merits of residue extraction, particularly climate change mitigation, new employment opportunities and reduced dependency on energy supplies from abroad. We identify a strong focus on precaution, evident in the risks for undesirable effects on nutritional balance and heavy metals in the soil, on biological diversity and on water quality in lakes and watercourses. The recommendations have remained relatively stable during the last 10 years, but the harvest of forest biomass for energy has varied. The annual harvest rate was positively related with energy prices. Harvest was much more extensive in the south, which is closer to the market. We conclude that economic presumptions have influenced the extent of slash harvest while environmental concerns seem to have limited the extraction of whole stumps. We expect that current levels of residue outtake can quickly change if the energy prices change.

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    fulltext
  • 226.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences).
    Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values2018Ingår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, nr 4, artikel-id 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 2000s, consensus-oriented decision making has become increasingly common in the management of natural resources because of the recognition that collaborative processes may enhance the legitimacy of decision making and facilitate effective implementation. Previous research has identified a number of problems with the design and practical facilitation of collaborative processes. Structured decision making (SDM) has been developed as an alternative suitable for decision making characterized by complexity, stakeholder controversy, and scientific uncertainty. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility and practical relevance of collaboration and dialogue inspired by SDM in the sphere of forest management. The methods used included analyses of meetings records and semistructured interviews with participating stakeholders and organizers of a collaborative process focused on improving the management of Swedish forests in the young forest phase. The results show that the SDM rationale of step-by-step teamwork, the involvement of experts, and guidance by an independent facilitator has a number of merits. These merits included the creation of genuine discussion with careful consideration of different interests and values, thus building trust among stakeholders and the Swedish Forest Agency. However, at the end of the process, some issues still remained unclear, including how the decision options would be made practically useful and accessible to forest owners. Furthermore, concerns were raised about the lack of novelty of the options. As a result, there was uncertainty about the extent to which the options would contribute to a more varied forest landscape given the multiple values involved. We conclude with some remarks on the potential future of engaging SDM in the forestry sector.

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    Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values
  • 227.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jarnås, Julia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Perspektiv på allmänhetens deltagande: Fallstudie2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en del av ett demokratiskt samhälle ska allmänhetens deltagande tillvaratas när åtgärder i miljön ska genomföras. Samråd är en lagstadgad process där allmänheten ges möjlighet till insyn och påverkan, vilket kan tillhandahållas i olika utsträckning. Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka uppfattningar om deltagande från ett samrådsmöte gällande en detaljplan för ett område i en närförort till Stockholm som innebär förändringar i miljön. Planansvarigas och mötesdeltagares upplevelser av delaktighet jämfördes för att ge en bild av vilka syften med deltagande som fanns för de båda parterna och hur dessa tillgodosågs. En kvalitativ ansats användes för att få en fördjupad förståelse för respondenternas upplevelser. Då samrådsmötet var ett avgränsat fenomen genomfördes uppsatsen i form av en fallstudie med intervjuer som datainsamlingsmetod. Resultatet analyserades genom förklaringsmodellerna Arnsteins delaktighetstrappa (1969) och identifierade mål med allmänhetens deltagande av Glucker et al. (2013). Resultatet visar hur och i vilken utsträckning allmänheten upplevde delaktighet. Likheter och skillnader i den upplevda deltagandegraden jämfördes för att identifiera huruvida de båda parternas upplevelser överensstämde. Orsaker till och effekter av likheter och skillnader undersöktes. Uppsatsen behandlar också vilka hinder och möjligheter som bidrog till den upplevda graden av delaktighet samt vad parterna ansåg hade kunnat förbättras för att stärka allmänhetens deltagande.

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  • 228. Jones, Celia
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholm University.
    Overview of programmes for the assessment of risks to the environment from ionising radiation and hazardous chemicals2004Ingår i: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, nr 4A, s. A157-A177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the FASSET project, a review of existing programmes for the assessment of environmental risks from radioactive or hazardous substances was carried out in order to identify appropriate aspects that could be incorporated into the FASSET framework. The review revealed a number of different approaches, arising from the need to balance the information value of the assessment against the availability of data and the need to keep the assessment manageable. Most of the existing assessment programmes fit into a three-phase approach to environmental risk assessment: problem formulation, assessment and risk characterisation. However, the emphasis on particular assessment phases varies between programmes. The main differences between the different programmes are: the degree of specificity to a particular site, the level of detail of the assessment, the point at which a comparison is made between a criterion intended to represent 'what is acceptable' and a measured or predicted quantity, the choice of end-point for the assessment and the relationship between measurement end-points and assessment end-points. The existing assessment programmes are based on a similar general structure, which is suitable for use as a basis for the FASSET framework. However, certain aspects of the assessment of exposure and effects of ionising contaminants, e.g. dosimetry, require further development before incorporation into such a framework.

  • 229.
    Jöngren, Therese
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    En studie om förutsättningarna att certifiera sig enligt ISO 14001 är desamma för stora och små företag2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As the environmental awarenesshas increasedin recent decadessohas the society’s demand forenvironmentalresponsible companies(Ammenberg, 2004).One way for companies to take responsibility and work with environmental issues is to implement anenvironmental management system(EMS). EMSserves as a tool for companies to systematically work with environmental issues and develop the company's environmental efforts. ISO 14001 is theEMSaccording to whichthat the majority of companies today choose to get certified(Brorson & Almgren, 2007). The introduction and operation of the ISO 14001 requires significant financial and human resources and it can therefore be questioned whether the environmental managementsystem is adaptable forall companysizes.The purpose of this studyis to examine whether EMScan provide environmental and economic benefits for companies of all sizes and ifthe conditions to get certifiedaccordingto ISO 14001 is the same for large and smallcompanies.A literature study was made to collect information on company'simplementation of ISO 14001. Furthermore, as a complementto the literature study,an empirical investigationincluding e-mail correspondence with four consulting companies thatoffer services for companies that want to get certifiedaccordingto ISO 14001was made. The result of the study showsthat there are different conditions for large and small companies to get certified to ISO 14001, and these differencesis mainly because large companies have morefinancial and human resources.There are disagreementsin the literature whether ISO 14001 is designed for both large and small companies, where critics argue that the EMS primarily are adapted for large companies, and then transferred to small companies.The more positive arguments to ISO 14001 arethat the EMS is flexible and therefore adaptable, in similarity with the arguments put forward by the informants.Despite the factthat all of the informants replied that ISO 14001 is designed for both large and small companies, two of them also claimthat there are some difficulties for small companieswhen implementing and working with the EMS.

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  • 230.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Framing Environmental Risks in the Baltic Sea: A News Media Analysis2011Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 121-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific complexity and uncertainty is a key challenge for environmental risk governance and to understand how risks are framed and communicated is of utmost importance. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is stressed and exposed to different risks like eutrophication, overfishing, and hazardous chemicals. Based on an analysis of the Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter, this study discusses media representations of these risks. The results show that the reporting on the Baltic Sea has been fairly stable since the beginning of the 1990s. Many articles acknowledge several risks, but eutrophication receives the most attention and is also considered the biggest threat. Authorities, experts, organizations, and politicians are the dominating actors, while citizens and industry representatives are more or less invisible. Eutrophication is not framed in terms of uncertainty concerning the risk and consequences, but rather in terms of main causes.

  • 231.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Miljörisker i Östersjön och möjlighet till hållbar förvaltning av naturresurser2009Ingår i: Miljöforskning, ISSN 1650-4925, nr 3/4Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 232.
    Jönsson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Dreyer, Marion
    DIALOGIK.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Risk Communication and the Role of the Public: Towards Inclusive Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea?2016Ingår i: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek Mikael Karlsson Sebastian Linke Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, s. 205-227Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on forms of and challenges for risk communication within regional environmental governance, based on an analysis of five environmental risks in the Baltic Sea – marine oil transportation, chemicals, overfishing, eutrophication and alien species. We address questions about how risks are framed and communicated and also analyse the role of communication in the governance process. Our main focus is on risk communication with the public (e.g. existing institutional arrangements and procedures of risk communication), but we also relate this analysis to discussions on communication with a broad range of actors and issues of stakeholder participation and communication. In the study we have identified some examples of relatively well-working risk communication with parts of the organised public in the Baltic Sea region (BSR), such as in fisheries or eutrophication, but also a number of different barriers and obstacles. Our key result from this study is that BSR consists of many national institutions for risk communication, but that there are hardly any centralised institutions for risk communication activities relating to environmental governance in the region. Another key conclusion is that public risk communication in this array of cross-national environmental risks is restricted mainly to (one-way) information. Against this backdrop and from our empirical and theoretical knowledge of risk communication and the role of the public, we finally suggest some ways for improvement.

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  • 233.
    Jørgensen, Bo Barker
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Marshall, Ian P G
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Sub-seafloor biogeochemical processes and microbial life in the Baltic Sea2020Ingår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The post-glacial Baltic Sea has experienced extreme changes that are archived today in the deep sediments. IODP Expedition 347 retrieved cores down to 100 m depth and studied the climate history and the deep biosphere. We here review the biogeochemical and microbiological highlights and integrate these with other studies from the Baltic seabed. Cell numbers, endospore abundance and organic matter mineralization rates are extremely high. A 100-fold drop in cell numbers with depth results from a small difference between growth and mortality in the ageing sediment. Evidence for growth derives from a D:L amino acid racemization model, while evidence for mortality derives from the abundance and potential activity of lytic viruses. The deep communities assemble at the bottom of the bioturbated zone from the founding surface community by selection of organisms suited for life under deep sediment conditions. The mean catabolic per-cell rate of microorganisms drops steeply with depth to a life in slow-motion, typical for the deep biosphere. The subsurface life under extreme energy limitation is facilitated by exploitation of recalcitrant substrates, by biochemical protection of nucleic acids and proteins, and by repair mechanisms for random mismatches in DNA or damaged amino acids in proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 234.
    Karlsson, Josefine
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Beaktande av hälsorisker från luftföroreningar vid lokalisering av nya bostäder i Stockholm: En fallstudie av fem projekt intill Essingeleden2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Andelen människor som flyttar till städer ökar, vilket gör att det blir allt mer konkurrens om markytan. För att skapa fler bostäder tas mark i anspråk som tidigare haft andra syften eller bestått av naturliga grönytor. När växtlighet prioriteras bort minskar ekosystemtjänster som har förmåga att rena stadsluften. Denna studie baseras på Stockholm, där den regionala översiktsplaneringen åsyftar att staden ska förtätas för att skapa mer centrala bostäder. Att stadsluften är förorenad är ett generellt problem som utsätter invånare för hälsorisker. 

    Detta är en fallstudie som granskar hur luftföroreningar uppmärksammas när nya bostadsprojekt är planerade att etableras. Fem fall har valts ut nära en hårt trafikerad Europaväg, för att undersöka hur luftkvaliteter beaktats i planprocesserna. Dokument har granskats och berörda aktörer har intervjuats. Riskerna med luftföroreningar omnämns ytterst lite i vissa fall, medan de anses som betydande miljöpåverkan i andra. Detta har lett till att miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar (MKB) krävts vid vissa bostadsprojekt men inte i andra, trots att liknande eller högre nivåer av luftföroreningar eller fordonsmängd uppmätts eller beräknats vid projekten som uppmärksammat aspekten minst. Resultaten i fallstudien belyser den varierande förekomsten av omnämnandet om luftföroreningar och därmed risker för människors hälsa i de olika bostadsprojekten.

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  • 235.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Environmentally friendly agriculture in Tanzania: A case study of a farm in Himiti village, Babati2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Total agriculture area has during the last decades been reduced because of urbanization, land deterioration, and inputs of chemicals. Today many farmers produce monocultures and the agricultural production system has been reaching far away from a natural system. Attention is now needed to establish and minimize environmental impacts through changes towards a more environmentally friendly agriculture, worldwide. The aim of this thesis has been to examine an agroforestry system in Babati to see if and how this agricultural system is a sustainable agricultural production system. Through the theoretical framework of this thesis the agroforestry system is compared to what current research frontier present as needed for a more environmentally friendly agriculture, with the main importance to obtain fertile soils.The case study were made through semi-structural interviews and observation between February and March 2016 and showed that the agroforestry system examined met many of the needs presented for a sustainable agriculture, through no tillage, low-input of pesticides and no fertilizers, and by having a diverse system with crops and trees supporting healthy soils.

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  • 236. Karlsson, Mikael
    Biosafety principles for GMOs in the context of sustainable development2003Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 15-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    If genetically modified organisms are to contribute to welfare they must be considered in the context of sustainable development. Biosafety implies considering the environmental, economic and social dimensions of sustainable development. These dimensions can be interpreted through the principles of precaution, polluter pays and public participation. In this article, these key biosafety principles are operationalised and ways of implementing them in society are discussed. A comparison is made between the principles and the present EU law for deliberate release of GMOs. It is concluded that several improvements in EU policy are necessary to ensure sustainable development really is promoted.

  • 237. Karlsson, Mikael
    The precautionary principle, Swedish chemicals policy and sustainable development2006Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 337-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The "precautionary principle" is one of the most contested principles in the debate on the new EU chemicals legislation. The purpose of this paper is to operationalise the principle and to investigate the consequences of its application. Five core elements of precautionary management of chemicals are derived and traced in Swedish policy and legislation through history. It is shown that precautionary measures were required as early as the eighteenth century. The conclusion is drawn that these measures in Sweden seem to have promoted sustainable development from both an environmental and a socio-economic point of view.

  • 238.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH.
    Farligt när vetenskapen förnekas2017Ingår i: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, nr 6 septemberArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 239.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH.
    "Skolexempel på hur vetenskapsförnekare arbetar"2017Ingår i: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, nr 20 septemberArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 240.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Management of Hazardous Substances in the Marine Environment2018Ingår i: Handbook on Marine Environment Protection: Science, Impacts and Sustainable Management / [ed] Salomon, Markus; Markus, Till, Dordrecht: Springer, 2018, s. 715-732Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While modern society is highly dependent on chemicals, numerous substances also turn out to be hazardous and many give rise to severe risks and problems in the marine environment. In response, national, regional and global chemical policies, often focusing on the land-based sources to marine pollution, have been developed, as outlined in the article. As a result, the levels of some pollutants have decreased, but the vast majority of substances are not controlled in line with the internationally stated objectives of sound management of chemicals. An environment-oriented development of present policies, implementing the precautionary principle, is considered needed in order to improve the situation, and the question is raised in the article whether the present main international chemicals agreements would not also gain from being merged into a global framework convention.

  • 241.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Mind the gap: Coping with delay in environmental governance2020Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 49, nr 5, s. 1067-1075Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 242.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Vägar till en friskare Östersjö2015Ingår i: HavsUtsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, nr 1, s. 8-9Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Gapet är stort mellan miljömål och miljötillstånd i Östersjön. De omfattande insatser som görs av offentliga institutioner, näringsliv och allmänhet räcker inte. Samtidigt finns ett stort och växande engagemang från många politiker, företagare och enskilda för att stärka havsmiljöarbetet. När vi nu summerar ett större treårigt forskningsprojekt finner vi viktiga ledtrådar till vägar som kan leda till en förbättrad situation.

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  • 243.
    Karlén, AnnSofie
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Giftpåverkan av kolloidalt silver på Blåstång Fucus vesiclosus2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver is commonly used in clothes, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products as well as water refinement products these days. With the increased usage of silver there is an increased risk that the amount of silver in nature raises and that it affects ecosystems. Aquatic ecosystems have shown to be sensitive to the toxic effects of the silver. The bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) is one of the most important species in the Baltic Sea and is of major importance for the survival of other species. The purpose of the study is to increase the knowledge of colloidal silver toxic effects on the bladderwrack. This study measures the stress level and leakage of pigment of the bladderwrack which has been exposed to different levels of colloidal silver. The study was conducted at Askö laboratory during the period 19/4 to 25/4 -2017. The results show that colloidal silver has a significant stressful effect on bladderwrack, especially at the higher levels. During a period of three days, significant values of the higher concentration, was found over three consecutive measurement events. Thereafter the bladderwrack recovers. A second study of two and a half days shows two significant values in succession, with a subsequent weak rejuvenation at higher levels. The study also shows that the stress level varies over time. Measures on the water that the bladderwrak laid in during the stress measurements showed that the bladderwrack released more dye, the higher the concentration of colloidal silver to which they were exposed. Despite the low sample size, the bladderwrack shows signs of stress but after multiple test corrections the values ​​were not significant. The Baltic Sea has aggravating factors such as slow water exchange, low salinity and a lot of pollution. Resistance is low. The bladderwrack is a structurally important species in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. If larger colloidal silver is released due to increased use, there is a risk that the bladderwrack may be stressed.

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  • 244.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in the environment: Effects of citalopram on fish behaviour2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det serotonerga systemet är i stort sett identiskt hos människor och övriga vertebrater. Serotonin är inblandat i ett stort antal kroppsliga funktioner, bland annat stressreaktioner, reglering av födobeteende och aggression. Vidare är serotonin med och reglerar nervsystemets tillväxt under embryonalutvecklingen. Selektiva serotoninåterupptagshämmare (SSRI) är en grupp antidepressiva och lugnande läkemedel vars användning har ökat snabbt på senare år då de är effektiva och har få allvarliga bieffekter. SSRI verkar på det serotonerga systemet, genom att blockera återupptaget av serotonin i den presynaptiska nervänden. SSRI har tilldragit sig en viss uppmärksamhet som potentiella miljöhot då de visats kunna påverka ekologiskt relevanta beteenden hos fisk och andra akvatiska organismer vid relativt låga koncentrationer i miljön samtidigt som de bryts ned dåligt i avloppsreningsverk. Avhandlingen fokuserar på ekologiskt relevanta beteendeeffekter av SSRI på fisk, med storspigg (Gasterosteus aculeatus) och zebrafisk (Danio rerio) som modellorganismer. Citalopram har använts som försökssubstans då det anses vara den SSRI som har minst antal sidoeffekter på till exempel det dopaminerga systemet. Citalopram förekommer i utloppsvatten från reningsverk i alla industrialiserade länder och har även hittats i abborre i Östersjön.

    Effekter av exponering för SSRI har påvisats med hjälp av olika beteendetest. Skototaxi-test och novel tank diving test mäter stressresponsen genom att kvantifiera preferensen för närhet till botten och mörka omgivningar. Ätbeteende har mätts som antal utfall mot en matbit under en given tidsperiod och aggression har mätts genom att räkna antal bett mot en spegel. Anxiolytiska effekter undersöktes vid koncentrationer på 0,1 µg/l, 15 µg/l och 1,5 µg/l. Effekter på ätbeteende undersöktes vid 0,15 µg/l och 1,5 µg/l. Eftersom serotonin är inblandat i embryonalutvecklingen testades de beteendemässiga effekterna av exponering för 1,5 µg/l under utvecklingen. Då citalopram sällan förekommer ensamt i miljön testades ett cocktailscenario där zebrafisk samtidigt exponerades för citalopram och den anxiogena substansen 17α-etinylestradiol (EE2).

    Citalopram befanns ha anxiolytisk verkan på storspigg samt undertrycka ätbeteendet. Effekter på ätbeteendet uppstod inom en vecka efter exponering och vid den minsta testade dosen vilken var 0,15 µg/l. Storspigg som exponerats under embryonalutvecklingen var mer aggressiva, hade lägre lokomotoraktivitetoch gjorde fler utfall mot mat då de testades 100 dagar efter att exponeringen avslutats. Samtidigt exponering för citalopram och den anxiogena substansen 17α-etinylestradiol (EE2) gav tvetydiga resultat. Citalopram ensamt hade ingen signifikant påverkan på beteendet i detta försök. I skototaxitestet motverkade citalopram den anxiogena effekten av EE2 medan det förstärkte den anxiogena effekten i novel tank. Sammanfattningsvis har citalopram effekter på ekologiskt relevanta beteenden hos fisk i koncentrationer som förekommer i ytvatten. Det har också permanenta effekter på beteende om exponeringen sker under embryonalutvecklingen. Dessa resultat gör det sannolikt att citalopram och andra SSRI har ekologiska effekter i påverkade vattendrag.

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  • 245.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hallgren, S
    Uppsala University.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Hansen, S H
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Waterborne citalopram has anxiolytic effects and increases locomotor activity in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2016Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 173, s. 19-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, which acts by inhibiting the re-uptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic nerve ending. It is one of the most common drugs used in treatment of depression, it is highly lipophilic and frequently found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters around the world. Citalopram and other selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have, at concentrations that occur in nature, been shown to have behavioural as well as physiological effects on fish and other animals. This study is the result of several different experiments, intended to analyse different aspects of behavioural effects of chronic citalopram exposure in fish. Our model species the three-spine stickleback is common in the entire northern hemisphere and is considered to be a good environmental sentinel species. Female three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 0, 1.5 and 15μg/l nominal concentrations of citalopram for 21 days and subjected to the novel tank (NT) diving test. In the NT test, the fish exposed to 1.5μg/l, but not the 15μg/l fish made a significantly higher number of transitions to the upper half and stayed there for significantly longer time than the fish exposed to 0μg/l. The 15μg/l group, however, displayed a significantly lower number of freeze bouts and a shorter total freezing time. The test for locomotor activity included in the NT test showed that fish treated with 1.5 and 15μg/l displayed a significantly higher swimming activity than control fish both 5-7 and 15-17min after the start of the experiment. In the next experiment we compared fish exposed to 1.5μg/l and 0.15μg/l to pure water controls with regard to shoaling intensity and found no effect of treatment. In the final experiment the propensity of fish treated with 1.5μg/l to approach an unknown object and aggressive behaviour was investigated using the Novel Object test and a mirror test, respectively. The exposed fish ventured close to the unknown object significantly more often and stayed there for significantly longer time than unexposed fish. The aggression test yielded no statistically significant effects. It is concluded that citalopram changes the behaviour of the three-spine stickleback in a way that is likely to have ecological consequences and that it must not be considered an environmentally safe pharmaceutical.

  • 246.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Borg, Bertil
    Stockholm university.
    Roufidou, Chrysoula
    Stockholm university.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Developmental exposure to the SSRI citalopram causes long-lasting behavioural effects in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2018Ingår i: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 12-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to persistent behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRI which last into adulthood. To study effects of developmental exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1.5 µg/l of the SSRI citalopram in the ambient water for 30 days, starting two days post-fertilisation. After 100 days of remediation in clean water the fish were put through an extensive test battery. Feeding behaviour was tested as the number of bites against a piece of food and found to be increased in the exposed fish. Aggression levels were measured as the number of bites against a mirror image during 10 minutes and was also found to be significantly increased in the exposed fish. Novel tank behaviour and locomotor activity was tested in an aquarium that had a horizontal line drawn half-way between the bottom and the surface. Neither the latency to the first transition to the upper half, nor the number of transitions or the total time spent in the upper half was affected by treatment. Locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the exposed fish. The light/dark preference was tested in an aquarium where the bottom and walls were black on one side and white on the other. The number of transitions to the white side was significantly reduced in the exposed fish but there was no effect on the latency to the first transition or the total time spent in the white half. The results in the current study indicate that developmental SSRI exposure causes persistent behavioural effects in fish and contribute to the existing knowledge about SSRIs as environmental pollutants.

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  • 247.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Hansen, Steen
    Univ. of Copenhagen.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Environmentally relevant concentrations of citalopram partially inhibit feeding in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2015Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 158, s. 165-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRI) are mood-altering, psychotropic drugs commonly used in the treatment of depression and other psychological illnesses. Many of them are poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and enter the environment unaltered. In laboratory studies, they have been demonstrated to affect a wide range of behaviours in aquatic organisms. In this study we investigated the effect of a three-week exposure to 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l of the SSRI citalopram dissolved in the ambient water on the feeding behaviour in three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Feeding, measured as the number of attacks performed on a piece of frozen bloodworms during a 10-min period, was reduced by 30–40% in fish exposed to both 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l citalopram. The effects of the environmentally relevant concentration 0.15 μg/l on feeding, an important fitness characteristic, suggests that the ecological significance of environmental SSRI exposure may be pronounced.

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  • 248.
    Kern, Kristine
    et al.
    Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development & Structural Planning, Erkner, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Governing Europe’s Marine Environment: Key Topics and Challenges2015Ingår i: Governing Europe’s Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham, England: Ashgate, 2015, s. 1-12Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
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  • 249.
    Kern, Kristine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Löffelsend, T.
    The Free University, Berlin, Germany.
    Governance beyond the nation state: Transnationalization and Europeanization of the Baltic sea region2008Ingår i: Governing a Common Sea: Environmental Policies in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Marko Joas, Detlef Jahn, Kristine Kern, London: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 2008, Vol. 9781849771498, s. 115-141Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 250.
    Kern, Kristine
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Research on Society and Space (IRS), Erkner, Germany / Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The ecosystem approach to management in the Baltic Sea Region: Analyzing regional environmental governance from a spatial perspective2018Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 98, s. 271-277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecosystem approach to management (EAM) is a policy principle and management tool of increasing importance in European environmental governance. In the Baltic Sea region (BSR), this approach has developed in line with a progressive environmental management agenda, reaching from hot spot solutions to new holistic agendas. This paper examines the spatial dimensions of the EAM in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). The analysis is based on an analytical framework which combines regional environmental governance with debates on socio-spatial relations. It is found that the development, implementation, and spread of EAM corresponds with changing socio-spatial relations. Reterritorialisation of both institutional arrangements and policies is needed to solve cross-boundary problems. Place-making such as hot spots and pilot projects (e.g., in maritime spatial planning) are first steps towards the upscaling of local experiments and re-scaling of policies is also needed for the implementation of EAM in a macroregional multi-level setting, stretching from the EU to the local level. Analyzing regional environmental governance from a spatial perspective reveals institutional ambiguities and even institutional voids because the successful implementation of EAM requires new institutional arrangements.

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