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  • 201.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    et al.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute of the Central Statistical Office, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Paris, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Determinants of the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: A study of 17 European countries2017In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 47, p. 44-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality differs importantly between countries, but these variations have not been satisfactorily explained. We explored the role of behavioral and structural determinants of these variations, by using a dataset covering 17 European countries in the period 1970–2010, and by conducting multilevel multivariate regression analyses. Our results suggest that between-country variations in inequalities in current mortality can partly be understood from variations in inequalities in smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poverty. Also, countries with higher national income, higher quality of government, higher social transfers, higher health care expenditure and more self-expression values have smaller inequalities in mortality. Finally, trends in behavioral risk factors, particularly smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, appear to partly explain variations in inequalities in mortality trends. This study shows that analyses of variations in health inequalities between countries can help to identify entry-points for policy.

  • 202.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    et al.
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kovács, Katalin
    Hungarian Central Statistical Office, Budapest, Hungary.
    Looman, Caspar W N
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Mäkelä, Pia
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers.2015In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e1001909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related mortality have been documented in several European countries, but it is unknown whether the magnitude of these inequalities differs between countries and whether these inequalities increase or decrease over time.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related mortality. For example, for educational inequality among Finnish men, the relative index of inequality is 3.6 (95% CI 3.3-4.0) and the slope index of inequality is 112.5 (95% CI 106.2-118.8) deaths per 100,000 person-years. Over time, the relative inequality in alcohol-related mortality has increased in many countries, but the main change is a strong rise of absolute inequality in several countries in Eastern Europe (Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia) and Northern Europe (Finland, Denmark) because of a rapid rise in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups. In some of these countries, alcohol-related causes now account for 10% or more of the socioeconomic inequality in total mortality. Because our study relies on routinely collected underlying causes of death, it is likely that our results underestimate the true extent of the problem.

    CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol-related conditions play an important role in generating inequalities in total mortality in many European countries. Countering increases in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups is essential for reducing inequalities in mortality. Studies of why such increases have not occurred in countries like France, Switzerland, Spain, and Italy can help in developing evidence-based policies in other European countries.

  • 203. Mackenbach, Johan P
    et al.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Bopp, Matthias
    Borrell, Carme
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Esnaola, Santiago
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Regidor, Enrique
    Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica
    Strand, Bjørn Heine
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Ostergren, Olof
    Lundberg, Olle
    Trends in inequalities in premature mortality: a study of 3.2 million deaths in 13 European countries.2015In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 69, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Over the last decades of the 20th century, a widening of the gap in death rates between upper and lower socioeconomic groups has been reported for many European countries. For most countries, it is unknown whether this widening has continued into the first decade of the 21st century.

    METHODS: We collected and harmonised data on mortality by educational level among men and women aged 30-74 years in all countries with available data: Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England and Wales, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Hungary, Lithuania and Estonia.

    RESULTS: Relative inequalities in premature mortality increased in most populations in the North, West and East of Europe, but not in the South. This was mostly due to smaller proportional reductions in mortality among the lower than the higher educated, but in the case of Lithuania and Estonia, mortality rose among the lower and declined among the higher educated. Mortality among the lower educated rose in many countries for conditions linked to smoking (lung cancer, women only) and excessive alcohol consumption (liver cirrhosis and external causes). In absolute terms, however, reductions in premature mortality were larger among the lower educated in many countries, mainly due to larger absolute reductions in mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer (men only). Despite rising levels of education, population-attributable fractions of lower education for mortality rose in many countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Relative inequalities in premature mortality have continued to rise in most European countries, and since the 1990s, the contrast between the South (with smaller inequalities) and the East (with larger inequalities) has become stronger. While the population impact of these inequalities has further increased, there are also some encouraging signs of larger absolute reductions in mortality among the lower educated in many countries. Reducing inequalities in mortality critically depends upon speeding up mortality declines among the lower educated, and countering mortality increases from conditions linked to smoking and excessive alcohol consumption such as lung cancer, liver cirrhosis and external causes.

  • 204.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    et al.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Valverde, Jose Rubio
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bronnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    rije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Hungarian Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). ational Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsnki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    INSERM, Sorbonne Universités, Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Paris, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    niversidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / CIBER Epidemiologí y Salud Püblica, Madrid, Spain.
    Nusselder, Wilma J.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Determinants of inequalities in life expectancy: an international comparative study of eight risk factors2019In: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 4, no 10, p. E529-E537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in longevity have been found in all European countries. We aimed to assess which determinants make the largest contribution to these inequalities. Methods We did an international comparative study of inequalities in risk factors for shorter life expectancy in Europe. We collected register-based mortality data and survey-based risk factor data from 15 European countries. We calculated partial life expectancies between the ages of 35 years and 80 years by education and gender and determined the effect on mortality of changing the prevalence of eight risk factors-father with a manual occupation, low income, few social contacts, smoking, high alcohol consumption, high bodyweight, low physical exercise, and low fruit and vegetable consumption-among people with a low level of education to that among people with a high level of education (upward levelling scenario), using population attributable fractions. Findings In all countries, a substantial gap existed in partial life expectancy between people with low and high levels of education, of 2.3-8.2 years among men and 0.6-4.5 years among women. The risk factors contributing most to the gap in life expectancy were smoking (19.8% among men and 18.9% among women), low income (9.7% and 13.4%), and high bodyweight (7.7% and 11.7%), but large differences existed between countries in the contribution of risk factors. Sensitivity analyses using the prevalence of risk factors in the most favourable country (best practice scenario) showed that the potential for reducing the gap might be considerably smaller. The results were also sensitive to varying assumptions about the mortality risks associated with each risk factor. Interpretation Smoking, low income, and high bodyweight are quantitatively important entry points for policies to reduce educational inequalities in life expectancy in most European countries, but priorities differ between countries. A substantial reduction of inequalities in life expectancy requires policy actions on a broad range of health determinants.

  • 205.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    et al.
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Valverde, José Rubio
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Artnik, Barbara
    Faculty of Medicine, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Ixelles, Belgium.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania;.
    Kovács, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
    White, Chris
    Office of National Statistics, Newport, United Kingdom.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Hu, Yannan
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Trends in health inequalities in 27 European countries2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 25, p. 6440-6445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfavorable health trends among the lowly educated have recently been reported from the United States. We analyzed health trends by education in European countries, paying particular attention to the possibility of recent trend interruptions, including interruptions related to the impact of the 2008 financial crisis. We collected and harmonized data on mortality from <i>ca</i> 1980 to <i>ca</i> 2014 for 17 countries covering 9.8 million deaths and data on self-reported morbidity from <i>ca</i> 2002 to <i>ca</i> 2014 for 27 countries covering 350,000 survey respondents. We used interrupted time-series analyses to study changes over time and country-fixed effects analyses to study the impact of crisis-related economic conditions on health outcomes. Recent trends were more favorable than in previous decades, particularly in Eastern Europe, where mortality started to decline among lowly educated men and where the decline in less-than-good self-assessed health accelerated, resulting in some narrowing of health inequalities. In Western Europe, mortality has continued to decline among the lowly and highly educated, and although the decline of less-than-good self-assessed health slowed in countries severely hit by the financial crisis, this affected lowly and highly educated equally. Crisis-related economic conditions were not associated with widening health inequalities. Our results show that the unfavorable trends observed in the United States are not found in Europe. There has also been no discernible short-term impact of the crisis on health inequalities at the population level. Both findings suggest that European countries have been successful in avoiding an aggravation of health inequalities.

  • 206. Marcinczak, Szymon
    et al.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Umeå University.
    Stepniak, Marcin
    Paradoxes of (Post)Socialist Segregation: Metropolitan Sociospatial Divisions Under Socialism and After In Poland2013In: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 327-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of the art in research on residential segregation and concentr= ion in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) largely focuses on process descri= ion (e.g., the multitude of works on gentrification and suburbanization).= ven though major advances in the conceptualization and measurement of seg= gation have been made, works that scrutinize the patterns of segregation = d/or concentration in CEE are rare, while studies that simultaneously exp= re and link segregation patterns under socialism and after are virtually = nexistent. Relying on Polish census-tract level data on the educational s= ucture of population in 1978, 1988, and 2002, this study explores the pat= rns of social segregation and concentration in the three major Polish cit= s (Warsaw, Cracow, and od), representing different paths of development u= er socialism and after. The results show that the population of the three= ajor Polish cities was still socially heterogeneous at the census tract l= el in 2002. ! he results also reveal that the level of social residential segregation i= the three cities has been decreasing steadily since 1978, irrespective of= he prevailing economic system.

  • 207.
    Murphy, A.
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Roberts, B.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Kenward, M. G.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    De Stavola, B. L.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    McKee, M.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Using multi-level data to estimate the effect of social capital on hazardous alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union2014In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 572-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hazardous alcohol consumption is a leading cause of mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU), but little is known about the social factors associated with this behaviour. We set out to estimate the association between individual- and community-level social capital and hazardous alcohol consumption in the fSU. Methods: Data were obtained from Health in Times of Transition 2010, a household survey of nine fSU countries (n = 18 000 within 2027 communities). Individual-level indicators of social isolation, civic participation, help in a crisis and interpersonal trust were aggregated to the community level. Adjusting for demographic factors, the association of individual- and community-level indicators with problem drinking (CAGE) and episodic heavy drinking was estimated using a population average model for the analysis of multi-level data. Results: Among men, individual social isolation [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20], community social isolation (OR = 1.18) and community civic participation (OR = 4.08) were associated with increased odds of CAGE. Community civic participation (OR = 2.91) increased the odds of episodic heavy drinking, while community interpersonal trust (OR = 0.89) decreased these odds. Among women, individual social isolation (OR = 1.30) and community civic participation (OR = 2.94) increased odds of CAGE. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of the role of some elements of social capital in problem drinking in the fSU, and highlight the importance of community effects. The nature of civic organizations in the fSU, and the communities in which civic participation is high, should be further investigated to inform alcohol policy in the region.

  • 208. Murphy, Adrianna
    et al.
    Levchuk, Nataliia
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Roberts, Bayard
    McKee, Martin
    A country divided?: Regional variation in mortality in Ukraine2013In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 837-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We set out to identify the contribution of various causes of death to regional differences in life expectancy in Ukraine. Mortality data by oblast (province) were obtained from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. The contribution of various causes of death to differences in life expectancy between East, West and South Ukraine was estimated using decomposition. In 2008, life expectancy for men in South (61.8 years) and East Ukraine (61.2 years) was lower than for men in West Ukraine (64.0 years). A similar pattern was observed among women. This was mostly due to deaths from infectious disease and external causes among young adults, and cardio- and cerebro-vascular deaths among older adults. Deaths from TB among young adults contribute most to differences in life expectancy. Deaths due to infectious disease, especially TB, play an important role in the gap in life expectancy between regions in Ukraine. These deaths are entirely preventable-further research is needed to identify what has 'protected' individuals in Western Ukraine from the burden of deaths experienced by their Southern and Eastern counterparts.

  • 209. Murphy, Adrianna
    et al.
    Roberts, Bayard
    Ploubidis, George B
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    Using multi-level data to estimate the effect of an 'alcogenic' environment on hazardous alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union.2014In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 27, p. 205-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether alcohol-related community characteristics act collectively to influence individual-level alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union (fSU).

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Using multi-level data from nine countries in the fSU we conducted a factor analysis of seven alcohol-related community characteristics. The association between any latent factors underlying these characteristics and two measures of hazardous alcohol consumption was then analysed using a population average regression modelling approach. Our factor analysis produced one factor with an eigenvalue >1 (EV=1.28), which explained 94% of the variance. This factor was statistically significantly associated with increased odds of CAGE problem drinking (OR=1.40 (1.08-1.82)). The estimated association with EHD was not statistically significant (OR=1.10 (0.85-1.44)).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a high number of beer, wine and spirit advertisements and high alcohol outlet density may work together to create an 'alcogenic' environment that encourages hazardous alcohol consumption in the fSU.

  • 210.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    The East is – Empty2013In: Baltic Rim Economies : Quarterly Review, ISSN 1459-9759, no 1, p. 41-42Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Möller, Josefin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Lundström, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    ”Jag förknippar Stockholm med karriär, att man vill bli något. Att man inte är nöjd med livets färdiga väg som vi är i Skellefteå.”: En kvalitativ studie om hur individens identitet och självbild påverkas av bostadsorten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur individens identitet och självbild påverkas av bostadsorten. Studiens empiri har samlats in genom kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio individer uppväxta och bosatta i Stockholms kommun samt Skellefteå kommun. Ett flertal teorier om identitetsskapande, från exempelvis Bauman (2004) och Pripp (2001), har använts för att förstå fenomenet. Resultatet av studien visar hur intervjupersonerna upplever en stolthet över att bo i respektive kommun, samt att individens identitetsskapande påverkas av förväntningarna som är kopplade till platsen. Intervjupersonerna från Stockholms kommun upplevde en förväntning på att ha en utbildning och en växande karriär, medan intervjupersonerna från Skellefteå kommun upplevde en förväntning på att bilda familj tidigt samt ha ett stabilt arbete. Den egna identiteten stärktes när intervjupersonerna talade om sig själva i relation till den andra gruppen, vilket skapar en slags maktobalans mellan de två kommunerna. 

  • 212.
    Nagavci, B L
    et al.
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    de Gelder, R
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Martikainen, P
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Deboosere, P
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Bopp, M
    University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland .
    Rychtaříková, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kalediene, R
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Mackenbach, J P
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Inequalities in tuberculosis mortality: long-term trends in 11 European countries.2016In: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, ISSN 1027-3719, E-ISSN 1815-7920, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 574-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SETTING: Previous studies in many countries have shown that mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) is higher among people of lower socio-economic status.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude and direction of trends in educational inequalities in TB mortality in 11 European countries.

    DESIGN: Data on TB mortality between 1980 and 2011 were collected among persons aged 35-79 years. Age-standardised mortality rates by educational level were calculated. Inequalities were estimated using the relative and slope indices of inequality.

    RESULTS: In the first decade of the twenty-first century, educational inequalities in TB mortality occurred in all countries in this study. The largest absolute inequalities were observed in Lithuania, and the smallest in Denmark. In most countries, relative inequalities have remained stable since the 1980s or 1990s, while absolute inequalities remained stable or went down. In Lithuania and Estonia, however, absolute inequalities increased substantially.

    CONCLUSION: The reduction in absolute inequalities in TB mortality, as seen in many European countries, is a major achievement; however, inequalities persist and are still a major cause for concern in the twenty-first century. Interventions aimed at preventing TB disease and reducing TB case fatality in lower socio-economic groups should be intensified, especially in the Baltic countries.

  • 213.
    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng
    et al.
    Nagasaki Univiversity,Nagasaki , Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Konishi, Shoko
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ambient air pollution and suicide in Tokyo, 2001-20112016In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 201, p. 194-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Some evidence suggests an association may exist between the level of air pollution and suicide mortality. However, this relation has been little studied to date. The current study examined the association in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: Suicide mortality data for Tokyo for the 11-year period 2001-2011 were obtained together with data on four air pollutants: fine particulate matter (PM2.5), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A time-stratified case-crossover study design was used to examine the daily association between the level of air pollution and suicide mortality. Results: During the study period there were 29,939 suicide deaths. In stratified analyses an interquartile range (IQR) increase in the same-day concentration of NO2 was linked to increased suicide mortality among those aged under 30 (percentage change: 6.73%, 95% Cl: 0.69-13.12%). An IQR increase in PM25 and SO2 was associated with a 10.55% (95% Cl: 2.05-19.75%) and 11.47% (95% Cl: 3.60-19.93%) increase, respectively, in suicide mortality among widowed individuals for mean exposure on the first four days (average lags 0-3). Positive associations were observed for the air pollutants in the summer although associations were reversed in autumn. Limitations: We relied on monitoring data to approximate individual exposure to air pollutants. Conclusions: Higher levels of air pollution are associated with increased suicide mortality in some population subgroups in Tokyo. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking air pollutants and suicide in this setting.

  • 214.
    Nigren, Rebecca
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Risberg, Tina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Vem får arbeta med reklam?: En kvalitativ studie om skapandet och reproduktion av homogenitet i reklambranschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate underlying factors that create and maintain homogeneity in the advertising industry, and how those who produce advertising relate to this. The study is based on an intersectional perspective in order to reach a deeper understanding of how inequality is created in the advertising industry. The study's empirical data has been collected based on six qualitative interviews with women who work at different advertising agencies in Stockholm. Our results show that high financial, social and cultural capital affects the work opportunities favourably, and contributes to the industry's homogeneity. The term habitus has been used to locate and create an understanding of how homogeneity is created and reproduced. Furthermore, current norms and values ​​within the industry have been identified and have created an understanding for the appearance of the homogenity. The result also shows that the advertising as a product, and the informants' experiences of their own workplace are affected by the industry's homogeneity, which has led to the argumention for a greater diversity among the employees. Advertising has a position of power in today's consumer society where they have influence over people's self-identities, which has led to the argument for a greater diversity among employees would had been favorable for everyone in order to be to feel represented, but also that the homosocial reproduction where men currently possess positions with more power should be broken in order to create a more equal industry which in turn can be a step towards a more equal society.

  • 215. Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of Tokyo.
    Alcohol tax, consumption and mortality in tsarist Russia: is a public health perspective applicable?2013In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 340-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The public health perspective on alcohol comprises two main tenets: (i) population drinking impacts on alcohol-related harm and (ii) population drinking is affected by the physical and economic availability of alcohol, where alcohol taxes are the most efficient measure for regulating consumption. This perspective has received considerable empirical support from analyses of contemporary data mainly from Europe and North America. However, as yet, it has been little examined in a historical context. The aims of the present article are to use data from tsarist Russia to explore (i) the relation between changes in the tax on alcohol and per capita alcohol consumption and (ii) the relation between per capita alcohol consumption and alcohol mortality. Methods: The material comprised annual data on alcohol taxes, alcohol consumption and alcohol mortality. The tax and alcohol consumption series spanned the period 1864-1907 and the mortality data covered the period 1870-94. The data were analysed by estimating autoregressive integrated moving average models on differenced data. Results: Changes in alcohol taxes were significantly associated with alcohol consumption in the expected direction. Increases in alcohol consumption, in turn, were significantly related to increases in alcohol mortality. Conclusion: This study provides support for the utility of the public health perspective on alcohol in explaining changes in consumption and alcohol-related harm in a historical context. We discuss our findings from tsarist Russia in the light of experiences from more recent alcohol policy changes in Russia.

  • 216.
    Obrenovic Johansson, Sanja
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Från kombifeminism till rörelse: Kvinnlig serbisk organisering i förändring2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about seven women’s organizations in Belgrade, Serbia and their relations to domestic and international donors during the period 2003-2006. My main research questions focus on their choices of either domestic or international cooperation partners. How and why did the women organize themselves? What factors were essential when selecting donors? In what ways were the organizations influenced by donors?

    Through interviews, with organization representatives’ concepts such as gift and reciprocity, power and dependency, trust and mistrust and collective identity emerged.  These concepts were used as points of departure for developing deeper understanding of women organizations’ choice of cooperation partners.

    The women organizations’ basically had two alternatives for cooperation: cooperation with foreign donors which offered funds, organizational development and social networks. Alternately, cooperation with local donors, which offered the equivalent except for the organizational development. Cooperation with the foreign donor has resulted in more professional attitudes to the work that have been desired by other international donors. A result is that they can compete with other women’s organizations’ for international funding. Cooperation with local donors has led to fewer resources but more independent working practices. For these women organizations’ independence was important so they choose partners who, they felt more respected this allowing them to write articles or discuss gender in the media with little external influence. Regardless of the chosen donor the reciprocity is embedded in the relation between the donor and the receiver of aid, which in various ways is beneficial for both parties.

     

  • 217.
    Papakostas, Apostolis
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Reinvent.
    Building State Infrastructural Capacities: Sweden and Greece2018In: Bureaucracy and Society in Transition: Comparative Perspectives / [ed] Haldor Byrkjeflot, Fredrik Engelstad, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018, Vol. 33, p. 39-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition into modernity takes very different roads, depending on thesequencing of bureaucracy and democratic regime. This is demonstrated bycomparing Sweden and Greece. At an early stage of the long-term modernisationof Swedish society, due to early penetration of the internal territory andbefore the extension of suffrage and political modernisation, a number ofstate organisations were established at the interstices between state and society,creating direct relations between the state and society. The impressiveLantmäteriet, the organisation of tax authorities, the establishment ofauthorities for registering the population and the Tabellverket are typicalillustrations of such organisational structures. Such organisations functionedas social mechanisms that elucidated society making it legible and thusstrengthened the infrastructural capacity of the state. In Greece, where thestate was built after political modernisation, the establishment of similarorganisations proved to be more difficult. Although there is evidence thatsimilar Swedish practices were known in Greece to be possible paths, theywere not chosen. The establishment of a land registry system, for instance,was discussed in the decades prior to the 1871 land reform. On other issues,such choices could not be materialised given opposition or political countermobilisationto abolish the reforms after they were approved by parliament.These reform efforts were rather short-lived or countered by new reforms andexemptions, creating an ambiguous labyrinth of regulations of statesocietyrelations and a state without the capacity to intervene in society and implementlogistically political decisions throughout the realm. On the whole, thestate remained a distant entity, mostly a distrusted one, and relations between the state and society were mediated by parties and by social and kinshipbasednetworks.

  • 218.
    Papakostas, Apostolis
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Cadastral maps, the simplification of space and social tensions: A contrast of Sweden and Greece2016In: Social spaces and social relations: Introduction by Anthony Giddens / [ed] Malgorzata Bogunia-Borowska, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016, p. 21-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 219.
    Papakostas, Apostolis
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Kommunkorruption? Antecknignar kring en besvärande fråga2013In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 7, p. 86-89Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Papakostas, Apostolis
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Resorna med Sven - en obenägen medresenärs anteckningar2017In: På väg: En vänbok till Sven E. Hort / [ed] Paavo Bergman & Gunnar Olofsson, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2017, p. 261-268Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Papakostas, Apostolis
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Γιατί δεν υπάρχει πελατοκρατία στη Σκανδιναβία;2019Book (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Paulaityté, Akvile
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Ohlson, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Måste jag köpa det jag ser?: En kvalitativ studie om Instagrams påverkan på skönhets- och modekonsumtion.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The qualitative study “Måste jag köpa det jag ser?” by Madeleine Ohlson and Akvile Paulaityté is made to investigate the effects of Instagram on fashion- and beautyconsumption and the ego image of individuals. In the Swedish society the government sees consumption as a problem, and that it should decrease because of the high consumptionlevel. According to Dag Kättström social media affects everydaylife of individuals and their relations because of the frequent use. The research of Instagram by Mendelsons and Papacharissis (2011) reveals the possibility for individuals to display their identity and create an image. During this study seven semistructured interviews were made with students from Södertörn University and the material was analyzed through Goffman’s dramaturgic perspective and the consumptiontheory of Bauman. The outcome of the study shows that students that frequently use Instagram gets a need to see frequent newsfeed updates and the students with a beauty- and fashioninterest follow beauty- and fashioninspired users to find new trends and create productposts. The effects of Instagram on the ego image is low according to the students because of their high self-esteem. They though feel they are affected by their feel of insufficiency from Instagramposts regarding beauty- and fashionproducts and appearance standards.

  • 223.
    Peterson, A.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wahlström, M.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wennerhag, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. University of Gothenburg.
    ‘Normalized’ Pride?: Pride parade participants in six European countries2018In: Sexualities, ISSN 1363-4607, E-ISSN 1461-7382, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1146-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on quantitative survey data collected during Pride parades in six European countries – the Czech Republic, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland – we analyse who participates in Pride parades. Engaging with the so-called protest normalization thesis we ask: are Pride parade participants, aside from sexual orientation, representative of the wider populace? In none of the countries could we find indications that Pride participants mirror the general populations. The parades remain dominated by well-educated, middle strata youth, rich in political resources. However, we find variation between countries, which we link to differences in elite and public support for LGBT rights. © 2017, The Author(s) 2017.

  • 224.
    Peterson, Abby
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wahlström, Mattias
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wennerhag, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Pride Parades and LGBT Movements: Political Participation in an International Comparative Perspective2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 225. Petrova, Saska
    et al.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Umeå University.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Bouzarovski, Stefan
    Perceptions of thermal comfort and housing quality: exploring the microgeographies of energy poverty in Stakhanov, Ukraine2013In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1240-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing recognition of the importance of indoor environments as 'active political-ecological spaces' has rarely been followed up by a systematic empirical engagement with the constituent dynamics and conceptual issues associated with infrastructural deprivation in this domain, particularly in non-Western contexts. Therefore, we investigate the relationship between self-reported perceptions of thermal comfort in the home, on the one hand, and a range of sociodemographic, housing, and health-related variables, on the other, via a quantitative analysis of a large-scale survey undertaken in the Eastern Ukrainian town of Stakhanov. Using the perceived level of thermal comfort as a starting point for its empirical explorations, we estimate the number and type of households who feel that they are receiving inadequate energy services in the home. Special attention is paid to the role of buildings in shaping the perceptions of thermal comfort.

  • 226.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Anarchists in Poland – a new generation of the Left?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Contention and the civil society2017In: Understanding Central Europe / [ed] Marcin Moskalewiczn & Wojciech Przybylski, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 311-317Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1980s, the “civil society” concept made a comeback into the main discourse of the social sciences – after in principle being out of use since the mid-19th century – mainly as a consequence of the emergence of pro-democratic movements in Eastern European and Latin American authoritarian states (Kocka 2004: 67). Civil society in Central Europe is not only seen as one of the main forces behind the overthrow of the communist regimes in the region; it was also one of the core concepts of the transformation of 1989. The changes within the structure and form of the civil society in post-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe reflect, to a large extent, the processes of the post-1989 transformation and the transfiguration of the political. This paper examines the tensions and conflicts within the broadly understood civil society sphere through the perspective of social mobilization and the function of the civil society. It also shows the dynamics of the changes within the sector and compares it with other forms of civic engagement such as grassroots social mobilizations. Finally, this papers deals with few myths about the civil society in post-communist Central Europe that shape the academic and the popular thinking about civil society sector in the region.

  • 228.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Eastern European Social Movements2013In: The Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of social and political movements / [ed] David A. Snow, Donatella della Porta, Bert Klandermans & Doug McAdam, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013, p. 383-388Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social movements in Eastern Europe have a long history. Despite problems with defining the region, most scholars tend to locate it in the postsocialist countries of Europe, which re-gained independence after the fall of the Iron Curtain. One of the most significant movements in the world during this period was Solidarność, which emerged in Poland in 1980. Solidarność developed from a trade union and reportedly had 9–10 million members (approximately 25% of the population). In the Fall of Nations in 1989/1990 hundreds of thousands of people went into the streets protesting against the communist regimes, and this contributed to the collapse of the Iron Curtain. A large variety of movements evolved from that time, with some becoming quite vibrant. Although there are important differences among the countries in Eastern Europe that shape social movements, some parts of the movements’ histories and characteristics are common. These differences and commonalities, crucial for the composition of the movements and their repertoires of action, are a result of the movements’ histories, legal systems, and political situations.

  • 229.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Green Activism in Post-Socialist Europe and the former Soviet Union2016In: Social Movement Studies, ISSN 1474-2837, E-ISSN 1474-2829, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 242-244Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Od post-anarchizmu do pop-anarchizmu2016In: Studia z dziejów anarchizmu (2): w dwusetlecie urodzin Michaiła Bakunina / [ed] Radosława Skryckiego, Szczecin: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Punk Against Communism: Revolting in 1980s Poland2016In: A European Youth Revolt?: European Perspectives on Youth Protest and Social Movements in the 1980s / [ed] Andresen, Knud and Bart van der Steen, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 203-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1989 pro-democratic transition in Poland was partly influenced by the rapidly growing youth subcultures. Punk rock was one of the most visible of them, providing numerous young people with networking possibilities, fresh ideas and different (than of the dissidents) understanding of freedom. Punk was not only challenging aesthetically, but also contested communist authorities from a different perspective, looking into environmental protection or turning against compulsory military service. The punk ‘no future’ slogan was also very appealing for young people in crisis-driven Poland of 1980s and the flagship punk event in Poland – the Jarocin music festival – became a safe place for many young people. The aim of this chapter is to show how punk rock helped to overthrow communism in Poland through these processes.

  • 232.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Social movement or subculture?: Alterglobalists in Central and Eastern Europe2013In: Interface: a journal for and about social movements, ISSN 2009-2431, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 399-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the research on the alterglobalist, also known as the global justice, movement has focused on Western Europe and North America, with occasional research on other parts of the world. There has been little research done on this movement in the postsocialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This paper attempts to fill this gap by exploring the key events of the movement as well as the genealogy of grassroots social activism in the region. It offers insight into a movement that developed in a region that, due to its history, has been rather hostile to leftist ideologies and groups. This paper examines the development of the alterglobalist movement in the region and traces its inspirations and path dependencies. It also poses questions about the nature of the movement and ways to analyse it – whether as a politicized social movement or a subculture and lifestyle choice. The close connections of Central and Eastern European grassroots social movements to subcultures and counterculture might suggest a new and fresh perspective for studying social movements.

  • 233.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Solidarity (Poland)2013In: The Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of social and political movements / [ed] David A. Snow, Donatella della Porta, Bert Klandermans & Doug McAdam, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solidarity (Solidarność in Polish) is a social movement, based on a trade union, that emerged in Poland in 1980. It was not only the biggest social mobilization in history (it is estimated that approximately 9–10 million people became members of Solidarity in a country of 38 million), but many commentators stress its leading role in overthrowing the communist regime in Poland and also in the rest of Eastern Europe.

  • 234.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Squatting in the East – Rozbrat in Poland2014In: The City Is Ours: Squatting and Autonomous Movements in Europe from the 1970s to the Present / [ed] van Hoogenhuijze, Leendert and Van Der Steen, Bart, Oakland CA: PM Press , 2014, p. 233-253Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Squatters and autonomous movements have been in the forefront of radical politics in Europe for nearly a half-century—from struggles against urban renewal and gentrification, to large-scale peace and environmental campaigns, to spearheading the antiausterity protests sweeping the continent. Through the compilation of the local movement histories of eight different cities—including Amsterdam, Berlin, and other famous centers of autonomous insurgence along with underdocumented cities such as Poznan and Athens—The City Is Ours paints a broad and complex picture of Europe’s squatting and autonomous movements. Each chapter focuses on one city and provides a clear chronological narrative and analysis accompanied by photographs and illustrations. The chapters focus on the most important events and developments in the history of these movements. Furthermore, they identify the specificities of the local movements and deal with issues such as the relation between politics and subculture, generational shifts, the role of confrontation and violence, and changes in political tactics. 

  • 235.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    The ‘Other’ Democratization in Poland: The Case of Environmental Protection Movement2015In: Democratization through Social Activism: Gender and Environmental Issues in Post-Communist Societies / [ed] Vlad, Ioana ; Fabian, Katalin, Bucharest: Tritonic , 2015, p. 235-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I show the development of the environmental protection movement in Poland and its influence on the process of democratization that occurred in the 1980s. I present the social and political landscape of Poland of the 1980s, focusing on the dynamics within the dissident sector. I shall later describe briefly the few most important campaigns of those times and present the actors that took part in them. In the second part of the paper I will analyze the input of the environmental movement for the democratization process of Poland and on the development of the NGO sector and grassroots social activism. The environmental movement in Poland managed to mobilize different cohorts of the society compared to the mainstream opposition, introduced novel repertoire of contention and brought issues that were not within the mainstream public discourse. In the last part of the paper I argue that the continuity of the environmental movement in Poland and its influence on the democratic consolidation after 1989. In the paper I focus mostly on the radical strain of the environmental movement in Poland that is under-researched within the transitional and social movement literature and that seemed to set the tone for the whole sector in terms of agenda and repertoires of action.

  • 236.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    What are Eastern European Social Movements and How to Study Them?2015In: Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics, ISSN 2416-089X, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea for this issue emerged in Budapest during a two-day workshop on social movements in Central and Eastern Europe. The ideas behind this workshop (and thus this issue) was to discuss the specificity of civil mobilizations in the region and to contribute to academic debates ongoing since the transformation of 1989. Is there a regional specificity of social activism? Is, and if yes, how social activism is different from other parts of the world? Does this imply different theoretical and analytical approach? Other questions, closely linked to these are, how Eastern Europe is defined, characterized and constructed? How the eastern European context and environment affect social movements and mobilizations in the region? The main goal of this article is to present the main discussions among social movement academics and practitioners in the region and to deconstruct some of the clichés about grassroots activism in Eastern Europe that arose over the years.

  • 237.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Mikecs, Daniel
    Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics: Social movements and contentious politics in Central and Eastern Europe2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Polanska, Dominika V.
    Uppsala University.
    Radical Urban Movements in Poland: the case of squatting2016In: Miscellanea Anthropologica et Sociologica, ISSN 2084-2937, E-ISSN 2354-0389, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 53-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radical social movements are more and more often the subject of academic inquiry, where their agenda, identity-building processes and repertoires of action are examined vis a vis the dominant discursive opportunity structures. The case study presented in this articleis the squatting movement in Poland. We interpret this movement, its actions and in particular alliance-building strategies, through the perspective of radical flanks of broader urban social movements environment.

  • 239.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Wennerhag, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Always against the state?: An analysis of Polish and Swedish radical left-libertarian activists’ interaction with institutionalized politics2015In: PArticipation and COnflict, ISSN 1972-7623, E-ISSN 2035-6609, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 845-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radical left-libertarian movements are often regarded as primarily seeking ways to accom-plish social and political change outside the framework of institutionalized politics. Previous research, however, has paid little or no attention to the question of these activists’ actual interactions with institu-tionalized politics, nor has it addressed the ways these interactions could be understood in relation to their overall strategies and ideology. This article therefore explores whether, and to what extent, such interaction actually occurs and analyzes the meanings and motives radical left-libertarian activists – from anarchist, autonomist, and anarcho-syndicalist groups – attribute to various types of political actions, ranging from voting and lobbying to protests and direct action. We furthermore compare activists in Po-land and Sweden, in order to scrutinize whether cross-country differences in “political opportunities” affects the activists’ political strategies and ideas about how social and political change can best be ac-complished. Contrary to popular beliefs and many activists’ own self-declarations, our analysis shows that radical left-libertarian groups do in fact try to achieve political change by interacting with institution-alized politics. While radical left-libertarian activists do in most cases prefer “direct action”, this article explores how a more complex relationship to institutionalized politics allows them to accomplish real and immediate changes at the grassroots level.

  • 240.
    Polanska, Dominika V.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Uppsala universitet.
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Poland: Local differences and the importence of cohesion2016In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, E-ISSN 2001-7308, Vol. IX, no 1-2, p. 46-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two Polish cities, Warsaw and Poznań, are studied in the article to examine how external structures are handled and used by squatters in these two settings. The aim is to analyze opportunity structures that condition the emergence and development of squatting and how squatters respond to and utilize these opportunities. Our ambition is to understand why squatting has developed differently in the two cities by emphasizing the duration and cohesion of the squatting scene as pivotal for the different trajectories of squatting. It is argued in the article that the durability of the squatting environment abates tendencies to open the squatting scene to external coalitions and establish more institutionalized forms of political struggle.

  • 241.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Göteborgs universitet.
    Alliance-building and Brokerage in Contentious Politics: the Case of the Polish tenants’ movement2015In: Urban Grassroots Movements in Central and Eastern Europe / [ed] Kerstin Jacobsson, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, p. 195-218Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). University of Gothenburg.
    Ann Rodenstedt: Living in the calm and safe part of the city. The socio-spatial reproduction of upper-middle class neighbourhoods in Malmö2016In: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, ISSN 1566-4910, E-ISSN 1573-7772, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 171-173Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    [Book Review:] Hirt, Sonja, A. Iron curtains: Gates, suburbs and privatization of space in the post-socialist city2014In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 320-321Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Cognitive dimension in cross-movement alliances: the case of squatting and tenants’ movements in Warsaw2014In: Interface, ISSN 2009-2431, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 328-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Squatting has been present in Central and Eastern Europe since the fall of state socialism and Poland is pointed out as exceptional in the development of squatting in the area. However, looking closer at the squatting environment in Warsaw reveals that the movements’ successes are a result of a cross-movement alliance with the tenants’ movement. The cooperation between squatters and tenants have in a short period of time gained a strong negotiating position vis-à-vis local authorities in Warsaw. The objective of this article is to analyse the mechanisms behind the cooperation of squatters’ and the tenants’ movements and in particular the cognitive processes behind the formation of an alliance. Specific research questions posed in the article cover how the cooperation between the squatting movement and the tenants’ movement emerge in the city, and what cognitive processes characterize the cooperation. The empirical material for the study consists of altogether 40 semi-structured interviews with squatters and activists in the tenants’ movement in the city. It is argued in the article that the development of alliance formation includes processes of defining common goals, underplaying of differences, and recognizing common strength. Moreover, in order to reach the point when the alliance is formed the process of recognition of common strength needs to be successful in both movements resulting in a shared perception of empowerment.

  • 245.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Motywacje osób niezinstytucjonalizowanego sektora społecznościowego [Motivations of activists in the non-institutionalized social sector]2015In: Krajobraz spolecznosciowy - Polska 2014 [Social landscape Poland 2014] / [ed] Galia Chimiak & Iwinska, Katarzyna, Warszawa: Centrum Wspierania Aktywności Lokalnej/CAL , 2015, p. 27-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Parental Movements with Disparate Agendas2014In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. VII, no 4, p. 60-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 247.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Reversing the myths on weak post-communist civil societies2013In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. VI, no 3-4, p. 33-34Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 248.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Skiljelinjen mellan det offentliga och det privata: förklaringarna bakom de inhägnade bostadsområdenas popularitet i Polen2013In: Nordisk Østforum, ISSN 0801-7220, E-ISSN 1891-1773, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 7-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to examine the reasons behind the growing popularity ofgated communities in Poland by applying cultural, institutional and economic explanationsin the Polish context. The empirical material consists of interviews, newspaperarticles, legal acts concerning housing, official documents and a questionnaire. Thedivide between the public and private spheres is central to the explanatory model, andit is argued that it is this that has played a central role in the emergence and popularityof gated forms of housing in Poland. The introduction of a market economy and subsequentsocio-economic inequalities has resulted in specific forms of individual strategiesregarding housing preferences. It is suggested here that this specific form ofindividualism, connected with institutional shortcomings, cultural legacies and thepresent housing market, is reflected in the enclosed and private living spaces of today’s Poles.

  • 249.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Piotrowski, Grzegorz
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    The transformative power of cooperation between social movements: squatting and tenants’ movements in Poland2015In: City, ISSN 1360-4813, E-ISSN 1470-3629, Vol. 19, no 2-3, p. 274-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Squatting, or the use of property without the legal permission, and tenants’ activism are under-researched areas, in particular in the post-socialist context. Poland has been pointed out as extraordinary on the map of squatting in post-socialist Europe and a considerable number of tenants’ organizations are active in the country. What is most interesting is that squatters’ and tenants’ activists are forming alliances, despite their obvious differences in their organizational models, social composition, along with the specific motives and goals of their activism. The objective of this article is to examine the relations between the tenants’ and squatting movements in Poland by studying two cities where both movements are established and closely cooperating. In particular we are interested in the transformative power of such cooperation and we assume that cooperation between social movements results in negotiations and transformations of the social movement actors involved. The empirical foundations for this article are 50 interviews, whereof 30 interviews conducted in Warsaw with squatters and tenants’ movement activists and 20 interviews conducted with activists in Poznań. Warsaw and Poznań are, moreover, two Polish cities where the squatting movement is most vibrant and where squatters and tenants have achieved some considerable successes in their activities. The article argues against previous studies emphasizing access to abundant resources and identity alignment as crucial for the mobilization of collective and collaborative action. Instead, it argues that the lack of resources might also be driving social movements towards cooperation, as a kind of compensation. Moreover, our cases demonstrate that ideology and identity alignment in social movements create stagnation with regard to openness towards new allies. We therefore argue that a high degree of identity alignment and ideological consistency might discourage the formation of new alliances.

  • 250. Pray, Leslie
    et al.
    Cohen, ClaraMäkinen, Ilkka HenrikSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).Värnik, AiriMacKellar, F. Landis
    Suicide in Eastern Europe, the CIS, and the Baltic Countries: Social and Public Health Determinants. A Foundation for Designing Interventions. Summary of a Conference2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
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