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  • 201.
    Peil, Tiina
    et al.
    Tallin University, Estonia.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Permanence of the family farm questioned: Rural mobility in the nineteenth-century Estonia and Sweden2014In: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 247-267Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 202.
    Perunicic, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dånvikens algblomning och dess sociala konsekvenser för fastighetsägare i Sjöudden/Gråstena i Salems kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recreational loss due to algal blooms is large even though recreation is important for human health and social cohesion. This study examines the social consequences of the autumn bloom in the lake Dånviken, Sweden, for property owners in close proximity to the lake and how future algal blooms can be prevented. Through sewerage analysis, survey, interview and conflict analysis, one can see that recreational opportunities have been threatened by the bloom through consequences such as bad odors and ruined beaches. Reduced recreation reduces social cohesion among residents as the bloom affected the social hotspots with connection to Dånviken negatively. With the help of conflict theory, we see the existence of different values ​​and uneven distribution of the power property owners have regarding the impact on Dånviken, which means increased risk of conflict in conjunction with algal blooms. The sewage situation looks better today compared to 2006 but still contributes to eutrophication through nutritional emissions. Since 2006, 54.5 % of the properties concerned have fixed their sewerage and the proportion of real estate’s connected to a sewer system has increased by 19.6 %, where the number of mini-treatment plant and soil- and infiltration beds has more than doubled. In order to prevent future blooms in Dånviken, the municipality must continue to demand better sewage and supervision, the water and sewage network also needs to be expanded among other measures. Continued studies in the area are important in order to better understand the social consequences of threatened recreational opportunities due to algal blooms.

  • 203.
    Petrogiannis, Vasileios
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    What Is It That Holds A Region Together?2016In: Baltic Worlds In-house edition, p. 5-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    et al.
    Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Maack, Lotta
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Matczak, Magdalena
    Maritime Institute in Gdańsk, Poland.
    Morff, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdańsk & University of Gdańsk, Poland.
    Insights into integration challenges in the Baltic Sea Region marine spatial planning: Implications for the HELCOM-VASAB principles2019In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, no 175, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University / University of Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Aavik, T.
    Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia.
    Cousins, S. A. O.
    Stockholm University.
    Grazing networks promote plant functional connectivity among isolated grassland communities2019In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 102-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Habitat loss threatens plant diversity globally. Lack of plant functional connectivity between isolated populations is often pinpointed as one of the major underlying mechanisms driving subsequent species extinctions. Therefore, landscape-scale conservation management promoting functional connectivity needs to be implemented urgently. Supporting the movement of seed dispersal vectors such as grazing animals may help safeguard local and regional plant diversity in fragmented landscapes. However, the efficacy of such management remains to be thoroughly assessed. Location: Stockholm archipelago, Sweden. Methods: We test how grazing animals may serve as mobile corridors within rotational grazing networks promoting plant functional connectivity via directed seed dispersal. Using landscape genetics, we compare isolated populations of the grassland perennial Campanula rotundifolia located in either active or abandoned grazing networks, to test if spatial patterns in their genetic diversity, differentiation and allele frequencies relate to the presence or absence of connectivity via rotational grazing management. Results: Grazing networks imprinted strong landscape-scale spatial patterning in pairwise population genetic differentiation and within-population genetic diversity. Isolated C. rotundifolia populations functionally connected by grazing animals held higher genetic diversity compared to populations no longer connected by grazing livestock. Gene flow linked to the directed seed dispersal was higher between populations within grazing networks, confirmed by their increased allele richness. We found a predictable, nested loss of genetic diversity among C. rotundifolia populations in abandoned grazing networks. Main conclusions: Grazing animals were important seed dispersal vectors, functionally connecting isolated grassland communities, so being vital to the successful long-term persistence and conservation of not only species but also genetic diversity. Crucially, the study underlines the possibilities of using domestic livestock as mobile corridors within rotational grazing networks as an effective tool to manage, conserve and restore both genetic and species diversity among isolated plant communities in fragmented landscapes.

  • 206.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Cousins, S. A. O.
    Stockholm University.
    Seed dispersal in both space and time is necessary for plant diversity maintenance in fragmented landscapes2018In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 127, no 6, p. 780-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metacommunity theory emphasizes that seed dispersal not only limits but equally maintains plant diversity, though the latter receives little empirical attention. Discerning the temporal and spatial components of seed dispersal and understanding how their interaction shapes fragmented communities and maintains their diversity may be pivotal to further our ecological understanding of spatial and temporal seed dispersal and its implications for landscape-scale conservation management. To investigate the relative importance of spatial and temporal seed dispersal and their roles in maintaining plant diversity, the herb layer and seed bank of grassland communities were inventoried in 77 sites across abandoned and intact rotational grazing networks in a 100 km2 fragmented grassland landscape in the Stockholm archipelago (Baltic Sea, Sweden). Besides analysing alpha- and beta-diversity patterns, nestedness analyses connect deterministic community changes and diversity losses with dispersal-related life-history traits and habitat specialization to identify the mechanism driving community changes and maintaining local diversity. The loss of rotational grazing networks caused community diversity declines via non-random extinctions of spatially and temporally poor dispersers, particularly among grassland specialists. Temporal seed dispersal halted further community disassembly, maintaining diversity in the abandoned grazing networks. Spatial dispersal within the intact grazing networks was found to be an overriding, homogenizing agent conserving diversity in both the herb layer and seed bank. This empirical evidence establishes how spatial and temporal seed dispersal interact to maintain diversity in fragmented landscapes. Poorly connected grasslands appear limited by spatial dispersal, yet are maintained by temporal seed dispersal. In fragmented landscapes where grazing networks are rarely present, temporal rather than spatial seed dispersal may be more important in maintaining species diversity, since effective spatial dispersal may be significantly diminished. The grazing network's efficacy at boosting spatial dispersal and upholding community diversity presents a powerful management tool to conserve local and regional species diversity. © 2017 The Authors

  • 207.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University / University of Bremen, Germany.
    De Frenne, P.
    Ghent University, Belgum.
    Acharya, K.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Brunet, J.
    SLU.
    Chabrerie, O.
    Jules Verne University of Picardie, Amiens Cedex, France.
    Decocq, G.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Diekmann, M.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Graae, B. J.
    Heinken, T.
    University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Hermy, M.
    University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Kolb, A.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Lemke, I.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Liira, J.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Naaf, T.
    Institute of Land Use Systems, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Verheyen, K.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Wulf, M.
    Institute of Land Use Systems, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Cousins, S. A. O.
    Stockholm University.
    Where does the community start, and where does it end?: Including the seed bank to reassess forest herb layer responses to the environment2017In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 424-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Below-ground processes are key determinants of above-ground plant population and community dynamics. Still, our understanding of how environmental drivers shape plant communities is mostly based on above-ground diversity patterns, bypassing below-ground plant diversity stored in seed banks. As seed banks may shape above-ground plant communities, we question whether concurrently analysing the above- and below-ground species assemblages may potentially enhance our understanding of community responses to environmental variation. Location: Temperate deciduous forests along a 2000 km latitudinal gradient in NW Europe. Methods: Herb layer, seed bank and local environmental data including soil pH, canopy cover, forest cover continuity and time since last canopy disturbance were collected in 129 temperate deciduous forest plots. We quantified herb layer and seed bank diversity per plot and evaluated how environmental variation structured community diversity in the herb layer, seed bank and the combined herb layer–seed bank community. Results: Seed banks consistently held more plant species than the herb layer. How local plot diversity was partitioned across the herb layer and seed bank was mediated by environmental variation in drivers serving as proxies of light availability. The herb layer and seed bank contained an ever smaller and ever larger share of local diversity, respectively, as both canopy cover and time since last canopy disturbance decreased. Species richness and β-diversity of the combined herb layer–seed bank community responded distinctly differently compared to the separate assemblages in response to environmental variation in, e.g. forest cover continuity and canopy cover. Conclusions: The seed bank is a below-ground diversity reservoir of the herbaceous forest community, which interacts with the herb layer, although constrained by environmental variation in e.g. light availability. The herb layer and seed bank co-exist as a single community by means of the so-called storage effect, resulting in distinct responses to environmental variation not necessarily recorded in the individual herb layer or seed bank assemblages. Thus, concurrently analysing above- and below-ground diversity will improve our ecological understanding of how understorey plant communities respond to environmental variation.

  • 208.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Kimberley, A.
    Stockholm University.
    Slotte, T.
    Stockholm University.
    Interspecific variation in ploidy as a key plant trait outlining local extinction risks and community patterns in fragmented landscapes2018In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 2095-2106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyploidy is associated with a plethora of phenotypic and genetic changes yielding transformative effects on species' life-history and ecology. These biological attributes can contribute to the success of species on ecological timescales, as observed in the invasion success or rapid environmental and climatic adaptation of polyploids. However, to date there has been a distinct lack of empirical evidence linking species' local extinction risk, species distributions and community structure in fragmented landscapes with interspecific variation in ploidy. We aimed to investigate the relationship between levels of habitat fragmentation and patterns in both diversity and the frequency of species with different ploidy levels. We included additional persistence- and dispersal related life-history traits, to establish the relative importance of ploidy in determining species richness and frequencies following habitat fragmentation. We therefore collected plant community presence-absence data and landscape data from grassland fragments from south-central Sweden. Community-level analysis uncovered that interspecific variation in ploidy proved the strongest predictor of plant community species richness and turn-over across grassland fragments. Local extinction risk decreased as ploidy increased, with diploids most prone to local extinction. In the species-level analysis, ploidy outweighed the combined explanatory power of commonly used life-history traits such as clonality, dispersal mechanism and mating system; key predictors of plant species distributions across fragmented landscapes. Ploidy appears to capture parallel variation in a series of advantageous genetic and life-history mechanisms which operate on ecological timescales, emerging as the strongest predictor of local extinction risk even after accounting for variation in other crucial life-history traits. Our results therefore highlight the importance of genomic traits such as ploidy and total chromosome number as valuable factors explaining and predicting local extinction risk in fragmented landscapes. A plain language summary is available for this article.

  • 209.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Vandepitte, Katrien
    Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Population Biology, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Honnay, Olivier
    Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Population Biology, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Cousins, Sara A O
    Stockholm University.
    Does the seed bank contribute to the build-up of a genetic extinction debt in the grassland perennial Campanula rotundifolia?2017In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 373-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Habitat fragmentation threatens global biodiversity. Many plant species persist in habitat fragments via persistent life cycle stages such as seed banks, generating a species extinction debt. Here, seed banks are hypothesized to cause a temporal delay in the expected loss of genetic variation, which can be referred to as a genetic extinction debt, as a possible mechanism behind species extinction debts.

    Methods: Fragmented grassland populations of Campanula rotundifolia were examined for evidence of a genetic extinction debt, investigating if the seed bank contributed to the extinction debt build-up. The genetic make-up of 15 above- and below-ground populations was analysed in relation to historical and current levels of habitat fragmentation, both separately and combined.

    Key Results: Genetic diversity was highest in above-ground populations, though below-ground populations contained 8 % of unique alleles that were absent above-ground. Above-ground genetic diversity and composition were related to historical patch size and connectivity, but not current patch characteristics, suggesting the presence of a genetic extinction debt in the above-ground populations. No such relationships were found for the below-ground populations. Genetic diversity measures still showed a response to historical but not present landscape characteristics when combining genetic diversity of the above- and below-ground populations.

    Conclusions: The fragmented C. rotundifolia populations exhibited a genetic extinction debt. However, the role of the seed banks in the build-up of this extinction debt is probably small, since the limited, unique genetic diversity of the seed bank alone seems unable to counter the detrimental effects of habitat fragmentation on the population genetic structure of C. rotundifolia .

  • 210.
    Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Börjeson, L.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Land Concessions and Rural Livelihoods in Mozambique: The Gap Between Anticipated and Real Benefits of a Chinese Investment in the Limpopo Valley2017In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1181-1198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In rural Mozambique, as in other African countries, large-scale land acquisitions are on the rise. This process is usually portrayed by host governments and investors as comprising win–win deals that can simultaneously boost agricultural productivity and combat poverty. This article focuses on one such investment, a large-scale Chinese land acquisition in the lower Limpopo valley, where attempts to modernise agriculture have occurred since colonial times. Based on an analysis of primary quantitative and qualitative data, this study explores livelihoods in the targeted area and local experiences and views regarding land loss and its implications. Our findings reveal a top-down process enabled by disregard for sound legislation, whereby land dispossession was followed by ‘take-it-or-leave-it’ opportunities that were unsuited to the most land-dependent livelihoods, particularly those of single-headed households. As the modernisation of the region is once again attempted through the promotion of large-scale agriculture, important historical continuities prevail. This study adds critical evidence to the discussion on the local development potential of land deals in Mozambique and other areas marked by similar democratic deficits. 

  • 211.
    Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Caretta, M. A.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, United States.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Large-scale land acquisitions aggravate the feminization of poverty: findings from a case study in Mozambique2019In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 215-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The local implications of large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs), commonly referred to as land grabs, are at the center of an exponential production of scientific literature that only seldom focuses on gender. Our case study aims to contribute to filling this analytical gap. Based on structured interviews and focus groups, we investigate local experiences in the lower Limpopo valley in Mozambique, where a Chinese investor was granted 20,000 hectares in 2012. Our findings show that land access in the affected area varied prior to land seizure due to historical land use differences and after land seizure mainly due to non-universal compensation. Furthermore, we show that as farming conditions deteriorate, a trend toward both the feminization of smallholder farming and the feminization of poverty is consolidated. Succinctly, as available land becomes increasingly constricted, labor is allocated differently to alternative activities. This process is by no means random or uniform among households, particularly in a context in which women prevail in farm activities and men prevail in off-farm work. As men disengage further from smallholder farming, women remain directly dependent on fields that are smaller and of worse quality or reliant on precarious day labor in the remaining farms. We contend that the categories female-headed and male-headed households, although not inviolable, are useful in explaining the different implications of LSLAs in areas in which gender strongly substantiates individuals’ livelihood alternatives. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 212.
    Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Why Does Deliberative Community Consultation in Large-Scale Land Acquisitions Fail?: A Critical Analysis of Mozambican Experiences2018In: Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies, E-ISSN 2254-2035, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 164-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community consultation prior to large-scale land acquisitions (LSLA) is a cornerstone that justifies the portrayal of projects as partnerships or land grabs. This study focuses on one of the countries most targeted by LSLA in the last decade, namely, Mozambique. We examine the legal and theoretical bases that support community consultations and analyse their corresponding everyday practices in Mozambique. The article argues that, although the existence of these participatory forums is inspired by normative ideals of popular deliberation, the prevailing practices in these spaces are diametrically opposed to deliberative foundations and values. As shown in this study, this mismatch between theory that is institutionalized in legal frameworks and practice derives largely from the interplay of hierarchical relations anchored in, inter alia, formal and customary ethnically based realms, gender disparities, and livelihood orientations. A core argument of the article is that any attempt to ameliorate these practices must consider critical insights regarding the centrality of enhancing social equality and inclusion in participatory spaces —challenges that are immense in places marked by deep structural inequalities.

  • 213.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Endocrine disruption in fish: Effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol exposure on non-reproductive behavior, fertility and brain and testis transcriptome2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic environments are the end recipient for most anthropogenic chemical pollutants. One common chemical pollutant found in the aquatic environment is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in contraceptive pills. EE2 is found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters in concentrations from non-detectable up to 300 ng/L. EE2 has the ability to bioaccumulate and is more than 10 fold more potent in fish than the natural counterpart estradiol. Exposure has led to skewed sex ratios, decreased egg and sperm production, and altered reproductive behavior.  The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of EE2 exposure on non-reproductive behavior and fertility in fish. We found that zebra fish exposed to low concentrations of EE2 during development showed increased anxiety-like behavior and decreased fertility that were persistent in adulthood, even after a long remediation period in clean water. The altered behavior and lowered fertility were accompanied by alterations in the testis and brain transcriptome of possible significance for the behavior and fertility effects. The zebrafish was also used in adult exposures of EE2 and citalopram, alone and in combination to investigate if behavioral effects can be detected at very low concentrations, and if so, if the two compounds would interact and affect the behavioral outcome. Anxiety-like behavior was altered by EE2 and the two compounds in combination affected the outcome of each other. Further, when developmental exposure of progeny to wild caught three spined stickleback was used as a link between laboratory fish and natural fish populations, EE2 was found to decrease the anxiety-like behavior in the adult stickleback as well as cause ovotestis and intersex, feminization and sex reversal of genetic males. In conclusion, fertility and non-reproductive behaviors in the zebrafish and three spined stickleback are sensitive to EE2 exposure and effects from developmental exposures seem to be persistent.  Fertility and behavior are of high ecological significance for fish and alterations due to EE2 exposure might have negative effects on population fitness. The persistent alterations in the transcriptome of the zebrafish testis and brain lead to generation of hypotheses of mechanisms involved in the behavior and reproductive phenotypes caused by developmental exposure to EE2.

  • 214.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Örebro University.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Örebro University.
    Elabbas, Lubna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Ullah, Shahid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska University Hospital Laboratory.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Combinatory effects of low concentrations of 17α-etinylestradiol and citalopram on non-reproductive behavior in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)2017In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 193, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plant effluents contain a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals, thus exposing aquatic organisms. Still, the consequences of exposure to combinations of different classes of drugs is largely unknown. In this study, we expose adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males and females to low, environmentally relevant concentrations of the endocrine disrupting chemical 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, alone and in combination, and analyse three non-reproductive behaviours of importance for population fitness.

    Two weeks exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 resulted in increased anxiety in males in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test. Significantly longer latency periods before entering the white zone and fewer visits in the white zone were observed in males exposed to both 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 compared to unexposed males. No significant effects of citalopram alone (0.1 and 0.5 µg/L) were observed in the scototaxis test. The combined exposures (0.1 ng/L EE2 + 0.1 µg/L citalopram and 0.5 ng/L EE2 + 0.5 µg/L citalopram) resulted in abolishment of the anxiogenic effects of EE2, with significantly shorter latency period (low dose) and more transitions to white (high and low dose) than in fish exposed to EE2 alone. No significant effects of either EE2, citalopramor the combination of the two were observed in females. In the novel tank test, significantly more transitions to the upper half of the tank were observed in males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone compared to unexposed males while males exposed to 0.1 ng/lEE2 had significantly shorter latency period to enter the upper half. Exposure to the combination of the two low concentrations did, however, result in a significantly longer latency and fewer transitions to upper half compared to both control, EE2- and citalopram-exposed males. These males also spent significantly less time in the upper half than the fish exposed to 0.1 ng/l EE2 or 0.1 µg/l citalopram alone. No significant effects on novel tank behaviour were observed in females or males exposed to the higher concentrations. In the shoaling test, males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram and females exposed to 0.5 ng/l EE2 made significantly fewer transitions away from peers while males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram + 0.1 ng/l EE2 performed significantly more transitions than the fish exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone.

    In conclusion, this study shows that very low concentrations ofEE2, at or slightly above the predicted noeffect concentration (NOEC), affects anxiety in zebrafish males. Furthermore, citalopram, in spite of marginal effect of its own at such low levels, counteracts the response to EE2. This study represents an initial effort to understand the effects on water-living organisms of the cocktails of anthropogenic substances contaminating aquatic environments.

  • 215.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Bollner, Tomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Altered non-reproductive behavior and feminization caused by developmental exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol persist to adulthood in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2019In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 207, p. 142-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and commonly detected in sewage effluents, interferes with the endocrine system in multiple ways. Exposure during sensitive windows of development causes persistent effects on fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. In the present study, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to nominal 0 and 20 ng/L EE2 from fertilization to 7 weeks post-hatch. After 8 months of remediation in clean water three non-reproductive behaviors, not previously analyzed in developmentally EE2-exposed progeny of wild-caught fish, were evaluated. Chemical analysis revealed that the nominal 0 and 20 ng/L exposure contained 5 and 30 ng/L EE2, respectively. Therefore, the use of control fish from previous experiments was necessary for comparisons. Fish exposed during development showed significant concentration-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test by means of shorter latency to first entrance to the white compartment, more visits in white, and longer total time in white compared to unexposed fish. In the novel tank test, developmental exposure significantly increased the number of transitions to the upper half of the aquaria. Exposure to EE2 during development did not alter shoal cohesion in the shoaling test compared with unexposed fish but fish exposed to 30 ng/L EE2 had significantly longer latency to leave the shoal and fewer transitions away from the shoal compared to fish exposed to 5 ng/L EE2. Skewed sex ratio with more females, sex reversal in genetic males as well as intersex in males was observed after exposure to 30, but not 5 ng/L EE2. In conclusion, EE2 exposure during development in three-spined stickleback resulted in persistent effects on anxiety-like behaviors. These long-term effects from developmental exposure are likely to be of higher relevance for natural populations than are short-term effects from adult exposure.

  • 216.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Elabbas, Lubna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala university.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Testis transcriptome alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio) with reduced fertility due to developmental exposure to 17α-ethinyl estradiol2018In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 262, p. 44-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a ubiquitous aquatic contaminant shown to decrease fish fertility at low concentrations, especially in fish exposed during development. The mechanisms of the decreased fertility are not fully understood. In this study, we perform transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing of testes from zebrafish with previously reported lowered fertility due to exposure to low concentrations of EE2during development. Fish were exposed to 1.2 and 1.6 ng/L (measured concentration; nominal concentrations 3 and 10 ng/L) of EE2 from fertilization to 80 days of age, followed by 82 days of remediation in clean water. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 249 and 16 genes to be differentially expressed after exposure to 1.2 and 1.6 ng/L, respectively; a larger inter-sample variation was noted in the latter. Expression of 11 genes were altered by both exposures and in the same direction. The coding sequences most affected could be categorized to the putative functions cell signalling, proteolysis, protein metabolic transport and lipid metabolic process. Several homeobox transcription factors involved in development and differentiation showed increased expression in response to EE2 and differential expression of genes related to cell death, differentiation and proliferation was observed. In addition, several genes related to steroid synthesis, testis development and function were differentially expressed. A number of genes associated with spermatogenesis in zebrafish and/or mouse were also found to be differentially expressed. Further, differences in non-coding sequences were observed, among them several differentially expressed miRNA that might contribute to testis gene regulation at post-transcriptional level. This study has generated insights of changes in gene expression that accompany fertility alterations in zebrafish males that persist after developmental exposure to environmental relevant concentrations of EE2 that persist followed by clean water to adulthood. Hopefully, this will generate hypotheses to test in search for mechanistic explanations.

  • 217.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro univesitet.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Persistent Effects of Developmental Exposure to 17α-Ethinylestradiol on the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain Transcriptome and Behavior2017In: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5153, E-ISSN 1662-5153, Vol. 11, article id 69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting compound of concern due to its persistence and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. Effects of developmental exposure to low concentrations of EE2 in fish on reproduction and behavior not only persisted to adulthood, but have also been observed to be transmitted to several generations of unexposed progeny. To investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the persistent anxiogenic phenotype, we exposed zebrafish embryos for 80 days post fertilization to 0, 3 and 10 ng/L EE2 (measured concentrations 2.14 and 7.34 ng/L). After discontinued exposure, the animals were allowed to recover for 120 days in clean water. Adult males and females were later tested for changes in stress response and shoal cohesion, and whole-brain gene expression was analyzed with RNA sequencing. The results show increased anxiety in the novel tank and scototaxis tests, and increased shoal cohesion in fish exposed during development to EE2. RNA sequencing revealed 34 coding genes differentially expressed in male brains and 62 in female brains as a result of EE2 exposure. Several differences were observed between males and females in differential gene expression, with only one gene, sv2b, coding for a synaptic vesicle protein, that was affected by EE2 in both sexes. Functional analyses showed that in female brains, EE2 had significant effects on pathways connected to the circadian rhythm, cytoskeleton and motor proteins and synaptic proteins. A large number of non-coding sequences including 19 novel miRNAs were also differentially expressed in the female brain. The largest treatment effect in male brains was observed in pathways related to cholesterol biosynthesis and synaptic proteins. Circadian rhythm and cholesterol biosynthesis, previously implicated in anxiety behavior, might represent possible candidate pathways connecting the transcriptome changes to the alterations to behavior. Further the observed alteration in expression of genes involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic function may be important for the developmental modulations resulting in an anxiety phenotype. This study represents an initial survey of the fish brain transcriptome by RNA sequencing after long-term recovery from developmental exposure to an estrogenic compound.

  • 218.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro university.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala university.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Persistent effects of developmental exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain transcriptome and stress behaviorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Portström, Sofia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Fäbodbruk - “Det magiska mötet mellan natur och kultur”: En fenomenografisk studie om fäbodbruk ur brukarnas perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summer pasture contributes both to cultural-historical values and to positive effects on biodiversity. However, the usage of the term ”summer pastures” varies and there is no general definition. This lack of definition gives rise to a conflict: Should the summer pasture be preserved for its cultural-historical value by having it look just like before, or should it be preserved for its value in biodiversity? Today, the authorities’ image of summer pasture is what controls which summer pastures and what values are granted financial support. This means that the summer pastures risk being defined and developed on the basis of the authorities' image, not by the image the farmers themselves have, which is based on historical and conservational knowledge. Thus, the purpose of this study is to highlight the use of summer pasture as a phenomenon and an activity from the user's perspective. In order to discover how the farmers themselves view summer pastures, a phenomenographic method is used to analyze interviews of summer pasture farmers with varying backgrounds and activities. The results of the study show that the summer pasture of today varies with regard to the design of the business. The common denominator is the small-scale animal husbandry where summer pasture take place on the outskirts beyond the home farm, to where the farmer moves with the animals during summer. Summer pasture has traditionally never been an economic gain, nor does it provide much today. The farmers are enthusiasts who believe in a higher purpose of what they do. The lack of definition is something that affects them only in their contact with authorities, from where they are only met with ignorance. The farmers believe that the summer pasture have a cultural-historical value, one that also lies in the future with increasing environmental awareness and climate change.

  • 220.
    Prentice, Honor C
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Li, Yuan
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tunlid, Anders
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Ghatnekar, Lena
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    A horizontally transferred nuclear gene is associated with microhabitat variation in a natural plant population2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1821, article id 20152453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horizontal gene transfer involves the non-sexual interspecific transmission of genetic material. Even if they are initially functional, horizontally transferred genes are expected to deteriorate into non-expressed pseudogenes, unless they become adaptively relevant in the recipient organism. However, little is known about the distributions of natural transgenes within wild species or the adaptive significance of natural transgenes within wild populations. Here, we examine the distribution of a natural plant-to-plant nuclear transgene in relation to environmental variation within a wild population. Festuca ovina is polymorphic for an extra (second) expressed copy of the nuclear gene (PgiC) encoding cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase, with the extra PgiC locus having been acquired horizontally from the distantly related grass genus Poa. We investigated variation at PgiC in samples of F. ovina from a fine-scale, repeating patchwork of grassland microhabitats, replicated within spatially separated sites. Even after accounting for spatial effects, the distributions of F. ovina individuals carrying the additional PgiC locus, and one of the enzyme products encoded by the locus, are significantly associated with fine-scale habitat variation. Our results suggest that the PgiC transgene contributes, together with the unlinked 'native' PgiC locus, to local adaptation to a fine-scale mosaic of edaphic and biotic grassland microhabitats.

  • 221.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Participation and Legitimacy: Actor Involvement for Nature Conservation2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis in environmental science aims to contribute to the theoretical and empirical understanding of the relation between participation and legitimacy in multi-level environmental governance.

    It is widely assumed that actor involvement has great potential to improve the legitimacy of nature conservation through long-term acceptance and target achievement. However, local resource conflicts problematize the way a relation between participation and legitimacy is depicted on other administrative levels. Studies exploring the effect that participation has on legitimacy are relatively rare, especially in multi-level arrangements of coastal conservation.

    In this thesis the relation between participation and legitimacy on the local level is examined, as well as how this relation is conditioned by multi-level governance and power. The relation is empirical studied with two local implementation processes of the Helsinki Convention’s network of marine protected areas (HELCOM MPAs). The cases are located in Sweden.

    Sweden and the Baltic Sea region are in the forefront of participation in nature conservation, and therefore act as a strong case for the exploration of institutional participation. However, despite apparent political will and international support, the efficiency of actor involvement for nature conservation has been questioned, also for the HELCOM MPA and especially on the local level.

    Based on the results of this study, I question the assumption that weak legitimacy predominantly is an issue of insufficient information sharing. The findings show that involving actors to legitimize the adoption of strict adherence to a pre-established model of conservation likely fails to create long term support for conservation. Instead, relocation of power to the affected actors seems essential in order to make participation establish legitimacy. It appears important to create room for local influence in the design, management and implementation of a particular conservation area in the particular place/context. In both examined cases, there are elements of participation that support legitimacy, for example the development of a shared vision. There are also elements that hamper legitimacy, such as, for example, the high expectations different actors have on participation to reach consensus on protective values. These unmet expectations seem to fuel conflicts of interests among actors on different levels.

  • 222.
    Rabe, Linn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Community-based Natural Resource Management of the Jozani-Pete Mangrove Forest: Do They Have a Voice?2013In: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 133-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local participation, especially in natural resource management, has been promoted as a key strategy in the quest for sustainable development. Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is an approach that has generally been promoted as an institution that genuinely includes and empowers ‘local people' in natural resource use and management. This paper examines how local participation in conservation projects works in practice by drawing on concepts from institutional and actor-oriented theories and applying a case study approach to examine community-based mangrove management at Jozani-Pete, Zanzibar. Here CBNRM became embedded within a conservation agenda that resulted in conflict, resistance, frustration and uncertainty amongst community members. The paper offers insight into how exogenously initiated CBNRM projects have difficulty gaining traction unless they both address existing power relations and deliver on promises of material benefits. If they fail to do so the experience of the Jozani-Pete case study suggests that CBNRM may work to further marginalize already marginalized people.

  • 223. Raymond, Christopher
    et al.
    Gulsrud, Natalie
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Randrup, Thomas
    Hegelund, Signe
    Rethinking urban nature to promote human well-being and livelihoods2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    On the 25th January, 25 researchers, social entrepreneurs and policy makers attended a MOVIUM and SLU Urban Futures funded workshop on “Rethinking urban nature to promote human well-being and livelihoods”.  The objectives of the workshop were to identify and discuss integrated digital, social and nature solutions for the use, management and governance of urban nature in the City of Malmö; and to provide a platform for knowledge sharing and networking between researchers and practitioners.

    Multiple enlightening presentations on how to plan, design and manage urban nature were provided by the cities of Malmö and Copenhagen, social entrepreneurs and academics. Each presentation guided a creative workshop activity that involved four groups creating an integrated solution using Lego and other materials to address the concerns of citizens presented in different scenarios relevant to the use and management of urban nature in Malmö.  Each group was asked to present their presentation to the wider group, what inspired them the most from the workshop activity and how their understanding of integrated solutions in urban nature changed over the day. This report presents a summary of each group’s creations and findings.

  • 224.
    Rehn, Felicia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Pollinators in Urban Landscapes: Local and landscape factors impact on pollinator species richness and abundance2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing human populations results in fast-growing urbanization. Natural and semi-natural landscapes are replaced with urban landscape features like roads, sidewalks, industrial and residential buildings. The remnants of the natural landscapes are left fragmented and are often managed by frequent mowing and trimming of the vegetation. This development has had a negative impact on pollinators such as bees and wasps. Bees and wasps are pollinating insects providing an ecosystem service that sustain the global food supply. Pollinators are important also in urban landscapes where their services are needed for ecological stability and biodiversity. This study compares 23 locations in Sollentuna municipality, to investigate if species richness and abundance of bees and wasps are correlated with local factors, landscape factors or both. The available food resources are measured in buffer zones with 200m radius. Local variables are: dead wood, exposed sand, extended edge zones, flowering plant species richness and unmanaged habitat. The result showed that the landscape factor of food availability was more important for the abundance of pollinators while local variables together with the landscape factor of food availability had a positive effect on the species richness.

  • 225.
    Rehnlund, Mathilde
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Getting the transport right - for what?: What transport policy can tell us about the construction of sustainability2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies transport as a governing tool that shapes the physical environment and human society, as well as having environmental impacts. The aim is to learn what policy for transport can say about what sustainability means and does. My focus is Stockholm municipal policy between 2007 and 2017, a period of sustainability concerns and large transport project agreements.

    Using the What’s the problem represented to be? approach, I look at measures proposed for the ‘right’ transport of people and ask: what kind of ‘tool’ is transport produced to be, and how is sustainability constructed?

    The transport system is one of the most visible parts of the built environment and recognized for its negative impact on environmental and human health. As co-constitutive of social practices, transport is far from a mere technical issue. Despite this, transport policy studies are often technical in approach. Since policy is not a neutral response to pre-existing ‘problems’, I consider transport policy to be part of a creative process for the whole of society.

    A main contribution to the field of sustainable transport is a view of transport as a tool for governing and inherently political. Stockholm is frequently hailed as a ‘green’ city. I was interested to explore this ‘best case’ scenario and see what might consolidate the two seemingly opposing aims of greener transport and more car use. I find that Stockholm policy for transport is permeated with technological optimism, reliance on individual choices, and concern for economic growth. Policy measures construct transport as a tool to affirm the commuter paradigm and promote urban expansion. Attention to the sustainability of transport concentrates on emissions from transport work, which is to be addressed by individual consumption choices. Sustainability is associated with efficiency, technological innovation, and above all urbanity. The proposals paradoxically construct the subject as both co-responsible for problem and solution (the conscious or irresponsible consumer), and as a cog in the wheel for economic growth (the commuting worker). This disregards both the homo ludens and the citizen: play and the political. These aspects become subordinated while policy enhances the role of work.

  • 226.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Adaptation, now?: Exploring the Politics of Climate Adaptation through Poststructuralist Discourse Theory2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence of anthropogenic climate change and the recognition that warming is likely to go beyond 2°C raises the need for responses that help people cope with the anticipated changes. The rise of attention to so-called climate adaptation on political agendas at the local, national and international scale has come about with a hastily growing field of academic knowledge production. But while adaptation choices are inherently political, adaptation has been largely considered a ‘problem free’ process and ‘tame’ challenge; only a relatively small strand of scholarly work engages in critical enquiry into the idea of adaptation, the discursive practices through which it is imagined, and related questions of power and politics.

    Responding to calls for more attention to the socio-political dimensions of adaptation and for conceptually embedded research, this thesis investigates the creation, interpretation and use of adaptation as a concept in research, policy and practice. Drawing on Poststructuralist Discourse Theory and the so-called Logics of Critical Explanation in particular, it develops a perspective through which the politics of adaptation can be investigated in a theoretically and methodologically consistent and transparent manner. Through a close analysis of official adaptation discourses at the international level, the EU level, and the national level in Germany, the thesis enquires into the discursive practices around adaptation responses and what these different discourses open up or limit in terms of broader implications for political action.

    The contributions of the thesis are empirical, methodological and conceptual. In addition to providing critical insights into contemporary understandings of adaptation, including revealing some depoliticising ‘building blocks’ in conventional adaptation discourses, the thesis makes two important conceptual contributions to the growing field of critical adaptation studies: (1) It suggests that the increasing interconnectedness between people and places makes it impossible to know whether adaptation efforts undertaken have in reality reduced net vulnerability or simply shuffled vulnerability across the board. Ignoring the potential for such redistributive effects can have significant consequences in practice and will likely lead to unsustainable and, in the long run, maladaptive outcomes. (2) It argues that non-rational and affective dimensions are vital to the emergence of adaptation responses and that paying attention to them is important if critical scholarship is to understand and intervene in the persistence of techno-managerial approaches to adaptation. Furthermore, to the field of critical policy studies this thesis makes a methodological contribution by developing a new analytical framework for poststructuralist policy analysis.

  • 227.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Depoliticizing adaptation: a critical analysis of EU climate adaptation policy2018In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 477-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ways in which climate adaptation is understood in the European Union is examined via three key policy documents: the Strategy on adaptation and the Green and White Papers that preceded it. Drawing on Poststructuralist Discourse Theory, light is shed on the implicit values and assumptions that underpin this recent policy initiative. The findings demonstrate a tension between the declared ambition to act on adaptation and implicit suggestions that nothing really has to change, and the challenge can be addressed by market and technological innovations, and by mainstreaming adaptation into existing sectoral policies. The policy discourse effectively serves to depoliticize choices societies make in response to climate change, presenting adaptation as a non-political issue. Insight into European adaptation discourse enables deeper understanding of recent policy developments and opens up possible entry points for critique.

  • 228.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Logics, assumptions and genre chains: a framework for poststructuralist policy analysis2017In: Critical Discourse Studies, ISSN 1740-5904, E-ISSN 1740-5912, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An unresolved aspect of the Logics Approach within Poststructuralist Discourse Theory (PDT) is how to operationalize its abstract theoretical concepts – of social, political and fantasmatic logics – for concrete textual analysis, especially of policy documents. Policies often institute new understandings, procedures or practices, something the logics, as originally articulated, fall somewhat short of capturing. To overcome these methodological challenges this article constructs a framework for poststructuralist policy analysis that brings together the Logics Approach with more textually oriented tools developed within Critical Discourse Analysis, namely assumptions and genre chains. For empirical illustration it draws on a case study of the European Union's adaptation policy in response to climate change. The resulting framework offers a means through which more implicit social and political logics can be examined, and contributes new insights to methodological debates around the use of the Logics Approach (and PDT more broadly), specifically in relation to critical policy analysis. The article concludes with seven observations of relevance for future studies and suggests avenues for further empirical and conceptual exploration.

  • 229.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The affective dimensions of climate adaptation: Fantasy and future-making in German adaptation policyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Remling, Elise
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Veitayaki, Joeli
    School of Marine Studies, University of the South Pacific (USP).
    Community-based action in Fiji’s Gau Island: a model for the Pacific?2016In: International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, ISSN 1756-8692, E-ISSN 1756-8706, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 375-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Drawing on qualitative fieldwork on a remote outer island in Fiji, this paper aims to address a shortcoming in the literature on climate adaptation in the Pacific. Internationally community-based adaptation (CBA) is recognised as a promising approach to help vulnerable populations adjust to climate change. However, with pilot projects in their infancy documented experience for Pacific Islands remains scarce. This limits the ability of the region – faced with persisting development challenges and predicted significant climate impacts – to learn from and build on previous experiences and develop robust responses to climate change.

    Design/methodology/approach – By using a community-based initiative in response to environmental challenges and unsustainable development as a proxy, the paper interrogates the potential usefulness of the CBA framework for the Pacific and identifies potential strengths and weaknesses. Sketching out the process and its outcomes, it shows how the initiative has resulted in a diversity of strategies, ranging from pollution control measures, to improved governance of resources and community participation in decision making, to livelihood and income diversification.

    Findings – Findings indicate that CBA could have a lot of potential for building more resilient communities in the face of climate change and other pressures associated with modernising Pacific societies. However, to be effective, interventions should pay attention to people’s development aspirations; immediate economic, social and environmental benefits; dynamics of village governance, social rules and protocols; and traditional forms of knowledge that can inform sustainable solutions.

    Originality/value – The conclusions provide a reflection on the CBA framework in general and make concrete suggestions for practitioners on how the framework could be usefully implemented in the Pacific context.

  • 231.
    Ring, Eva
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Bjarnadóttir, Brynhildur
    University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Finér, Leena
    Natural Resources Institute Finland-Luke, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lībiete, Zane
    LSFRI Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Lode, Elve
    Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stupak, Inge
    University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sætersdal, Magne
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic-Baltic region: Large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width.2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 878-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness. Sweden and Finland relied to a large extent on voluntary commitments. The prescribed zone widths within the region ranged from 1 m to 5 km. The results indicated that land-use distribution, forest ownership structure and historical and political legacies have influenced the varying degrees of prescriptiveness in the region.

  • 232.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    On the use of databases about research performance: comments on Karlovčec and Mladenić (2015) and others using the SICRIS database2016In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 2151-2157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accuracy of interdisciplinarity measurements depends on how well the data is used for this purpose and whether it can meaningfully inform about work that crosses disciplinary domains. At present, there are no ad hoc databases compiling information only and exclusively about interdisciplinary research, and those interested in assessing it have to reach out to existing databases that have been compiled for other purposes. Karlovčec and Mladenić (Scientometrics 102:433–454, 2015) saw an opportunity in a national database that brings together information meant to be used for assessing the scientific performance of the Slovene academic community, which they used to obtain information that was then applied to measure interdisciplinarity. However, the context and purpose for which databases are produced have certain implications on their use. In their study, the authors overlooked the social and political context within which that specific database was created, is maintained and is used for (evaluation of research performance). This resulted in an incomplete interpretation of the results obtained and description of the current situation. This commentary addresses two aspects that warrant further consideration: one pertains to the limitations of the dataset itself and the measures used to debunk these, while the second pertains to the line of reasoning behind the integration and use of IDR measures in this study.

  • 233.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Alašević, Dušan
    University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia.
    Crossing disciplinary boundaries in environmental research: Interdisciplinary engagement across the Slovene research community2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 574, p. 1492-1501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary approaches to environmental research are calling for a type of scientific inquiry that is able to bring together the natural and social sciences. This with the aim to advance our understanding of environmental issues and produce synthetic and actionable knowledge meant to address these. Yet, interdisciplinarity research of this type is a demanding and challenging pursuit; many have shown that in certain thematic areas and geographic regions practice falls behind discourse. We bring together ideas about interdisciplinary research collaborations (after Patricia L. Rosenfield) and interdisciplinary epistemic synthesis (after Julie T. Klein) that are used to analyse a sample of research projects funded (from 2006 to 2013) by the Slovene Research Agency. We triangulated interview data (with principal investigators) with document analysis and integrated these with other secondary data. Our results suggest for the sample of environmental projects to be interdisciplinary in a narrow sense, this prevalently within natural and life sciences with little input from the humanities and social sciences. Also, the results obtained suggest that environmental research with unambiguous problem solving objectives is preferred over research with a high degree of abstraction, as involved in theoretical and conceptual work.

  • 234.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Issues and opportunities with participatory governance for the management of marine resources in the Adriatic Sea2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The marine natural environment is under high pressure. Not only are marine resources as flora and fauna intensively used (with consequent decrease of stocks) but in recent times, the seas have become the next frontier of a specific type of anthropization (i.e. the conversion of open space by human action) that of energy infrastructure. While this is a current process and, within the European Union, only recently policy actions have been taken in order facilitate a more coherent coordination of interventions (Marine Strategy), little research has been done about formal and informal institutional arrangements already existing between the many stakeholders who have specific stakes in the Adriatic Sea.

    The North Adriatic Sea is an area characterised by a history of (between state) conflicts and tensions that impacted on the development of collaborative arrangement for the management of the marine environment. Of interest to this research, therefore, was to map out formal and informal institutional arrangements currently in place between stakeholders from Italy, Slovenia and Croatia - countries with coastal access to the North Adriatic Sea. Also, of an interest was to understand if, and how, participatory practices are being used in relation to decision-making and management of the marine natural environment ( in particular siting of an energy infrastructure).

    Methods:  In this case study we used interviews, archive material, policy documents and other secondary data (statistics, official documents) for the analysis.

    Findings: The preliminary analysis of our data suggests that the North Adriatic Sea is a highly politicized area over which different stakeholders advance claims but engage in little, or no cooperation. Marine resources appear to be under high pressure and in the following months we will continue the exploration into the institutional arrangements. 

  • 235.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. WageningenUniversity and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bregt, Arnold K.
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ligtenberg, Arend
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Pérez-Soba, Marta
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Verweij, Peter
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    The social side of spatial decision support systems: Investigating knowledge integration and learning2017In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 76, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) represent a step forward in efforts to account for the spatial dimension in environmental decision-making. The aim of SDSS is to help policymakers and practitioners access, interpret and understand information from data, analyses and models, and guide them in identifying possible actions during a decision-making process. Researchers, however, report difficulties in up-take of SDSS by the intended users. Some suggest that this field would benefit from investigation of the social aspects involved in SDSS design, development, testing and use. Borrowing insights from the literature on science-policy interactions, we explore two key social processes: knowledge integration and learning. Using a sample of 36 scientific papers concerning SDSS in relation to environmental issues, we surveyed whether and how the selected papers reported on knowledge integration and learning. We found that while many of the papers mentioned communication and collaboration with prospective user groups or stakeholders, this was seldom underpinned by a coherent methodology for enabling knowledge integration and learning to surface. This appears to have hindered SDSS development and later adoption by intended users.

  • 236.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Gerger Swartling, Å.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Environmental governance in an increasingly complex world: Reflections on transdisciplinary collaborations for knowledge coproduction and learning2019In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 83-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 237.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm Environment Institute .
    Environmental governance in an increasingly complex world: An Interdisciplinary Exchange on Adaptation, Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Integration2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this event was to bring together scholars and practitioners in order to create opportunities for an exchange of ideas, methodologies and experience. Participants  with expertise in different areas i.e., adaptation research, resource management, policy studies, and adult learning, were invited to share latest research outcomes and engage in a collaborative reflection around the challenges of environmental governance in an increasingly complex world. Adaptation, collaborative learning and knowledge integration were the topics on which the event has focused. 

  • 238.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ligtenberg, A.
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bosma, R.
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Conceptualizing serious games as a learning-based intervention in the context of natural resources and environmental governance2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of serious games in the governance of natural resources and the environment is progressively increasing and includes games used for research and data collection, teaching and training, and fostering a change of practices. However, this diversity remains underexplored and underreported. In view of a growing interest in the use of serious games in natural resource and environmental governance, the absence of discussions about how differences in intended use and delivery influence the performance, assessment, and outcomes of games is problematic. Here we present an inventory, and a description, of such different uses then, by focusing on serious games used as interventions, we discuss when, and how, games could be used to generate learning and social learning. To that end we use a narrative review of selected literature, and insight from research on social learning, to develop an inventory of game use, and within that inventory we conceptualize the use of serious games as a social learning intervention. Also, by means of an illustrative case of a serious game (developed as part of the Assessing the Learning Effects of Games on Attitude of Stakeholders toward Sustainable Shrimp Farming - ALEGAMS research project) we reflect on a few key aspects of game use. We suggest that developing a serious game needs several iterations and, although the learning outcomes can be assessed, the impact of games aiming at changes in current practice and policy will likely fall beyond the timespan of usual project periods. This is something future research should consider as it has implications for the research design and methodology.

  • 239.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Pérez-Soba, Marta
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands / European Commission Joint Research Centre Ispra, Italy.
    Bregt, Arnold
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Verweij, Peter
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Spatial decision support systems: Exploring differences in pilot-testing with students vs. professionals2018In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 72, p. 204-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the implications of engaging students vs. professionals / stakeholders in pilot-testing of SDSS and discusses likely differences in terms of experiences and outcomes for the given pilot-test. To this end we use data collected during two pilot tests of a novel SDSS. The pilot-tests were done with two different groups; one made of thirteen doctoral students, while the other of twelve professionals / stakeholders. The pilot-test served to gather feedback on SDSS usability and other aspects of interest to the development team. Based on the outcomes obtained we develop an analytical framework meant to summarise key aspects impacting on how different (tester) profiles will engage during a pilot, and on feedback they provide. These key aspects include expertise, stage of life, and institutional context (ESI). This framework could offer some help to SDSS / DSS development teams in planning, organizing, and delivering pilot-test, and processing the assessments received.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-06 00:00
  • 240.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Reinecke, S.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Bregt, A.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Kilham, E.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Lapeyre, R.
    Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales (IDDRI) - Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, France.
    Challenges to and opportunities for biodiversity science-policy interfaces2015In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 54, p. 483-486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 241.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Tucker, Catherine May
    University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
    Šmid-Hribar, Mateja
    Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sigura, Maurizia
    University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Bogataj, Nevenka
    Slovenian Institute for Adult Education, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Urbanc, Mimi
    Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Gunya, Alexey
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Intersections of ecosystem services and common-pool resources literature: An interdisciplinary encounter2019In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 94, p. 72-81Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interdisciplinary research is understood to be the preferred way for scientific research to deepen understanding about environmental issues and challenges for sustainability. Two well-defined interdisciplinairy research fields, Ecosystems services (ES) and Common-pool resources (CPR), have taken different approaches that integrate the natural and social sciences to address environmental conundrums collaboratively. Several recent studies bring together insight from each, yet little is known about the breadth or directions, of the interdisciplinary conversation between the two fields of research. Moreover, the potential of this interaction to advance theory and practice relevant for sustainability is underexplored. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by addressing three questions: 1) What are the motives for the interaction between CPR and ES fields?, 2) How are these two fields of research interacting?, and 3) How does the interaction of CPR and ES contribute to research on sustainability? We conducted a systematic map to identify, select, describe and analyse research of our interest. We mapped out motivations for researchers to bring together insights from these two lines of inquiry and examined how they are doing so.

  • 242.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Udovč, A.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Developing Environmental NGO Power for Domestic Battles in a Multilevel Context: Lessons from a Slovenian case2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 244-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many have discussed the crucial role that environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) have played in the implementation of nature protection policies across European member states. However, there are important differences in the opportunity structures among new and old member states that influence how ENGOs can act and undertake activities. This article seeks to clarify the role of ENGO capacity building within the context of multilevel environmental governance and focuses on a case in which Slovene ENGOs mobilized against the siting of 80 windmills in a natural area suggested for protection under the EU Birds and Habitats Directive. The dispute involved ENGOs seeking to pursue nature protection objectives against state authorities who prioritized green energy infrastructural development. The article analyses the mobilization strategies pursued and the combination of material, cognitive, social and symbolic resources used. The results suggest that these resources had to be mobilized and organized along both horizontal (domestic) and vertical (international) axes, and that this combination appears key in advancing an environmental protection agenda.

  • 243.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Šmid Hribar, Mateja
    Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Slovenia.
    Urbanc, Mimi
    Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Slovenia.
    Public Private Partnerships for the Governance and Management of Ecosystem Services: Exploring Current Challenges and Potentials of Common-Pool Resource2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Protected areas and Natura 2000 sites requires that adequate management and use are planned and implemented for maintenance of the ecological status of these. In many geographical areas e.g. the karst landscape located in the NE Italy (see: Rodela, 2012) much of the Natura 2000 sites are located on land which is owned and managed collectively (common property regimes, hereinafter CPRs). Thus, suggesting these having a role to play not only in terms of use and management (customary use) but also maintenance of Natura 2000 sites according to contemporary policy programs and standards foreseen by these. For instance the European Union, with its recently adopted EU Biodiversity Strategy 2020 (Action 5) is now pursuing the implementation of a conceptual framework which recognizes the dependence of our society on the natural environment and foresees the need to understand, identify and map ecosystem services across the EU [1]. Ecosystem services are identified as all benefits that people get from ecosystems and contribute to human well-being (MA, 2005). This includes all different ecosystem services including cultural aspects embedded into landscapes. On this specific aspect a further document, the European Landscape Convention (2003) exposes the need to take into account different stakeholders and their needs with the aims to develop a complex management and governance able to maintain cultural landscapes. There is, thus, a role to be played by CPRs to contribute at the maintenance of ecosystem services (supporting, regulating and cultural ES). This workshop was a collaboration between researchers at Södertörn University and at Anton Melik Geographical Institute ZRC SAZU

  • 244.
    Rosenberg, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hand Hygiene Barriers faced byHealth Care Workers in The Gambia:: A Health Belief Model Approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health care associated infections cause major challenges to the provision of health care. This isdue to the burden placed on individuals, their families, and health services. Hand hygiene actions are cost effective measures towards reducing the spread of health care associated infections and have proven very effective in preventing microbial transmission during patient care. It has beenproven that health care workers hands are the main routes of transmission of health care associated infections. Despite this, hand hygiene is still frequently overlooked by health careworkers especially in settings with limited resources. This paper therefore explores hand hygieneknowledge and behaviours of public and private health care workers in The Gambia with focuson the health belief model. The required information has been gathered from 4 public and 2 private health care facilities through the use of a questionnaire based on the WHO evaluation toolkit. Hand hygiene knowledge of health care workers corresponded with their hand hygiene behaviour. Inadequate hand hygiene performance was noted in many health care workers as wellas limited availability of hand hygiene resources from health care facilities. Private health care facilities provided better hand hygiene opportunities for their health care workers yet neither private nor public health care facilities offered adequate hand hygiene training and feedback on hand hygiene performances to their health care workers.

  • 245.
    Rudén, Mathilda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dependence of HIV drug resistance on the early warning indicator drug stock out, especially in middle-income countries2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: HIV drug resistance is presumed to be inevitable due to the error-prone nature of the virus. However, poor adherence to the antiretroviral drugs is proven to be an impending factor for HIV drug resistance development. Of these two explanations, which is the most common reason for HIV drug resistance?Method: A total of 40 published studies about HIV drug resistance, were retrospectively collected in Pubmed (May 2017), from 36 different countries for this paper. From each study was participants, percentage of HIV drug resistance and HIV-1 subtype extracted for analysis. All studies were than classified by either high-income, middle-income or low-income, based on a country income status, defined by the World Bank. HIV drug resistance was tested against: continents, HIV-1 subtypes, number of study participants, income levels, GDP per capita and EWI’s. All statistical analysis was performed in R: The R project for statistical computing.Result: This paper show, that HIV drug resistance primarily is caused by poor adherence which is closely associated with drug stock out. Highest HIV drug resistance levels was found in middle-income countries. However, number of participants enrolled per study was important for the outcome and this indicates that HIV drug resistance would be higher in low-income countries if larger studied had been carried out in these settings. This means that there is a large unrecorded prevalence of HIV drug resistance in low-income countries.

  • 246.
    Rudén, Mathilda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    HIV-knowledge and Attitudes in Swedish Nursing Homes: A collective case study of three nursing homes in Stockholm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to the effective antiretrovirals are people living with HIV expected live up to 70 years of age. Approximately half of the people living with HIV in Sweden are above 50 years old and estimated to become enrolled into the Swedish elderly care system. Concern about the Swedish elderly care preparedness for greeting people living with HIV is growing, based on previous experiences of stigma in the general society, many are feeling anxious that they will become victims of stigmatization and discrimination in the Swedish elderly care system.  

    Method: A collective case study was conducted of three nursing homes with different organizational background in Nacka municipality, Stockholm. Interviews with superintendents from each nursing home was performed and 95 health care workers at the nursing homes completed a questionnaire. Collected data was entered to Excel for descriptive analysis and all statistical analysis was performed in R: The R project for statistical computing. Pearson´s Chi-squared test was used to analyze categorial data, e.g., to find potential statistical significance between the variables and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to examine if the variables fluctuate together.

    Result: The general knowledge about HIV was not more than average among the participating health care workers and many stated concern towards HIV, which might impact on their attitudes and their practical performance when attending a person living with HIV. One of the nursing homes had experience of attending a person living with HIV and showed less feelings of concern compared to the other participating nursing homes. This support the idea that experience of attending a person living with HIV minimizes feelings of concern and negative attitudes to HIV. Like previous studies, this study highlights the relationship between higher degree of education and less negative attitudes towards HIV. However, none of the mentioned results showed a statistically significance outcome possibly due to the small sample size. To reduce risk of HIV stigma and feelings of concern among health care workers must HIV be discussed and prioritized in the Swedish elderly care system, as well as in municipalities.

  • 247.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Genus, företagande och politik2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, p. 7-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a review of some of the most important contributions in the field of gender and entrepreneurship in Sweden. The gender perspective is one of society's most important organizing principles, while entrepreneurship is seen as important for promoting growth, creating jobs, etc. The study of gender and entrepreneurship in combination is therefore important to understand the forces that shape our history, our present and our future. This field of research focuses on the study of the entrepreneur,  enterprise, entrepreneurship, business relevant organizations, industries, and business and how these are affected by gender issues and gender contracts. It involves formal and informal institutional arrangements that influence, highlights and explains differences in conditions for women and men in employment and in their roles as business owners, as well as the socio-economic consequences of the same. Gender orders put an imprint on both the public and private sectors, the division of labor inside and outside the home, in education, in the allocation of resources in society, etc. Gender issues are embedded in a variety of institutional and contextual circumstances and for instance also of a dimension and such class of ethnicity. Therefore intersectionality both a common and important approaches in gender studies in general and in the study of gender and entrepreneurship in particular. Today therefore research on female and male immigrant entrepreneurship and conditions of the same are becoming more frequent, but also how the deregulation of the public sector has funneled low-income people, mainly women in health care to low-profit businesses. The chapter also raises the recent criticism raised about how this research field has now matured and a need to move towards more critical and problem oriented research is needed. The critical voices argue that improving and increasing the contextualization of  research by problematizing the state's support to women in business, to analyze the restructuring of the public sector restructuring, which in practice promotes entrepreneurship and entrepreneurialism is a viable way to address current shortcomings in current research.

  • 248.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    ”Jag är en fäbodjänta”: Arbetsdelning, institutioner företagande och identiteter inom gårdsnära mejerihantering igår och idag2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, p. 79-108Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter studies the development of the dairy sector from a gender perspective from the early 1900s to today. During the first part of the century agriculture was modernized and milk processing moved out from the farms and into the emerging food industry. During this process technological change was one of the main driving forces behind the outcrowding of women, who dominated the elaboration of dairy products, by men who became dominant in the emerging industry. During the outset of the 20th century, on-farm elaboration of dairy products became marginalized and decimated as a farm activity. But since the 1970’s farm elaboration of dairy products has made a comeback and has become and emblematic case for the emergence of the new rurality in Sweden. Results show that the prevalance of female examples has contributed to inspire women into starting new businesses within the trade, this is why the majority of the business owners within the trade are women. The main challenges for this trade are not related to gender issues, but are the result of the struggle between the productivist production system in which farm elaboration of food had no place and the post-modern one, in which farm elaboration and a variety of farm sizes (including small ones) are key elements. Farm dairy owners are therefore called ”jam makers” by representatives of the old structure. But despite the resistance, farm dairy owners are slowly creating new spaces for their businesses and creating a gradual change of current institutional arrangements.

  • 249.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Mountain agriculture at the crossroads, biodiversity, culture, and modernization, conflicting and interacting interests.2014In: Farming systems facing global challenges: Capacities and strategies / [ed] Thomas Aenis, Andrea Knierim, Maja-Catrin Riecher, Rebecka Ridder, Heike Schobert and Holger Fischer, 2014, p. 893-904Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mountain agriculture emerged at the intersection of the "wild economy," which focused on hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants and the agricultural based economy that is characterized by the domestication of animals and cultivation of the soil. Like other traditional systems based on pasture, the Swedish mountain systems is based on the use of inherited traditional knowledge and mountain pastures have over centuries created a very rare and rich habitat in the form of upland hay meadows. Today, both traditional knowledge and the rich biodiversity in the mountains are endangered by the implementation of modern practices that lead to a number of conflicts that go beyond the tragedy of the commons. One important source of conflict emanates from the changing role of the countryside, a role that creates expectations on farmers to deliver recreation, magnificent landscapes, new job opportunities, operate hotels , produce, cheese, maintain a cultural heritage and contribute to the conservation of native breeds . Another problem is caused by new support systems and regulations that create incentives to intensify the exploitation of summer farms by using the pastures for modern meat cattle breeds, which changes the landscape, but also makes traditional farmers upset, because of the risk of losing the traditions of summer farms.

    An additional source of conflict is created by the state’s changing attitudes towards the mountain world, as the state aims to shut down all existing (state owned) leased mountain flats (fjällägenheter) by cutting down basic infrastructure. The remaining flats are located primarily in the northern parts of Jämtland. They contribute to the maintenance of a very unique flora and insect fauna.  By comparing two cases, one in Klövsjö and one in the northern part of the region, this paper contributes with new knowledge about  mountain agriculture, including interlocking interests, competitive activities, potentials and conflicts.

  • 250.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Girard, Chloe
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Tunón, Håkan
    Centrum för biologisk mångfald, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bringing the Consumer Back in—The Motives, Perceptions, and Values behind Consumers and Rural Tourists’ Decision to Buy Local and Localized Artisan Food—A Swedish Example2018In: Agriculture, E-ISSN 2077-0472, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the motivational factors behind consumers’ and tourists’ decisions to buy local artisan cheese in Jämtland (Sweden). Empirically, the case itself diverts from the typical Franco-Mediterranean case in which both the actions of producers and consumers are embedded in historical, long-term culinary traditions and territorial features, nor is it the typical farmers’ market or another market-driven direct produce system. The main purpose is to shed light on the motivational factors behind the purchasing decision of consumers and tourists by studying the attributes that consumers embody in the products. The article is based on two consumer surveys/short interviews, the first conducted in June 2012 and the second in February 2017. The results were tested against/related to the wider local food discussion conceptualized through four types of attributes. Namely, intrinsic and extrinsic attributes; post-modernity and environmental attributes; geographical and territorial attributes; and local and rural development attributes. The results in this article clearly show that consumers value a combination of different attributes from both market-driven direct produce systems and close typicity systems. Therefore, the construction of proximity from the point of view of the consumer can be derived from a complex set of attributes and motivational factors not normally highlighted in the localized food discussion

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