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  • 201.
    Takemura, Aiko
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication.
    Challenges facing the profession of advertising in the digital age: An empirical study of Swedish advertising professionals2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how Swedish advertising professionals experience their work in the digital age. Findings from semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 15 people are organized using the concept of “media logic” re-interpreted by Mark Deuze, which covers four aspects of media work: institution, technology, organization and culture. The institution feature covers three developments occurring at the industry level, which are concentration, fragmentation and convergence. How these trends determine the way advertising professionals work is the main topic of this section. The findings show that especially due to extensive pressures from shifts of globalization and digitalization in recent years, an ongoing power struggle is taking place in all three institutional trends. The second feature is technology, in which the focus is to understand how technology shapes the way professionals interact with consumers. Interviewees were well aware of the increasing need to construct an interactive and participatory environment for brands and consumers. However, one should not be naïve and celebrate the powerful role of the consumers, nor assume that all advertising agencies are fully capable of harnessing digital technology. Organization is the third feature, where attention is paid to how professionals organize their projects and work styles. In advertising agencies, a major transformation was evident in the creative department where technologists who understand digital are becoming crucial assets next to art directors and copywriters. The last feature is culture, which examines how professionals perceive the cultures of production that influence the final advertising product. Many referred to positive aspects such as a flat and non- hierarchical culture promoting better collaboration. On the other hand, some interviewees indicated the misrepresentation of gender and ethnicity as problematic. These four features function to critically assess the challenges that lay ahead for Swedish advertising professionals in the digital age. 

  • 202.
    Temo, Sumbu
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Broadcasting Peace In CôTe D’Ivoire: What Happens After Democracy?: A case study of Côte d’Ivoire’s UN radio- ONUCI FM2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research will analyze the radio station ONUCI FM, UN’s peace radio in Côte d’Ivoire. The central focus is on journalists’ perception of their role as professional advocacy for peace and democracy. Personal interviews with five ONUCI FM-journalists provide the primary source of qualitative source. In light of the Security Council’s decision to end UN’s peacekeeping mission in Côte d’Ivoire in 2017 followed an uncertainty of ONUCI FM’s future before it was decided that the station would continue to broadcast under the Felix Houphouët-Boigny foundation. This research attempts to elucidate the consequences in similar previous cases. This research shows that the UN often lacks a long-term plan of how to handle their stations when their mission ends, thereby creating an indisputable journalistic vacuum where they previously operated. This research shows that few UN radios are capable of surviving without donations but that leaving abruptly may cause harm to the achieved peace. With the intention to provide a solution to the vacuum created after the UN this research explores the possibilities of citizen journalists filling the void after the organization’s withdrawal. This research argues that Citizen Journalism is a suitable substitute to Peace Journalism when UN radio stations stop broadcasting. Applied theories are Peace Journalism, Journalism ethics and Citizen Journalism. All theories are applicable in the analysis of journalists as nation builders, government partners, and agents of empowerment and also as watchdogs. In conclusion, the purpose of this research is to understand the journalist's own experience of working at ONUCI FM and to analyze if a radio station such as ONUCI FM, when no longer supported by the UN, can benefit of Citizen Journalism.

  • 203.
    Temo, Sumbu
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Media freedom in Ghana: The repealing of the criminal libel law2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to study the connection between media freedom and media law, with focus on the Criminal Libel Law that was repealed in 2001.

    Development journalism was the applied theory. It is a suitable method to investigate the role of journalist as nation builders, government partners, and agents of empowerment and also as watchdogs. This way the correlation between media freedom and media law could be highlighted in different aspects.

    The study was handed out with anonymous surveys with respondents from a state-owned respective private press.  In total 21 journalists participated in the quantitative survey and three participated in the qualitative study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were applied on a randomly selected sample of the journalistic population. The quantitative survey was structured as on a traditional standard survey. Thus, the questionnaire began with closed-ended questions followed by open-ended questions. The qualitative study was designed after the replies in the quantitative study.

    The result shows that journalists perceive themselves as nation builders, agents of empowerment and watchdogs with the aim of promoting democracy and empowerment to the population. The majority did not think that media laws, such as the Criminal Libel Law, hindered their objectivity. However, the qualitative study showed that similar laws could have a deterrent effect. Furthermore, there was an equal belief on whether ownership affected journalism practice or not. The interviewees thought that Ghana had a free media, possibly even too free and needed to be monitored

     

     

  • 204.
    Thor, Christoffer
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Otterstål, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Streamingtjänsternas inverkan på det linjära TV-tittandet: En undersökning om tittandemönster och värdet i tillsammanstittande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to study whether streaming services has made a difference in the act of viewing linear TV together with others. The methods used in the research are: a focus group performed with six people, an email-interview with an expert in TV and a general survey used to define the user groups. The results shows that streaming services has had an impact on viewing patterns and also contributed with new ones. The Swedish consumer is more likely to use streaming services everyday except for Fridays, which can be attributed to a tradition called Fredagsmys (friday cosiness), co-viewing primetime TV on Fridays. Co-viewing TV is also affected by streaming services according to our studies, but not nearly as much as the viewing behaviours. We’re using a theory called Diffusion of Innovation to explain the usage of streaming services and why it has not been adopted by everyone as their main platform for viewing media. 

  • 205.
    Trost, Sigge
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Wahlström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Nolltolerans eller skademinimering: En studie av hur de svenska och brittiska drogideologierna återspeglas i Dagens Nyheter och The Guardian2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige för en narkotikapolitik som ideologiskt grundar sig i visionen om ett narkotikafritt samhälle, ofta omtalat som nolltolerans. Ett annat synsätt som anammats på flera andra håll i världen, bland annat i Storbritannien, grundar sig i principen om skademinimering. Skademinimering innebär att fokus ligger på att reducera drogernas skadeverkningar snarare än utrota drogerna i sig.

    Vi hade en hypotes om att nolltoleransen borde kunna skönjas i svensk journalistik då vi upplever att rådande politik inte ifrågasätts i någon större utsträckning. Som jämförelsepunkt ville vi även se hur det såg ut i Storbritannien. Ländernas journalistik representeras av tidningarna Dagens Nyheter och The Guardian. Våra frågeställningar blev således: Vad och hur skrivs det om narkotika i Dagens Nyheter och The Guardian? Återspeglas ländernas narkotikapolitik i journalistiken? Hur?

    För att besvara den första frågeställningen har vi använt oss av kvantitativ innehållsanalys som metod. Den andra frågeställningen besvarades med hjälp av kritisk diskursanalys. Vår förståelse av begreppen diskurs, ideologi och hegemoni samt den kritiska diskursanalysen har vi främst hämtat från van Dijk, Fiske och Berglez.

    I resultatet från den kvantitativa innehållsanalysen kunde vi se att det tycks mer kring ämnet narkotika i Dagens Nyheter än i The Guardian. Det skrivs även mer om konsekvenserna av droganvändning i Dagens Nyheter, samtidigt som det skrivs aningen mer om utlandshändelser i The Guardian. Resultatet från vår kritiska diskursanalys visade att ländernas respektive narkotikapolitiska ideologier i hög utsträckning återspeglades i det undersökta materialet.

    Resultatet av vår studie leder oss till att dra slutsatsen att medierna till viss del hjälper till att befästa rådande ideologier i folks medvetanden, särskilt vad gäller Sverige.

  • 206.
    Volny, Sanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Datajournalistik: ideal och verklighet: En kvantitativ studie av svensk datajournalistik i förhållande till olika journalistiska och tekniska ideal2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för datajournalistik har ökat både på redaktionerna och inom forskningen det senaste decenniet i takt med att tillgången på data har ökat och därmed behovet av att kunna hitta nyheter och berätta med hjälp av data.

    De flesta tidigare studier om datajournalistik har utgjorts av intervjuer med verksamma datajournalister och bland annat undersökt olika ideal. Men det finns få kvantitativa studier av vad datajournalisterna faktiskt gör, och av svensk datajournalistik.

    Den här uppsatsen syftar till att med innehållsanalytiska metoder beskriva och analysera datajournalistik som publicerats i svenska medier de senaste fem åren, och som journalister själva lyfter fram som exempel på datajournalistik.

    Urvalet är 91 datajournalistiska projekt som lämnats in som bidrag till NODA (Nordic Data Journalism Awards) eller som publicerats i Facebookgruppen Datajournalistik mellan 2013 och 2017.

    Ur en genomgång av tidigare forskning om datajournalistik har fyra olika ideal identifierats: ett undersökande, ett vetenskapligt, ett entreprenöriellt och ett från hackerkulturen, vilka utgör grunden för en analysmodell. Dessutom undersöks vilka producenterna är, vilka ämnen som är vanligast, vilka metoder och datakällor som används och hur publiken inbjuds att ta del av data och att vara delaktiga utifrån teorier om interaktivitet.

    Resultatet visar att datajournalistiken i denna undersökning ofta bygger på unika data, det vill säga självständig research, och att det undersökande idealet är relativt starkt. Trots att datajournalistik sägs präglas av hackerkulturens ideal om samarbete och deltagande är det ofta få producenter och yrkesroller bakom varje publicering och publiken bjuds sällan in att delta i processen.

  • 207.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Agonism or antagonism? Divide in the Ukrainian media community in the times of crisis2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ukrainian media community since 2013 is undergoing a painful process of continuously adjusting to and counteracting the circumstances of conflict, with external and internal propaganda, economic pressure being a consequence of the more general crisis, and guidelines coming from the state institutions, such as the Ministry of Information Policy (MIP) (e.g. Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016, Pantti 2016, Nygren & Hök 2016). Nygren et al. (2016), based on content analysis and interviews with journalists, conclude that one of the main challenges for the Ukrainian journalists today is a conflict between the ideal of neutrality in coverage and favoring of “patriotic journalism” in practice. According to Ukrainian scholars, there are today three groups of journalists: patriotism-charged, who give up standards for the sake of fighting propaganda; supporters of universal standards; and a mixed group (Dutsyk 2017). 

    In order to highlight the role of professional journalism organizations in this divide, this paper focuses on a specific case: project “Two countries – one profession” initiated and supported by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media. Being based on the dialogue between Ukrainian and Russian professional journalism organizations around professional standards and safety of journalists, the project is perceived as contradictory and provocative by a part of the Ukrainian media community who suggest that it is “non-patriotic” and “anti-Ukrainian”. 

    The paper is based on analysis of observations of meetings between the National Union of Journalists of Ukraine and the Russian Union of Journalists, interviews with representatives of these and other media organizations and experts in Ukraine, focus groups with the journalists involved in the project, and negative and positive reactions to this project by the Ukrainian media community. It uses Hanitzsch’s model of deconstruction of journalism culture (Hanitzsch 2007, Nygren et al 2016) and Mouffe’s (2013, p.7) conceptualization of agonistic vs. antagonistic struggle.

  • 208.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Between Two Democratic Ideals: Gendering in the Russian Culture of Political Journalism2014In: Women in Politics and Media: Perspectives from Nations in Transition / [ed] Maria Raicheva-Stover & Elza Ibroscheva, New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014, p. 115-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the attitudes of Russian journalists toward media representations of women politicians. It seeks to answer the following questions: How does the culture of political journalism influence gendering of women politicians? And what makes the Russian culture of political journalism unique when it comes to the coverage women politicians get? The chapter addresses the journalists’ interpretations of the low number of women politicians in media content, and turns to the journalists’ reasoning behind gender spotlighting and stereotyping. Highlighting the contradictions between the ideas, practices, and ideals present in the culture of the ‘quality’ political journalism in Russia, the chapter discusses how journalists envision the future of media representations of women politicians and how this relates to the problem of gender inequality in the political realm.

  • 209.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Conflict as a point of no return: Immigrant and internally displaced journalists in Ukraine2019In: European Journal of Cultural Studies, ISSN 1367-5494, E-ISSN 1460-3551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ukrainian Euromaidan protests in 2013, alongside the Brexit vote and the so-called ‘refugee crisis’, have strongly changed the imaginary of Europe. Apart from ideological shifts and geopolitical changes, the situation in Ukraine has led to a geographic relocation and displacement of media producers and audiences alike. Yet, in the Ukrainian context and beyond, little is known about dislocated journalists in conflict situations. This article addresses the specific experiences of immigrant and internally displaced journalists, their imagined audiences and the overarching construction of post-revolutionary Ukraine as an imagined community. The argument draws empirically from the dislocatory experiences and relocatory trajectories of two groups: immigrant journalists, who moved to Ukraine from Russia, and journalists who migrated internally – to Kyiv and other government-controlled Ukrainian regions from Crimea and non-government-controlled areas of Donbas. For immigrant and internally displaced journalists, the search for new identities and positions is strongly related to their imagination of the audiences. The journalists notice a simultaneous fragmentation and unification of the audiences driven by both top-down and down-up intentions of post-revolutionary nation building. They hope to contribute to turning the fragmented communities into a media nation that will perceive them as ‘us’.

  • 210.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Constructing gendered politicians: Russian and Swedish journalists about media representations of female and male politicians and the process of their production2012In: ECREA 2012 Conference Proceedings, ECREA: European Communication Research and Education Association , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Crisis and journalism culture transformation: The case of Ukraine2017In: Nordmedia conference 2017: 23rd Nordic Conference on Media and Communication Research Tampere, 17–19 August 2017, Abstracts, Division 2, Journalism, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism culture is described by scholars as “one of the resources journalists draw upon to coordinate their activities as reporters, photographers, and editors” (Zelizer 2005, p. 204). Importantly, journalism cultures should be analyzed not only in connection to the contexts, but also in and as processes (Voronova 2014, p. 221). While most journalism cultures in the world face similar challenges, such as commercialization and digitalization, some of them are challenged by more radical challenges, such as war conflicts. Ukrainian journalism culture since 2013 is undergoing a painful process of continuously adjusting to and counteracting the circumstances of conflict, with external and internal propaganda (e.g. coming from the so-called “people’s republics” of Donetsk and Luhansk), economic pressure being a consequence of the more general crisis, and guidelines coming from the state institutions, such as the Ministry of Information Policy (MIP) (e.g. Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016, Pantti 2016, Nygren & Hök 2016). 

    Nygren et al. (2016), based on content analysis and interviews with journalists, conclude that one of the main challenges for the Ukrainian journalists today is a conflict between the ideal of neutrality in coverage and favoring of “patriotic journalism” in practice. This paper takes this discussion further and suggests to look at how the professional journalism organizations in Ukraine reflect upon this conflict, which journalists themselves define as a split between journalists and “Glory-to-Ukraine-journalists” (Sklyarevskaya 2016, October 20th). How does the participation of Ukrainian journalism organizations in the discussion of objectivity vs. patriotism look like on different levels – international, regional, national and local? Is there a possibility to retain a national culture of journalism in the situation of crisis, or does it inevitably end up in splitting to many journalism cultures that have their own rules, beliefs and ideals? 

    Using Hanitzsch’s model of deconstruction of journalism culture (Hanitzsch 2007, Nygren et al 2016), and focusing specifically on the dimension of epistemological beliefs, this paper analyzes a specific case: project ”Two countries – one profession” initiated and supported by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media. The project consists of regular round tables where senior representatives from Ukrainian and Russian professional journalism organizations meet to discuss ways to improve professional standards and safety of journalists, as well as collaborative projects between young journalists from the two countries. The project is perceived as contradictory and provocative by a part of the Ukrainian media community (e.g. Rudenko 2016, December 15th). The paper is based on analysis of observations of meetings between the National Union of 

    Journalists of Ukraine and the Russian Union of Journalists, interviews with representatives of these and other media organizations and experts in Ukraine, focus groups with the young journalists involved in the project, and negative and positive reactions to this project by the Ukrainian media community.

  • 212.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    From gendering to intersectional labelling. Russian and Swedish political journalists' perspective on discriminating and promoting mechanisms in the media content2015In: Communication Papers. Media Literacy & Gender Studies, ISSN 2014-6752, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 64-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests to study the phenomena of gendering in political journalism from intersectionality perspective (Davis, 2008; McCall, 2005) in order to understand gendering in the framework of other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in political news. Gendering is understood as the perceived imprint of gender on the media portrayal of politics and politicians, as well as the processes whereby gendered media representations materialize ( V oronova, 2014). The paper is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political journalists working for the quality press in Russia and Sweden. The choice of the countries is driven by the wish to explore the difficulties and similarities of the journalists’ conceptualizations of gendering and other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in two very different political and cultural contexts. The paper shows that the journalists in both countries highlight the importance of not only gender mainstreaming, but diversity in the content as a democratic value, where gender stands in the same row with other difference-making categories (such as ethnicity, sexuality etc.). The paper highlights the difficulties and contradictions the Russian and Swedish political journalists face trying to achieve their diversity ideal. The paper suggests a definition of intersectional labelling in political journalism, and proposes that it is an ambiguous process, which can be either discriminatory or promoting, depending on its manifestations. Moreover, its application is contextual, and is related to the journalists’ vision of ethics, commercial benefits of the media organization, and press freedom. 

  • 213.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Gender politics of the ‘war of narratives’: Russian TV-news in the times of conflict in Ukraine2017In: Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies, ISSN 1757-1898, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 217-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the gender politics of the news broadcast on the Russian state-controlled TV channels – Channel One (Pervyj kanal), Russia-1 (Rossiya-1), Russia-24 (Rossiya-24), NTV and RT (formerly Russia Today) – from January to September 2015, a period when the TV news closely followed the conflict in Ukraine and the growing tensions between Russia and Europe. The study shows that the news on the state-controlled TV channels interpret the state politics in only one possible way – ascribing the most traditional and essentialist characteristics to the country, prioritizing male actors and military activities and suggesting no alternatives to ‘(re)masculinization’ of the image of Russia in the situation of the conflict on the territory of another state, despite the alleged disengagement of the country in it. The article concludes that the state-controlled TV channels use essentialist gendering as a part of nation-branding and nation-building strategies, with an aim to construct the gendered and intersectionalized ideology of the ‘Russian world’ that would target both internal and external audiences and go beyond the borders of the Russian Federation.

  • 214.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    ”Gender v politicheskoj zhurnalistike kak vopros demokratii: rossijskie i shvedskie zhurnalisty o svobode pechati i gendernom ravenstve” [Gender in political journalism as a democracy issue: Russian and Swedish journalists on press freedom and gender equality]2015In: Zhurnalistika v 2014 godu: SMI kak faktor obschestvennogo dialoga [Journalism in 2014: Media as a factor of public dialogue], Collection of theses of international scientific and practical conference Journalism 2014, Moscow: MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, Moscow: MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, 2015, p. 116-117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [ru]

    Гендер в политической журналистике как вопрос демократии: российские и шведские журналисты о свободе печати и гендерном равенстве

    Воронова Людмила Александровна, PhD, преподаватель кафедры медиа-исследований университета Седерторн (Стокгольм, Швеция)

    Гендерные медиа-исследователи часто обсуждают гендерные стереотипы как проблему демократии. Так, Китцингер (Kitzinger 1998) понимает политическую журналистику как «гендер-политику», дискурсивную практику, несущую в себе потенциал как для продвижения демократического идеала гендерного равенства, так и для воспроизведения традиционных стереотипов и утверждения существующей гендерной иерархии. Калламар (Callamard 2006) предлагает считать гендерные стереотипы в СМИ особым видом цензуры, которая, как правило, действует в пользу мужчин, сокращая для женщин возможность быть объективно представленными в медиа-дискурсе. Более того, гендерное равенство, по мнению исследователей, практически рифмуется со свободой печати, причем равенство мужчин и женщин воспринимается ими как «показатель реализации настоящей и зрелой демократии» (Hermes 2013).

    Проведя интервью с сорока журналистами, работающими в качественных изданиях России и Швеции (интервью проводились в 2011-12 гг.), мы выяснили, что российские и шведские журналисты воспринимают свободу печати и гендерное равенство как непременные атрибуты демократии. Тем не менее, между их представлениями о балансе этих двух идеалов есть существенные различия. Так, российские журналисты находят свободу прессы гораздо более ценным элементом демократии, чем гендерное равенство, и готовы поступиться принципом продвижения последнего, если это необходимо для выполнения роли «сторожевой собаки» власти. Гендерные стереотипы, хоть и идут вразрез с демократическими идеалами качественной прессы, могут становиться одним из инструментов критики политиков. Более того, по мнению российских журналистов, политики могут использовать гендерную повестку для «обуздания» свободной прессы.

    Шведские журналисты не видят никакого противоречия между идеалами гендерного равенства и свободы печати, считая естественной ситуацию, когда в продвижении гендерного равенства одинаково заинтересованы и качественные издания, и власть, что позволяет им вступать в гармоничный диалог. Хотя шведские журналисты крайне критично настроены по отношению к каким-либо ограничениям относительно контента, вводимым извне, они признают необходимость тщательной проработки внутренних ограничений: так, к примеру, они внимательно прислушиваются к гендерной критике контента, поступающей не только от читателей, но и от политиков.

    Таким образом, и российские, и шведские журналисты считают гендер в политической журналистике вопросом демократии. Несмотря на бóльшую критичность российских журналистов по отношению к ограничениям свободы печати, их позиция защиты более уязвима, чем позиция их шведских коллег: оправдывая использование гендерных стереотипов в прессе, они поощряют и традиционное представление о гендерной иерархии в обществе, где власть воспринимается как мужчина и доминанта, а пресса как зависимая женщина. Тем не менее, позиция шведских журналистов тоже неоднозначна: воспринимая шведскую политическую и медийную систему как воплощение демократии, они перестают критически воспринимать исчезновение гендерного равенства как темы в журналистской повестке дня – факт, отмечаемый гендерными экспертами и активистами (Rönngren 2014).

  • 215.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gender v politicheskoj zhurnalistike Rossii i Shvetsii: sravnitelnyj analiz transformiruyuschikhsya media-kul’tur dvukh stran Baltijskogo regiona (Gender in political journalism in Russia and Sweden: a comparative analysis of transforming media cultures of the two countries in Baltic region)2012In: Mass Media after Post-Socialism: Trends of 2000s: Extended abstracts’ collection / [ed] Vartanova, Elena, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, MSU , 2012, p. 110-114Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gendering in political journalism behind the curtains: journalists’ perspective2014In: Gender in Focus: (New) Trends in Media / [ed] Cabecinhas, Rosa et al., Braga: University of Minho , 2014, p. 88-88Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960-s, when gender media studies originated, a special attention of gender media scholars has been paid to the different aspects of political communication. “Gendered mediation” (Gidengil and Everitt 1999), or “gendering”, of politicians and politics is considered to have a crucial influence both on the voter recognition of female and male candidates, and political participation of women and men. Scholars have provided potential reasons, which can explain the way women and men politicians, as well as the problem of the gender imbalance in political sphere are covered in political journalism (e.g. Braden 1996, Ross 2002, Falk 2008). Despite the media institution (its logic, organization, and individual characteristics of the media producers) being defined as the key “guilty party” of the patterns revealed by the scholars, journalists have remained silent producers of the assumed “gendered mediation”.

    This paper turns to the political journalists’ vision of the (gendered) media portrayal of politicians and politics. Its aim is to explore the reasons of gendering in quality press, as they are conceptualized by political journalists. The study focuses on journalists working in two different cultural and political contexts – in Russia and in Sweden. The choice of the cases is driven by the wish to define the similar and different elements in the journalists’ conceptions of the reasons of gendering in different political and cultural contexts, where the two cases work as an illustration of the global tendency of mediatization of politics.

    Based on the analytical framework suggested by Hanitzsch (2007), the paper turns to the journalists’ conceptions of gendering in relation to their concern of the professional norms and ethical standards, institutional roles, and epistemological beliefs. The concluding discussion links gendering as a component of the national culture of political journalism and the global tendency of mediatization of politics.

  • 217.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gendering in political journalism in the framework of other “ing-s”: Russian and Swedish political journalists about gender, ethnicity and sexual identity as politicians’ characteristics and political categories2015In: On conference website, 2015, p. -30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores gendering in political journalism – the perceived imprint of gender on the media portrayal of politics and politicians, as well as the processes whereby gendered media representations materialize. Gendering here is understood as an ambiguous process, which can be either discriminatory or promoting, depending on its manifestations (e.g. gender stereotypes or counter-stereotypes, gender-spotlighting or gender-aware story). Moreover, this paper suggests to study this phenomena from intersectionality perspective (Davis 2008, McCall 2005) in order to understand gendering in the framework of other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in political news.

    The paper is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political journalists working for the quality press in Russia and Sweden. The choice of the countries is driven by the wish to explore the difficulties and similarities of the journalists’ conceptualizations of gendering in two very different political and cultural contexts. The paper shows that the journalists in both countries highlight the importance of not only gender mainstreaming, but diversity in the content in general as a democratic value, where gender stands in the same row with other difference-making categories (such as ethnicity, sexuality etc.). The paper highlights the difficulties and contradictions the Russian and Swedish political journalists face trying to achieve their diversity ideal. As such, the paper discusses the reasons for the “double othering” of foreign women politicians in the Russian press and the ridiculing of Russian male politicians in the Swedish press, the attempts of the Russian journalists to remain gender-neutral in the current homophobic context and their Swedish colleagues’ striving for keeping gender as an issue on the media agenda when it is being replaced from the political agenda by the discussions of race and ethnicity issues.

  • 218.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Gendering in political journalism: manifestation of media power or political strategy? Swedish and Russian press-people about gender dimension of media–politics interactions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 219.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gendering in political journalism: modes of origin2014In: Communication for Empowerment: Citizens, Markets, Innovations : 5th European Communication Conference : book of abstracts, Lissabon, Portugal: ECREA , 2014, p. 169-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960-s, when gender media studies originated, a special attention of gender media scholars has been paid to the different aspects of political communication. “Gendered mediation” (Gidengil and Everitt 1999), or “gendering”, of politicians and politics is considered to have a crucial influence both on the voter recognition of female and male candidates, and political participation of women and men. Scholars have provided potential reasons, which can explain the way women and men politicians, as well as the problem of the gender imbalance in political sphere are covered in political journalism (e.g. Braden 1996, Ross 2002, Falk 2008). Despite the media institution (its logic, organization, and individual characteristics of the media producers) being defined as the key “guilty party” of the patterns revealed by the scholars, journalists have remained silent producers of the assumed “gendered mediation”.

    This paper turns to the political journalists’ vision of the (gendered) media portrayal of politicians and politics. Its aim is to explore the reasons of gendering in quality press, as they are conceptualized by political journalists. The study focuses on journalists working in two different cultural and political contexts – in Russia and in Sweden. The choice of the cases is driven by the wish to define the similar and different elements in the journalists’ conceptions of the reasons of gendering in different political and cultural contexts, where the two cases work as an illustration of the global tendency of mediatization of politics. The study is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political and international reporters, department- and chief-editors working for the quality press in the two countries.

    Based on the analytical framework suggested by Hanitzsch (2007), the paper turns to the journalists’ conceptions of gendering in relation to their concern of the professional norms and ethical standards, institutional roles, and epistemological beliefs. The concluding discussion links gendering as a component of the national culture of political journalism and the global tendency of mediatization of politics.

  • 220.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Gendernye Problemy V Politicheskoj Zhurnalistike Rossii I Shvetsii (Gender Problems In Political Journalism In Russia And Sweden)2013In: Zhurnalistika v 2012 godu: sotsialnaya missija i professija. (Journalism in 2012: Social Mission and Profession : Collection of materials of the International scientific and practical conference), Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2013, p. 384-385Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gendernye reprezentatsii kak instrument privlecheniya chitatelej i reklamodatelej (na primere kachestvennoj pressy Rossii i Shvetsii) [Gender representations as a tool for attracting readers and advertisers: Russian and Swedish quality press]2014In: Гендер и СМИ [Gender and Media] / [ed] Olga Smirnova, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2014, p. 117-129Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on gendered media representations as an instrument of getting economicbenefits and a tool of interaction with readers. Based on interviews with Russian and Swedish quality press’ employees, this study shows that gendered media representations are one of the resources of the quality press’ competitiveness on the media-market. However, the choice of the gendered representations, which attract both the audiences and advertisers, is strictly context-dependent.

  • 222. Voronova, Liudmila
    Images of women–politicians in the media of Sweden and Russia2009In: Nordic Media: Concepts and Current Issues / [ed] Elena Vartanova & Marina Pavlikova, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 223.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Local, national, transnational: shifting audiences in Ukraine2017In: IAMCR 2017: Post-Socialist, Post-Authoritarian Working Group, Abstracts of papers presented at the annual conference of the International Association for Media and Communication Research, IAMCR, Cartagena, Colombia 16-20 July 2017, 2017, article id 14730Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2013, scholars have been discussing events happening in Ukraine from the perspective of the “war of narratives” (Khaldarova and Pantti 2016). In this war, information has become one of the main weapons (Hoskins and O’Loughlin 2010), and fight for the publics has crossed the borders of the ordinary economic and political struggles. Previous research has mainly focused on the attempts of the Russian mainstream state-controlled media and other actors (e.g. trolls on social media) to influence the Russian-speaking audiences in Ukraine, Russia and elsewhere by spreading pro-Kremlin propaganda (see Pantti 2016). Less attention has been given to the Ukrainian media community and the internal processes in it in the period of crisis (Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016). Being a part of the research project ”From nation branding to information war”, this paper focuses on the visions of the publics by the Ukrainian media community today. How do representatives of the media community imagine and perceive their audiences? What are the changes that have occurred along with the territorial changes – loss of Crimea to Russia and establishment of selfproclaimed ”people’s republics” in the East of the country? And which language do media producers choose today to speak to their audiences? Through the prism of “imagined audiences” (e.g. Litt and Hargitai 2016, boyd 2008) and “imagined communities” (Anderson 2006), this paper discusses several aspects of the changes in the visions of the audiences by the Ukrainian media community. First, it focuses on the visions of the audiences by the journalists who due to the crisis had to move geographically and, thus, work for a different audience today. As such, it takes up the cases of journalists who moved from Crimea and the socalled LPR and DPR to Kyiv or other Ukrainian regions. Another case is journalists from Russia who moved to Ukraine for ideological reasons. Second, the paper discusses the reactions of the media community to the need for reaching out to the audiences in Crimea and so-called DPR/LPR, the technological and ideological challenges of this communication. Third, it focuses on a serious challenge and change concerning the language, in which the audiences are addressed. Due to new legislative proposals and, according to some media experts, economic reasons, Ukrainian language is becoming more and more dominant both in broadcast and printed media. Yet, simultaneously Ukraine is one of successful producers of transnational entertainment products in Russian language (e.g. popular travel show “Oryol i Reshka” by TeenSpirit Production which is broadcast in Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan).

  • 224.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Media Representation of Women Politicians: Myths and Anti-myths2011In: World of Media 2011: Yearbook of Russian media and journalism studies / [ed] Vartanova, Elena, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2011, p. 114-127Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 225.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Ot gendera k intersektsional'nosti: o neobkhodimosti ispol'zovaniya matritsy kategoriy v media-issledovaniyakh: From gender to intersectionality: On the need of using the matrix of categories in media studies2016In: Zhurnalistika v 2015 godu. Informatsionnyj potentsial obschestva i resursy mediasistemy: Journalism in 2015: Informational potential of the society and the media system resources / [ed] Vartanova, E. L. & Zassoursky, Y. N., Moscow: MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [ru]

    В то время как гендерные исследования СМИ стали признанной областью медиа-исследований, использование т.н. интерсекционального подхода (Davis, 2008; McCall, 2005) встречается редко. Интерсекциональный подход предполагает, что вместо отдельной категории «гендер» исследователь обращает внимание на всю «матрицу доминирования» (Collins, 2000) - пересечение таких категорий, как гендер, класс, этническая и расовая принадлежность, религиозные взгляды, сексуальные предпочтения, физическая и умственная полноценность и т.д. Это позволяет исследователю лучше понять дискриминационные механизмы и механизмы продвижения определенных акторов и групп. Матрица доминирования может использоваться как в исследованиях медиа-контента (например, для получения представлений о стереотипах, присутствующих в новостном или развлекательном контенте), так и в исследованиях медиа-организаций (для того, чтобы понять, какие группы имеют доступ к производству медиа и на основании чего в разных контекстах выстраивается «стеклянный потолок», который не позволяет представителям определенных групп продвигаться по карьерной лестнице в медиа-индустрии).

    Как показало основанное на интервью исследование процесса гендеринга в политической журналистике в качественной прессе России и Швеции (который характеризуется присвоением гендерных категорий политикам и политическим процессам - см. Voronova, 2014), сами журналисты в обоих контекстах заявляют о неотрывности категории гендера от других категорий (этническая и расовая принадлежность, класс, сексуальные предпочтения, религиозные взгляды и т.д.), которые могут быть задействованы в производстве новостей. Как и гендеринг, акцентирование других категорий может носить как дискриминационный, так и позитивный характер. Российские журналисты отмечали, что высказывания зарубежных женщин-политиков часто подаются как особенно чуждые в связи с пересечением двух категорий (гендер и национальность), а шведские журналисты говорят о высмеивании российских мужчин-политиков в прессе Швеции, связанным с несоответствием их характеристик мужественности тем, что приняты в Швеции. Журналисты, работающие в качественной прессе, в обеих странах сталкиваются с проблемой несоответствия их убеждений о демократической роли СМИ с реалиями медиа-ландшафта. Если в российском контексте разнообразие (diversity) в медиа-контенте и обсуждение разнообразия как общественной задачи зачастую не считается выгодным с точки зрения рекламных продаж и конкуренции на медиа-рынке («стереотипы продаются лучше»), в Швеции гендерная проблематика сегодня вытесняется обсуждением вопросов, связанных с категориями этнической и расовой принадлежности, что неоднозначно воспринимается журналистами: разнообразие важно, но ведь и гендерное равенство все еще не достигнуто. Более того, медиа-контент во многом является, по мнению журналистов, отражением интерсекциональной иерархии в медиа-организации, которая также должна стать более открытой и неоднородной.

    Таким образом, с точки зрения журналистов, для борьбы со стереотипами в медиа-контенте и преодоления дискриминационных механизмов в медиа-индустрии, необходимо обращать внимание не только на категорию гендера, но на всю «матрицу доминирования». Этот же подход, несмотря на методологические сложности (см. Lünenborg and Fürsich, 2014), можно рекомендовать для рассмотрения и медиа-исследователям, особенно в пост-советском пространстве, где включение категории социального класса традиционно считается важным.

  • 226.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Politika i zhurnalistika: tango pod gendernyj akkompanement [Politics and journalism: tango to the gender accompaniment]2013In: Гендер и СМИ [Gender and Media] / [ed] Smirnova, Olga, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2013, p. 205-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Politiki protiv zhurnalistov: boi (ne)gendernogo znacheniya (Politicians vs. journalists: a struggle of a (not-only) gender significance)2013In: Zhurnalistika i mediarynok, no 7-8, p. 74-76Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 228. Voronova, Liudmila
    Representatsiya zhenschin-politikov v SMI: puteshestvie v vydumanniy mir2009In: Mediaalmanakh, ISSN 1992-4631, no 1, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Russian Journalists Moving to Ukraine: Russophone Journalism Culture, ‘Imagined Communities’ and Challenges of Adjusting2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2013, scholars have been discussing events happening in Ukraine from the perspective of the “war of narratives” (Khaldarova and Pantti 2016). In this war, information has become one of the main weapons (Hoskins and O’Loughlin 2010), and fight for the publics has crossed the borders of the ordinary economic and political struggles. Previous research has mainly focused on the attempts of the Russian mainstream state-controlled media to influence the Russian-speaking audiences in Ukraine, Russia and elsewhere by spreading pro-Kremlin propaganda (see Pantti 2016). Less attention has been given to the Ukrainian media community and the internal processes in it in the period of crisis (Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016). Being a part of the research project ”From nation branding to information war”, this paper focuses on a very particular group of the representatives of the Ukrainian media community – Russian journalists who moved to Ukraine and work for Ukrainian audiences. This paper applies the theoretical prism of “imagined audiences” (e.g. Litt and Hargitai 2016, boyd 2008) and “imagined communities” (Anderson 2006). The analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with seven journalists conducted in 2017. What are the motivations behind their choice of the new geographic location and place of work? What are the challenges that they face adjusting to the new journalism culture and how do they see their role in the “war of narratives”? How do they imagine and perceive their audiences? And how do they relate to the language issue, as Ukrainian language is becoming more and more dominant both in broadcast and printed media?

  • 230. Voronova, Liudmila
    The image of female national leaders in Russian and Swedish mass media2008In: 4th Nordic Readings: Nordic Media in Terms of Glocalisation / [ed] Pavlikova, M.M., Kushnarenko, G.D., 2008, p. 45-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 231.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Tsennostnye i normativnye predstavleniya sotrudnikov pressy Rossii i Shvetsii o reprezentatsiyakh zhenschin-politikov2012In: Zhurnalistika v 2011 godu: Tsennosti sovremennogo obshchestva i sredstva massovoj informatsii (Abstracts collection) / [ed] Vartanova, Elena; Zassoursky, Yassen, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2012, p. 372-373Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 232.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Ultimate Gendering of the Image of Russia: Political Journalism in the Times of Conflict in Ukraine2015In: 15th Annual Aleksanteri Conference: Culture and Russian Society, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Army marching towards the European capitals, missiles with sarcastic yellow smileys on their boards, arrows depicting the distance between Moscow and the potential targets of Russia's "friendly" invasion – the TV news cast by the national Pyatyj channel of the Russian television (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SemPHeiamBo) raised a broad discussion both inside and outside of the Russian borders. Should this and similar messages be read as an outright threat to the West, a mockery, or as populist flirting with the Russian citizens (see Schreck 2015)? From the perspective of gender media studies, understanding political journalism as "gender-politics" in itself (Kitzinger 1998), such messages can be viewed as an ultimate case of gendering in political journalism (Voronova 2014). Represented by thousands of male soldiers, Russia appears as a man, or even the Man – ready to penetrate and explode, come and take, enter and appropriate. This paper explores political news broadcast on the Russian state-controlled TV-channels – Pervyj, Rossiya-1, Rossiya-24, Russia Today and NTV starting from January 2015. Year 2015 is chosen due to two reasons. First, the news constantly follow the continuing conflict in Ukraine and escalation of the tensions between Russia and Europe. The conflict here is viewed as an accelerator for masculinization of the image of the country. Second, this year sees the 70th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War, which becomes yet another reason for discussions of the military image of Russia. The news are analyzed with the use of multimodal discourse analysis (Wildfeuer 2014) and some elements of feminist critical discourse analysis (Lazar 2005). The study applies intersectional perspective (Davis 2008; McCall 2005) and observes a broader tendency in the Russian political news of constructing a homogeneous image of Russia as a Slavic, heterosexual, orthodox Christian man.

  • 233. Voronova, Liudmila
    Zhenschiny-politiki v SMI: mify i antimify (Women politicians in the mass media: myths and anti-myths)2009In: Mediascope, ISSN 2074-8051, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is devoted to comparative analysis of women-politicians’ coverage in quality press of Russia and Sweden. Author presents image systems used by the media of two countries as systems of myths and antimyths able to strengthen traditional stereotypes or, vice versa, promote gender equality in political sphere.

  • 234.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Интерсекциональный подход в журналистике и научных исследованиях [Intersectional approach in journalism and research]: Рефлексия о многообразии [Reflection on diversity]2016In: Гендер и СМИ [Gender and Media] / [ed] Olga Smirnova, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2016, p. 197-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 235.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Украинские медиаорганизации и журналисты о вызовах информационной войны [Ukrainian media organizations and journalists on challenges of information war]2017In: Творчество, профессия, индустрия [Creativity, profession, industry]: Материалы Международной научно-практической конференции "Журналистика-2016" [Materials of International scientific-practical conference "Journalism-2016"] / [ed] Elena Vartanova, Yasen Zassoursky, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, MediaMir , 2017, p. 249-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [ru]

    Понятие «информационная война» используется сегодня все чаще как в медийных, так и в академических дискурсах. Под информационной войной понимают конфликт, в котором информация становится одним из основных видов оружия (напр., Pantti 2016, Hoskins and O’Loughlin 2010), а т.н. информационный менеджмент – техники распространения дезинформации и попытки влияния на медиа – является одним из основных измерений конфликта (Tumber & Webster 2006). Украинский кризис – события, происходящие в стране с 2013 года: протесты в Киеве («Евромайдан»), смена правительства, присоединение Крыма к Российской Федерации, продолжающееся военное противостояние на востоке страны, - сегодня все чаще становится объектом международных исследований, рассматривающих происходящее как один из ярких примеров «войны нарративов» (Khaldarova and Pantti 2016). Трудности с верификацией информации, пристрастность информационных источников, вовлеченность в конфликт сторонних интересов поставили журналистов, освещающих события на Украине (как украинских, так и представителей других стран), перед вызовом (Pantti 2016).

    Проблема, которую отмечают при этом некоторые исследователи, - фиксация международного академического сообщества на российских медиа как источнике информационного менеджмента или даже пропаганды (см. Pantti 2016). Лишь немногие исследования предлагают анализ информационного менеджмента внутри Украины (Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016). Между тем, даже предварительный взгляд на это медиа-пространство выявляет его неоднородность. Украинское медиа-сообщество оказалось расколото: приверженцы глобальных и «вечных» журналистских идеалов не находят понимания у сторонников «патриотической журналистики». Первые обвиняют вторых в само-цензуре и следовании интересам институтов власти, а вторые первых – в сотрудничестве с «вражескими агентами».

    Данный исследовательский проект на различных примерах (запрет на определенные российские медиа-продукты; радикальная инициатива по поиску «пособников террористов» среди журналистов – «Миротворец» и др.) рассматривает проблему, с которой столкнулось украинское медиа-сообщество, как частный случай общей тенденции. Эта тенденция может быть обозначена как идеологизация СМИ, что с одной стороны, является результатом, а с другой стороны, благодатной почвой для информационной войны. Этой тенденции противостоят различные инициативы, направленные на сохранение приверженности журналистского сообщества профессиональным принципам и стандартам: например, проект ОБСЕ «Две страны – одна профессия», где Союз журналистов России и Национальный союз журналистов Украины обсуждают противодействие языку вражды, или критикуемое внутри страны сотрудничество между украинскими и зарубежными корреспондентами при освещении событий в зоне АТО на востоке Украины.

  • 236. Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Artyukhova, Kseniya
    Put’ v politiku: osobennosti stanovleniya gendernogo ravenstva v Rossii i Shvetsii2008In: Obraz zhenschiny v kulture i mass-media: Vzglyad iz Severnoy Evropy i Rossii (Women in Nordic Countries and Russia: Media and Cultural Approaches) / [ed] E.L. Vartanova, M.M. Pavlikova, Tampere: University of Tampere, Department of Journalism and Mass Communication , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 237.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Edenborg, Emil
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Ksenia Sobchak and the visibility of female politicians in the Russian public sphere2019In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. XII, no 1, p. 28-32Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 238.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    To joke off-the-cuff is men’s job?: A multilayered analysis of Russian infotainment TV programs Projectorparishilton and Devchata2012In: Acting-Up: Gender and Television Comedy : A Day Symposium at Northumbria University, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a time when neo-conservative tendencies in gender representations are acquiring more and more popularity in the media worldwide – and the domain of humour is certainly no exception (e.g. the US show The Talk) – are there parallel trends to be detected in countries where feminism never has received widespread recognition, as in the case of Russia? What can we learn about gender stereotypes from contemporary Russian infotainment TV shows? This paper will explore these questions by studying two popular shows, Projectorparishilton (“The Paris Hilton’ Projector”) and Devchata (“The Girls”). These weekly ironic-analytical programmes are broadcast prime time on the national channels Channel One and Rossiya-1 and somewhat resembling the format of programmes like Loose Women and The View. With its four male anchors, Projectorparishilton aimed to attract a younger and more progressive audience of both genders and from the beginning ignored any specific gender orientation. By contrast, Devchata – with its female anchors – was explicitly launched with a female audience as their target group, producing a type of humour recognized by essentialists as “female”.Applying a critical perspective, we study verbal and non-verbal constituents of the programmes (including music, gestures, etc.), the interior of the studio, the appearance, behaviour (and jokes!) of the anchors, in order to study how gender, age, culture and nationality are encoded/signified. Based on Laura Mulvey’s term “male gaze”, we introduce the notion of “male humour”, which is implicit not only in the way the anchors appear as subjects and objects of jokes; but also in the position taken by the viewer, regardless of gender. At heart, we question the gendered nature of humour in general and the creation of “women’s space” in the media, which in fact is a reinforcement of traditional gender (and other) stereotypes.

  • 239.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    ”Where men and women make a jest, a problem lies concealed” : A multilayered analysis of Russian infotainment TV-programs Projectorparishilton and Devchata2011In: Gender and Media – 2010: Annual book. / [ed] Smirnova, Olga, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2011, p. 105-133Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Voronova, Olga
    Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University.
    Printed media for Russophone diaspora: typological models2017In: Migration and Communication Flows: Rethinking borders, conflict and identity through the digital, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In eighty countries of the world (excluding Russia), there are produced around 3,5 thousand media in Russian language for 30 million Russian speakers (Astafyev 2012). Russophone diaspora is specific, as it has a multilayered (different waves of migration) and multiethnic character (see Pivovar 2008, 2010). The printed media of the three first waves of the Russian emigration are thoroughly studied (e.g., Bogomolov 1994, 2004; Esin 2003; Mikhalev 2009; Suomela 2014; Zhirkov 2003). There are as well several studies on the online space of the “Russian abroad” (e.g., Morgunova 2014; Reut and Teterevleva 2014). Yet, the currently existing printed Russian-language media remain somewhat of a blind spot on the map of the diaspora studies and media studies alike, despite the scale of this media segment.

    This study focuses on the printed media segment of the Russophone media abroad. The study is based on a twelve-year long monitoring of Russian-language press that consisted of a basic content analysis of 65 printed media and survey of 64 journalists working for 50 outlets. The materials were collected during the trainings for these journalists organized by the Universal Association of Russian Press (VARP) and Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University.

    The study maps the space of the Russian-language press abroad, describes the tendencies characteristic for it, and highlights the typological models within this segment. On the one hand, the Russian-language media abroad are influenced by global processes, which lead to their commercialization, standardization, concentration and integration with non-established media online. On the other hand, these media are oriented at specific audiences, united by the language and culture. The current challenges of these media are related to the political events (such as Ukrainian conflict), as well as the broader problem of self-identification of the Russophone diaspora.

  • 241.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Widestedt, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gendering the country’s image: Russian and Swedish political journalism in the times of conflict2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Army marching towards the European capitals, missiles with sarcastic yellow smileys on their boards, arrows depicting the distance between Moscow and the potential targets of Russia’s “friendly” invasion – the TV news cast by the national Pyatyj channel of the Russian television (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SemPHeiamBo) raised a broad discussion both inside and outside of the Russian borders. Should this and similar messages be read as an outright threat to the West, a mockery, or as populist flirting with the Russian citizens (see Schreck 2015)? At the same time, in Sweden, the media turn to the discussion of gender mainstreaming as a “weapon” that a “feminine” country like Sweden can use for handling the conflict situations with more “masculine” countries like Saudi Arabia (http://sverigesradio.se/sida/avsnitt/522139?programid=1300).

    From the perspective of gender media studies, understanding political journalism as “gender-politics” in itself (Kitzinger 1998), such messages created in the times of external conflict or confrontation can be viewed as ultimate cases of gendering in political journalism (Voronova 2014). Represented by thousands of male soldiers, Russia appears as a man – ready to penetrate and explode, come and take, enter and appropriate, while Sweden appears as a woman – educating, caring, encouraging and using manipulative power rather than force.

    This paper explores Russian and Swedish political journalism constructing gendered images of the countries in the time of external conflict or confrontation. The chosen period is year 2015 that provides possibility for analyzing two different conflictual situations that are viewed as accelerators for gendering of the images of the countries involved: the war conflict in Ukraine that Russia is directly involved in, and the diplomatic conflict between Sweden and Saudi Arabia.

  • 242.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Widholm, Andreas
    Department of Media Studies (IMS), Stockholm University.
    Broadcasting Against the Grain: The Contradictory Roles of RT in a Global Media Age2019In: Transnational Media: Concepts and Cases / [ed] Kern-Stone, Rebecca & Mishra, Suman, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2019, p. 207-213Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RT (formerly Russia Today) is a transnational television news broadcaster launched in 2005 by the Russian government. It is one of the most controversial global news actors, often associated with misinformation, propaganda and fake news. In this capacity, the channel can also be seen as an instance of an increasingly pluralized global information space where traditional legacy media meet competition by alternative news outlets. This chapter takes a broad grip on RT and delves into its roles and objectives as it has been addressed by media scholars, NGOs, other news media institutions and not least RT itself. We begin by discussing RT’s activities and competitors on the global news market, after which we discuss these activities from the perspectives of soft power, public diplomacy, propaganda and nation branding. The chapter ends with concluding remarks and suggestions for future research in this area.

  • 243.
    Voronova, Olga
    et al.
    Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Russian-language media space: features, tendencies and typology2017In: IAMCR 2017: Diaspora and Media Working Group, Abstracts of papers presented at the annual conference of the International Association for Media and Communication Research, IAMCR Cartagena, Colombia 16-20 July 2017, 2017, article id 15625Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more than 30 million Russian speakers living outside of the current borders of the Russian Federation. “Russian abroad” can partly be viewed as diaspora (e.g. Cohen 1997, Hoyle 2013, Safran 1991, Sheffer 2003, Vertovec 1999) and partly as a cultural macro-social group. Its specificity is its multilayered (different waves of migration) and multiethnic character (see Pivovar 2008, 2010). “Russian abroad” consists of two groups: Russian migrants who left the country in different periods and their descendants, and Russian-speakers who found themselves abroad after the collapse of the USSR. In eighty countries of the world, there are published around 3.5 thousand media in Russian language. The printed media of the three first waves of the Russian emigration are thoroughly studied (e.g., Bogomolov 1994, 2004; Esin 2003; Mikhalev 2009; Suomela 2014; Zhirkov 2003). There are as well several studies on the online space of the “Russian abroad” (e.g., Morgunova 2014; Reut and Teterevleva 2014). Yet, the currently existing printed Russian-language media, their role, political orientation, functions, professional views of the journalists, diapason of influence, audiences - remain somewhat of a blind spot on the map of the diaspora studies and media studies alike, despite the scale of this media segment. Empirical studies of these media are challenged by the fact that not all of these media have their online versions and absence of a common catalogue (see O. Voronova 2016). The existing studies are either country-based or focus on the linguistic aspects exclusively. This study focuses on the printed media segment and suggests a typology of the Russian-language press abroad. The study is based on a twelve-year long monitoring of Russian-language press that consisted of a basic content analysis of 65 printed media and survey of 64 journalists working for 50 outlets. The materials were collected during the trainings for these journalists organized by the Universal Association of Russian Press (VARP) and Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University. The study maps the space of the Russian-language press abroad, describes the tendencies characteristic for it, and highlights the typological models within this segment. On the one hand, the Russian-language media abroad are influenced by global processes, which lead to their commercialization, standardization, concentration and integration with non-established media online. On the other hand, these media are oriented at specific audiences, united by the Russian language, culture, traditions; for the post-Soviet countries – by the common experience of living in the same state. These media have features of both global and national media, as their audiences are influenced by at least two cultures. Being spread in the world, these media have the same language, similar functions and, often, a common agenda. The current challenges of these media are related to the political events (such as Ukrainian conflict), as well as the broader problem of self-identification of the Russian-language diaspora. The study suggests viewing the Russian-language media abroad as a cultural phenomenon that should be analyzed in dynamics and in the context of the geopolitical changes and challenges.

  • 244.
    Voronova, Olga
    et al.
    Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Yagodin, Dmitry
    Aleksanteri Institute, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Russophone Diasporic Journalism: Production and Producers in the Changing Communicative Landscape2019In: The SAGE Handbook of Media and Migration / [ed] Kevin Smets, Koen Leurs, Myria Georgiou, Saskia Witteborn and Radhika Gajjala, London: Sage Publications, 2019, 1, p. 258-271Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Vredenberg, Nikki
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Fighting climate change starts with journalists: An analysis of the news coverage of the annual United Nations climate summits by the BBC online between 2008 and 20182019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is one of the biggest threats the world is currently facing and it seems that people are able to significantly influence this threat. In order for people to understand the urgency of fighting climate change it is important that they are well informed and that they understand how their actions can matter. In this research, a quantitative content analysis with a discourse analytical approach is used to analyze a selection of articles by the BBC online covering the annual United Nations climate summits between 2008 and 2018 with a focus on their usage of constructive elements. The amount of negative statements in the articles is as big as the positive and hopeful statements together and in most cases the articles lack background information. Although the BBC uses many different perspectives in their articles, there is a lot of room to improve their articles by including more constructive elements. They could provide more background information to issues, quotes, and statements used in their articles and rather than only stating existing and possible problems they could include more solutions and focus more on the future. 

  • 246.
    Wagner, Hans-Ulrich
    et al.
    Leibniz-Institute for Media Research, Hamburg, Germany.
    Seuferling, Philipp
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Uses of the Past in Refugee Documentaries in Sweden and Germany: Conceptualising entangled histories of media, memory, and migration2020In: Media History, ISSN 1368-8804, E-ISSN 1469-9729, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 91-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration not only entangles people, cultures and societies but also histories and memories of diverse groups across national and cultural boundaries. The article focuses on mediated memory cultures of migration both theoretically and empirically. The first part discusses how cultural memories of migration in cross-medial flows of remediation can entangle ‘mnemonic imaginations’ of diverse groups within societies across time, cultures and media. In response to the conceptual framework of ‘entangled media histories’ this theoretical part explores entangledmedia histories of migration from the angle of memory studies. The second part of the article gives selected case studies. They reveal how media have historically mediated migratory memories and how they make use of this media history in contemporary productions. The examples are two Swedish documentary films of 2011 and 2015 and two German television documentaries of 2015 and 2016. With this theoretical and empirical approach the article shows how media actively contribute to debates about contemporary migration movements by the help of time-travelling migratory memory and media history.

  • 247.
    Warren, Agnes
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Rönnqvist Kulla, Lisa
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Global uppvärmning: En jämförande studie mellan Dagens Nyheter och New York Times2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att belysa likheter och skillnader i nyhetsrapporteringen om den globala uppvärmingen mellan Sverige och USA. Vi har inriktat oss på New York Times och Dagens Nyheter. Hypotesen är att den amerikanska tidningen visar sig mer skeptisk till att miljöförändringarna är mänskligt skapade än den svenska tidningen. Tidsspannet vi valt är januari till och med december år 2006 då filmen An Inconvenient Truth hade premiär och skapade debatt i frågan. Undersökningen är av kvantitativ natur. Den mest uppseendeväckande skillnaden är hur tidningarna gestaltar problemen. Vi hade förväntat oss större skillnader mellan tidningarna. Den största likheten är att ingen av tidningarna hade en enda artikel som ställde sig helt förnekande till att människliga handlingar är orsaken till global uppvärmning.

  • 248.
    Wennerström, Ellen
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Vetenskapsjournalistens relation till forskaren: En jämförande studie mellan svenska och amerikanska vetenskapsjournalisters förhållningssätt till sina källor2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En vetenskapsjournalists främsta källa är forskare. Relationen mellan en journalist och forskare kan utstå en rad olika prövningar vad gäller språkliga, metodologiska och sociala kulturskillnader. Relationen mellan dessa två grupper har studerats för att ta reda på vilka de främsta svårigheterna är och vilka åtgärder som kan vidtas för att främja den. Den här uppsatsen är en jämförande studie mellan hur svenska och amerikanska vetenskapsjourn-alister ser på och hanterar relationen till forskare. Syftet är att ta reda på vilka förutsätt-ningarna är för en god relation mellan vetenskapsjournalister och forskare så att det journalistiska uppdraget kan genomföras. Uppsatsen är en kvalitativ intervjustudie med åtta vetenskapsjournalister som arbetar på vetenskapstidskrifter, fyra från respektive land.

    Resultatet visar att skillnaderna mellan hur svenska och amerikanska vetenskapsjournalister ser på och hanterar relationen till forskare är mycket små. Det finns tendenser som pekar på att svenska vetenskapsjournalister upplever forskarna som mindre tillgängliga i jämförelse med de amerikanska journalisterna. De svenska journalisterna påvisar också en något större tendens att förhålla sig kritiska till forskningen och bejaka den granskande rollen som vetenskapsjournalist.Förutsättningarna för en fungerande relation mellan vetenskapsjournalister och forskare består av dels yttre, dels inre faktorer. De yttre faktorerna är tid och utrymme. Ju mer tid och utrymme journalisten förfogar över, desto bättre är förutsättningarna för att bygga en förtroendeingivande relation till forskaren. De inre faktorerna handlar bland annat om journalistens bakgrund, förkunskap och journalistisk professionalism. En journalist med en vetenskaplig bakgrund, goda teoretiska och språkliga förkunskaper samt hög profession-ell integritet har generellt en bättre relation till forskare.

  • 249.
    Wiberg, Natalie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Vi svenskar och de där flyktingarna: En kvantitativ och kvalitativ innehållsundersökning av flyktingrapporteringen före och efter det att Sverige införde gränskontroller i november 20152016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find out whether Swedish news reports on refugees changed after border controls were enforced on the 12th of November 2015, and thereby investigate if the changed political policies had any effect in the news reporting. Another aim was to study the general patterns in the news. Both qualitative and quantitative researches were made. Regarding the quantitative research, 50 articles from September 2015 were compared with 50 articles from January 2016. The variables were designed by means of framing theory and orientalism, both being parts of the theory framework of this study. Then the articles were analyzed qualitatively with a combined discourse and framing analysis to find out on a deeper level how refugees and the refugee situation in Sweden were described.

    The results indicate that there has been a change in the reporting between September 2015 and January 2016. The refugees were more frequently described as passive, and more seldom as individuals. More general, the results illustrated that, in most cases, refugees are described as a group without an identity. Identity-generating adjectives were sporadically used to describe them. Instead, they were associated to adjectives like ensamkommande (unaccompanied) and asylsökande (~asylum seeker). The most common word to describe refugees was flyktingar (refugees), followed by flyktingbarn (refugee children) and asylsökande (asylum seekers). Most frequently quoted people in the articles were government officials as well as politicians.

    These results indicate that Swedish journalists, consciously or not, are creating a picture of the world were the lines of orientalism still persist. A demarcation line between “us swedes” and “those refugees” is created. This line became more distinct after border controls were enforced.

  • 250.
    Widholm, Andreas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Global Online News from a Russian Viewpoint: RT and the Conflict in Ukraine2016In: Media and the Ukraine Crisis: Hybrid Media Practices and Narratives of Conflict / [ed] Pantti, Mervi, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016, p. 107-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores how the Russian global news broadcaster RT constructed the ongoing crisis in Ukraine during the summer of 2014 in light of theories of new public diplomacy and soft power. The summer of 2014 involved a number of dramatic events relating to the conflict, including the downing of the Malaysian MH17 passenger plane and a series of violent clashes between the Ukrainian army and pro-Russian separatists. During the same period, the US and EU sanctions against Russia were also intensified. This makes the period particularly interesting to examine, as it can give insights into how news from a Russian perspective is articulated during periods marked by political as well as military crises in which Russia plays a central role. Given that convergence and digitalisation have enabled new ways of producing, distributing and consuming news - as well as new ways of implementing politiical communication campaigns and public diplomacy - the analytical focus of this study is on RT’s online news service. 

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