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  • 201.
    Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs / Karolinska Institutet.
    Livingston, Michael
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    The theory of collectivity of drinking cultures: how alcohol became everyone's problem2020In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 202.
    Rashed, Ismail Ismail Ibrahim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    The association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis: Effects of different levels of vitamin D deficiency - A meta-analysis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published studies studying the risk of vitamin D deficiency in tuberculosis patients and in healthy controls. Additionally, subgroup meta-analysis was performed based on the level of vitamin D to test the risk in TB groups and in healthy groups.

    Methods: Pubmed was searched for observational studies in human and English that discussed the association between risk of low serum vitamin D and TB. Meta-analysis was performed on all relevant studies combined and for subgroups of each vitamin D level.

    Results: 22 studies were selected and pooled in the analysis. The results were consistent with previous studies examining the same risk. The overall log risk ratio (log RR) of low vitamin D was significantly higher in TB patients 1.68 times than healthy controls. In 4 subgroup meta- analyses based on vitamin D level below (20 nmol/L, 30 nmol/L, 50 nmol/L, and 75 nmol/L), the risk of having low vitamin D in TB patients was (1.82, 2.89, 1.38, 1.32) respectively. That subgroup analysis showed more clearly the higher RR were below 20 and 30 nmol/L. The smallest RR was at 75 nmol/L level.

    Conclusion: This study verified the association between risk of low vitamin D level and TB development. It also clarified that, the risk increased by decreasing vitamin D level.

  • 203.
    Reile, R
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). The National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Differentiating positive and negative self-rated health: results from a cross-sectional study in Estonia2013In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 555-564Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Factors associated with improving diet and physical activity among persons with excess body weight2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1166-1171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in Eastern Europe, the study examined the trends and factors associated with self-reported weight reducing behaviours among individuals with excess body weight in Estonia.

    METHODS: Study used nationally representative cross-sectional data from 2006 to 2016 including 4302 men and 3627 women aged 20-64 years with excess body weight (BMI ≥ 25). Trends in the prevalence of changing eating habits and physical activity and their sociodemographic and health-related correlates were studied using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Among overweight or obese respondents, 41% of men and 48% of women reported improvements in dietary habits and 19% of men and women reported increase in physical activity during the past 12 months in 2016. Positive trend for 2006-2016 regarding both outcomes was observed for men whereas no statistically significant differences were found for women. Women and those with lower than tertiary education had higher odds for reporting change in eating habits whereas older age and smoking or excessive alcohol consumption reduced the odds. Improvement in physical activity was more likely among younger respondents, women, ethnic Estonians and those with tertiary education, whereas poorer health and smoking reduced the odds. Weight-related advice from health professionals or family had strong effect on both outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic and health profiles differentiate the self-reported behavioural change among persons with excess body weight. Advice from either health professionals or family may have a potential to facilitate positive changes in eating habits and physical activity among those individuals.

  • 205. Rissler, P.
    et al.
    Söderdahl, G.
    Nordman, Tomas
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Xia, L.
    Torndal, U. -B
    Björnstedt, M.
    Ericzon, B. -G
    Olsson, J. M.
    Eriksson, L. C.
    Adriamycin cytotoxicity may stimulate growth of hepatocellular tumours in an experimental model for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in liver transplantation2005In: Transplant International, ISSN 0934-0874, E-ISSN 1432-2277, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 992-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adjuvant treatment with adriamycin has been suggested to improve results after liver transplantation for hepatocellular cancer. Here we have applied an animal model for evaluation of treatment with adriamycin and/or cyclosporine A on liver tumour growth. Three chemically induced rat liver tumours with various degree of differentiation were transferred to the spleens of syngenic rats. Each recipient group was divided into four subgroups, treated with adriamycin and/or cyclosporine A or none of the drugs. When the tumour was well differentiated no proliferation was found in any of the subgroups. When the tumour exhibited a more pronounced dysplasia, adriamycin stimulated tumour growth. This effect was further increased by cyclosporine. In the animals transplanted with the most aggressive tumour, adriamycin inhibited tumour growth. When given together with cyclosporine this inhibition was counteracted. These data suggest that adriamycin, especially when given together with cyclosporine, may have a stimulatory effect on liver tumour cell growth.

  • 206.
    Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Gilmore, Anna
    University of Bath, Bath, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Rotman, David
    Belarussian State University, Minsk, Belarus.
    Prohoda, Vladimir
    Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
    Haerpfer, Christian
    Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Changes in Smoking Prevalence in 8 Countries of the Former Soviet Union Between 2001 and 20102012In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 102, no 7, p. 1320-1328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. We compared smoking prevalence with a related 2001 study for the different countries and population subgroups, and also calculated the adjusted prevalence rate ratios of smoking. Results. All-age 2010 smoking prevalence among men ranged from 39% (Moldova) to 59% (Armenia), and among women from 2% (Armenia) to 16% (Russia). There was a significantly lower smoking prevalence among men in 2010 compared with 2001 in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, but not for women in any country. For all countries combined, there was a significantly lower smoking prevalence in 2010 than in 2001 for men aged 18 to 39 years and men with a good or average economic situation. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence appears to have stabilized and may be declining in younger groups, but remains extremely high among men, especially those in lower socioeconomic groups. (Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1320-1328. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300547)

  • 207. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Balabanova, Dina
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    The persistence of irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 11, p. 1079-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Hypertension is one of the leading causes of avoidable mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU). In previous work, the authors described patterns of irregular hypertension treatment in eight countries of the fSU in 2001. This paper presents new data on changes in the use of hypertension treatment in the same countries. Methods Using household survey data from 18 420 (2001) and 17 914 (2010) respondents from Armenia, Azerbaijan (2010 only), Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, the authors describe changes in rates of irregular treatment use (less than daily) between 2001 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to analyse the characteristics associated with irregular treatment. Results Irregular treatment was extremely high at 74% in 2001 and only fell to 68% in 2010 (all countries combined). Irregular treatment remained particularly high in 2010 in Armenia (79%), Kazakhstan (73%) and Moldova (73%). Recurring characteristics associated with irregular treatment included gender (men), younger age, higher fitness levels, and consuming alcohol and tobacco. Conclusions Irregular hypertension treatment continues to be a major problem in the countries of the fSU and requires an urgent response.

  • 208. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Balabanova, Dina
    McKee, Martin
    Irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 482-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The USSR failed to establish a modern pharmaceutical industry and lacked the capacity for reliable distribution of drugs. Patients were required to pay for outpatient drugs and the successor states have inherited this legacy, so that those requiring long-term treatment face considerable barriers in receiving it. It was hypothesised that citizens of former Soviet republics requiring treatment for hypertension may not be receiving regular treatment. Aims To describe the regularity of treatment among those diagnosed with hypertension and prescribed treatment in eight countries of the former Soviet Union, and explore which factors are associated with not taking medication regularly. Methods Using data from over 18 000 respondents from eight former Soviet countries, individuals who had been told that they had hypertension by a health professional and prescribed treatment were identified. By means of multivariate logistic analysis the characteristics of those taking treatment daily and less than daily were compared. Results Only 26% of those prescribed treatment took it daily. The probability of doing so varied among countries and was highest in Russia, Belarus and Georgia, and lowest in Armenia ( although Georgia's apparent advantage may reflect low rates of diagnosis). Women, older people, those living in urban areas, and nonsmokers and non-drinkers were more likely to take treatment daily. Conclusions A high proportion of those who have been identified by health professionals as requiring hypertension treatment are not taking it daily. These findings suggest that irregular hypertension treatment is a major problem in this region and will require an urgent response.

  • 209. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of London & Univesity of Tokyo.
    Gilmore, Anna B.
    Danishevski, Kirill
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Bryden, Anna
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union2013In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 22, no 6, p. e12-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support.

    Methods Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18?000 men and women aged 18years and older in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores.

    Results Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of light' cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never-smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures.

    Conclusions Increasing public awareness of tobacco's health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures.

  • 210.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Stockholm University.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    Stockholm University.
    Peer Status Position within School-Based Hierarchies and Excessive Fat Accumulation in Adulthood-A 30 Year Follow up of a Stockholm Cohort2019In: Behavioral sciences, ISSN 2076-328X, Vol. 9, no 8, article id E85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disadvantaged socioeconomic status is arguably the one exposure that has most consistently been linked to obesity, even more strongly so than diet and physical inactivity, which are the two main perceived root causes of weight gain. However, we still know very little about the relationship between having a disadvantaged social position and excessive fat accumulation, particularly when it comes to whether the relationship in question can also be seen as a long-term one, i.e., spanning from childhood to adulthood. By making use of the unique Stockholm Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, the present study uses generalized ordered logistic regressions to examine the association between sociometrically assessed peer status position in school at age 13 and excessive fat accumulation at age 32. The results suggest that the odds of having excessive fat accumulation are about 0.5 times lower among popular and accepted children (ORs = 0.52 and 0.56, respectively), compared to those with a marginalized peer status position, independent of other obesogenic risk factors measured both prior and subsequent to peer status position. Our results give support to the notion that improved weight status may be another positive consequence of policies aiming to increase social inclusion within schools.

  • 211.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    The stratification of social capital and its consequences for self-rated health in Taganrog, Russia2006In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 2732-2741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russian public health and its social determinants have been the theme of several recent studies. In one of these, Rose [(2000). How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians. Social Science & Medicine, 51(9), 1421-1435] puts forward a composite model as a way of getting away from two traditions: one that postulates that social capital influences health independently of human capital attributes (education, social class, income, etc.) and one that postulates that human capital is the main determinant of health, while social capital is more or less irrelevant. In this study, we investigate the composite model, conceptualising social capital as a type of capital, on the basis of Bourdieu. By doing this, not only do the relations between social capital and other types of capital become relevant, but also whether the effect of social capital on health differs depending on the possession of other types of capital. We used the Taganrog survey of 1998 which used structured interviews with the family members of 1009 households and the response rate was 81%. We found that social capital is stratified by education, and also that its effect on health varies depending on the volume of educational capital possessed. It also seems to be extremely important to specify different types of social capital, in order to get a better overview of possible mechanisms by means of which different types of capital might affect health.

  • 212. Romelsjö, A
    et al.
    Branting, Maria
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallqvist, J
    Alfredsson, L
    Hammar, N
    Leifman, A
    Ahlbom, A
    Abstention, alcohol use and risk of myocardial infarction in men and women taking account of social support and working conditions: the SHEEP case-control study2003In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 98, no 10, p. 1453-1462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Very few studies indicating that low-moderate alcohol consumption protects from myocardial infarction (MI) controlled for social support and working conditions, which could confound the findings. Therefore, a first aim was to study the risk of non-fatal and total MI in relation to volume of alcohol consumption and measures of social support and working conditions. A second aim was to analyse the impact of the volume of earlier alcohol use in abstainers. Design Data came from a case-control study, the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP), including first MI among Swedish citizens 45-70 years old. Setting Stockholm County 1992-94. Participants There were 1095 cases of MI in men and 471 in women (928 and 3 72 were non-fatal), and 2339 living controls from the general population. Measurement Information about alcohol use at different periods in life and job strain, social anchorage and life control besides pre-existing health problems, smoking, physical activity, socio-economic status and marital status was obtained by a questionnaire from the cases and the controls. Findings In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the relative risk for MI (especially non-fatal) was reduced among alcohol consumers. RR for non-fatal MI was 0.52 (95% confidence intervals 0.32, 0.85) in men with a consumption of 50-69.9 g 100% ethanol/day and 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.06, 0.77) in women with a consumption of 30 g or more per day (reference category 0.1-5 g 100% ethanol/day). Men who were abstainers during the previous 1-10 years and with an earlier average consumption of 5-30 g 100% ethanol/day had a significantly lower relative risk compared to such abstainers with an earlier higher consumption. Earlier consumption among abstainers may also have an impact on gender differences in MI. Analyses showed positive interaction between abstention and low life-control in women, but only 4% of the female cases were due to this interaction. There were no other interactions between measures of alcohol use and social anchorage, life control and working situations. Conclusion Alcohol use had a protective impact on MI, with little impact of job strain, social anchorage and life control, giving increased support for a protective impact of low-moderate alcohol use. The level of previous alcohol consumption among male 1-10-year-long abstainers influenced the risk of MI.

  • 213.
    Rudén, Mathilda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dependence of HIV drug resistance on the early warning indicator drug stock out, especially in middle-income countries2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: HIV drug resistance is presumed to be inevitable due to the error-prone nature of the virus. However, poor adherence to the antiretroviral drugs is proven to be an impending factor for HIV drug resistance development. Of these two explanations, which is the most common reason for HIV drug resistance?Method: A total of 40 published studies about HIV drug resistance, were retrospectively collected in Pubmed (May 2017), from 36 different countries for this paper. From each study was participants, percentage of HIV drug resistance and HIV-1 subtype extracted for analysis. All studies were than classified by either high-income, middle-income or low-income, based on a country income status, defined by the World Bank. HIV drug resistance was tested against: continents, HIV-1 subtypes, number of study participants, income levels, GDP per capita and EWI’s. All statistical analysis was performed in R: The R project for statistical computing.Result: This paper show, that HIV drug resistance primarily is caused by poor adherence which is closely associated with drug stock out. Highest HIV drug resistance levels was found in middle-income countries. However, number of participants enrolled per study was important for the outcome and this indicates that HIV drug resistance would be higher in low-income countries if larger studied had been carried out in these settings. This means that there is a large unrecorded prevalence of HIV drug resistance in low-income countries.

  • 214.
    Rudén, Mathilda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    HIV-knowledge and Attitudes in Swedish Nursing Homes: A collective case study of three nursing homes in Stockholm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to the effective antiretrovirals are people living with HIV expected live up to 70 years of age. Approximately half of the people living with HIV in Sweden are above 50 years old and estimated to become enrolled into the Swedish elderly care system. Concern about the Swedish elderly care preparedness for greeting people living with HIV is growing, based on previous experiences of stigma in the general society, many are feeling anxious that they will become victims of stigmatization and discrimination in the Swedish elderly care system.  

    Method: A collective case study was conducted of three nursing homes with different organizational background in Nacka municipality, Stockholm. Interviews with superintendents from each nursing home was performed and 95 health care workers at the nursing homes completed a questionnaire. Collected data was entered to Excel for descriptive analysis and all statistical analysis was performed in R: The R project for statistical computing. Pearson´s Chi-squared test was used to analyze categorial data, e.g., to find potential statistical significance between the variables and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to examine if the variables fluctuate together.

    Result: The general knowledge about HIV was not more than average among the participating health care workers and many stated concern towards HIV, which might impact on their attitudes and their practical performance when attending a person living with HIV. One of the nursing homes had experience of attending a person living with HIV and showed less feelings of concern compared to the other participating nursing homes. This support the idea that experience of attending a person living with HIV minimizes feelings of concern and negative attitudes to HIV. Like previous studies, this study highlights the relationship between higher degree of education and less negative attitudes towards HIV. However, none of the mentioned results showed a statistically significance outcome possibly due to the small sample size. To reduce risk of HIV stigma and feelings of concern among health care workers must HIV be discussed and prioritized in the Swedish elderly care system, as well as in municipalities.

  • 215.
    Rustum, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Dynamic aspects of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular structures and compartmentalization is the result of a dynamic steady state exchange between its components. This thesis is focused in investigations of dynamic properties of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled proteins in live cells using confocal laser microscopy in combination with bleaching techniques such as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP).

    Studies of dynamic properties of c-Myc in living cells showed that c-Myc is shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. c-Myc also enters the nucleoli during certain conditions. Nucleolar c-Myc is dynamically associated to structural component(s) of nucleoli, but can exchange with soluble pools in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm.

    Photobleaching experiments showed that a significant fraction of HIV-1 Vpr is dynamically associated with the NE and rapidly exchanges between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. The yeast two-hybrid system, pull-down experiments and co-immunoprecipitating was used to show that Vpr interacts specifically and directly with a domain in the N-terminal portion of the NPC protein hCG1. The results suggest that the specific interaction of HIV-1 Vpr with the nucleoporin hCG1 results in the dynamic retention of Vpr at the nuclear envelope.

    The distribution and dynamic properties of NPC proteins was investigated in NIH/3T3 cells, lacking the pore membrane protein gp210. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and FRAP experiments showed that the absence of gp210 from nuclear pores of NIH/3T3 cells did neither alter the distribution nor dynamic properties of POM121 and NUP107 (two NPC proteins stably integrated in the NPC).

    Degradation of the integral nuclear pore membrane protein POM121 during apoptosis was investigated in relation to other apoptotic events. POM121 cleavage, which is the earliest sign of dismantling of the nuclear membrane, is due to caspase-3-dependent cleavage at aspartate-531. Loss of nuclear compartmentalization in live cells undergoing apoptosis was monitored as appearance of GFP-NLS in the cytoplasm. The time of appearance of cytoplasmic GFP-NLS correlated with caspase-3-dependent cleavage of POM121. Both events occured concomitantly with collapsing of chromatin against the nuclear periphery, but preceded the onset of nucleosomal DNA fragmentation.

    Translocation ability of the cell-penetrating peptide, transportan, into living cells was investigated. Recombinantly expressed GFP was purified and conjugated to chemically synthesized transportan via a disulfide bond and added to tissues culture cells. Transportan was able to internalize a 27 kDa protein such as GFP in a native folded state into living cells.

  • 216.
    Rådelius, Elias
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Songs of an epidemic: responding to HIV/AIDS through song, poetry and drama in Nakuru, Kenya2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of songs, poems and drama to raise awareness of, and respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nakuru, Kenya. The primary focus is that of youth-oriented interventions, but additional examples are also examined and analyzed. A qualitative approach is used and the study is based on semi-structured interviews with teachers, performers, students, NGO-representatives and former students conducted during four weeks in November and December 2012. Additionally, songs, poems and dramas have been collected and observed and finally analyzed using a theoretical framework that combines the Health Belief Model, the Social Cognitive Theory as well as principles of the research discipline of Medical Ethnomusicology. The study shows that songs, poems and drama are important methods to communicate messages and play an important role in shaping the local HIV/AIDS discourse. Due to its effectiveness, it is vital that the messages promoted are culturally appropriate as well as correct since the study shows that false information through these methods can hamper a desired behavior change.

  • 217.
    Sandås, Therese
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Karlström, Micaela
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Distansuppföljning av ICD-patienter: En hälsoekonomisk utvärdering2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka vilka ekonomiska effekter införandet av distansuppföljning för ICD-patienter har ur ett samhällsperspektiv. Delsyftet är att identifiera ekonomiska argument och kvalitativa aspekter för och emot införandet av tjänsten distansuppföljning.

    Författarna har kommit fram till ett antal slutsatser. Att införa distansuppföljning som uppföljningsmetod för ICD-patienter istället för konventionella återbesök på sjukhus innebär stora kostnadsbesparingar. Nettonuvärdet uppgår till drygt 268 miljoner kronor efter femton år. Vid tidsperiodens slut erhålls en kostnadsbesparing på cirka 35,6 procent. De ekonomiska fördelarna överstiger kostnaderna redan efter ett år, och hela investeringskostnaden återfås efter sju år. Kvalitativa argument som talar för distansuppföljning är tidsbesparingar, förenklad uppföljning, bättre övervakning och att patienterna upplever en större trygghet.

  • 218. Schaap, M. M.
    et al.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Regidor, Enrique
    Ekholm, Ola
    Dzurova, D.
    Helmert, Uwe
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Santana, P.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries2008In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 248-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently a scale was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Our study used this scale to examine the potential impact of these policies on quit ratios in European countries. Special attention was given to smoking cessation among lower educational groups. Methods: Cross-sectional data were derived from national health surveys from 18 European countries. In the analyses we distinguished between country, sex, two age groups (25-39 and 40-59 years) and educational level. Age-standardised quit ratios were calculated as total former-smokers divided by total ever-smokers. In regression analyses we explored the correlation between national quit ratios and the national score on the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). Results: Quit ratios were especially high (> 45%) in Sweden, England, The Netherlands, Belgium and France and relatively low (< 30%) in Lithuania and Latvia. Higher educated smokers were more likely to have quit smoking than lower educated smokers in all age-sex groups in all countries. National score on the tobacco control scale was positively associated with quit ratios in all age-sex groups. The association of quit ratios with score on TCS did not show consistent differences between high and low education. Of all tobacco control policies of which the TCS is constructed, price policies showed the strongest association with quit ratios, followed by an advertising ban. Conclusion: Countries with more developed tobacco control policies have higher quit ratios than countries with less developed tobacco control policies. High and low educated smokers benefit about equally from the nationwide tobacco control policies.

  • 219. Schaap, Maartje M
    et al.
    Kunst, Anton E
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Regidor, Enrique
    Espelt, Albert
    Ekholm, Ola
    Helmert, Uwe
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries2009In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 68, no 7, p. 1271-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large differences in ever-smoking rates among women are found between countries and socio-economic groups. This study examined the socio-economic inequalities in female ever-smoking rates in 19 European countries, and explored the association between cross-national differences in these inequalities and economic development and women's emancipation. Data on smoking were derived from national health interview surveys from 19 European countries. For each country, age group (25-39, 40-59 and 60+ years), educational level (4 standard levels), and cumulative ever-smoking rates were calculated as the proportion of current and former smokers of the total survey population. A Relative Index of Inequality was estimated for women in the three age groups to measure the magnitude of educational differences. In regression analyses the association of ever-smoking rates of women age 25-39 years with the gross domestic product (GDP) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) was explored. Less educated women aged 25-39 years were more likely to have ever smoked than more educated women in all countries, except Portugal. In the age groups 40-59 years the educational pattern differed between countries. Women aged 60+ years who were less educated were less likely to have ever smoked in all countries, except Norway and England. The size of inequalities varied considerably between countries and reversed within three age groups. For women 25-39 years, the association of ever-smoking rates with GDP was positive, especially for more educated women. The association of ever-smoking rates with GEM was positive for less educated women, but negative for more educated women. The results are consistent with the idea that economic development and social-cultural processes related to gender empowerment have affected the diffusion of smoking in different ways for more and less educated women.

  • 220.
    Schenk, Linda
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Comparison of Data Used for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits2010In: International journal of occupational and environmental health, ISSN 1077-3525, E-ISSN 2049-3967, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 249-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has previously been shown that occupational exposure limits (OELs) for the same substance can vary significantly between different standard-setters. The work presented in this paper identifies the steps in the process towards establishing an OEL and how variations in those processes could account for these differences. This study selects for further scrutiny substances for which the level of OELs vary by a factor of 100, focussing on 45 documents concerning 14 substances from eight standard-setters. Several of the OELs studied were more than 20 years old and based on outdated knowledge. Furthermore, different standard-setters sometimes based their OELs on different sets of data, and data availability alone could not explain all differences in the selection of data sets used by standard-setters. While the interpretation of key studies did not differ significantly in standard-setters' documentations, the evaluations of the key studies' quality did. Also, differences concerning the critical effect coincided with differences in the level of OELs for half of the substances.

  • 221.
    Schenk, Linda
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. KTH, Filosofi.
    Setting occupational exposure limits: Practices and outcomes of toxicological risk assessment2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) are used as an important regulatory instrument to protect workers’ health from adverse effects of chemical exposures. The main objective of this thesis is to study risk assessment practices in the setting of OEL in order to produce knowledge that will help improve the consistency and transparency of OELs.

    For the purpose of paper I a database of OELs for a total of 1341 substances was compiled. Of these, only 25 substances have OELs from all 18 included organisations while more than one third of the substances are only regulated by one organisation alone. The average level of OELs differs substantially between organisations; the US OSHA exposure limits are (on average) nearly 40 % higher than those of Poland.

    In paper II six EU member states’ OELs are compared to the European Commission’s OELs. Also within Europe there is a large difference concerning the average level of OELs (35%). The average level of lists tends to decrease over time, although there are exceptions to this. There are also indications that the exposure limits of EU member states are converging towards the European Commission’s OELs.

    The work presented in paper III identifies steps in the risk assessment that could account for the large differences in OELs for 14 different substances. Differences in the identification of the critical effect could explain the different level of the OELs for half of the substances. But the age of the data review could not account for all the differences in data selection, only one fifth of the documents referred to all available key studies. Also the evaluation of the key studies varied significantly.

    The aim of paper IV was to investigate how the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) of the European Commission uses assessment factors when proposing health-based indicative OELs. For only one third of the investigated OELs were explicit assessment factors given. On average the safety margin of the recommendations was 2.1 higher when an explicit assessment factor had been used. It is recommended that the SCOEL develop and adhere to a more articulate framework on the use of assessment factors.

    Paper V focuses on the Derived No-Effect Levels (DNELs) which are to be calculated under the new European Union REACH legislation. It is a comparison of the safety margins of 88 SCOEL recommendations with those of the corresponding worker-DNELs, derived according to the default approach as described in the REACH guidance document. Overall, the REACH safety margins were approximately six times higher than those derived from the SCOEL documentations but varied widely with REACH/SCOEL safety margin ratios ranging by two orders of magnitude, from 0.3 to 58.

  • 222.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. KTH.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Ruden, Christina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Are occupational exposure limits becoming more alike within the European Union?2008In: Journal of Applied Toxicology, ISSN 0260-437X, E-ISSN 1099-1263, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 858-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by seven different national regulatory agencies of EU member states are compared with those of the European Commission (EC). The comparison concerned: (1) what chemicals have been selected, (2) the average level of exposure limits for all chemicals, and (3) the similarity between the OELs of different EU member states and the OELs recommended by the European Commission. The average level of the exposure limits has declined during the past 10 years in four of the live countries in our study for which historical data were available to us. Poland has not changed its level noticeably and Germany has increased it. Since the first list of indicative OELs was established by the EC, a few of the EU exposure limits have been lowered. The similarity index indicates that the exposure limits of EU member states are converging towards the European Commission's recommended OELs. Still, the average level of OELs differs between organizations - the Estonian OELs are on average 35% higher than the Polish OELs.

  • 223.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. KTH.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Ruden, Christina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Occupational exposure limits: A comparative study2008In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 261-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as an important regulatory instrument to protect workers' health from adverse effects of chemical exposures. The OELs mirror the outcome of the risk assessment and risk management performed by the standard setting actor. In this study we compared the OELs established by 18 different organisations or national regulatory agencies. The OELs were compared with respect to: (1) what chemicals have been selected and (2) the average level of exposure limits for all chemicals. Our database contains OELs for a total of 1341 substances; of these 25 substances have OELs from all 18 organisations while more than one-third of the substances are only regulated by one organisation. The average level of the exposure limits has declined during the past 10 years for 6 of the 8 organisations in our study for which historical data were available; it has increased for Poland and remained nearly unchanged for Sweden. The average level of OELs differs substantially between organisations; the US OSHA exposure limits are (on average) nearly 40 % higher than those of Poland. The scientific or policy-related motivations for these differences remain to be analysed.

  • 224.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Johanson, Gunnar
    Institute of environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    A quantitative comparison of the safety margins in the European indicative occupational exposure limits and the derived no-effect levels for workers under REACH2011In: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 408-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new European Union (EU) REACH legislation requires Derived No-Effect Levels (DNEL) to be calculated for substances produced in quantities above 10 tonnes/year. Meanwhile, the setting of occupational exposure limits (OEL) continues both at the member state and the EU level. According to REACH, Indicative OEL Values (IOELVs) from the Commission may under some circumstances be used as worker-DNELs. On the other hand, worker-DNELs will be derived for several thousand substances, far more than the roughly 100 substances for which IOELVs have been established. Thus, the procedure to set health-based OELs may become influential on that of DNELs and vice versa. In this study, we compare the safety margins of 88 SCOEL recommendations with those of the corresponding worker-DNELs, derived according to the default approach as described in the REACH guidance document. Overall, the REACH safety margins were approximately six times higher than those derived from the SCOEL documentation but varied widely with REACH/SCOEL safety margin ratios ranging by two orders of magnitude, from 0.3 to 58 (n=88). The discrepancies may create confusion in terms of legal compliance, risk management and risk communication. We also found that the REACH guidance document, although encompassing detailed advice on many issues, including default assessment factors for species and route extrapolation, gives no quantitative guidance on when and how to depart from defaults.

  • 225.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Johanson, Gunnar
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Use of Uncertainty Factors by the SCOEL in their derivation of health-based Occupational Exposure Limits2010In: Critical reviews in toxicology, ISSN 1040-8444, E-ISSN 1547-6898, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 791-798Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) of the European Commission uses uncertainty factors when proposing health-based indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs). In total, 75 IOELVs in 62 summary documents published from 1991 to 2003 were analyzed. For 31 of the IOELVs, no explicit uncertainty factor (EUF) was stated. For these, we calculated an implicit safety margin (ISM) as the ratio between the point of departure (POD, derived from the NOAEL or LOAEL of the critical effect) and the proposed IOELV. We further analysed whether date of recommendation, type of critical effect, nature of POD or amount of available data influenced the magnitude of the EUFs and ISMs. The ISMs varied little (range 1-5), while the EUFs showed more variability (range 1-50). The EUFs remained unaffected over time and the ISMs decreased slightly. Significant differences in the magnitude of the EUFs, but not ISMs, were found between critical effects, however, contrary to expected the average EUFs and ISMs for irritation were similar to those for more severe systemic effects. The nature of the POD affected the ISMs and EUFs only slightly and less than expected. Both EUFs and ISMs showed a weak but significant negative correlation with the amount of available toxicological data, measured as the number of relevant publications in PubMed, whereas SCOEL statements on data sufficiency had no influence. Overall, the most striking difference was that between EUFs and ISMs, the former being on average 2.1 times higher.

  • 226.
    Schröder, Sara
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Att besegra de inre demonerna: en artikelserie om depressionsbehandling2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 227.
    Shutzberg, Mani
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Unsanctioned techniques for having sickness certificates accepted: a qualitative exploration and description of the strategies used by Swedish general practitioners2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To explore informal and unsanctioned techniques general practitioners (GPs) employ as a means to increase the likelihood of sickness certificate approval, following the Swedish Social Insurance Agency's (SSIA's) consolidation of the gatekeeping role in sickness benefit evaluation.

    DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 20 GPs working in Swedish primary care. A thematic analysis of the transcribed material was carried out to map different techniques employed by the practitioners.

    RESULTS: Eight techniques were identified, particularly with respect to the way in which the sickness certificate is written to ensure approval by the SSIA. The identified techniques were most commonly adopted when the patient's case was perceived to be at high risk for rejection by the SSIA (such as psychiatric illnesses, chronic pain etc.).

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings imply that the informal and unsanctioned techniques are complex and ambiguous. They are used intentionally and covertly. The study also suggests that, while the consolidation of SSIA's gatekeeping role may have resolved some sickness absence issues, a consequence may be that GPs develop unsanctioned techniques to ensure compliance.

  • 228.
    Sidiropoulou Coster, Sofia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Donnerberg, Isabelle
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Hur skapas robotar som accepteras av den äldre generationen?: En studie om robotar inom äldreomsorg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of robotics within the elderly care is moving fast forward. There is a wide range of robots for different occasions. By year 2050 it is expected that the worlds older population will be doubled. Robots that can help in the elderly care has thus gotten a political interest hence the demographic development that point to an increase in the proportion of elderly people. This essay will investigate which factors make elderly people accept the usage of robots and how experts in robotics work to develop these robots. The study will be based on data from both elderly people over 65 and experts in robotics and a number of scientific articles have been used for the essay. The results of the study show that factors that are important for older people's acceptance of robots fall under; configuration, knowledge, safety, integrity, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The study shows that experts are currently working well with regard to the elderly. 

  • 229.
    Silow Kallenberg, Kim
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology. Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Det som sitter i väggarna: tvångsvård mellan stabilitet och förändring2017In: Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1102-7908, Vol. 26, no 3-4, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Sjöström, Maria
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Med tjejerna i fokus2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 231. Smrzova, Jana
    et al.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Webova stranka www.nefrologie.eu: prvni zkusenosti2007In: Vnitřní lékařství - časopis České internistické společnosti a Slovenskej internistickej spoločnosti, ISSN 0042-773X, no 5, p. 611-612Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 232. Smrzova, Jana
    et al.
    Dvorák, Martin
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    www.nefrologie.eu jako prostredek edukace pacientu2006In: Vnitrni lekarstvi, Brno, 2006, p. 1124-1124Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 233. Sparén, Pär
    et al.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Shestov, Dmitri B
    Plavinskaja, Svetlana
    Parfenova, Nina
    Hoptiar, Valeri
    Paturot, Dominique
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Long term mortality after severe starvation during the siege of Leningrad: prospective cohort study2004In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 328, no 7430, p. 11-14AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To determine whether starvation during periods of increased growth after birth have long term health consequences.Design Analysis of cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in a longitudinal follow up after the 1941-4 siege of Leningrad. Mortality measured from 1975 up to the end of 1999.Setting St Petersburg, Russia (formerly Leningrad).Participants 5000 men born 1916-35 who lived in Leningrad, randomly selected to take part in health examinations in 1975-7. Of the 3905 men who participated, a third had experienced the siege.Main outcome measures Relative risk of ischaemic heart disease and mortality from stroke by siege exposure. Odds ratios and means for several cardiovascular risk factors.Results Three to six decades after the siege, in men who experienced the siege around the age of puberty blood pressure was raised (mean difference in systolic 3.3 mm Hg, in diastolic 1.3 mm Hg) as was mortality from ischaemic heart disease (relative risk 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.79) and stroke (1.67, 1.15 to 2.43), including haemorrhagic stroke (1.71, 0.90 to 3.22). The effect on mortality was partly mediated via blood pressure but not by any other measured biological, behavioural, or social factor.Conclusions Starvation, or accompanying chronic stress, particularly at the onset of or during puberty, may increase vulnerability to later cardiovascular disease.

  • 234. Stenberg, Sten-Ņke
    et al.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Cohort Profile: The Stockholm birth cohort of 19532006In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 35, p. 546-548Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 235. Stenberg, Sten-Åke
    et al.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Österman, Reidar
    Arvidsson, Emma
    von Otter, Cecilia
    Janson, Carl-Gunnar
    Stockholm Birth Cohort Study 1953-2003: A new tool for life-courses studies2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 104-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To create a new tool for life-course studies of health outcomes as well as social outcomes. Methods: Two anonymous data sets, one a local birth cohort and the other a nationwide registry, covering information from early and middle life, respectively, were matched using a "key for probability matching" based on a large number of variables, common to both data sets. The first data set provides social and health information from birth, childhood, and adolescence on boys and girls, born in Stockholm in 1953. The second data set provides information on income, work, and education as well as any inpatient visits and any mortality from mid-life for the entire Swedish population. Results: For 96% of the original cohort it was possible to add data from mid-life. Thus, a new database has been created, referred to as the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study, which provides rich and unique life-course data from birth to age 50 for 14,294 individuals: 7,305 men and 6,989 women. Comparison of matched and unmatched cases in the original cohort suggests that those individuals that could not be matched had slightly more favourable social and intellectual circumstances and had often moved away from Sweden in the 1980s. Conclusion: The new database provides excellent opportunities for life-course studies on health and social outcomes. It allows for studies that have not previously been possible in Sweden or elsewhere. Further, it provides an opportunity for collaborative work with similar databases in Copenhagen and Aberdeen.

  • 236.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    Factors associated with non-lethal violent victimization in Sweden in 2004-20072010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 404-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine which factors were associated with non-lethal violent ictimization in Sweden in the period 2004 to 2007. Methods: Data come rom the Swedish National Public Health Surveys, undertaken annually etween 2004 and 2007. A total of 29,923 randomly selected respondents ged 16 to 84 from across Sweden responded to a mailed questionnaire. ogistic regression analyses were used to examine which independent ariables were associated with having experienced violence in the revious 12 months. Results: Male and female respondents who were ounger, single, lacking in social capital and who engaged in harmful lcohol consumption were significantly more likely to have been subject o violence. Furthermore, men who were in the lower income groups or who ere Nordic, and women who were of a non-European origin, were also ignificantly more likely to have been victimized. Conclusions: The risk f non-lethal violent victimization is not spread equally throughout wedish society. Specifically, those who are socially and/or conomically disadvantaged are much more likely to experience violence. his highlights the importance of working to reverse the growing nequality that has occurred in Sweden in recent years that continues to e linked to the risk of being a victim of non-lethal violence.

  • 237.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    The social and economic determinants of smoking in Moscow, Russia2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 632-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of smoking for decades, recent research has documented an increase in the rates of both male and female smoking in post-Soviet Russia. As yet, however, little research has taken place on smoking at the subnational level. The current study addresses this deficit by examining smoking in Moscow - the city that has been at the forefront of the entry into the Russian market of transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) in the transition period. Methods: Data were obtained from the Moscow Health Survey 2004 - a stratified random sample of 1190 people representative of Moscow's larger population. Information was obtained about subjects' smoking habits and age of smoking initiation. Results: The prevalence of smoking was high among both men (55.5%) and women (26.9%), with significantly higher rates in the younger age groups. There was also a high prevalence of smoking initiation before age 15 years, especially in the youngest women ( 18 - 30 years). Logistic regression analysis showed that respondents' age, binge drinking, locus of control and economic situation were important determinants of smoking. Conclusions: Although lifestyle factors seem to underpin the generally high levels of smoking, other things, such as its high prevalence in the younger generations and the factors associated with smoking ( locus of control), nevertheless suggest that the TTCs may have played an important role in the spread of smoking in transitional Russia's changing social environment.

  • 238.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Yazawa, Aki
    University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future expectations in Russian adolescents2019In: ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, ISSN 1866-6116, E-ISSN 1866-6647, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 279-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of future expectations-the extent to which a future outcome is deemed likely-in the health and well-being of adolescents, with research linking future expectations to outcomes such as an increased likelihood of engaging in risky health behaviors. As yet, however, there has been no research on future expectations and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status and future expectations in a school-based sample of adolescents. Data were analyzed from 537 Russian adolescents (aged 12-17) with teacher-reported ADHD symptoms and self-reported future expectations. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. In fully adjusted analyses, inattention symptoms/possible ADHD inattentive status was associated with lower future educational expectations, while a possible ADHD hyperactivity status was associated with increased odds for negative future expectations relating to work, family and succeeding in what is most important. The findings of this study suggest that greater ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status in adolescence may be linked to an increased risk for negative future expectations across a variety of different life domains.

  • 239.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, KodairaJapan.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure2019In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 683-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As yet, however, little is known about the factors associated with co-occurring depression in this population. To address this research gap, the current study examined the role of community violence exposure in the association between ADHD symptoms and depression.

    METHODS: Data came from 505 Russian adolescents [mean age 14.37 (SD = 0.96)] who had teacher-reported information on ADHD symptoms that was collected in conjunction with the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Adolescent self-reports of witnessing and being a victim of community violence were also obtained while depressive symptoms were self-assessed with an adapted version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.

    RESULTS: In univariable analyses, both witnessing and being a victim of violence were associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms in adolescents with ADHD symptoms compared to non-ADHD adolescents who had not experienced community violence. However, in the multivariable analysis only being a victim of violence continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for depression [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-16.35].

    CONCLUSION: Exposure to community violence may be associated with depression in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Clinicians should enquire about exposure to community violence in adolescents with ADHD/ADHD symptoms. Early therapeutic interventions to address the effects of violence exposure in adolescents with ADHD may be beneficial for preventing depression in this group.

  • 240.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Goryakin, Yevgeniy
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Smoking status, nicotine dependence and happiness in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2015In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration has established a policy of substantially discounting the health benefits of reduced smoking in its evaluation of proposed regulations because of the cost to smokers of the supposed lost pleasure they suffer by no longer smoking. This study used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to explore this association in a setting characterised by high rates of (male) smoking and smoking-related mortality.

    METHODS: Data came from a cross-sectional population-based study undertaken in 2010/2011 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Information was collected from 18 000 respondents aged ≥18 on smoking status (never, ex-smoking and current smoking), cessation attempts and nicotine dependence. The association between these variables and self-reported happiness was examined using ordered probit regression analysis.

    RESULTS: In a pooled country analysis, never smokers and ex-smokers were both significantly happier than current smokers. Smokers with higher levels of nicotine dependence were significantly less happy than those with a low level of dependence.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study contradicts the idea that smoking is associated with greater happiness. Moreover, of relevance for policy in the fSU countries, given the lack of public knowledge about the detrimental effects of smoking on health but widespread desire to quit reported in recent research, the finding that smoking is associated with lower levels of happiness should be incorporated in future public health efforts to help encourage smokers to quit by highlighting that smoking cessation may result in better physical and emotional health.

  • 241.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Uppsala University.
    Inoue, Y.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Kamio, Y.
    National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and physical multimorbidity: A population-based study2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 45, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Andreev, Evgueni
    Razvodovsky, Yury
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    McKee, Martin
    Alcohol poisoning in Russia and the countries in the European part of the former Soviet Union, 1970-20022007In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 444-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute alcohol poisoning has now reached unprecedented rates in parts of the ex-USSR with worrying trends among men as well as among women. Effective action by the governments concerned is now essential.

  • 243.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York City, NY, USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelon, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sleep problems and depression among 237 023 community-dwelling adults in 46 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems are considered a core symptom of depression. However, there is little information about the comorbidity of sleep problems and depression in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and whether sleep problems with depression confer additional risk for decrements in health compared to sleep problems alone. This study thus examined the association between sleep problems and depression and whether sleep problems with depression are associated with an increased risk for poorer health in 46 LMICs. Cross-sectional, community-based data from 237 023 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. Information on sleep problems (severe/extreme) and International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision depression/depression subtypes was collected. Multivariable logistic (binary and multinomial) and linear regression analyses were performed. Sleep problems were associated with subsyndromal depression (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.70), brief depressive episode (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 2.09-2.95) and depressive episode (OR = 3.61, 95% CI = 3.24-4.03). Sleep problems with depression (vs. sleep problems alone) conferred additional risk for anxiety, perceived stress and decrements in health in the domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, and interpersonal activities. Clinicians should be aware that the co-occurrence of sleep problems and depression is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in LMICs. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

  • 244.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Bopp, Matthias
    Strand, Bjorn Heine
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Lundberg, Olle
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Artnik, Barbara
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality: a population-based comparative study of 12 European countries2012In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 877-884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has suggested that violent mortality may be socially patterned and a potentially important source of health inequalities within and between countries. Against this background the current study assessed socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality across Europe. To do this, longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from mortality registers and population censuses in 12 European countries. Educational level was used to indicate socioeconomic position. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for post, upper and lower secondary or less educational groups. The magnitude of inequalities was assessed using the relative and slope index of inequality. The analysis focused on the 35-64 age group. Educational inequalities in homicide mortality were present in all countries. Absolute inequalities in homicide mortality were larger in the eastern part of Europe and in Finland, consistent with their higher overall homicide rates. They contributed 2.5 % at most (in Estonia) to the inequalities in total mortality. Relative inequalities were high in the northern and eastern part of Europe, but were low in Belgium, Switzerland and Slovenia. Patterns were less consistent among women. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide are thus a universal phenomenon in Europe. Wide-ranging social and inter-sectoral health policies are now needed to address the risk of violent victimization that target both potential offenders and victims.

  • 245.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Narita, Z.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / nstituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid , Spain.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 

  • 246.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, T.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Mckee, M.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Koyanagi, A.
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Injury and depression among 212 039 individuals in 40 low- and middle-income countries2020In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, Vol. 29, article id e32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsAlthough injuries have been linked to worse mental health, little is known about this association among the general population in low- A nd middle-income countries (LAMICs). This study examined the association between injuries and depression in 40 LAMICs that participated in the World Health Survey.MethodsCross-sectional information was obtained from 212 039 community-based adults on the past 12-month experience of road traffic and other (non-traffic) injuries and depression, which was assessed using questions based on the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations.ResultsThe overall prevalence (95% CI) of past 12-month traffic injury, other injury, and depression was 2.8% (2.6-3.0%), 4.8% (4.6-5.0%) and 7.4% (7.1-7.8%), respectively. The prevalence of traffic injuries [range 0.1% (Ethiopia) to 5.1% (Bangladesh)], and other (non-traffic) injuries [range 0.9% (Myanmar) to 12.1% (Kenya)] varied widely across countries. After adjusting for demographic variables, alcohol consumption and smoking, the pooled OR (95%CI) for depression among individuals experiencing traffic injury based on a meta-analysis was 1.72 (1.48-1.99), and 2.04 (1.85-2.24) for those with other injuries. There was little between-country heterogeneity in the association between either form of injury and depression, although for traffic injuries, significant heterogeneity was observed between groups by country-income level (p = 0.043) where the pooled association was strongest in upper middle-income countries (OR = 2.37) and weakest in low-income countries (OR = 1.46).ConclusionsAlerting health care providers in LAMICs to the increased risk of worse mental health among injury survivors and establishing effective trauma treatment systems to reduce the detrimental effects of injury should now be prioritised.

  • 247.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Jacob, Louis
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France / Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Waldman, Kyle
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Perceived discrimination and psychotic experiences in the English general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 62, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination has been linked to psychotic experiences (PEs). However, as yet, information is lacking on the relationship between different forms of discrimination and PEs. This study examined this association in the English general population.

    METHODS: Nationally representative, cross-sectional data were analyzed from 7363 adults aged 16 and above that came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Self-reported information was obtained on six forms of discrimination (ethnicity, sex, religious beliefs, age, physical health problems/disability, sexual orientation), while PEs were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations.

    RESULTS: In a fully adjusted logistic regression analysis, any discrimination was significantly associated with PEs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.75-3.48). All individual forms of discrimination were significantly associated with PEs except sexual orientation. Multiple forms of discrimination were associated with higher odds for PEs in a monotonic fashion with those experiencing ≥ 3 forms of discrimination having over 5 times higher odds for any PE. In addition, experiencing any discrimination was associated with significantly increased odds for all individual forms of PE with ORs ranging from 2.16 (95%CI: 1.40-3.35) for strange experience to 3.36 (95%CI: 1.47-7.76) for auditory hallucination.

    CONCLUSION: Different forms of discrimination are associated with PEs in the general population. As discrimination is common at the societal level, this highlights the importance of public policy and evidence-based interventions to reduce discrimination and improve population mental health.

  • 248.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Pridemore, W. A.
    The effects of binge drinking and social capital on violent victimisation: findings from Moscow2010In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 902-907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Rates of violence in Russia are among the highest in the orld, and violent victimisation represents a major public health threat n the country. As yet, however, little research has been undertaken on hat factors are associated with non-lethal violent victimisation in his setting. This study used data from the Moscow Health Survey 2004 to xamine the effects of binge drinking and social capital on individuals' isk of non-fatal violent victimisation. ethods A stratified random sampling strategy was used across Moscow's 25 municipal districts to collect data from 1190 individuals aged 18+ ears. Respondents reported if they had been a victim of physical iolence in the previous 12 months. Data were also collected on binge rinking (defined for men as consuming >= 80 g of pure alcohol, and for omen >= 60 g of pure alcohol, at least once per month) and social apital (frequency of interaction with relatives, friends and cquaintances). esults Overall, 8.7% of the respondents had been a victim of violence n the past 12 months. Men who binge drink were more than twice as ikely to have been a victim of non-lethal violence (OR 2.19, CI 1.23 to .92), while greater levels of social capital acted as a protective actor against male victimisation (OR 0.82, CI 0.69 to 0.97). Neither inge drinking nor social capital was associated with violent ictimisation among women. onclusion Urgent public health measures are now needed to reduce xcessive alcohol consumption and detrimental drinking patterns to bring own the high levels of violent victimisation in Russia.

  • 249.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Razvodovsky, Yury
    The effects of beverage type on homicide rates in Russia, 1970-20052012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 257-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Previous research from Western Europe and North America has suggested that consuming different types of alcoholic beverage may have differing effects on homicide rates both within and between countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and homicide rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Design and Methods. Age-standardised male and female homicide data for the period 1970-2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained from the Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat). Time series analysis (autoregressive integrated moving average modelling) was used to examine the relation between the sale (consumption) of different alcoholic beverages and homicide rates. Results. Total alcohol consumption and vodka consumption as measured by sales were significantly associated with both male and female homicide rates: a 1 L increase in overall alcohol sales would result in a 5.9% increase in the male homicide rate and a 5.1% increase in the female homicide rate. The respective figures for vodka were 16.4% and 14.3%. The consumption of beer and wine was not associated with changes in homicide rates. Discussion and Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the consumption of distilled spirits has had an especially detrimental impact on lethal violence in Russia from at least 1970 onwards. In order to reduce homicide rates in this context, alcohol policy should focus on reducing overall consumption as well as attempting to shift the beverage preference away from distilled spirits.

  • 250.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, T
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Z
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Oh, H
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    DeVylder, J E
    Fordham University, New York, NY, USA.
    Jacob, L
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France / CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Koyanagi, A
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Physical injury and psychotic experiences in 48 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences (PEs) may be associated with injuries, but studies focusing specifically on low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs) are scarce. Thus, the current study examined the link between injuries and PEs in a large number of LAMICs.

    METHOD: Cross-sectional data were used from 242 952 individuals in 48 LAMICs that were collected during the World Health Survey in 2002-2004 to examine the association between traffic-related and other (non-traffic-related) forms of injury and PEs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations while controlling for a variety of covariates including depression.

    RESULTS: In fully adjusted analyses, any injury [odds ratio (OR) 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-2.31], traffic injury (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.53-2.21) and other injury (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.84-2.37) were associated with higher odds for PEs. Results from a country-wise analysis showed that any injury was associated with significantly increased odds for PEs in 39 countries with the overall pooled OR estimated by meta-analysis being 2.46 (95% CI 2.22-2.74) with a moderate level of between-country heterogeneity (I2 = 56.3%). Similar results were observed across all country income levels (low, lower-middle and upper-middle).

    CONCLUSIONS: Different types of injury are associated with PEs in LAMICs. Improving mental health systems and trauma capacity in LAMICs may be important for preventing injury-related negative mental health outcomes.

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