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  • 201.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Environmental Impacts of Rural Landscape Change During the Post-Communist Period in the Baltic Sea Region2017In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 155-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 202.
    Lehtimäki, Linda
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    From legislation to implementation?: Understanding the implementation deficiency of the general rules of consideration, the Swedish Environmental Code (2000:61)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Environmental Code is a central environmental policy instrument, which contributes to achieve Sweden’s national environmental objectives. Therefore, the implementation of the rules and regulations of the Environmental Code are of importance. This thesis focuses on the identified research gap in the implementation of the general rules of consideration in the Environmental Code, adopting a Swedish perspective and seeking to understand the reasons why. This thesis intends to increase the understanding of both external and internal aspects affecting the implementation at a municipal level. The results show that the implementation deficiency in the general rules of consideration consists of several complex, interconnected factors. The findings implicate three fundamental aspects affecting the implementation: prerequisites, work procedures and interpretations of the general rules of consideration. Furthermore, the implementation requires an improved understanding among concerned stakeholders. This thesis argues that there is a shortage of knowledge and understanding of the general rules of consideration among stakeholders, therefore there is much more to learn, in order to reduce the implementation deficiency of the rules. Additionally, the findings indicate a need for exemplified guidance from state authorities and government agencies, to reduce the knowledge gap among municipalities and operators. Furthermore, operators ought to increase the understanding of the general rules of consideration, to contribute to the implementation of the general rules of consideration.

  • 203.
    Lidberg, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hantering av miljö- och hälsorisker i textila produktkedjor: En fallstudie av Stockholms läns landsting2011Report (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Lind, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Stockholms universitet.
    Genetic response to pollution in sticklebacks; natural selection in the wild2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last century, humans have been altering almost all natural environments at an accelerating rate, including the Baltic Sea that has highly eutrophicated areas and many coastal industries such as Pulp-mills. For animals living in a habitat that changes there are basically two alternatives, either to cope with the change or become locally extinct. This thesis aims to investigate if recent anthropogenic disturbance in the Baltic Sea can affect natural populations on a genetic level through natural selection.

    First, we found a fine-scale genetic structure in three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations along the Swedish coast (paper I), indicating limited gene-flow between populations in geographic proximity. Different genetic markers, specifically Amplified Fragment Lenght Polymorpism (AFLP, and microsatellites,  gave different results, highlighting the heterogeneous character of genomes which demonstrates that it is important to choose a genetic marker that is relevant for the question at hand. With a population genomic approach, and a multilocus genetic marker (AFLP), we detected convergent evolution in genotype composition in stickleback populations living in environments affected by pulp-mill effluent (paper II) and in highly eutrophicated environments (paper III), compared to adjacent reference populations. We found loci, in both studies (paper II, III), that were different from a neutral distribution and thus probably under divergent selection for the habitat differences investigated. The selective effect from pulp-mill effluents were more pronounced, but the two different habitats had mutual characters (AFLP loci). In paper IV, we converted five anonymous AFLP loci to sequenced markers and aligned them to the stickleback genome. Four out of five loci aligned within, or close to, coding regions on chromosome I, chromosome VIII, chromosome XIX and chromosome XX. One of the loci, located on chromosome VIII and identified as under divergent selection in both paper II and III, has been identified in other studies as to be under selection for fresh water adaptation, including Baltic Sea stickleback populations.

    In conclusion, anthropogenic alterations of natural environments can have evolutionary consequences, probably adaptive, for the animals living there and the evolutionary response exhibited by natural populations can be very fast.

  • 205.
    Lind, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Stockholms universitet.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Tuomainen, Ulla
    University of Helsinki.
    Borg, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Candolin, Ulrika
    University of Helsinki.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Genetic response to eutrophication in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus): A study of multiple Baltic Sea populationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic activities are causing change in natural habitats at an accelerating rate and affecting populations by altered selection pressures. One example is human-induced eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, were behaviour alterations are well documented in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Here we have used 204 variable Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers to investigate genetic differences between a set of ten hierarchal sampled populations of sticklebacks, five populations inhabiting eutrophicated habitats and five from control populations, in total 292 individuals. We found significant genetic variation that could be attributed to habitat (4.3% AMOVA). A combination of FST outlier analysis and classification analysis revealed seven AFLP-loci likely to be affected by divergent selection by eutrophication. Four of these seven loci have earlier been identified as under selection in stickleback populations living in pulp-mill effluents suggesting some similar selective factors between eutrophication and pulp-mill effluent effected habitats. 

  • 206.
    Linke, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Unravelling science-policy interactions in environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: Comparing fisheries and eutrophication2014In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 505-523Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Ljungberg, Stina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Drivkrafter och hinder ur ett multifunktionellt perspektiv: Förutsättningar och utvecklingsområden för produktion av biobränsle från våtmarker2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden have already reached several of their goals for energy consumption, but the overall goal to become a fossil free society can still be seen as a driving force to keep developing renewable fuels. There is financial support for wetland construction, reduce impact on the climate, improve the natural environment, for developing new techniques and for biomass fuel plants. Still, cultivation of wetland crops for energy extraction are not yet well established on the energy market. After interviews with actors interested and knowledgeable in this field, this study presents driving forces and barriers affecting the development of this energy source. Driving forces comes from the ambition to move away from fossil fuels, decrease emissions of nutrients, make room for biodiversity, and provide services for the society while helping to reach climate and environmental goals. The barriers affecting this development is that special machines might be needed for handling of the crops and also to harvest the sensitive wetlands while large areas would be needed to increase profitability. The financial support available is not enough to cover the costs for production. Also, the prices on electricity and fossil fuels are low, which lowers the profitability for this type of energy source. Bioenergy producers have not yet found an effective way to extract energy from the crops. All of this makes the demand for energy crops from wetlands small. Despite this, wetlands provide several important ecosystem services and it is therefore recommended to use the management philosophy of multiple-use. With a multifunctional view of wetlands, the value of its ecosystem services can be added to the calculations of energy production and increase its role in reaching several national climate and environmental goals.

  • 208.
    Lublinn, Sandra
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Modeintresserad och miljömedveten - en möjlig kombination?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption is something we do every day which we cannot get away from. New opportunities today, whether it is a higher income or a higher supply on the market, enable the creation of new desires and that the new consumption after a while feels necessary. Today we consume more products than ever before. But the consumption of both products and services affect the environment during their whole life cycle, from production to waste.

    Consuming fashion is an example of consumption where desires are expressed. Fashion which is often expressed through clothes stimulates a longing for consumption, and with fashion changing so fast it is hard to keep track of the whole production and how the environment is affected. If consuming fashion has negative effects on the environment the question is whether it is possible to consume fashion in a more sustainable manner.

    The purpose of this essay is to examine if it is possible to combine a fashion interest with an environmental awareness. Some of the matters examined are whether fashion can be consumed in a sustainable way or not, and what opportunities and challenges there are with combining fashion with an awareness of the environment. These questions are answered with the help of a theoretical literature study. Theories about consumption and behaviours are being used, and to combine fashion with an environmental awareness, consumption patterns have to change. Alternatives to conventional clothing must also be found on the market. If more choices are provided on the market, the individual can find alternatives through which she/he can unite a fashion interest with an awareness of the environment, but that cannot be seen as the only solution. This paper also analyzes whether practical examples, such as labelling and second hand, can contribute towards combining environment and fashion. 

  • 209.
    Lugomela, Charles
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, University of Dar es Salaam, PO Box 35064 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Lyimo, Thomas J.
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Dar es Salaam, PO Box 35179, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Namkinga, Lucy A
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Dar es Salaam, PO Box 35179, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Moyo, Sabina
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, PO Box 65001 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Goericke, Ralph
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, 92093, USA.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Co-variation of Cholera with Climatic and Environmental Parameters in Coastal Regions of Tanzania2014In: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 93-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterium causing cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is essentially a marine organism and its ecological dynamics have been linked to oceanographic conditions and climate. We used autoregressive models with external inputs to identify potential relationships between the number of cholera cases in the coastal regions of mainland Tanzania with climatic and environmental indices (maximum air temperature, sea surface temperature, wind speed and chlorophyll a). Results revealed that, between 2004 and 2010, coastal regions of mainland Tanzania inhabited by approximately 21% of the total population accounted for approximately 50% of the cholera cases and 40% of the total mortality. Significant co-variations were found between seasonally adjusted cholera cases and coastal ocean chlorophyll a and, to some degree, sea surface temperature, the outbreaks lagging behind by one to four months. Cholera cases in Dar es Salaam were also weakly related to the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index, lagging by five months, suggesting that it may be possible to predict cholera outbreaks for Dar es Salaam this period ahead. The results also suggest that the severity of cholera in coastal regions can be predicted by ocean conditions and that longer-term environmental and climate parameters may be used to predict cholera outbreaks along the coastal regions.

  • 210.
    Luthman, Ola
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jonell, M.
    Stockholm University.
    Troell, M.
    Stockholm University / Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Governing the salmon farming industry: Comparison between national regulations and the ASC salmon standard2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 106, article id 103534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmed salmon has become an important export commodity for many countries and regions. The expanding salmon aquaculture industry has, due to its rapid increase, resulted in environmental concerns, most notably relating to the interaction with wildlife, effects of effluents and discharges in local ecosystems, in some regions overuse of antibiotics and development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and high dependence on fish resources in feeds. As a response to these concerns, the industry has strengthened their efforts to improve practices and private led sustainability initiatives, including certification and eco-labelling, has become increasingly important. This study examines the differences between salmon farming governance policies in the four largest salmon producing regions; Norway, Chile, Scotland (UK) and British Columbia (Canada) and the Aquaculture Stewardship Council's (ASC) salmon standard. The purpose of the study is to clarify how the standard from a well-established eco-certification program compares to national or regional conventional standards, using additionality as measuring method. The paper concludes that at present the ASC standard has mainly three strong advantages over existing regional/national standards and these relate to; escape numbers allowed, antibiotic usage and fish resources in feed. Changing these three main divergences in the national/regional regulations would significantly improve some of the main sustainability issues with uncertified salmon farming. The study also finds that the potential additionality of the ASC standard can differ between regions, with the highest difference in Chile and lowest in Norway.

  • 211.
    Lättman, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Studies on spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lichens are an important group of organisms in terms of environmental issues, conservation biology and biodiversity, principally due to their sensitivity to changes in their environment. Therefore it is important that we develop our understanding of the factors that affect lichen distribution. In this thesis, both spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens at different scales have been studied in southern Sweden.

    Generation time of the red-listed lichen Cliostomum corrugatum was examined using Bjärka-Säby as the study site. The results showed that the average age of an individual of C. corrugatum is 25–30 years at the onset of spore production.

    The rarity of C. corrugatum was also examined. DNA analysis of an intron from 85 samples, collected at five sites in Östergötland, yielded 11 haplotypes. Results from coalescent analysis, mantel test and AMOVA indicated that C. corrugatum have a high ability to disperse. The study concluded that its rarity is most likely connected with the low amount of available habitat, old Quercus robur.

    The changes in the distribution of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden, between 1986 and 2003, were also compared. For each year a centroid was calculated on all combinations of tree and lichen species. The three significant cases showed that the centroid movement pointed toward a north-east or north-north-east direction.

    Finally differences in species richness and cover of lichens on large Q. robur were examined between urban and rural environment. The results demonstrated that species number and percent cover was significantly higher on oaks standing rural compared to oaks standing urban. Effects of urban sprawl showed a decline in species richness and cover with increasing age of the surrounding buildings.

  • 212.
    López, J L
    et al.
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Golemba, M
    Hospital de Pediatría "Juan P. Garrahan", Argentina.
    Hernández, E
    UNSAM Campus Miguelete, Argentina / Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Lozada, M
    Centro Nacional Patagónico-CONICET, Argentina.
    Dionisi, H M
    Centro Nacional Patagónico-CONICET, Argentina.
    Jansson, J
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.
    Carroll, J
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / Fram - High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment, Tromsø, Norway.
    Lundgren, L
    Stockholm University.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Cormack, W P Mac
    UNSAM Campus Miguelete, Argentina / Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Microbial and viral-like rhodopsins present in coastal marine sediments from four polar and subpolar regions.2017In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 93, no 1, article id fiw216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhodopsins are broadly distributed. In this work we analyzed 23 metagenomes corresponding to marine sediment samples from four regions which share cold climate conditions (Norway; Sweden; Argentina and Antarctica). In order to investigate the genes evolution of viral-rodopsins, an initial set of 6224 bacterial rhodopsins sequences according COG5524 were retrieved from the 23 metagenomes. After selection by the presence of transmembrane domains and alignment 123 viral (51) and non-viral (72) sequences (>50 aminoacids) were finally included in further analysis. Viral rhodopsin genes were homologues of Phaeocystis globosa virus and Organic lake Phycodnavirus Non-viral microbial rhodopsin genes were ascribed to Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus as well as Cryptophyta and Fungi. A re-screening using Blastp, using as queries the viral sequences previously described, retrieved 30 sequences (>100 aminoacids). Phylogeographic analysis revealed a geographycal clustering of the sequences affiliated to the viral group. This clustering was not observed for the microbial non-viral sequences. The phylogenetic reconstruction allowed us to propose the existence of a putative ancestor of viral rhodopsins (PAVR) genes related to Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi This is the first report about the existence of a phylogeographic association of the viral rhodopsins sequences from marine sediments.

  • 213.
    Mhatre, Snehit S
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark / University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Kaufmann, Stefan
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Marshall, Ian P G
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Obrochta, Stephen
    Akita University, Akita City, Japan.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jørgensen, Bo Barker
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Lomstein, Bente Aa
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Microbial biomass turnover times and clues to cellular protein repair in energy-limited deep Baltic Sea sediments2019In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 95, no 6, article id fiz068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of active microbial life deeply buried beneath the seafloor has opened important questions: how do microorganisms cope with extreme energy limitation, what is their metabolic activity, and how do they repair damages to essential biomolecules? We used a D:L-amino acid model to calculate microbial biomass turnover times. We used a metagenome and metatranscriptome analysis to investigate the distribution of the gene that encodes Protein-L-iso aspartate(D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT), an enzyme which recognizes damaged L-isoapartyl and D-aspartyl residues in proteins and catalyzes their repair. Sediment was retrieved during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347 from Landsort Deep and the Little Belt in the Baltic Sea. The study covers the period from the Baltic Ice Lake ca. 13 000 years ago to the present. Our results provide new knowledge on microbial biomass turnover times and protein repair in relation to different regimes of organic matter input. For the first time, we show that the PCMT gene was widely distributed and expressed among phylogenetically diverse groups of microorganisms. Our findings suggest that microbial communities are capable of repairing D-amino acids within proteins using energy obtained from the degradation of a mixture of labile compounds in microbial necromass and more recalcitrant organic matter.

  • 214.
    Millegård, Markus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Mercury concentration in Baltic herring, Clupea harengus, coupled to abiotic environmental factors: A study using monitoring data2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies on the relationship between mercury concentration in fish – or alternatively bioavailability of mercury in aquatic systems – and different abiotic oceanographic factors such as water temperature, pH and salinity, have shown that such associations often exist. The results are not always consistent between studies, however. The aim of this study is to investi­gate if this type of relationships can be established in Baltic herring, Clupea harengus, with the use of temporal monitoring data from the northern Bothnian Bay (northern Sweden), compiled within Swedish monitoring programmes. The abiotic factors being assessed in this study are water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH and measurements of nutrient content in the water; phosphate, total phosphorus and total nitrogen. Relationships between these parameters and mercury concentration in herring were investi­gated using multiple linear regression. Generally however, relationships were absent, and only one significant association was found, a positive relationship between total phosphorus in water and herring mercury load. Difficulty to reveal relationships in the presence of confoun­ding factors, which cannot be controlled for when using monitoring data from the field, is suggested as one reason for the absence of such relationships. Furthermore, the somewhat incomplete monitoring data of abiotic factors likely made it hard to detect any relationships.

  • 215.
    Mpoyi, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Regeringens miljösatsningar och deras förhållande till en hållbar livsstil hos det svenska folket: En studie av biståndssatsningars påverkan på hållbar livsstil i givarlandet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish government aid is divided into three main themes: democracy and human rights, the environment and climate, and gender equality and women's role in development. These three themes in aid are considered by the government to be vital in order to fight poverty and create fair and sustainable development. This study will examine two of the four focus areas designated under the theme of "environment and climate". The study observes the relationship between projects in energy and water and how it promotes a sustainable lifestyle. A survey on environmental habits will be conducted. The purpose of the study is to see if international aid projects funded by the Swedish government are able to promote a sustainable lifestyle in the Swedish population. The study has revealed the following: there is a lack of knowledge among the respondents of how the government conducts its environmental efforts; there is an interest in the environment and environmental issues among the respondents; the respondents consider environmental issues important. The investigation has also revealed that water projects have a greater tendency to promote sustainable lifestyles among the respondents because it had the greatest degree of influence on individuals’ actions. However, the investigation also showed that the action readiness for environmental behavior is generally low but that development aid for water and electricity can promote a sustainable lifestyle in the donor country in conjunction with other factors. 

  • 216.
    Muntrakis, Emelie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Impacts of large scale sugar investments on local livelihoods seen through the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach: A case study on a multinational sugar company’s presence in Manhiça, Mozambique2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Establishment of big companies in rural areas is something that is getting more and more common as the phenomenon of land acquisition is growing. This study is based on a case study in Manhiça where a big scale multinational sugar company, consisting of a sugar factory and sugarcane plantations, has been present for almost 20 years. The theoretical framework is based on the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) that is made into a method by taking dimensions from the theory and converting them into analytical tools. The aim is to identify and analyse the impacts that the company’s activities have on longer term on the capital basis of the various groups with which the company relates. Using the perspective of SLA helps identify the wide range of impacts – direct and indirect, positive and negative – that matter to local people. The study is qualitative and based on semi-structured interviews made with different groups of outgrower farmers and employees as well as representatives for the company and the municipality. The results are, in accordance with the principles underlying the SLA, focusing on the perceptions of people and the dynamic nature of livelihoods. A pilot study is used to indicate which impacts that are a result of the company’s presence and which only a result of switching to cash crops. The study shows that different groups are affected different from the interactions with the company. People with already weak livelihoods are benefited least since their access to different capital assets decrease.

  • 217.
    Musumeci, Matías A
    et al.
    Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos, CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Lozada, Mariana
    Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos, CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Rial, Daniela V
    Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Rosario, Argentina.
    Mac Cormack, Walter P
    Instituto Antártico Argentino, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina / CONICET—Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Carroll, JoLynn
    Fram—High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment, Tromsø, Norway / UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Dionisi, Hebe M
    Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos, CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Prospecting Biotechnologically-Relevant Monooxygenases from Cold Sediment Metagenomes: An In Silico Approach2017In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work was to identify sequences encoding monooxygenase biocatalysts with novel features by in silico mining an assembled metagenomic dataset of polar and subpolar marine sediments. The targeted enzyme sequences were Baeyer-Villiger and bacterial cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP153). These enzymes have wide-ranging applications, from the synthesis of steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins and pheromones to the synthesis of monomers for polymerization and anticancer precursors, due to their extraordinary enantio-, regio-, and chemo- selectivity that are valuable features for organic synthesis. Phylogenetic analyses were used to select the most divergent sequences affiliated to these enzyme families among the 264 putative monooxygenases recovered from the ~14 million protein-coding sequences in the assembled metagenome dataset. Three-dimensional structure modeling and docking analysis suggested features useful in biotechnological applications in five metagenomic sequences, such as wide substrate range, novel substrate specificity or regioselectivity. Further analysis revealed structural features associated with psychrophilic enzymes, such as broader substrate accessibility, larger catalytic pockets or low domain interactions, suggesting that they could be applied in biooxidations at room or low temperatures, saving costs inherent to energy consumption. This work allowed the identification of putative enzyme candidates with promising features from metagenomes, providing a suitable starting point for further developments.

  • 218.
    Nguyen, P.
    et al.
    Can Tho University, Ninh Kieu District, Can Tho City, Vietnam.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bosma, R.
    Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bregt, A.
    Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ligtenberg, A.
    Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    An Investigation of the Role of Social Dynamics in Conversion to Sustainable Integrated Mangrove-Shrimp Farming in Ben Tre Province, Vietnam2018In: Singapore journal of tropical geography, ISSN 0129-7619, E-ISSN 1467-9493, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 421-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the coastal area of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, much of the mangrove forest has been cut to make space for expansion of industry and aquaculture. Export-oriented shrimp farming is a particularly fast-growing business. Nonetheless, the importance of tropical mangrove forest ecosystems for coastal protection and marine biodiversity is widely recognized. The Vietnamese government, supported by non-governmental organizations and donors, has sought to restore mangrove forest. To this end, the government has promoted mixed or integrated mangrove-shrimp systems in which farmers maintain at least 40 per cent of their area under mangrove cover. Since 2012, mangrove reforestation, care and protection has benefited from local authority stimulus as well. Multiple studies have examined the condition of the mangrove forest in Ben Tre and other coastal provinces of the Mekong Delta. However, no research has investigated the role of social dynamics in farmers' willingness to shift to, or maintain, integrated mangrove-shrimp systems. Specifically, the influence of information, group dynamics and social learning on farmer decision-making is poorly understood and, indeed, hardly investigated in Vietnam. This article reports on a study of social processes in three communes in Binh Dai District, Ben Tre Province, Vietnam. We conducted 42 semi-structured interviews (with 34 farmers and eight local officials) and used secondary data. Our preliminary findings indicate that social dynamics in these communes were issue-driven and played an important role in farmers' decisions to adopt, or convert to, the integrated mangrove-shrimp farming system. Television, radio, the internet, books, neighbours and training courses all had some influence in farmer decision-making processes. However, our findings suggest that the accessibility, usefulness, relevance and approach of these communication methods must be improved if they are to adequately inform and support local farmers.

  • 219.
    Nielsen, Sebastian V
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Henriksen, Per G
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hansen, Steen H
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Baatrup, Erik
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    The psychoactive drug Escitalopram affects swimming behaviour and increases boldness in zebrafish (Danio rerio)2018In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 485-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    was not significantly different from control fish in either sex. The results of this study demonstrate that Escitalopram can affect subtle but ecologically important aspects of fish behaviour and lends further credibility to the assumption that Escitalopram is an environmentally active pharmaceutical.

  • 220.
    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Moros, Matthias
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany.
    Andersen, Thorbjörn Joest
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching. University of Gävle.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Baltic Sea Coastal Eutrophication in a Thousand Year Perspective2019In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from three sites along the east-coast of Sweden, north-western Baltic Proper, have been studied with respect to lithologies, geochemistry and diatom assemblages to trace and date early human impact with emphasis on nutrient discharge. The three sites Bråviken, Himmerfjärden and Ådfjärden, have been impacted to various degree during the last millennia by multiple stressors like excessive nutrient discharge and hazardous substances, leading to coastal hypoxia, eutrophication and pollution. These stressors are mainly caused by drivers in the drainage area as increased human population, changed land use and point sources as industries and a sewage treatment plant. Even though their detailed history differs, the results show similar general patterns for all three sites. We find no evidence in our data from the coastal zone supporting the hypothesis that the extensive areal distribution of hypoxia in the open Baltic Sea during the Medieval Climate Anomaly was caused by human impact. Timing of the onset of man-made eutrophication, as identified from d15N and changes in diatom composition, differs between the three sites, reflecting the site specific geography and local environmental histories of these areas. The onset of eutrophication dates to 1800 CE in Bråviken and Himmerfjärden areas, and to 1900 CE in the less urban area of Ådfjärden. We conclude that the recorded environmental changes during the last centuries are unique in a thousand year perspective.

  • 221.
    Nordin, Bodil
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    NGO-state cooperation in the Republic of Moldova: A study of the cooperation between environmental NGOs and the Moldovan state2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Non-governmental organisations (NGO) have been recognised as important actors when it comes to achieving a sustainable development. Cooperation between the state and NGOs is desirable and this thesis is a contribution to the knowledge about the cooperation between NGOs and the state. The objective is to provide a deeper understanding of the cooperation between environmental NGOs and the Moldovan state. The environmental NGOs that are chosen are based in Chisinau and have worked with waste management and recycling. Further the thesis also aims to suggest factors that can affect the nature of the relationship     between the chosen actors. To achieve this I carried out a case study of four environmental NGOs that are based in Chisinau. A representative from each NGO was interviewed about the organisation and its relationship to the state. Theories about clientelism and synergy were then used to analyse the results. I have come to the conclusion that there is a positive attitude towards cooperation with the state but at the same time the NGOs strive to maintain their independence from the state. In addition to this there are certain factors such as trust, availability of resources, and the characteristics of the NGOs can influence the nature of the relationship. This study is a contribution to the knowledge regarding NGO-state relationships and can be used as a base for further studies on this subject. This subject is important to study as NGOs have been identified as important actors in achieving a sustainable development and governments are encouraged to cooperate with them. 

  • 222.
    Nors, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Johansson, Mia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kvävehalt i mänskligt urin baserat på kosthållning: Påverkan på tillväxt av grönslick (Cladophora glomerata) samt förekomst av fytoplankton2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is a brackish water that is severely affected by eutrophication. Anthropogenic (human) nitrogen emissions is a contributing factor leading to algal blooms and hypoxic and anoxic seabeds. Municipal wastewater treatment plants account for 27 percent of the nitrogen emissions into the Baltic Proper. According to an article published by Karlsson-Ottosson in the magazine Ny Teknik and the HAVET 2015/2016 report, the increased meat consumption causes difficulties for the sewage treatment plants to purify the nitrogen in the wastewater. This, according to the article and report mentioned, correlates with increased nitrogen emissions from the municipal wastewater treatment plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate if this observed correlation could be confirmed. This study has measured the nitrogen content of urine from participants (n=36) categorized by diet. The diet categories that was included in this study were meat (K), lacto-ovo vegetarian (LOV) and vegan (V). The daily protein intake from the participants in the categories mentioned above was analyzed in this study. Furthermore, the growth of green algae (Cladophora glomerata) and presence of phytoplankton was investigated by fertilizing the collected samples with urine. The results show that there is no difference in nitrogen content in urine, neither in the protein intake between the three diet categories, nor in the case of presence of phytoplankton. Regarding the growth of the green algae, there was a significant difference between the diet groups of meat (K) and control (KON), and also between meat (K) and people on a vegan diet (V). The green algae therefore grew better in brackish water with urine from people who had a meat (K) diet than it did in brackish water with urine from people who had a vegan (V) diet. Though the growth results showed a significant difference between these diet groups (K and V), the alleged correlation between increasing meat consumption and increasing nitrogen emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants needs to be further studied.

  • 223.
    Norton, Juliet
    et al.
    University of California, Irvine, USA.
    Raturi, Ankita
    University of California, Irvine, USA.
    Nardi, Bonnie
    University of California, Irvine, USA.
    Prost, Sebastian
    Open Lab, Newcastle University, UK.
    McDonald, Samantha
    University of California, Irvine, USA.
    Pargman, Daniel
    KTH.
    Bates, Oliver
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Normark, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Tomlinson, Bill
    University of California, Irvine, USA.
    Herbig, Nico
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI).
    Dombrowski, Lynn
    Indiana University, Purdue University, Indianapolis, USA.
    A Grand Challenge for HCI: Food + Sustainability2017In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 50-55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224. Nousiainen, Marko
    et al.
    Pylkkänen, Päivi
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Seppänen, Laura
    Vesala, Kari Mikko
    Are Alternative Food Systems Socially Sustainable?: A Case Study from Finland2009In: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, ISSN 1044-0046, E-ISSN 1540-7578, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 566-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the importance of alternative food systems in delivering social sustainability to local communities. The perceptions of local and organic food systems actors regarding equity (or fairness) between the actors and viability of the local communities are examined to analyze social sustainability in Juva, Finland. The findings lend conditional support to the positive relationship between localized food systems and actors within these systems feeling empowered and influential, while also supporting other research emphasizing the limitations of farmer influence on vertical distributional channels, irrespective of production methods (i.e., organic or conventional).

  • 225. Nygård, Odd
    Etableringen av EU:s ekologiska nätverk Natura 2000 i Sverige: ett möte mellan två naturvårdskulturer2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges anslutning till EU i januari 1995 innebar att gemenskapens regler för bevarande av biologisk mångfald skulle genomföras i Sverige. Enligt dessa regler skulle ett ekologiskt nätverk av skyddade områden kallat Natura 2000 skapas för att garantera gynnsam bevarandestatus för ett urval av Europas arter och naturtyper. Hur nätverk skulle upprättas och vilka typer av objekt som skulle ingå i detta fanns angivet i art- och habitatdirektivet samt i fågeldirektivet.

    De båda direktiven hade arbetats fram inom EG vilket betydde att de baserades på en Centraleuropeisk naturvårdstradition samt att de i allt väsentligt var anpassade till de dåvarande medlemsstaternas behov och prioriteringar.

    I och med Sveriges inträde i unionen ställdes gemenskapens syn på naturvård mot en tradition som successivt vuxit fram under närmare ett sekels arbete med att bevara värdefull svensk natur. Denna tradition var bland annat anpassad till annorlunda naturförhållanden och baserades på andra förvaltningstraditioner, bevarandestrategier och naturvårdsprioriteringar.

    I boken beskrivs arbetet med att genomföra de båda naturvårdsdirektiven i Sverige: från medlemskapsförhandlingarna fram till dess att direktiven slutligen hade inkorporerats i svensk lagstiftning och huvudparten av de objekt som i dag ingår i Natura-nätverket hade identifierats och rapporterats till EU.I bokens avslutande kapitel diskuteras utfallet av det svenska arbetet med Natura 2000.

  • 226.
    Obrochta, S. P.
    et al.
    Akita University Akita, Japan.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Fazekas, S. Z.
    Akita University Akita, Japan.
    Lougheed, B. C.
    Uppsala University.
    Snowball, I.
    Uppsala University.
    Yokoyama, Y.
    University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Miyairi, Y.
    University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Kondo, R.
    Kogakkan University, Mie, Japan.
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Marine Geology, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyttinen, O.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fehr, A
    RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    The undatables: Quantifying uncertainty in a highly expanded Late Glacial-Holocene sediment sequence recovered from the deepest Baltic Sea basin—IODP Site M00632017In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 858-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated, organic-rich silts and clays with high dissolved gas content characterize sediments at IODP Site M0063 in the Landsort Deep, which at 459 m is the deepest basin in the Baltic Sea. Cores recovered from Hole M0063A experienced significant expansion as gas was released during the recovery process, resulting in high sediment loss. Therefore, during operations at subsequent holes, penetration was reduced to 2 m per 3.3 m core, permitting expansion into 1.3 m of initially empty liner. Fully filled liners were recovered from Holes B through E, indicating that the length of recovered intervals exceeded the penetrated distance by a factor of >1.5. A typical down-core logarithmic trend in gamma density profiles, with anomalously low-density values within the upper ∼1 m of each core, suggests that expansion primarily occurred in this upper interval. Thus, we suggest that a simple linear correction is inappropriate. This interpretation is supported by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data that indicate vertical stretching in the upper ∼1.5 m of expanded cores. Based on the mean gamma density profiles of cores from Holes M0063C and D, we obtain an expansion function that is used to adjust the depth of each core to conform to its known penetration. The variance in these profiles allows for quantification of uncertainty in the adjusted depth scale. Using a number of bulk 14C dates, we explore how the presence of multiple carbon source pathways leads to poorly constrained radiocarbon reservoir age variability that significantly affects age and sedimentation rate calculations.

  • 227.
    Olschewski, Roland
    et al.
    WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Fürst, Christine
    Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg.
    Ring, Irene
    TU Dresden.
    Policy Forum: Challenges and opportunities in developing new forest governance systems: Insights from the IPBES assessment for Europe and Central Asia2018In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 97, p. 175-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to develop new governance systems in environmental policy at the international, national and subnational level face multiple challenges. In the context of these challenges, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) was established by the United Nations in 2012 to become the leading intergovernmental body for assessing the state of the planet’s biodiversity, its ecosystems, and the essential contributions they provide to society. In this note, we refer to the Regional Assessment for Europe and Central Asia. As co-authors of the report, we present the results of our assessment focusing on the forest sector due to its high potential for conserving biodiversity and providing ecosystem services. Notwithstanding several knowledge gaps, the IPBES regional assessment provides a valuable basis to make better-informed decisions. It identifies promising governance options by mainstreaming the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the sustained provision of ecosystem services into public and private decision making, emphasising a more pro-active and goal-oriented policy approach. To which degree these options can be realized and which pathways will be taken towards a sustainable transition is a matter of societal choice, including policy, economy and citizens.

  • 228.
    Olsson, Linnea
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Human-elephant conflicts: A qualitative case study of farmers’ attitudes toward elephants in Babati, Tanzania2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that human-wildlife conflicts can reduce farmers’ support for long-term species conservation. The subject of human-elephant conflicts is highly relevant in villages around Babati District in North Central Tanzania because of the closeness to Tarangire National Park. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine local farmers’ attitudes toward elephants and the attitudes’ effects on conservation efforts. Primary data was collected through a qualitative approach of semi-structured interviews with twelve farmers in four villages around Babati, with Wildlife Officer Nashon Macokesha at Babati District Council and with Allan Carlson, Nature Conservation Expert at WWF. A thematic analysis was done to make comparisons between the answers from farmers, Macokesha and Carlson. The Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm theory were also used to analyze the underlying factors of the farmers’ attitudes.

     

    The results of this study show that around half of the farmers have positive attitudes toward elephants, while the other half think negatively of them. Elephants were identified as the most problematic species and crop-raiding as the most problematic type of human-elephant conflict. The problems that farmers experience do to crop-raiding and other types of human-elephant conflicts include the direct effects of lost livelihood and income and indirect effects like health impacts and security issues. The result also indicates that factors affecting farmers’ attitudes toward elephants include: 1) the proportion of available land affected by elephants, 2) the closeness of farmers’ fields to Tarangire National Park, 3) the lack of compensation, 4) the ability to affect the decision-making concerning the human-elephant conflicts and 5) the information about and knowledge of elephants and their importance. The underlying cause of the human-elephant conflicts is identified to be the spatial overlap of the two species. To prevent human-elephant encounters in the first place, thereby reducing the risk of human-elephants conflicts, better land use planning can be used to avoid settlement and cultivation close to protected areas. Buffer zones can be established around national parks and reserves to reduce the overlap between humans and wildlife. Mitigation through preventive and deterrent methods like lighting fires, making noises, using chili-dung or chili-grease to scare elephants off farmers’ fields can also be used. Another alternative is to switch from growing high-risk crops that elephants prefer to crops like chili or sesame which rarely gets eaten by elephants.

  • 229.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lundh, Torbjörn
    SLU.
    Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758)2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, p. E46-E47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Ottesen, Anna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Gandhi, Divya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Konsumentattityder till miljömärkningar vid köp av kläder hos medlemmar av generationerna Y och Z2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a consequence from the negative impact on the envirionment and many consumers growing lack of confidence for fashion industry companies, increasing demand for transparency in sustainability has developed during the last years. This is stated by the generations Y and Z. Despite the increased awareness about transparency and sustainability, however it seems as most of these consumers have not changed their behavior when hey are buying clothes The reason for this might be a lack of clear labelling and marketing of sustainable alternatives. 

    The purpose of this thesis is to try to explore consumer's attitudes among members of the generations Y and Z towards labelling with focus on sustainability, and thereby if fashion companies could affect their sales in a positive way through clearer sustainability labelling.The research is made through a quantitative survey that measures attitudes from respondents born between the years 1980 to 2000 regarding transparency, sustainability and labelling within the fashion industry.

    The result of the study indicates that respondents that take a real interest in consuming in a sustainable way have good knowledge of diffrent sustainability labels. But many of the total number of respondenters have relatively poor knowledge about different kinds of sustainability labels. The majority of the respondents say that they think it would be interesting to know more about the products environmental effects. And the respondents also say that they feel satisfied when they buy clothes from brands that have a clear and visible sustainability labelling. The stimulating feeling of satisfaction is something that the companies could use to get a long time strengthening of the brand, och also wich could effect their sales in a positive way. 

    From the study can be said that it seems to exist a potential for fashion companies to reach positive sales effects if efforts was taken to present more clearly and easily understandable information about sustainability and if they had better sustainability labelling for clothes. 

  • 231.
    Perunicic, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dånvikens algblomning och dess sociala konsekvenser för fastighetsägare i Sjöudden/Gråstena i Salems kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recreational loss due to algal blooms is large even though recreation is important for human health and social cohesion. This study examines the social consequences of the autumn bloom in the lake Dånviken, Sweden, for property owners in close proximity to the lake and how future algal blooms can be prevented. Through sewerage analysis, survey, interview and conflict analysis, one can see that recreational opportunities have been threatened by the bloom through consequences such as bad odors and ruined beaches. Reduced recreation reduces social cohesion among residents as the bloom affected the social hotspots with connection to Dånviken negatively. With the help of conflict theory, we see the existence of different values ​​and uneven distribution of the power property owners have regarding the impact on Dånviken, which means increased risk of conflict in conjunction with algal blooms. The sewage situation looks better today compared to 2006 but still contributes to eutrophication through nutritional emissions. Since 2006, 54.5 % of the properties concerned have fixed their sewerage and the proportion of real estate’s connected to a sewer system has increased by 19.6 %, where the number of mini-treatment plant and soil- and infiltration beds has more than doubled. In order to prevent future blooms in Dånviken, the municipality must continue to demand better sewage and supervision, the water and sewage network also needs to be expanded among other measures. Continued studies in the area are important in order to better understand the social consequences of threatened recreational opportunities due to algal blooms.

  • 232.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    et al.
    Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Maack, Lotta
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Matczak, Magdalena
    Maritime Institute in Gdańsk, Poland.
    Morff, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdańsk & University of Gdańsk, Poland.
    Insights into integration challenges in the Baltic Sea Region marine spatial planning: Implications for the HELCOM-VASAB principles2019In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, no 175, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Börjeson, L.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Land Concessions and Rural Livelihoods in Mozambique: The Gap Between Anticipated and Real Benefits of a Chinese Investment in the Limpopo Valley2017In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1181-1198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In rural Mozambique, as in other African countries, large-scale land acquisitions are on the rise. This process is usually portrayed by host governments and investors as comprising win–win deals that can simultaneously boost agricultural productivity and combat poverty. This article focuses on one such investment, a large-scale Chinese land acquisition in the lower Limpopo valley, where attempts to modernise agriculture have occurred since colonial times. Based on an analysis of primary quantitative and qualitative data, this study explores livelihoods in the targeted area and local experiences and views regarding land loss and its implications. Our findings reveal a top-down process enabled by disregard for sound legislation, whereby land dispossession was followed by ‘take-it-or-leave-it’ opportunities that were unsuited to the most land-dependent livelihoods, particularly those of single-headed households. As the modernisation of the region is once again attempted through the promotion of large-scale agriculture, important historical continuities prevail. This study adds critical evidence to the discussion on the local development potential of land deals in Mozambique and other areas marked by similar democratic deficits. 

  • 234.
    Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Caretta, M. A.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, United States.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Large-scale land acquisitions aggravate the feminization of poverty: findings from a case study in Mozambique2019In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 215-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The local implications of large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs), commonly referred to as land grabs, are at the center of an exponential production of scientific literature that only seldom focuses on gender. Our case study aims to contribute to filling this analytical gap. Based on structured interviews and focus groups, we investigate local experiences in the lower Limpopo valley in Mozambique, where a Chinese investor was granted 20,000 hectares in 2012. Our findings show that land access in the affected area varied prior to land seizure due to historical land use differences and after land seizure mainly due to non-universal compensation. Furthermore, we show that as farming conditions deteriorate, a trend toward both the feminization of smallholder farming and the feminization of poverty is consolidated. Succinctly, as available land becomes increasingly constricted, labor is allocated differently to alternative activities. This process is by no means random or uniform among households, particularly in a context in which women prevail in farm activities and men prevail in off-farm work. As men disengage further from smallholder farming, women remain directly dependent on fields that are smaller and of worse quality or reliant on precarious day labor in the remaining farms. We contend that the categories female-headed and male-headed households, although not inviolable, are useful in explaining the different implications of LSLAs in areas in which gender strongly substantiates individuals’ livelihood alternatives. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 235.
    Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Why Does Deliberative Community Consultation in Large-Scale Land Acquisitions Fail?: A Critical Analysis of Mozambican Experiences2018In: Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies, E-ISSN 2254-2035, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 164-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community consultation prior to large-scale land acquisitions (LSLA) is a cornerstone that justifies the portrayal of projects as partnerships or land grabs. This study focuses on one of the countries most targeted by LSLA in the last decade, namely, Mozambique. We examine the legal and theoretical bases that support community consultations and analyse their corresponding everyday practices in Mozambique. The article argues that, although the existence of these participatory forums is inspired by normative ideals of popular deliberation, the prevailing practices in these spaces are diametrically opposed to deliberative foundations and values. As shown in this study, this mismatch between theory that is institutionalized in legal frameworks and practice derives largely from the interplay of hierarchical relations anchored in, inter alia, formal and customary ethnically based realms, gender disparities, and livelihood orientations. A core argument of the article is that any attempt to ameliorate these practices must consider critical insights regarding the centrality of enhancing social equality and inclusion in participatory spaces —challenges that are immense in places marked by deep structural inequalities.

  • 236.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Endocrine disruption in fish: Effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol exposure on non-reproductive behavior, fertility and brain and testis transcriptome2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic environments are the end recipient for most anthropogenic chemical pollutants. One common chemical pollutant found in the aquatic environment is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in contraceptive pills. EE2 is found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters in concentrations from non-detectable up to 300 ng/L. EE2 has the ability to bioaccumulate and is more than 10 fold more potent in fish than the natural counterpart estradiol. Exposure has led to skewed sex ratios, decreased egg and sperm production, and altered reproductive behavior.  The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of EE2 exposure on non-reproductive behavior and fertility in fish. We found that zebra fish exposed to low concentrations of EE2 during development showed increased anxiety-like behavior and decreased fertility that were persistent in adulthood, even after a long remediation period in clean water. The altered behavior and lowered fertility were accompanied by alterations in the testis and brain transcriptome of possible significance for the behavior and fertility effects. The zebrafish was also used in adult exposures of EE2 and citalopram, alone and in combination to investigate if behavioral effects can be detected at very low concentrations, and if so, if the two compounds would interact and affect the behavioral outcome. Anxiety-like behavior was altered by EE2 and the two compounds in combination affected the outcome of each other. Further, when developmental exposure of progeny to wild caught three spined stickleback was used as a link between laboratory fish and natural fish populations, EE2 was found to decrease the anxiety-like behavior in the adult stickleback as well as cause ovotestis and intersex, feminization and sex reversal of genetic males. In conclusion, fertility and non-reproductive behaviors in the zebrafish and three spined stickleback are sensitive to EE2 exposure and effects from developmental exposures seem to be persistent.  Fertility and behavior are of high ecological significance for fish and alterations due to EE2 exposure might have negative effects on population fitness. The persistent alterations in the transcriptome of the zebrafish testis and brain lead to generation of hypotheses of mechanisms involved in the behavior and reproductive phenotypes caused by developmental exposure to EE2.

  • 237.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Örebro University.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Örebro University.
    Elabbas, Lubna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Ullah, Shahid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska University Hospital Laboratory.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Combinatory effects of low concentrations of 17α-etinylestradiol and citalopram on non-reproductive behavior in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)2017In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 193, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plant effluents contain a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals, thus exposing aquatic organisms. Still, the consequences of exposure to combinations of different classes of drugs is largely unknown. In this study, we expose adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males and females to low, environmentally relevant concentrations of the endocrine disrupting chemical 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, alone and in combination, and analyse three non-reproductive behaviours of importance for population fitness.

    Two weeks exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 resulted in increased anxiety in males in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test. Significantly longer latency periods before entering the white zone and fewer visits in the white zone were observed in males exposed to both 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 compared to unexposed males. No significant effects of citalopram alone (0.1 and 0.5 µg/L) were observed in the scototaxis test. The combined exposures (0.1 ng/L EE2 + 0.1 µg/L citalopram and 0.5 ng/L EE2 + 0.5 µg/L citalopram) resulted in abolishment of the anxiogenic effects of EE2, with significantly shorter latency period (low dose) and more transitions to white (high and low dose) than in fish exposed to EE2 alone. No significant effects of either EE2, citalopramor the combination of the two were observed in females. In the novel tank test, significantly more transitions to the upper half of the tank were observed in males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone compared to unexposed males while males exposed to 0.1 ng/lEE2 had significantly shorter latency period to enter the upper half. Exposure to the combination of the two low concentrations did, however, result in a significantly longer latency and fewer transitions to upper half compared to both control, EE2- and citalopram-exposed males. These males also spent significantly less time in the upper half than the fish exposed to 0.1 ng/l EE2 or 0.1 µg/l citalopram alone. No significant effects on novel tank behaviour were observed in females or males exposed to the higher concentrations. In the shoaling test, males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram and females exposed to 0.5 ng/l EE2 made significantly fewer transitions away from peers while males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram + 0.1 ng/l EE2 performed significantly more transitions than the fish exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone.

    In conclusion, this study shows that very low concentrations ofEE2, at or slightly above the predicted noeffect concentration (NOEC), affects anxiety in zebrafish males. Furthermore, citalopram, in spite of marginal effect of its own at such low levels, counteracts the response to EE2. This study represents an initial effort to understand the effects on water-living organisms of the cocktails of anthropogenic substances contaminating aquatic environments.

  • 238.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Bollner, Tomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Altered non-reproductive behavior and feminization caused by developmental exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol persist to adulthood in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2019In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 207, p. 142-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and commonly detected in sewage effluents, interferes with the endocrine system in multiple ways. Exposure during sensitive windows of development causes persistent effects on fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. In the present study, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to nominal 0 and 20 ng/L EE2 from fertilization to 7 weeks post-hatch. After 8 months of remediation in clean water three non-reproductive behaviors, not previously analyzed in developmentally EE2-exposed progeny of wild-caught fish, were evaluated. Chemical analysis revealed that the nominal 0 and 20 ng/L exposure contained 5 and 30 ng/L EE2, respectively. Therefore, the use of control fish from previous experiments was necessary for comparisons. Fish exposed during development showed significant concentration-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test by means of shorter latency to first entrance to the white compartment, more visits in white, and longer total time in white compared to unexposed fish. In the novel tank test, developmental exposure significantly increased the number of transitions to the upper half of the aquaria. Exposure to EE2 during development did not alter shoal cohesion in the shoaling test compared with unexposed fish but fish exposed to 30 ng/L EE2 had significantly longer latency to leave the shoal and fewer transitions away from the shoal compared to fish exposed to 5 ng/L EE2. Skewed sex ratio with more females, sex reversal in genetic males as well as intersex in males was observed after exposure to 30, but not 5 ng/L EE2. In conclusion, EE2 exposure during development in three-spined stickleback resulted in persistent effects on anxiety-like behaviors. These long-term effects from developmental exposure are likely to be of higher relevance for natural populations than are short-term effects from adult exposure.

  • 239.
    Portström, Sofia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Fäbodbruk - “Det magiska mötet mellan natur och kultur”: En fenomenografisk studie om fäbodbruk ur brukarnas perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summer pasture contributes both to cultural-historical values and to positive effects on biodiversity. However, the usage of the term ”summer pastures” varies and there is no general definition. This lack of definition gives rise to a conflict: Should the summer pasture be preserved for its cultural-historical value by having it look just like before, or should it be preserved for its value in biodiversity? Today, the authorities’ image of summer pasture is what controls which summer pastures and what values are granted financial support. This means that the summer pastures risk being defined and developed on the basis of the authorities' image, not by the image the farmers themselves have, which is based on historical and conservational knowledge. Thus, the purpose of this study is to highlight the use of summer pasture as a phenomenon and an activity from the user's perspective. In order to discover how the farmers themselves view summer pastures, a phenomenographic method is used to analyze interviews of summer pasture farmers with varying backgrounds and activities. The results of the study show that the summer pasture of today varies with regard to the design of the business. The common denominator is the small-scale animal husbandry where summer pasture take place on the outskirts beyond the home farm, to where the farmer moves with the animals during summer. Summer pasture has traditionally never been an economic gain, nor does it provide much today. The farmers are enthusiasts who believe in a higher purpose of what they do. The lack of definition is something that affects them only in their contact with authorities, from where they are only met with ignorance. The farmers believe that the summer pasture have a cultural-historical value, one that also lies in the future with increasing environmental awareness and climate change.

  • 240.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Participation and Legitimacy: Actor Involvement for Nature Conservation2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis in environmental science aims to contribute to the theoretical and empirical understanding of the relation between participation and legitimacy in multi-level environmental governance.

    It is widely assumed that actor involvement has great potential to improve the legitimacy of nature conservation through long-term acceptance and target achievement. However, local resource conflicts problematize the way a relation between participation and legitimacy is depicted on other administrative levels. Studies exploring the effect that participation has on legitimacy are relatively rare, especially in multi-level arrangements of coastal conservation.

    In this thesis the relation between participation and legitimacy on the local level is examined, as well as how this relation is conditioned by multi-level governance and power. The relation is empirical studied with two local implementation processes of the Helsinki Convention’s network of marine protected areas (HELCOM MPAs). The cases are located in Sweden.

    Sweden and the Baltic Sea region are in the forefront of participation in nature conservation, and therefore act as a strong case for the exploration of institutional participation. However, despite apparent political will and international support, the efficiency of actor involvement for nature conservation has been questioned, also for the HELCOM MPA and especially on the local level.

    Based on the results of this study, I question the assumption that weak legitimacy predominantly is an issue of insufficient information sharing. The findings show that involving actors to legitimize the adoption of strict adherence to a pre-established model of conservation likely fails to create long term support for conservation. Instead, relocation of power to the affected actors seems essential in order to make participation establish legitimacy. It appears important to create room for local influence in the design, management and implementation of a particular conservation area in the particular place/context. In both examined cases, there are elements of participation that support legitimacy, for example the development of a shared vision. There are also elements that hamper legitimacy, such as, for example, the high expectations different actors have on participation to reach consensus on protective values. These unmet expectations seem to fuel conflicts of interests among actors on different levels.

  • 241.
    Rabe, Linn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Community-based Natural Resource Management of the Jozani-Pete Mangrove Forest: Do They Have a Voice?2013In: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 133-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local participation, especially in natural resource management, has been promoted as a key strategy in the quest for sustainable development. Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is an approach that has generally been promoted as an institution that genuinely includes and empowers ‘local people' in natural resource use and management. This paper examines how local participation in conservation projects works in practice by drawing on concepts from institutional and actor-oriented theories and applying a case study approach to examine community-based mangrove management at Jozani-Pete, Zanzibar. Here CBNRM became embedded within a conservation agenda that resulted in conflict, resistance, frustration and uncertainty amongst community members. The paper offers insight into how exogenously initiated CBNRM projects have difficulty gaining traction unless they both address existing power relations and deliver on promises of material benefits. If they fail to do so the experience of the Jozani-Pete case study suggests that CBNRM may work to further marginalize already marginalized people.

  • 242.
    Rehnlund, Mathilde
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Getting the transport right - for what?: What transport policy can tell us about the construction of sustainability2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies transport as a governing tool that shapes the physical environment and human society, as well as having environmental impacts. The aim is to learn what policy for transport can say about what sustainability means and does. My focus is Stockholm municipal policy between 2007 and 2017, a period of sustainability concerns and large transport project agreements.

    Using the What’s the problem represented to be? approach, I look at measures proposed for the ‘right’ transport of people and ask: what kind of ‘tool’ is transport produced to be, and how is sustainability constructed?

    The transport system is one of the most visible parts of the built environment and recognized for its negative impact on environmental and human health. As co-constitutive of social practices, transport is far from a mere technical issue. Despite this, transport policy studies are often technical in approach. Since policy is not a neutral response to pre-existing ‘problems’, I consider transport policy to be part of a creative process for the whole of society.

    A main contribution to the field of sustainable transport is a view of transport as a tool for governing and inherently political. Stockholm is frequently hailed as a ‘green’ city. I was interested to explore this ‘best case’ scenario and see what might consolidate the two seemingly opposing aims of greener transport and more car use. I find that Stockholm policy for transport is permeated with technological optimism, reliance on individual choices, and concern for economic growth. Policy measures construct transport as a tool to affirm the commuter paradigm and promote urban expansion. Attention to the sustainability of transport concentrates on emissions from transport work, which is to be addressed by individual consumption choices. Sustainability is associated with efficiency, technological innovation, and above all urbanity. The proposals paradoxically construct the subject as both co-responsible for problem and solution (the conscious or irresponsible consumer), and as a cog in the wheel for economic growth (the commuting worker). This disregards both the homo ludens and the citizen: play and the political. These aspects become subordinated while policy enhances the role of work.

  • 243.
    Reisner, Gunilla
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Conflicting Environmental Management Tools: Grazing of Semi-natural Grasslands vs. Wetland Conservation2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study explores the possibility of conflicts between conservation of wetlands and semi-natural grasslands in the county of Stockholm. Both habitats are important to protect from a biodiversity perspective. The species rich semi-natural grasslands have been created by agricultural practices like grazing and mowing. At the same time, wetlands have diminished due to earlier drainage in order to increase the area of arable land. Both habitats are incorporated in the Swedish Environmental Objectives and are parts of the EU’s Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES), where farmers get financial support to maintain or restore valuable habitats.

    Wetland conservation/restoration often requires raised water tables, but also maintenance with cattle grazing in certain areas. On the other hand, raised water tables can act as hinder for grazing animals and lead to conflict situations. Using a mixed method approach, this study scrutinized if the use of different management tools can result in conflicts between actors and objectives. The study is based on a literature review, interviews and the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Institutionalism and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework are used to analyze and evaluate the situation in the county of Stockholm.

    The quantitative results reveal that 12,8 % of all semi-natural grasslands of high biological value intersects with wetlands. However, these areas are maintained with environmental support to a larger extent than semi-natural grasslands outside wetlands. This indicates there is no conflict between wetland and semi-natural grassland conservation, a perception shared by authorities. From farmers’ perspective the situation is described differently, rule compliance for environmental support is hard to obtain specifically in wet areas. Increased dialogue between authorities and farmers rather than harsh inspections would be preferable as the county of Stockholm needs more farmers and grazing cattle to maintain biologically important habitats.

    Grazing in wetlands is needed from a biodiversity perspective but can at the same time disturb the wetlands functioning of nutrient reduction. There is a risk of authorities prioritizing water quality in front of biodiversity in conflicting situations. Water, as a common-pool recourse, is surrounded by stricter regulation and also easier to monitor.

  • 244.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Adaptation, now?: Exploring the Politics of Climate Adaptation through Poststructuralist Discourse Theory2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence of anthropogenic climate change and the recognition that warming is likely to go beyond 2°C raises the need for responses that help people cope with the anticipated changes. The rise of attention to so-called climate adaptation on political agendas at the local, national and international scale has come about with a hastily growing field of academic knowledge production. But while adaptation choices are inherently political, adaptation has been largely considered a ‘problem free’ process and ‘tame’ challenge; only a relatively small strand of scholarly work engages in critical enquiry into the idea of adaptation, the discursive practices through which it is imagined, and related questions of power and politics.

    Responding to calls for more attention to the socio-political dimensions of adaptation and for conceptually embedded research, this thesis investigates the creation, interpretation and use of adaptation as a concept in research, policy and practice. Drawing on Poststructuralist Discourse Theory and the so-called Logics of Critical Explanation in particular, it develops a perspective through which the politics of adaptation can be investigated in a theoretically and methodologically consistent and transparent manner. Through a close analysis of official adaptation discourses at the international level, the EU level, and the national level in Germany, the thesis enquires into the discursive practices around adaptation responses and what these different discourses open up or limit in terms of broader implications for political action.

    The contributions of the thesis are empirical, methodological and conceptual. In addition to providing critical insights into contemporary understandings of adaptation, including revealing some depoliticising ‘building blocks’ in conventional adaptation discourses, the thesis makes two important conceptual contributions to the growing field of critical adaptation studies: (1) It suggests that the increasing interconnectedness between people and places makes it impossible to know whether adaptation efforts undertaken have in reality reduced net vulnerability or simply shuffled vulnerability across the board. Ignoring the potential for such redistributive effects can have significant consequences in practice and will likely lead to unsustainable and, in the long run, maladaptive outcomes. (2) It argues that non-rational and affective dimensions are vital to the emergence of adaptation responses and that paying attention to them is important if critical scholarship is to understand and intervene in the persistence of techno-managerial approaches to adaptation. Furthermore, to the field of critical policy studies this thesis makes a methodological contribution by developing a new analytical framework for poststructuralist policy analysis.

  • 245.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Logics, assumptions and genre chains: a framework for poststructuralist policy analysis2017In: Critical Discourse Studies, ISSN 1740-5904, E-ISSN 1740-5912, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An unresolved aspect of the Logics Approach within Poststructuralist Discourse Theory (PDT) is how to operationalize its abstract theoretical concepts – of social, political and fantasmatic logics – for concrete textual analysis, especially of policy documents. Policies often institute new understandings, procedures or practices, something the logics, as originally articulated, fall somewhat short of capturing. To overcome these methodological challenges this article constructs a framework for poststructuralist policy analysis that brings together the Logics Approach with more textually oriented tools developed within Critical Discourse Analysis, namely assumptions and genre chains. For empirical illustration it draws on a case study of the European Union's adaptation policy in response to climate change. The resulting framework offers a means through which more implicit social and political logics can be examined, and contributes new insights to methodological debates around the use of the Logics Approach (and PDT more broadly), specifically in relation to critical policy analysis. The article concludes with seven observations of relevance for future studies and suggests avenues for further empirical and conceptual exploration.

  • 246.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The affective dimensions of climate adaptation: Fantasy and future-making in German adaptation policyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Ring, Eva
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Bjarnadóttir, Brynhildur
    University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Finér, Leena
    Natural Resources Institute Finland-Luke, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lībiete, Zane
    LSFRI Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Lode, Elve
    Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stupak, Inge
    University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sætersdal, Magne
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic-Baltic region: Large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width.2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 878-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness. Sweden and Finland relied to a large extent on voluntary commitments. The prescribed zone widths within the region ranged from 1 m to 5 km. The results indicated that land-use distribution, forest ownership structure and historical and political legacies have influenced the varying degrees of prescriptiveness in the region.

  • 248. Ring, Irene
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Acar, Sevil
    Adeishvili, Malkhaz
    Albert, Christian
    Allard, Christina
    Anker, Yaakov
    Arlettaz, Raphaël
    Bela, Györgyi
    ten Brink, Ben
    Fischer, Anke
    Fürst, Christine
    Galil, Bella
    Hynes, Stephen
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Marta- Pedroso, Cristina
    Mendes, Ana
    Molau, Ulf
    Olschewski, Roland
    Pergl, Jan
    Simoncin, Riccardo
    Adem, Çiğdem (Contributor)
    Blackstock, Kirsty (Contributor)
    Hauck, Jennifer (Contributor)
    Johansson, Johanna (Contributor)
    Lasson, Caroline (Contributor)
    Minchenko, Natalya (Contributor)
    Reimerson, Elsa (Contributor)
    Schläpfer, Martin (Contributor)
    Simonov, Eugene A. (Contributor)
    Snethlage, Mark (Contributor)
    Söderasp, Johanna (Contributor)
    Options for governance and decision-making across scales and sectors2018In: IPBES: The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia / [ed] Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A., Mader, A., Bonn: Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services , 2018, p. 661-802Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 249.
    Rodela, Romina
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, Netherlands / University of Nova Gorica, Slovenia.
    Social Learning, Natural Resource Management, and Participatory Activities: A reflection on construct development and testing2014In: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, ISSN 1573-5214, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis reflects on the use of multidimensional constructs for the study of social learning in natural resource management. Insight from deliberative democracy and adult learning literature are used to ground the identified four dimensions (the moral dimension the cognitive dimension, the relational dimension and trust). Then, a selection of empirical cases is surveyed with the aim to develop and understanding how well the empirical outcomes reported by these sit against the insights borrowed from the deliberative democracy and pedagogy literature. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research.

  • 250.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Alašević, Dušan
    University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia.
    Crossing disciplinary boundaries in environmental research: Interdisciplinary engagement across the Slovene research community2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 574, p. 1492-1501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary approaches to environmental research are calling for a type of scientific inquiry that is able to bring together the natural and social sciences. This with the aim to advance our understanding of environmental issues and produce synthetic and actionable knowledge meant to address these. Yet, interdisciplinarity research of this type is a demanding and challenging pursuit; many have shown that in certain thematic areas and geographic regions practice falls behind discourse. We bring together ideas about interdisciplinary research collaborations (after Patricia L. Rosenfield) and interdisciplinary epistemic synthesis (after Julie T. Klein) that are used to analyse a sample of research projects funded (from 2006 to 2013) by the Slovene Research Agency. We triangulated interview data (with principal investigators) with document analysis and integrated these with other secondary data. Our results suggest for the sample of environmental projects to be interdisciplinary in a narrow sense, this prevalently within natural and life sciences with little input from the humanities and social sciences. Also, the results obtained suggest that environmental research with unambiguous problem solving objectives is preferred over research with a high degree of abstraction, as involved in theoretical and conceptual work.

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