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  • 151.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jentoft, Svein
    Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, 900 Tromsø. Norway.
    Marine Environmental Governance in Europe: Problems and Opportunities2015Ingår i: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, s. 249-264Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 152.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Hassler, BjörnSödertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.Jönsson, Anna MariaSödertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.Karlsson, MikaelSödertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    AMBIO Special Issue: Coping with Complexity in Baltic Sea Risk Governance2011Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 153.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Coping with complexity in baltic sea risk governance: Introduction2011Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 109-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 154.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Science and Policy in the Governance of Europe’s Marine Environment: The Impact of Europeanization, Regionalization and the Ecosystem Approach to Management2015Ingår i: Governing Europe’s Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, s. 141-160Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 155.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Kern, Kristine
    Wageningen University, Holland.
    Environment2011Ingår i: Political State of the Region Report 2011 / [ed] Bernd Henningsen & Tobias Etzold, Köpenhamn: Baltic Development Forum , 2011, s. 68-71Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 156.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Lundberg, Cecilia
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES).
    Lemke, Paulina
    Gdansk University, Poland.
    Interactions between risk assessment and risk management for environmental risks in the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 92011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been produced within the interdisciplinary RISKGOV project with the overall aim of comparing risk assessment – risk management interactions connected with five severe Baltic Sea environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges linked to marine transports).

    Specifically, we compare three major aspects connected with assessment  – management interactions and, based on this analysis, suggest possible routes for improving interaction between science-based advice and environmental (risk) management:

    1. Organisational structure of the risk assessment activities and the generation, selection and implementation of management options.
    2. The management of scientific uncertainties and disagreements.
    3. Implementation of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) and modes of ‘good governance’.

    In order to understand these aspects we started by describing and analysing the characteristics of the five risk cases. This revealed substantial differences in terms of sources, effects and complexities (in terms of scientific uncertainty and socio-political ambiguity). For example, chemical risks are associated with great uncertainty and oil spill with much lower; fisheries relate to very high socio-political ambiguity, whereas invasive species show the opposite nature and oil spill fit with more traditional risk parameters. Our analysis also revealed a great variation in the societal risk responses, which far from always seems rational in relation to the risk characteristics.

    When it comes to the organisational structures, we can conclude that different forms of institutions and institutional arrangements and relations have evolved over time in the various cases, for instance relatively well-formalised in the overfishing case, and rather informal for combating eutrophication. Similarly, we see different forms of expert dependencies. In the overfishing case there are institutionalised formal links between e.g. ICES and the EU Commission and the historic path-dependency is quite strong, thereby causing institutional inertia, even though the development of Regional Advisory Councils (RACs) such as the Baltic RAC are gradually changing the picture. In relation to many other environmental risk cases (e.g. eutrophication and chemicals) HELCOM provides a regional basis for assessment and management (although implementation of management recommendations have often proved complex). Still, assessment-management interactions seem more developed and better organised in the overfishing case, even though it is obvious that the last link, the political decision-making on quotas, has deviated substantially from the science-based advice, thereby opening for continued overfishing. Similarly, well-developed institutions seem to allow for improved deliberative processes for fisheries, including improved analysis of socio-economic dimensions, which we cannot find to the same extent for e.g. chemicals, eutrophication and invasive species.

    The assessment and management responses we see to the studied risks do not seem to be based on any thorough analysis of the specific risk characteristics, or on the suitability of different overall strategies (e.g. traditional science-based assessment, precautionary, deliberative). Instead, all studied assessment-management interactions can be classified as being built primarily on traditional science-based assessment of risks. Of course, we see elements of for example precaution in e.g. the chemicals case, and deliberation in the fish case, and the inclusion of the EAM as a starting point for assessment exercises and management decisions is becoming more common, but overall this happens only partially and infrequently.

    Thus, to summarise, we conclude that there are substantial differences among environmental risks in relation to, for example, complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity, and we argue that it is important to maintain a balance between ideals of holistic approaches such as EAM and context dependent requirements of various management objectives, environmental risks and sectors. For example, high levels of uncertainty (e.g. chemical pollution) and ambiguity (e.g. overfishing) can be assumed to require assessment-management approaches focussed on precaution and participatory deliberation, respectively.

    Furthermore, our analysis identifies six key issues and challenges that, if adequately addressed, may improve assessment-management interactions and facilitate the implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

    1. We see a need to further develop the regional and ecosystem basis of assessment-management interactions in terms of addressing prioritised knowledge gaps, as well as developing regional knowledge management and monitoring to strengthen regionally-based scientific advice.

    2. Integration of various forms of scientific knowledge is currently rather undeveloped in assessment and scientific advice, which reduces possibilities of addressing also the social dimension of sustainable development as well as possibilities of identifying and reducing ‘blind spots’.

    3. Stakeholder participation requires more consideration since incorporation of practitioner and local knowledge in risk assessments as well as stakeholder deliberation in risk management often are vital for the successful implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

    4. We identify substantial room for improvements linked to coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement in both risk assessment and risk management. We conclude that there in fact are examples of science-based precautionary approaches and methods, but that a comprehensive and coherent strategy for addressing uncertainty is often lacking.

    5. Interdependencies among environmental risk issues need to be more specifically addressed than today. Climate change will, for example, influence both the outcome of risk assessments as well as the possibilities for successful management in all the studied environmental risk cases.

    6. Despite a commonly expressed idea of a clear separation between assessment and management, the studied science-policy interactions are in general rather diffuse and politicised. This lack of transparency about how these interactions evolve and are constructed may mislead political decision makers and the public and thus potentially hamper management progress.

  • 157.
    Girard, Chloé
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Producing and consuming artisan food: a way of preserving our biological heritage?: A phenomenographic study on how biological heritage is understood, described and communicated in the context of artisan food production and consumption2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the environmental quality goal 13 for A Varied Agricultural Landscape, that combines environment, food production and rurality and aims at keeping the agricultural landscape open, was considered as not achieved in 2016. One of the reasons for this non-achievementis the agricultural intensification and specialisation and in turn the decrease in number of pastures during the 20th century, threating thus habitats, diversity and values resulting from a continuous, traditional use of the land commonly called ‘biological heritage’. This study focuses on the traditional and sustainable animal husbandry using pastures, contributing to both the preservation of biological heritage and the production of high-quality food. It relies upon the assumption that the link between artisan food production and biological heritage is not well understood nor highlighted by the different actors taking part into the process of producing, selling, buying and consuming artisan food products in the rural areas of mid-northern Scandinavia, and therefore the study attempts to contribute with knowledge about how biological heritage is understood, described and communicated within this context. For such purposes the study takes a phenomenographic approach with biological heritage, pastures and artisan food products as the conceptions to be tested, and consists of semi-structured interviews of three agencies and surveys of artisan food producers and consumers. It adopts an environmental communication theoretical framework where a model is suggested for investigating actors’ learning process of biological heritage, from agencies to producers to consumers. The results reveal three phenomenographic categories showing that agencies and producers understand biological heritage in terms of (1) cared habitat and cared species, (2) historical and cultural know-how and (3) animals and their tasteful diet, and it is showed that the necessity of a continuous, traditional human use was less put forward than the cultural dimension of biological heritage. Also producers communicate about biological heritage to consumers through both their products and their actions. Furthermore the results show that consumers’ understandings of biological heritage are similar to the agencies’ and producers’ phenomenographic categories and that they could make a link between artisan food production and biological heritage, but only to some extent. Finally, in order to create an economic value for such products, a sense of place for pastures is argued to be a basis for people’s willingness to take care of and safeguard pastures. This study can be the starting point for further research, especially for investigating how producers actually interact with consumers about biological heritage when selling their products.

  • 158. Gorokhova, Elena
    et al.
    Edlund, Anna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Zhivotova, Elena N.
    Nucleic acid levels in copepods: dynamic response to phytoplankton blooms in the northern Baltic proper2007Ingår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 349, s. 213-225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined changes in nucleic acids and concomitant population development of the copepods Acartia bifilosa and Eurytemora affinis in relation to the progress of the phytoplankton spring bloom in the northern Baltic proper. Individual RNA and DNA concentrations and their ratios in female copepods as well as copepod abundance and population structure were analyzed in 2 coastal areas that differed in the degree of eutrophication and phytoplankton development. During the study period (February to June 2002), bloom conditions were evident, with chlorophyll (chl) a values being 42% higher in the eutrophic area than in the reference area. In both areas, diatoms dominated; in the reference area, they were replaced by dinoflagellates toward the end of the bloom. Copepod RNA-DNA concentrations increased rapidly at the onset of the bloom and gradually decreased thereafter. Moreover, in the eutrophic area, both copepods had higher RNA content and RNA:DNA ratios throughout the study period, suggesting higher productivity in this area. In both species, we found positive correlations between RNA-based indices and chl a. Thus, as suggested by RNA dynamics, growth rates of A. bifilosa and E. affinis appear to respond rapidly to both temporal variation in spring phytoplankton stock and spatial variation due to the magnitude of the bloom. In addition, we found that species-specific RNA dynamics and RNA-chl a relationships differed between species, indicating possible differences in feeding preferences and growth potential.

  • 159.
    Granstedt, Artur
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Coastal Management Research Center (COMREC). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Farming for the Future: with a focus on the Baltic Sea Region2012 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book Artur Granstedt - Ph.D. in Agronomics and Associate Professor at Södertörn University, and Coordinator of the BERAS project (Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society) - describes how ecologically adapted farming based on local recycling and renewable energy sources can reduce the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea and even help to reduce global warming. Widespread conversion to organic farming methods would furthermore stop the spread of toxic chemicals on farmland, benefit biodiversity and stimulate social and economic development in rural areas in the Baltic Sea region.

    The book starts with a description of the ecosystems that support the health of the biosphere - terrestrial and marine, the climate, and global food production. Granstedt also gives a historical overview of agricultural practices, noting the various ways in which human activity alters the natural order of things and, if we are not mindful, can deplete the resources that support our existence. But he also gives examples of how we can turn negative trends to the better, how we can restore fertility to the soil and bring depleted land to bloom once again and produce nourishing food that can feed the world.

    Artur Granstedt writes on the basis of decades of experience as an organic farmer, researcher, adviser and teacher of ecologically sustainable agriculture. The book reports the results of field trials and evaluation on farms in eight countries around the Baltic Sea that were conducted in the BERAS project. This comprehensive project, which was supported in part by funding from the European Union, is now continuing in an implementation phase, focusing on how agriculture throughout the region can be converted to profitable and ecologically sustainable methods of production.

    The publication of this book has been made possible through a grant from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) to the BERAS project at Södertörn University and the Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna, and funding from the Swedish Government and the Swedish Research Council, Formas.

     

  • 160.
    Granstedt, Artur
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Coastal Management Research Center (COMREC). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Morgondagens jordbruk: med fokus på Östersjön2012 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artur Granstedt, agronomie doktor, docent vid Södertörns högskola och koordinator för Östersjöprojektet BERAS beskriver här hur ett ekologiskt jordbruk, baserat på lokala kretslopp och förnyelsebar energi, kan minska övergödningen av Östersjön och även bidra till att minska den globala uppvärmningen. Det kan dessutom förhindra spridningen av kemiska bekämpningsmedel, gynna den biologiska mångfalden och stimulera social och ekonomisk landsbygdsutveckling i Östersjöområdet.

    Boken inleds med en beskrivning av de livsuppehållande ekosystemen och deras betydelse för jorden, havet, klimatet och vår mat. Författaren ger också en överblick över odlandets historia: hur vi människor griper in och förändrar det naturgivna och hur vi på kort tid kan förbruka det som naturen byggt upp. Han visar också på hur vi kan odla jord, skapa ökad bördighet, få jorden att blomstra och ge närande mat åt alla.

    Till grund för boken ligger Artur Granstedts mångåriga arbete med odling, forskning, rådgivning och undervisning i ekologiskt jordbruk. Här redovisas också resultat från studier av det rent praktiska arbetet på ett antal gårdar, dokumenterade och utvärderade i åtta länder i det av EU delfinansierade Östersjöprojektet BERAS (Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society). Detta arbete drivs nu vidare med fokus på hur en omläggning av jordbruket kan ske i hela Östersjöregionen i fortsättningsprojektet BERAS Implementation.

    Bokens utgivning har finansierats av Europeiska regionala utvecklingsfonden (ERUF) inom ramen för Östersjöprojektet BERAS vid Södertörns högskola samt Biodynamiska Forskningsinstitutet i Järna med bidrag från den svenska regeringen via det statiliga forskningsrådet Formas.

     

  • 161.
    Grant Axén, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Fuel-efficiency and Efficient Aid: An analysis of factors affecting the spread of fuel-efficient cooking stoves in Northern Tanzania2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is the result of nine weeks fieldwork in Babati and Bukoba districts in Northern Tanzania during spring 2012. The purpose of this thesis is to study why development projects on fuel-efficient stoves have had a limited adoption in these two regions and what obstacles and opportunities there are for further spread of fuel-efficient cooking stoves. Semi-structured interviews were the main method used for collecting the empirical data, which was then analysed from a socio-economic perspective with help from the framework of Sustainable Rural Livelihoods.

    The Results showed that people’s perceptions of fuel-efficient stoves are positive but that projects face many obstacles connected to socio-economic conditions. Knowledge on how to get stoves and access to financial capital is main obstacles for further spreading. Social networks and organisations are channels for information, but to spread outside these networks will need complementing strategies from organisations promoting fuel-efficient stoves. Important are also finding ways of making the financial aspect of adopting stoves less, like using materials with lower costs, using stove-models with low costs and training people in building stoves so re-investments are unnecessary and dependency of funding from organisations less. Gender is a factor affecting the adoption of fuel-efficient stoves, regarding access to assets and generated benefits. There is therefore an importance of involving gender throughout the different stages of the projects. 

  • 162.
    Green, P. F.
    et al.
    Geotrack International, Australia.
    Lidmar-Bergström, K.
    Stockholm University.
    Japsen, P.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark.
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Geografi. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark.
    Chalmers, J. A.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Denmark.
    Stratigraphic landscape analysis, thermochronology and the episodic development of elevated, passive continental margins2013Ingår i: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, ISSN 1811-4598, E-ISSN 1604-8156, nr 30, s. 150s. 4-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The continental margin of West Greenland is similar in many respects to other elevated, passive continental margins (EPCMs) around the world. These margins are characterised by extensive regions of low relief at elevations of 1-2 kilometres above sea level sloping gently inland, with a much steeper, oceanward decline, often termed a 'Great Escarpment', terminating at a coastal plain. Recent studies, based on integration of geological, geomorphological and thermochronological evidence, have shown that the high topography of West Greenland was formed by differential uplift and dissection of an Oligo-Miocene peneplain since the late Miocene, many millions of years after continental break-up between Greenland and North America. In contrast, many studies of other EPCMs have proposed a different style of development in which the high plateaux and the steep, oceanward decline are regarded as a direct result of rifting and continental separation. Some studies assume that the elevated regions have remained high since break-up, with the high topography continuously renewed by isostasy. Others identify the elevated plains as remnants of pre-rift landscapes. Key to understanding the development of the West Greenland margin is a new approach to the study of landforms, stratigraphic landscape analysis, in which the low-relief, high-elevation plateaux at EPCMs are interpreted as uplifted peneplains: low-relief surfaces of large extent, cutting across bedrock of different age and resistance, and originally graded to sea level. Identification of different generations of peneplain (re-exposed and epigene) from regional mapping, combined with geological constraints and thermochronology, allows definition of the evolution leading to the formation of the modern-day topography. This approach is founded particularly on results from the South Swedish Dome, which document former sea levels as base levels for the formation of peneplains. These results support the view that peneplains grade towards base level, and that in the absence of other options (e.g. widespread resistant lithologies), the most likely base level is sea level. This is particularly so at continental margins due to their proximity to the adjacent ocean. Studies in which EPCMs are interpreted as related to rifting or break-up commonly favour histories involving continuous denudation of margins following rifting, and interpretation of thermochronology data in terms of monotonic cooling histories. However, in several regions, including southern Africa, south-east Australia and eastern Brazil, geological constraints demonstrate that such scenarios are inappropriate, and an episodic development involving post-breakup subsidence and burial followed later by uplift and denudation is more realistic. Such development is also indicated by the presence in sedimentary basins adjacent to many EPCMs of major erosional unconformities within the post-breakup sedimentary section which correlate with onshore denudation episodes. The nature of the processes responsible is not yet understood, but it seems likely that plate-scale forces are required in order to explain the regional extent of the effects involved. New geodynamic models are required to explain the episodic development of EPCMs, accommodating post-breakup subsidence and burial as well as subsequent uplift and denudation, long after break-up which created the characteristic, modern-day EPCM landscapes. © 2013 Pushpa Publishing House, Allahabad, India.

  • 163.
    Green, Paul F.
    et al.
    Geotrack International Pty Ltd, West Brunswick, Australia.
    Duddy, Ian R.
    Geotrack International Pty Ltd, West Brunswick, Australia.
    Japsen, Peter
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Geografi. Mid-Sweden University.
    Malan, Jean A.
    New Age (African Global Energy) Ltd, London, UK.
    Post-breakup burial and exhumation of the southern margin of Africa2017Ingår i: Basin Research, ISSN 0950-091X, E-ISSN 1365-2117, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 96-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many years of study, the processes involved in the development of the continental margin of southern Africa and the distinctive topography of the hinterland remain poorly understood. Previous thermochronological studies carried out within a monotonic cooling framework have failed to take into account constraints provided by Mesozoic sedimentary basins along the southern margin. We report apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance data in outcrop samples from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary fill of the Oudtshoorn, Gamtoos and Algoa Basins (Uitenhage Group), as well as isolated sedimentary remnants further west, plus underlying Paleozoic rocks (Cape Supergroup) and Permian-Triassic sandstones from the Karoo Supergroup around the Great Escarpment. Results define a series of major regional cooling episodes. Latest Triassic to Early Jurassic cooling which began between 205 and 180 Ma is seen dominantly in basement flanks to the Algoa and Gamtoos Basins. This episode may have affected a wider region but in most places any effects have been overprinted by later events. The effects of Early Cretaceous (beginning between 145 and 130 Ma) and Early to mid-Cretaceous (120-100 Ma) cooling are both delimited by major structures, while Late Cretaceous (85-75 Ma) cooling appears to have affected the whole region. These cooling events are all interpreted as dominantly reflecting exhumation. Higher Late Cretaceous paleotemperatures in samples from the core of the Swartberg Range, coupled with evidence for localised Cenozoic cooling, are interpreted as representing Cenozoic differential exhumation of the mountain range. Late Cretaceous paleotemperatures between 60 degrees C and 90 degrees C in outcropping Uitenhage Group sediments from the Oudtshoorn, Gamtoos and Algoa Basins require burial by between 1.2 and 2.2 km prior to Late Cretaceous exhumation. Because these sediments lie in depositional contact with underlying Paleozoic rocks in many places, relatively uniform Late Cretaceous paleotemperatures across most of the region, in samples of both basin fill and underlying basement, suggest the whole region may have been buried prior to Late Cretaceous exhumation. Cenozoic cooling (beginning between 30 and 20 Ma) is focussed mainly in mountainous regions and is interpreted as representing denudation which produced the modern-day relief. Features such as the Great Escarpment are not related to continental break up, as is often supposed, but are much younger (post-30 Ma). This history of post-breakup burial and subsequent episodic exhumation is very different from conventional ideas of passive margin evolution, and requires a radical re-think of models for development of continental margins.

  • 164.
    Grönros, Amanda
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Holmström Petterson, Sofia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Vargen och vetenskapen: En fallstudie om vetenskapens roll inom vargförvaltningens beslutsfattning2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har genom sitt medlemskap i EU en skyldighet att sträva efter att vargens population ska vara både kortsiktigt och långsiktigt livskraftig. Den undertecknade konventionen om biologisk mångfald medför att vargstammen måste uppfylla en gynnsam bevarandestatus, vilket har krävt ett stort behov av vetenskapliga fakta kring vad en hållbar status är. Sambandet mellan vetenskap och beslutsfattande kan vara svår, särskilt i komplicerade miljöproblem med många osäkerhetsfaktorer. Syftet med studien är att granska de olika vetenskapliga osäkerheterna och ta reda på hur de påverkar beslutsprocessen inom svensk vargpolitik. Fokus ligger på den inverkan de vetenskapliga råden har för beslutsfattarna.

    Studien är en fallstudie där resultatet bygger på fem intervjuer med experter inom området, samt en djupare textanalys av de rapporter och förordningar som använts i beslutsprocessen. Sammanfattningsvis tyder studiens resultat på att forskning och vetenskapliga resultat har haft en stor roll för beslutsfattarna inom vargförvaltningen. Till viss del har den också försvårat frågan på grund av avsaknaden av konsensus bland forskarna. Attityden kring Sveriges vargar sträcker sig långt bak i tiden och konflikten är idag en laddad fråga som inte bara handlar om vetenskapliga motsättningar, utan även om värderingar.

  • 165. Gustafsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Björk, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Burreau, Sven
    Gilek, Michael
    Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)1999Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 1218-1224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, IUPAC congeners 47, 99, and 153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners 31, 52, 77, 118, and 153) in a flow-through experimental setup for 44 d. After the exposure phase, the mussels were allowed to depurate in natural brackish water for 26 d. After analyses, uptake clearance rate coefficients (k(u)), depuration rate coefficients (k(d)), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated. A rapid uptake of all PBDEs and PCBs was observed, especially for PBDE congeners 47 and 99 (k(a) 120 and 170 L/day/g dry weight, respectively). The depuration rare decreased with increasing hydrophobicity as expected for the PCBs, bur for the PBDEs, depuration rate coefficients appeared to be of the same magnitude for all three congeners independently of log K-ow. The BAFs obtained for PBDE 47 and PBDE 99 (1.3 x 10(6) and 1.4 x 10(6) ml/g dry weight, respectively) were higher than for all other substances in the study, severalfold higher than for PCBs of similar hydrophobicity. The presented data indicate that the bioaccumulation potential of PBDEs, extensively used as flame retardants, is similar or higher than that of PCBs for filter feeding organisms such as blue mussels.

  • 166.
    Gustafsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Blidberg, Eva
    Elfgren, Irene Karlsson
    Hellström, Anna
    Kylin, Henrik
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Direct and indirect effects of the fungicide azoxystrobin in outdoor rackish water microcosms2010Ingår i: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 431-444Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin were studied in rackish water microcosms, with natural plankton communities and ediment. Two experiments were conducted: Experiment 1 (nominal conc. 0, 5 and 60 mu g/L, 24-L outdoor microcosms for 21 days) and a second, ollow-up, Experiment 2 (nominal conc. 0, 3, 7.5, 15 mu g/L, 4-L indoor icrocosms for 12 days). The microcosms represent a simplified brackish ater community found in shallow semi-enclosed coastal areas in gricultural districts in the Baltic Sea region. Measured water oncentrations of the fungicide (Experiment 1) were, on average, 83 and 2% of nominal concentrations directly after application, and 25 and 30% fter 21 days, for the low and high dose treatments, respectively, orresponding to mean DT50-values of 15.1 and 25.8 days, for low and igh dose treatments, respectively. In Experiment 1, direct toxic ffects on calanoid copepods at both test concentrations were observed. imilarly, in Experiment 2, the copepod abundance was significantly educed at all tested concentrations. There were also significant econdary effects on zooplankton and phytoplankton community structure, tanding stocks and primary production. Very few ecotoxicological tudies have investigated effects of plant protection products on Baltic rganisms in general and effects on community structure and function pecifically. Our results show that azoxystrobin is toxic to brackish ater copepods at considerably lower concentrations than previously eported from single species tests on freshwater crustaceans, and that irect toxic effects on this ecologically important group may lead to ascade effects altering lower food webs and ecosystem functioning.

  • 167.
    Hall, Adrian M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ebert, Karin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Goodfellow, Bradley W
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Hättestrand, Clas
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography.
    Heyman, Jakob
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Krabbendam, Maarten
    British Geological Survey.
    Moon, Seulgi
    University of California, Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences.
    Stroeven, Arjen P
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography.
    Past and future impact of glacial erosion in Forsmark and Uppland: final report2019Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 168.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Effects on Guppy Brain Aromatase Activity Following Short-Term Steroid and 4-Nonylphenol Exposures2010Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology, ISSN 1520-4081, E-ISSN 1522-7278, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 261-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain estrogen production, performed by the enzyme aromatase, can be disrupted/affected in teleost fish exposed to endocrine disruptors found in polluted aquatic environments. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) was previously studied and confirmed to suffer negative effects on reproductive behaviors following inhibition of the brain aromatase reaction. Here adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata) of both genders were subjected to known endocrine disruptors: the androgen androstenedione (A), the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and the estrogenic surfactant 4-nonylphenol (NP), at high (50 mu g/L) and at environmentally relevant concentrations (10 ng/L EE2, 5 mu g/L NP, and 0.7 mu g/L A) for 2 weeks followed by measurements of brain aromatase activity (bAA). In the adult males, bAA was stimulated by A and EE2 at 50 mu g/L. Female activity was also stimulated by the higher estrogenic treatment. At environmentally relevant concentrations only the EE2 treatment affected bAA, and only in males. The alkylphenolic substance NP produced no effect in either of the experiments, not on males nor females. The results indicate that short-term steroid treatments have stimulatory effects on guppy brain aromatase even at concentrations that can be found in the environment. We thus suggest bAA of adult guppies to be a suitable bioindicator of endocrine disruptors.

  • 169.
    Hamilton, P. B.
    et al.
    University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Cowx, I. G.
    University of Hull, Hull, UK.
    Oleksiak, M. F.
    University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
    Griffiths, A. M.
    University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Stevens, J. R.
    University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Carvalho, G. R.
    Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.
    Nicol, E.
    Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.
    Tyler, C. R.
    University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Population-level consequences for wild fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of chemicals: a critical review2016Ingår i: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 545-566Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrated chemical spills have been shown to impact adversely on fish populations and even cause localized population extinctions. Evaluating population-level impacts of sublethal exposure concentrations is, however, complex and confounded by other environmental pressures. Applying effect measures derived from laboratory-based chemical exposures to impacts in wild fish populations is constrained by uncertainty on how biochemical response measures (biomarkers) translate into health outcomes, lack of available data for chronic exposures and the many uncertainties in available fish population models. Furthermore, wild fish show phenotypic plasticity and local adaptations can occur that adds geographic and temporal variance on responses. Such population-level factors are rarely considered in the chemical risk assessment process and can probably be derived only from studies on wild fish. Molecular technologies, including microsatellite and SNP genotyping, and RNASeq for gene expression studies, are advancing our understanding of mechanisms of eco-toxicological response, tolerance, adaptation and selection in wild populations. We examine critically the application of such approaches with examples including using microsatellites that has identified roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations living in rivers contaminated with sewage effluents that are self-sustaining, and studies of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) that have identified genomic regions under selection putatively related to pollution tolerance. Integrating data on biological effects between laboratory-based studies and wild populations, and building understanding on adaptive responses to sublethal exposure are some of the priority research areas for more effective evaluation of population risks and resilience to contaminant exposure.

  • 170.
    Hammarlund, D.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Klimaschewski, A.
    Queen's University, Belfast, UK.
    St. Amour, N. A.
    University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Self, A. E.
    The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, UK .
    Solovieva, N.
    University College London, UK / Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia .
    Andreev, A. A.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia / University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany .
    Barnekow, L.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Edwards, T. W. D.
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada / University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada .
    Late Holocene expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in Kamchatka in response to increased snow cover as inferred from lacustrine oxygen-isotope records2015Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, nr SI, s. 91-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Holocene records of cellulose-inferred lake-water δ18O were produced from two lake-sediment sequences obtained in central and northern Kamchatka, Russian Far East. The sediment records share similar fluctuations in δ18O during the interval of ca. 5000-800calyr BP that correspond (inversely) with changes in K+ content of the GISP2 ice-core record from Greenland, a proxy for the relative strength of the Siberian High, suggesting control by climate-related variability in δ18O of regional precipitation. The dramatic expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in northern and central Kamchatka between ca. 5000 and 4000calyr BP, as inferred from pollen records from the same and neighbouring sites, appears to have occurred at a time of progressively declining δ18O of precipitation. This development is interpreted as reflecting a regional cooling trend accompanied by increasing winter snowfall related to gradual intensification of the Siberian High from ca. 5000 to ca. 3000calyr BP. A thicker and more long-lasting snow cover can be assumed to have favoured P. pumila by providing a competitive advantage over other boreal and subalpine tree and shrub species in the region during the later part of the Holocene. These results, which are the first of their kind from Kamchatka, provide novel insight into the Holocene vegetational and climatic development in easternmost Asia, as well as long-term atmospheric circulation dynamics in Beringia.

  • 171.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The Ecosystem Management Approach: Implications for Marine Governance2015Ingår i: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, s. 75-92Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 172.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Balfors, Berit
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Geografi.
    Quin, Andrew
    Governance of Water Resources in the Phase of Change: A Case Study of the Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden2011Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 210-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, focusing on the ongoing implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, we analyze some of the opportunities and challenges for a sustainable governance of water resources from an ecosystem management perspective. In the face of uncertainty and change, the ecosystem approach as a holistic and integrated management framework is increasingly recognized. The ongoing implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) could be viewed as a reorganization phase in the process of change in institutional arrangements and ecosystems. In this case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District, Sweden, we focus in particular on data and information management from a multi-level governance perspective from the local stakeholder to the River Basin level. We apply a document analysis, hydrological mapping, and GIS models to analyze some of the institutional framework created for the implementation of the WFD. The study underlines the importance of institutional arrangements that can handle variability of local situations and trade-offs between solutions and priorities on different hierarchical levels.

  • 173.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Perspectives on horse keeping and welfare in peri-urban landscapes2019Ingår i: Equine Cultures in Transition: Ethical Questions / [ed] Jonna Bornemark, Petra Andersson, Ulla Ekström von Essen, London: Routledge , 2019Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 174.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The role of horse keeping in transforming peri-urban landscapes: A case study from metropolitan Stockholm, Sweden2017Ingår i: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1951, E-ISSN 1502-5292, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 146-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors analyze sustainable cultural landscapes through the lens of ecosystem services. Their case study focuses on transformation of the peri-urban landscape of the Stockholm region, Sweden. Peri-urban landscapes are characterized by diversified and fragmented land uses that are strongly related to urban lifestyles. The rapidly increasing trend for recreational horse keeping is replacing traditional agriculture. Horse keepers’ and local government perspectives on horse keeping are examined, as well as the related demand for ecosystem services, which affects the landscape. The article is based on government documents, interviews with local government officials, and field visits to 16 horse-keeping facilities in two municipalities. Horse keeping was found important for sustaining cultural ecosystem services related to a rural cultural landscape and for maintaining traditional agriculture that provides provisioning ecosystem services. However, several differences between traditional agriculture and horse keeping that affect the demand for ecosystem services related to land use were found to shift the focus from provisioning services to recreational services. The authors conclude that horse keeping, as an emerging crosscutting issue in peri-urban landscapes, needs new more integrative planning processes that account for the full range of ecosystem services and links between cultural services and ecosystem functioning.

  • 175.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Towards improved environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 112012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving towards sustainable ecosystem governance practices is potentially a complex and time consuming endeavour. The RISKGOV project identified three main governance challenges linked to implementing an ecosystem approach to management in the medium to long term time span (i.e. years to decades), that, if adequately addressed by actors and stakeholders, could help improve the governance of environmental problems and risks in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Firstly, fostering a move towards reflexive and adaptive governance structures and processes by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration and forming spaces for interaction and dialogue. Secondly, strengthening the regional and ecosystem basis of knowledge generation and management is needed, including integration of various forms of scientific knowledge, stakeholder input, and increased attention to interdependencies among environmental problems and risks to better address uncertainties and disagreements. Thirdly, to develop a more integrated system of stakeholder input and communication, e.g. in the form of a “regional marine advisory council”, to face issues of inclusiveness, create a common concern for the Baltic ecosystem, improve the motivation and capacity, and improve coordination across scales and sectors.

  • 176.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Geografi.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Andersson, Ingela
    Cross-scale linkages and trade-offs in multilevel water governance: A case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District2011Ingår i: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Annual Conference, Copenhagen: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea , 2011, s. ICES CM2011/R:21-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 177.
    Hansén, Hanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Odlingsfria skyddszoner i jordbrukslandskapet: En studie av Dyåprojektet i Nynäshamns kommun2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Övergödning, eller eutrofiering, är ett av de största miljöproblemen i Östersjön och orsakas av förhöjda näringshalter i vatten. Eutrofieringen beror till stor del av näringsförluster från åkermark (Bernes, 2005, s. 83). För att sänka näringshalterna i vatten kan ett flertal åtgärder vidtas, till exempel genom att införa odlingsfria skyddszoner utmed vattendrag (Jordbruksverket, 2008). I denna uppsats studeras sådana skyddszoner där det 16 år långa Dyåprojektet i Nynäshamns kommun har använts som fallstudie. För att avgränsa arbetet har det lokala deltagandet i projektet undersökts för att se hur det kan ha påverkat Dyåns näringshalter. Resultaten från undersökningen visar att totalfosforhalterna i ån har fortsatt öka under åren, medan totalkvävehalterna långsamt minskar. För både totalfosfor och totalkväve uppvisas fortfarande höga samt extremt höga näringsförluster från åns avrinningsområde. Studien baseras på vattenprover som tagits direkt i åns vatten, en metod som skiljer sig från hur övrig forskning inom ämnet utförs. Detta är viktigt att ha i beaktande av resultatet eftersom de vattenprover som erhållits består av vatten från ett större område än bara det där zonerna är etablerade. Studien visar att det lokala deltagandet har fungerat bra, trots dålig kontakt med Nynäshamns kommun som initierade projektet 1995. Ett flertal faktorer från lantbrukarnas sida borde bidragit till en positiv miljöpåverkan på Dyåns näringshalter, det vill säga minskat dem. Eftersom så inte är fallet diskuteras jordmån, dräneringsrör, förändrad markanvändning och andra externa påverkanskällor som kan ha påverkat resultatet mer än det lokala deltagandet.

  • 178.
    Hardisty, Dalton S.
    et al.
    University of California-Riverside, Riverside California, USA .
    Riedinger, Natascha
    Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA .
    Planavsky, Noah J.
    Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Asael, Dan
    Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jorgensen, Bo B.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark .
    Lyons, Timothy W.
    University of California-Riverside, Riverside California, USA .
    A Holocene History Of Dynamic Water Column Redox Conditions In The Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea2016Ingår i: American Journal of Science, ISSN 0002-9599, E-ISSN 1945-452X, Vol. 316, nr 8, s. 713-745Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern Baltic Sea is the world's largest anthropogenically forced anoxic basin. Using integrated geochemical records collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347 from the deepest and one of the most reducing sub-basins in the Baltic Sea, Landsort Deep, we explore the degree and frequency of natural anoxia through the Baltic Holocene. A marked decrease in carbon-to-sulfur ratios (C/S) from the cores indicate the transition from the Baltic Ice Lake to the current brackish sea, which occurred about 8.5 kyrs B.P. Following this, laminations throughout sediments recording brackish deposition suggest sustained anoxia or extreme low oxygen, while high molybdenum (Mo) concentrations of >100 ppm and iron (Fe) geochemistry suggest water column sulfide accumulation, or euxinia, that persisted beyond seasonal timescales during deposition of two distinct sapropel units. Sedimentary Mo isotope values range from +1.11 to -0.50 permil, which are distinctly fractionated from modern Baltic seawater (+2.26 to -2.67 parts per thousand) and thus indicate that each of the sapropels experienced only weak and/or oscillatory euxinia-in contrast to the more stable euxinic conditions of more restricted basins. A shift in delta Mo-98 starting above the lower sapropel to a distinctly more negative range suggests particularly weak and oscillatory euxinia, with an enhanced contribution of manganese (Mn) redox cycling to Mo deposition relative to the lower portion of the profile. This conclusion is supported by extreme sedimentary Mn enrichments of up to 15 weight percent. We interpret the combined data to indicate episodic but major Baltic inflow events of saline and oxygenated North Sea water into the anoxic Landsort Deep that limited the concentrations and residence time of water column sulfide and caused episodic oxide deposition. Considering the temporal overlap between the most reducing conditions and periods of redox instability, we hypothesize that major Baltic inflows, as is observed today, lead to short-term instability while simultaneously supporting longer-term Baltic anoxia by strengthening the halocline. Ultimately, our results indicate that periods more reducing than the modern Baltic Sea have occurred naturally over the Holocene, but the characteristic dynamic saline inputs have historically prevented the relatively more widespread and stable anoxia observed in other classic restricted basins and will likely continue to do so.

  • 179.
    Hareland Tjernström, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Edhlund, Veronica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Artrikedom i stadsnära hästhagar i Stockholms län2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Betesmarker är viktiga naturtyper med sin höga artrikedom. I Sverige är de i ständig förändring, de överges och många gårdar med nötboskap ställs om till hästgårdar i suburbana-och urbana områden. Forskning visar på att en ökad urbanisering ger negativa effekter på den biologiska mångfalden. När betesmarker blir övergivna upphör hävd, vilket innebär att en successionsutveckling sker. Betesmarken växter igen till en skog där artrikedomen minskar. För att få en högre artrikedom behövs hävd på en medelstark störningsnivå, enligt intermediära störningshypotesen.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka effekter på växtarter från tre antropocentriska faktorer. Underlaget i studien består av växtartsinventeringar utförda i tio hästhagar, med tolv provrutor 0,5 x 0,5 meter i varje hästhage. Dessa utfördes i kommunerna, Ekerö, Huddinge och Vallentuna i Stockholms län.Tre faktorer testas gentemot artrikedom; Längden betesmarkerna hävdats med häst, låg-respektive hög störningsgrad samt graden av urbanisering. Vi upptäckte att urbaniseringen endast påverkade vissa arter och inte alla, framförallt arter som trivs i mer igenväxta habitat. Ett mönster hittades hos antalet år med hästbete i relation till artrikedom. Det hittades ingen skillnad i artrikedom innanför-och utanför hagen. Det framkom att hästbete har en betydande påverkan på artrikedom. Betesmarkens utveckling och underhåll är också viktiga faktorer som spelar in på artsammansättningen.

  • 180.
    Hasler, B.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Smart, J. C. R.
    Aarhus University, Denmark / Griffith University, Australia.
    Fonnesbech-Wulff, A.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Andersen, H. E.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Thodsen, H.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Blicher Mathiesen, G.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Smedberg, E.
    Stockholm University.
    Göke, C.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Czajkowski, M.
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Was, A.
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Humborg, C.
    Stockholm University.
    Wolfsberg, A.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wulff, F.
    Stockholm University.
    Hydro-economic modelling of cost-effective transboundary water quality management in the Baltic Sea2014Ingår i: Water Resources and Economics, ISSN 2212-4284, E-ISSN 2212-3717, Vol. 5, s. 1-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Helcom's recently revised Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) aims to reduce eutrophication in the, Baltic Sea by reducing nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins. The BALTCOST costminimisation, model, featuring abatement cost and effect functions which utilise spatial data down to, 10×10km2 grid cell resolution, is used to identify a cost-effective distribution of nutrient abatement, measures between drainage basins whilst attempting to achieve specified nutrient load reductions for, separate Baltic Sea regions. Results indicate that the 2013 BSAP load reduction targets for nitrogen and phosphorus can be achieved in most Baltic Sea regions, except for phosphorus into the Baltic Proper, and the Gulf of Finland. The estimated minimum total cost of delivering these reductions is 4.17 billion, Euros annually, with substantial differences in the cost burden between countries and measures.Results are strongly influenced by differences in nutrient retention between drainage basins. Detailed, retention modelling and high spatial resolution source data are major novel features of this research. 

  • 181.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Risk Governance and Management Strategies2011Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 170-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors’ incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  • 182.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Coping and adaptation in socio-ecological problem structures: Towards an integrated framework for analyzing trans-boundary environmental problems in marine settings2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on governance of socio-ecological systems has been growing fast during the last one or two decades. However, sound theoretical underpinnings to these systems have not been sufficiently articulated and tied to existing theory, it is argued in this working paper. To address this shortcoming, this paper aims to elaborate on how the theoretical constructs  problem structure, collective choice theory and adaptive governance can be brought together to form a coherent analytical framework for analyzing trans-boundary environmental problems in marine settings. The argument that collective action problematiques may inhibit successful adaptation to environmental change among sovereign states is fundamental to this model. Given that governments tend to prefer national coping strategies where expected national rather than joint benefits are maximized, mutually beneficial cooperation often does not evolve and regional adaptation turn out piecemeal. It is concluded that in order to improve trans-national environmental governance, a better understanding of underlying drivers and countries’ incentives to take action is a necessary prerequisite.

  • 183.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Oil Spills from Shipping: a case study of the governance of accidental hazards and intentional pollution in the Baltic Sea2016Ingår i: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea: / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, s. 125-146Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 184.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Blažauskas, N.
    Klaipėda University Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Lithuania.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Janßen, H.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, H.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE D2:2: Ambitions and Realities in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning and the Ecosystem Approach: Policy and Sector Coordination in Promotion of Regional Integration2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the BONUS BALTSPACE project and is focused on challenges for policy and sector integration in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning (MSP). The main objectives have been to identify concrete coordination problems, to analyse why they have emerged and to discuss possible remedies. It is based on selected aspects extracted from case studies carried out in this project related to the development of regional MSP approaches in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden and on an additional case study on the HELCOM-VASAB Working Group on MSP. To facilitate the analysis of vertical policy interactions between institutions at different levels as well as of horizontal interactions over sector and country borders, an analytical framework was constructed. This framework consists of two main components; (a) institution-driven coordination where institutions such as global treaties, the EU, regional organisations, and state authorities provide boundaries for decisions taken at lower levels and (b) benefit-driven coordination capturing horizontal coordination across sector and country borders.

  • 185.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Blažauskas, Nerijus
    Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Lithuania.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz- Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung, Germany.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Joanna Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Jacek Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE: Deliverable 2.7: New generation EU Directives and the role of transnational coordination: Marine Spatial Planning of the Baltic Sea2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive (MSP Directive) from 2014 is an example of a so-called new generation directive, which gives Member States room for adaptation to national contexts. Because of this larger room for adaptation, transposition becomes a process of designing domestic policy frameworks that fulfil the broad requirements of the Directive, rather than a simple and linear implementation procedure. However, allowing Member States to design marine spatial planning frameworks that fit domestic contexts, have thus far meant that regional coherence suffers. Although the pivotal role of transnational coordination is emphasised in the Directive, it does not stipulate how to set up such coordination, and the Member States have not yet been able to achieve much of self-organising in this area.A closer look is in this report taken on four policy-dimensions that are emphasised in the MSP Directive: Planning approach, Organisation, Sustainability, and Stakeholder inclusion. Based on in-depth case studies carried out in the BALTSPACE research project on MSP frameworks in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden, examples of coordination and coherency challenges are described and discussed for each dimension.It is shown that planning approaches can differ substantially between neighbouring countries, which can make it challenging to coordinate across country borders. Even though they share the same (EU) regulatory pressures, Latvia and Lithuania, for example, are developing national MSP frameworks based on quite different conceptual foundations. Whereas Latvia has taken the Ecosystem Approach as a point of departure for constructing a new MSP framework, Lithuania has instead chosen to adapt existing functional zoning approaches to management of maritime areas. Such diversity may be possible to explain because of differing domestic contexts, but may nevertheless lead to coordination problems when coordination is needed.Divergence between national MSP frameworks can also emerge from different political, jurisdictional and, administrative systems and traditions, that is, in societal organisation. In an example based on case studies undertaken in Denmark and Sweden, it is shown that degree of societal centralisation and distribution of political power can be related to differences in how environmental protection and blue growth are prioritised. However, it is difficult to tell whether diverging prioritisations have led to differences on organisation, or of it is the other way around, that differences in organisation have led to diverging prioritisations.It is stated in the MSP Directive that the overarching objective is to promote sustainable development. The focus on sustainable development can be said to reflect the Directive’s new generation characteristics. The concept of sustainable development is broad and imprecise, which facilitates political agreement. However, when more precise details must be addressed, disagreements may surface that make implementation challenging. In cases where neighbouring countries diverge substantially on how ecological, economic and social sustainable ought to be balanced, finding agreements on how to coordinate policies and practices, when needed, can be difficult. Based on case studies in Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, and Sweden, it is, for example, argued that adoption of functional zoning or the Ecosystem Approach may not say much about how ecological, economic, and social dimensions are prioritised in different countries.Stakeholder consultations of some kind have historically been undertaken in all Baltic Sea countries. However, how such consultations have been undertaken, who have been invited, and the role the consultations play in relation to political decision-making differ, as shown in examples from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland. Because the MSP Directive is silent on how to design stakeholder consultations – it only says that they should be held – there is no political pressure on regional coordination. It is not clear from our data if these differences cause efficiency losses due to coordination deficits, but a reasonable assumption is that when, for example, marine natural resources are shared between two or more countries, jointly designed and undertaken consultations on specific transboundary issues potentially can promote transparency, understanding, and coordination.In conclusion, it is suggested that while regional coherency is often called for as a means to reduce inefficiencies, it might not be a good idea to integrate without discretion. Considering that the MSP Directive allows domestic context to matter when Member States design national MSP frameworks and that adaptation to domestic context is likely to reduce implantation gaps and increase the legitimacy of marine spatial planning, a more reasonable objective can be to embrace domestic diversity, while simultaneously adaptively promoting possibilities to solve coordination problems at lower levels, if they emerge or can be foreseen. From this perspective, increased coherence is a tool to reduce efficiency losses, rather than an intrinsic good.

  • 186.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Blažauskas, Nerijus
    Coastal Research and Planning Institute, CORPI, Lithuania.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    New generation EU directives, sustainability, and the role of transnationalcoordination in Baltic Sea maritime spatial planning2019Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, nr 169, s. 254-263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU MSP Directive is an example of a so-called new generation directive, which gives Member States room foradaptation to national contexts. The main objective in this article is to identify and analyse potential obstacles toeffective and efficient planning caused by the diversity among national MSP frameworks that the Directive'sbroad regulatory boundaries have led to. It is shown that planning approaches can differ substantially betweenneighbouring countries, which can make it challenging to coordinate across national borders. Divergence betweennational MSP frameworks can also emerge from how political, jurisdictional and, administrative systemsand traditions are organised in different Member States. It is shown that neighbouring countries can divergesubstantially in how the ecological, economic and social dimensions of sustainability are balanced, which canmake transnational coordination challenging. Furthermore, it is shown that stakeholder consultations differamong Member States in terms of, for example, who were invited, how the consultations were undertaken, andthe role they play in relation to political decision-making. Because of these, and other differences in how MSPframeworks are being developed in the Member States, it is suggested that regional integration should bepromoted with discretion. From this perspective, it seems reasonable to embrace diversity, while simultaneouslypromoting the adaptive management of coordination problems at lower levels, when, or if, they emerge or canbe foreseen. Thus, increased integration of national MSP frameworks should be viewed as an instrument toreduce concrete efficiency losses, rather than as an intrinsic good.

  • 187.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi, Turku, Finland.
    Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Management in Regional Marine Governance?: The Baltic Sea Context2013Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 225-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, European marine governance seems to be undergoing significantchanges. From having been based largely on scientific expert knowledge, restricted riskassessments and governmental regulation, we are now witnessing a management turntowards holistic perspectives, the inclusion of stakeholders, adaptive governance, and coproductionof knowledge—the so-called ecosystem approach to management (EAM). Byusing the Baltic Sea as an example of these changes, we have taken a closer look at the2007 Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) of the Helsinki Commission and the recent organizationalchanges within the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).Informed by a Reflexive Governance perspective, the primary objective has been toanalyse the extent to which institutional preconditions for using an EAM exist in thesetwo cases. Our results show that even though the BSAP has been designed with anEAM approach as its core philosophy, existing implementation, financing, monitoring,and enforcement structures make it unlikely that actual management modes will changesignificantly in the near feature. Changes in the ICES have occurred as a result of aninternal restructuring process characterized by integrative and learning elements. It hasbeen shown that adopting a broad social science perspective and a reflexive governanceviewpoint can elucidate how factors such as inadequate institutional change, limitedcooperation over sector borders, and adjustment problems caused by path dependencycan threaten the successful turn towards the EAM in marine governance.

  • 188.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Åbo University.
    Kern, Kristine
    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea - A comparison between five key areas: Deliverable number 82011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 189.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning: Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherence2018Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 92, s. 138-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.

  • 190.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Problems and potential solutions to effective communication among stakeholders in the Baltic Sea shipping for reduced air pollution: Outcomes from a survey2013Ingår i: Clean Shipping Currents, ISSN 2242-9794, Vol. 2, nr 5, s. -33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a web survey distributed to stakeholders in the Baltic Sea marine sector regarding environmental communication on air pollution from shipping. The survey was carried out in the spring and summer of 2012. Drawing on the literature on risk communication and environmental governance, the main focus was placed on so-called communication barriers, that is, possible hindrances to effective communication among stakeholders on how to reduce air pollution without threatening sector competitiveness. The results show that although there is a dense networking among stakeholders in this sector, there is a demand for improvements in communication in (a) exploratory phases among broad groups of stakeholders and (b) operational phases among selected groups of e.g. business and research teams. To facilitate the emergence of such improved communication, regional organizations such as HELCOM and EU could play important roles. Furthermore, it is shown that there is a perceived need among many stakehold­ers to step up the involvement of certain stakeholders, for example fuel companies, in collabora­tion on how to reduce pollution from shipping in cost-efficient ways. Finally, the results show that although continuous improvements of international regulation is a vital part of the governance of the marine sector, compliance will suffer if operators’ incentives are too strong in favor of not con­tributing to reduced pollution levels. Therefore, there is a strong need for innovative thinking on how to design such incentive schemes, not the least in relation to the continued implementation of Baltic Sea SECA and NECA as well as of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  • 191.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Cooperating for sustainable regional marine governance: The case of fisheries and nutrient runoff from agriculture to the Baltic Sea, Synthesis report2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Over-fishing and eutrophication (too much nutrients) are among the most severe threats to the ecosystems of the Baltic Sea and the ecosystem services they provide. Despite the well-known fact that effective and sustainable management requires cooperation – among as well as within states – appropriate frameworks that work have not yet been constructed and successfully applied. This report summarises findings from a research project on cooperation for sustainable marine governance of the Baltic Sea carried out between 2013 and 2018. Three aspects of central relevance for the understanding of regional cooperation in environmental governance are distinguished: interests, knowledge and management. It is shown that it is not enough to design cooperative arrangements that make the group of users, stakeholders or states better off than without such an arrangement. It is furthermore required that all actors have individual interests to participate, and that free-riding on others’ contributions can be controlled. When this is not the case, effective abatement of eutrophication is not likely to be forthcoming, even though aggregated benefits from such measures are larger than expected costs.

    Knowledge often play important roles in marine environmental governance, not least in relation to so-called epistemic communities, that is, groups of experts that share a common understanding of the environmental problem at hand, and how to address it. It is shown that the coherence of the epistemic group can be a crucial factor influencing its impact. In both abatement of eutrophication and management of fish stocks, these expert groups have been somewhat divided, which has limited their impact.

    Modes of management can influence cooperation and outcomes in ways that can be difficult to predict. Although environmental taxes and subsidies are powerful policy instruments in contemporary governance, they must be carefully crafted to fit into exiting norms and contexts to be effective. It is shown that monetary incentives targeting farmers’ use of fertilisers tend not to be effective when they are at odds with deeply held norms on what constitute a “good farmer”. 

  • 192.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Communication among maritime stakeholders: Problems and solutions in the field of ship’s air emissions2013Ingår i: Pan-Baltic Manual of Best Practices on Clean Shipping and Port Operations / [ed] Breitzmann, K-H and M. Hytti, Turku: Union of the Baltic Cities , 2013, s. 98-102Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 193.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Leposa, Neva
    Marine oil transportations in the Baltic Sea area: Deliverable number 62010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 194.
    Hauck, Maria
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, USA.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Crises in the South African abalone and Chilean loco fisheries: Shared challenges and prospects2013Ingår i: Maritime Studies, ISSN 1872-7859, E-ISSN 2212-9790, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 1-20, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide there is an increasing realisation that there is an inextricable link between the natural and human systems, and there is a need to integrate these into the governance of small-scale fisheries. The critical importance of adopting such an approach is argued in this paper by exploring the challenge of resource over-exploitation in the abalone fishery in South Africa and the loco fishery in Chile, both of which faced unsuccessful fishery closures and the implementation of Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries (TURFs). By exploring similarities and differences in fisheries context and approaches, these case studies highlight that although management strategies have been progressive on paper, they are compromised, to different degrees, by a lack of understanding of the socio-economic and political factors that are influencing the fisheries system. We argue that unless a more integrated approach is adopted to understand the social-ecological system as a whole, few long-term benefits will be secured for both the resources and the livelihoods of fishers.

  • 195.
    Hedenström, Eva
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Offentlig upphandling av textila produkter – faktorer som kan inverka på en kommun när det gäller att ställa krav på miljö- och social hänsyn: En fallstudie av Örebro kommun2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector is a major purchaser of goods and services. By setting requirements for environmental and social considerations in public procurement, an authority has the possibility to use consumer power to influence the actors in a market. The purpose of this paper is to investigate public procurement of textile products in a municipality, in order to gain knowledge about factors that may be important for the use of environmental and social criteria. Håkan Hydén´s (professor in sociology of law) norm model was used as the basis of the analysis, where the conduct was investigated along three dimensions of the norm – willingness, knowledge and system conditions – in order to identify underlying factors that can influence the process.

    The results – analyzed by using interviews and documents – show that the procurer's willingness, motivation and knowledge are important factors in this context, as well as the political priority of the municipality. Procurers gain knowledge in this area to a large extent through networking with other actors. The possibilities to be able to verify the criteria are important. Verification of requirements is problematic because the municipality, as a public actor, is far from the production in the textile production chain. Lack of knowledge, in the form of mapping the textile production, prevents the development of criteria for best available technique. However, demands on manufacturing can be set indirectly by asking for some eco-labels (or equivalent) as verification. Furthermore, system conditions in terms of rules in the public procurement legislation set the framework for the procurement process.

  • 196. Hedman, Jenny E.
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Thorsson, Maria H.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Fate of contaminants in Baltic Sea sediments: role of bioturbation and settling organic matter2008Ingår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 356, s. 25-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study examined the interactive effects of bioturbation and settling organic matter (OM) on the fate (burial and remobilisation) of 2 surface-deposited contaminants in Baltic Sea sediment: the metal Cd and a hydrophobic organic pollutant, the flame retardant BDE-99. Three macrofaunal species with diverse feeding and bioturbation strategies were used: the amphipod Monoporeia affinis, the clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. Radiolabelled contaminants were added to the sediment surface in association with 3 different OM types: (1) phytoplankton, (2) terrestrial lignin and (3) Baltic sediment. Bioturbation by all species increased the retention of both contaminants in the sediment, most effectively M affinis and M balthica. A decoupled transport of Cd and BDE-99 by Marenzelleria was observed. Generally, Marenzelleria buried the highest amount of Cd into the sediment but also caused the highest remobilisation to the water, indicating an effective transport of (soluble) Cd over the sediment-water interface via bioirrigation. Lack of the highly hydrophobic and mainly particle-associated BDE-99 below the sediment surface suggests that Marenzelleria caused no significant particle mixing. The addition of various OM types significantly affected the distribution of Cd, but not of BDE-99. There was an interactive effect between bioturbation (species) and OM type, generally showing an increased burial and release of Cd when associated with phytoplankton in the presence of Marenzelleria. Our results emphasise the importance of understanding the complex interactions between ecological (e.g. infaunal feeding and bioturbation activities) and physiochemical processes (contaminant speciation and sorption kinetics) when assessing the fate of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  • 197.
    Helldorff, Hedvig
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Social acceptance of antimalarial strategies in Uganda2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    According to the World Health Organization(WHO) the most efficient and cost-effective strategies in the global fight of malaria are the Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and the Insecticide Treated Nets ITNs). However, since the strategies include the use of synthetic insecticides, WHO reports that they sometimes meet opposition in the society. In a Global Malaria Programme report from 20061, WHO describes that concerns in the community regarding the safety of the IRS hinder its effective implementation. WHO states that the social acceptability of ITNs2 has to increase. This study aims at investigating if and where in the Ugandan society the antimalarial strategies meet opposition. The study analyzes whether authorities, non-governmental organizations and caretakers in one region in Uganda reject the antimalarial strategies recommended by WHO. The aim is further to investigate where focus should be put in order to meet the

    opposition (if any) to current strategies and thus facilitate the implementation of the strategies. The methodology used is an empirical approach based on interviews with officials at authorities, representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and caretakers in the slum areas in Kawempe Division, which is an area highly exposed to malaria, in Uganda. The results show that the authorities and the NGOs in this study accept the current strategies but believe that they are not fully accepted by caretakers. Further, the authorities and the NGOs point out that current strategies, mainly IRS, meet great resistance among politicians and within the agricultural and environmental sector. Nevertheless, the majority of the caretakers in the interviews does accept the strategies and give other reasons for not having them implemented in their houses. Many of the households do not have the money neither to buy the ITNs nor to have the IRS implemented in their houses. Thus, this study implies that the opposition to the current strategies is not among authorities, NGOs or caretakers but in the political, environmental and agricultural

    sphere. In order to fight malaria in the study area, WHO and stakeholders have to work with the change of attitudes among politicians and stakeholders within the environmental and agricultural sector in Uganda. They also have to provide poor households with ITNs or IRS for free, since lack of money is the reason for the studied group of caretakers not having the recommended strategies implemented in their houses.

  • 198.
    Hillbur, Siri
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Farmer's perceptions of agroforestry: A case study about the obstacles and opportunities for agroforestry adoption in Babati, Tanzania2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the perceptions of agroforestry among farmers in Babati, north- central Tanzania. The focus is on which resources farmers perceive that they need to adopt agroforestry and which risks that are connected with agroforestry adoption. It is also to see how farmers perceive that the access to resources changes after agroforestry adoption and how their livelihoods change. The data has been collected through qualitative interviews with agroforestry farmers, conventional farmers and extension officers. After that the data has been analyzed through the sustainable livelihood approach and a risk perception theory. The results show that some of the obstacles or risks that farmers perceive with agroforestry adoption are high input costs, dependency on short-term benefits, competition between trees and crops and lack of education from extension services. Without financial capital and human capital in terms of knowledge there might be too many risks connected with adoption. If agroforestry however is adopted the farmers perceive that the access to firewood, timber and fruits increase which increase their incomes and therefore financial capital. They also perceive that the fruits improve food security and that the timber improves the housing. The firewood is also perceived to improve the situation for women as they do not have to walk as far to collect the firewood. Agroforestry is also perceived to provide environmental services like erosion prevention and increased soil fertility, therefore it increases natural capital. Some trees can also be used as natural pesticides. The increased soil fertility or the access to natural pesticides, however does not seem to affect the use of industrial fertilizers or pesticides. Agroforestry is also not perceived to have any effects on biodiversity or water quality. Even if agroforestry may not be a good choice for all farmers, it can for some farmers increase their ability to cope with stress and shocks like future climate change. This is because the agroforestry system can work as a buffer against increased climatic variability.

  • 199.
    Hjort, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Uppsala University.
    Presti, Ilaria
    University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Elväng, Annelie
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Marinelli, Flavia
    University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Bacterial chitinase with phytopathogen control capacity from suppressive soil revealed by functional metagenomics2014Ingår i: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 98, nr 6, s. 2819-2828Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant disease caused by fungal pathogens results in vast crop damage globally. Microbial communities of soil that is suppressive to fungal crop disease provide a source for the identification of novel enzymes functioning as bioshields against plant pathogens. In this study, we targeted chitin-degrading enzymes of the uncultured bacterial community through a functional metagenomics approach, using a fosmid library of a suppressive soil metagenome. We identified a novel bacterial chitinase, Chi18H8, with antifungal activity against several important crop pathogens. Sequence analyses show that the chi18H8 gene encodes a 425-amino acid protein of 46 kDa with an N-terminal signal peptide, a catalytic domain with the conserved active site F175DGIDIDWE183, and a chitinase insertion domain. Chi18H8 was expressed (pGEX-6P-3 vector) in Escherichia coli and purified. Enzyme characterization shows that Chi18H8 has a prevalent chitobiosidase activity with a maximum activity at 35 °C at pH lower than 6, suggesting a role as exochitinase on native chitin. To our knowledge, Chi18H8 is the first chitinase isolated from a metagenome library obtained in pure form and which has the potential to be used as a candidate agent for controlling fungal crop diseases. Furthermore, Chi18H8 may also answer to the demand for novel chitin-degrading enzymes for a broad range of other industrial processes and medical purposes.

  • 200.
    Hoflin, Malin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Övergödning i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde: En utvärdering av genomförda insatser för minskad näringsbelastning från enskilda avlopp och jordbruk2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att utvärdera och granska den första tidsperioden av det unika projektet Enskilda avlopp i kretslopp samt åtgärder som genomförts inom jordbruket för minskad näringsbelastning i Stavbofjärden tillrinningsområde i Södertälje kommun. Utmaningar med projektet redovisas också för att undersöka möjligheten för andra kommuner att ta efter initiativet. För att uppnå syftet har litteraturstudier och semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts. Arbetet är en fallstudie av utvärderande karaktär och har genomförts i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde.

    Problemen med övergödning är stora i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde och idag arbetar man aktivt för att minska näringsbelastningen. Sedan tre år tillbaka pågår projektet Enskilda avlopp i kretslopp för att försöka minska övergödningsproblematiken och möjliggöra återföring av näringsämnen till åkermark. Att avlopp kretsloppsanpassas innebär att klosettvatten samlas i en sluten tank skilt från bad, disk och tvättvatten (BDT- vatten). Därefter behandlas fraktionen för att göra den fri från smittämnen, bearbetad näring sprids slutligen på åkermark. I anslutning till detta har aktörer inom jordbruket arbetat med att försöka sluta kretsloppet och minska näringsutsläppen till Stavbofjärden. Flertalet åtgärder har genomförts under projektets första fas, bland annat har en kretsloppspolicy antagits, en lokal behandlingsanläggning har byggts och näringsämnen har börjat återföras till åkermark. Tydliga strukturella förändringar har skett under de första åren av projektet, framförallt har samarbetet mellan olika aktörer i tillrinningsområdet stärkts. Förutsättningarna för att nå en förbättrad vattenkvalitet i Stavbofjärden förbättras i och med genomförda och planerade åtgärder. Däremot uppstår en rad utmaningar i och med att avloppsfraktioner sprids på åkermark. Intervjuer och litteraturstudier har visat att användning av slam från reningsverk på åkermark inte är en helt okontroversiell fråga, mestadels på grund av en oro för eventuella effekter av de hormoner och läkemedel som kan förekomma i fraktionerna. Andra utmaningar är att byte av avloppssystem innebär en hög investeringskostnad och att människor ofta känner sig otrygga vid stora förändringar. Alla deltagande aktörer i projektet hänvisar till det faktum att människans avfall måste hamna någonstans och att det är betydligt bättre att lägga avfallet på jorden än att det läcker ut i vattnet eftersom det finns betydligt fler nedbrytande bakterier i jorden än i vatten.

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