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  • 151.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Becoming a circumstantial media activist Brazilian Landless Workers Movement struggle to construct arenas for communication: Brazilian Landless Workers Movement's struggle to construct arenas for communication2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative or radical media (Downing 2000) are characterized by collective production, democratic participation and promotion of minorities’ rights to self- expression. This kind of media production is common among social movements and insurgent organizations whose members do not see themselves and their causes represented in mainstream media. This is the case of the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST), which since its foundation in 1984 has been creating media outlets and producing content for different platforms. However, realizing that alternative arenas would not grant participation in the public debate, MST became also active in the area of media and communication rights in Brazil. Based on fieldwork carried out in 2013 and 2014 this article proposes a perspective to communication rights (cf. Peruzzo 2007 and 2014) that is attentive to the structural configuration of media landscape and not only to the provision of technology and production skills. In the current context were technology enabled activism has become the focus of research; this study shows that collective action and promotion of structural change are still relevant. Because the possibility to express discontentment and organize through digital media does not necessarily mean that those at the margins will be represented (cf. Fraser 2009) in the public sphere. 

  • 152.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Bridging the gap between administrative and critical approaches in development and participatory communication2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Explorando a dimensão empírica da cidadania comunicativa e direito à comunicação2014In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 08, no 03, p. 115-129Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Ocupar. Resistir. Produzir. Comunicar: Processos comunicativos no Movimento Sem-Terra2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Circumstantial Media Activist: An Analysis of the Relation between Media and Political Representation2016In: Javnost - The Public, ISSN 1318-3222, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 273-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative or radical media are kinds of media production common among social movements whose members do not see their causes represented in mainstream media. This is the case of the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST), which since 1984 has created media outlets and produced content for different platforms, later becoming active in the area of media and communication rights in Brazil. Based on fieldwork carried out in 2013 and 2014, this article proposes that a perspective of communication rights is attentive to the structural configuration of the media landscape and not only to the provision of technology and production skills. This study shows that collective action and promotion of structural change are still relevant alongside new technologies.

  • 156.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Voices from the Margins: People and the media in the struggle for land in Brazil2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Voices from the margins: People, media, and the struggle for land in Brazil2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study looks into communicative processes and media practices among members of a subaltern social movement. The aim is to gain an understanding of how these processes and practices contribute to symbolic cohesion in the movement, how they develop and are socialized into practices, and how these processes and practices help challenge hegemonic groups in society. These questions are explored through a qualitative study, based on fieldwork and interviews, of a subaltern social movement. The empirical object of the study is the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST), which was founded in 1984 to promote agrarian reform and defend the rights of rural workers in Brazil.

     

    At the macro-level, the discussion addresses social realities marked by the meta-processes of globalisation, neo-liberalisation, and mediatisation. Against this background, the experiences of MST militants and of the movement as a whole help us to understand how different communicative processes play a role in the ways people experience globalisation, neo-liberalisation, and mediatisation in their daily lives. Departing from an understanding of communication as a process that structures practices (mediated and non-mediated), this study questions the media-centric understanding of communication, arguing that media practices are created through appropriation processes.

     

    The results show that communicative processes are crucial to reinforcing values and symbologies associated with the rural worker identity. There is also a high level of reflexivity about media practices and an understanding that they must serve the principles of the collective. As a consequence, the movement seeks to maintain control over media, routinely discussing and evaluating the adoption and use of media. The interviews show ambivalence towards the alleged dialogic and organisational potential of digital media and to the adaptability of these media to the MST’s organisational processes. Through observation, it is possible to conclude that media have an instrumental function, as opposed to a structural function, in the processes of social transformation engendered by the MST. 

  • 158.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Stockholms universitet.
    Watchdogs or influential political players? The blurring line between editorializing and informing in Argentinean and Brazilian news media2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The watchdog role of the press has been a widely accepted concept in political communication for decades. According to this view, by monitoring the conduct of governments, news media play a regulatory role that is vital to democracy, such that their independence from political actors enables them to consider different sources of information and perspectives on an issue and present a balanced coverage to the public, and the quality of their news is defined by rigorous fact-checking, a focus on information rather than infotainment, and due attention to the complexity of the issue covered (including adequate discussion of context, causes and consequences). This view, however, is challenged by the current Latin American scenario, in which the boundaries between editorial line and information are blurred in connection with the engagement of media holdings in society as commercial and political actors with their own interests.  In this paper we approach the problem by way of a comparison of the reporting by Brazilian and Argentinian printed news outlets of two recent stories involving political personalities in government in both countries. . We a) analyze the quality of their respective coverage and b) establish similarities and differences in their approaches. We then compare this coverage with that of four smaller-scale news media outlets (Página/12 daily newspaper and bimonthly magazine Acción in Argentina, and weekly newspaper Brazil de Fato and online newspaper Brasil 247 in Brazil) that are not components of media conglomerates, analyzed following the same approach. Findings of this exploratory study indicate that the coverage of dominant news media outlets fails to meet the quality standards considered a hallmark of watchdog journalism, and reveal commonalities in their approaches to framing the stories under scrutiny. These commonalities call for further comparative investigation of the production of political news by dominant media players in the region. Moreover, our findings illustrate the use of newsmaking to advance specific interests rather than inform the public, and indicate the need to rethink the location of the watchdog role in democracies affected by media concentration. If dominant media groups use their news outlets to advance specific interests and therefore play a powerful role in the democratic game other than duly informing citizens, where should the watchdog role lie?

  • 159.
    Sartoretto, Paola Madrid
    Stockholms universitet.
    Between opportunities and threats – an analysis of Brazilian Landless Workers’ movement experiences with new media technologies2016In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, no SI, p. 035-053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent discussions and research about the uses of digital social media platforms by social movements and protest organizations have raised questions about threats and challenges represented by these technologies. There is also a debate on whether digital social media platforms can contribute to establish and strengthen long-standing oppositional groups and structural change. In this context, this article analyses how the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST) experiences and views the use of digital social media platforms in its communicative processes. Based on interviews and observations, the article shows how MST militants present ambivalent views towards platforms such as Facebook and Twitter and towards the dynamics of digital communication. Conclusions point that the main concern is threat to the organic collective character of the movement posed by individualistic digital social media platforms. Different from contemporary protest organisations, MST sees a clear separation between the movement and its media. The goal is to appropriate of and control media technologies, which brings many difficulties when dealing with digital social media platforms.

  • 160.
    Serander, Emy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Vem är experten?: En kvalitativ studie i tre steg av hur två svenska tidningar använder sig av expertis och andra källor i artiklar om hedersrelaterat våld2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis investigates how the Swedish Newspapers Expressen and DN are using sources and expertise in their portrayal of honour related violence. Which sources are they using, and in which way are these sources being used? 40 articles written between January 1 2017 – March 31 2018 have been chosen for a qualitative analysis step one. In the second step 10 articles have been chosen for a deeper analysis. In the third step three journalists have been interviewed about the articles they have been written in the subject honour-related violence. The method frame analysis have been used. The results of the qualitative analysis shows for example that it is many of the articles that have a strong dramaturgy, and that the use of emotive words are different in various type of articles. The study also shows that the use of sources and expertise are different in DN than in Expressen, and that the use of sources and expertis are remarkable different from other kinds of articles in journalism.

  • 161.
    Smed, Akvelina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    The role of the female Balinese journalist: A qualitative field study covering the complex role of women journalists in the Balinese society2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Hindu island of Bali is a patriarchal society and the Balinese people’s everyday tasks are woven together with their many cultural and religious rituals and actions. Bali is one of the most famous and most visited islands of the wide spread island nation of Indonesia. Here, the concept of cultural tourism is established – a concept which regards the rich Balinese culture as a tourist draw, something that motivates the Balinese people to safeguard their regional identity and culture. These strives although tends to collide with the strives towards a more gender equal society. This study investigates the role of the Balinese female journalist – both within the newsrooms and in the society in general. It is based mainly upon in-depth interviews with women journalists in Bali. The theoretical framework orbits around a gendered approach to the theory of Journalism Culture, which combines concepts such as doxa and social fields to explain the dynamic and dichotomizations within the professional field. Masculine domination theories are also used. The results of this study reveal a complex situation where the female journalists perform a challenging balance act in order to perform their very best both at work, at home and in the society.

  • 162.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Södertörn University College, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University College, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Announcing in multiplatform broadcasting: self-referentiality, buzz and eventfulness in a commercial music format2010In: Radio-Leituras, ISSN 2179-6033, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 131-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    [Book Review:] Keith Sommerville. Radio Propaganda and the Broadcasting of Hatred: Historical Development and Definitions2013In: Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, ISSN 0143-9685, E-ISSN 1465-3451, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 515-516Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Klonerna anfaller?: Exporten av svensk musikradio till Estland och Lettland2011In: Nordisk Østforum, ISSN 0801-7220, E-ISSN 1891-1773, no 2, p. 156-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Labor market policy and media work in Sweden2017In: Medijska Istrazivanja, ISSN 1330-6928, E-ISSN 1846-6605, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 133-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyze some recent changes in labor market policy and labor law in order to show how changes in this kind of regulation have had consequences for work in the media industries. Even though a considerable amount of research has been performed on media work during the last decade, it is quite uncommon within critical media studies to relate such research to policy and regulation. The point I want to make with this article is that the increasing precariousness and de-professionalization that are occurring within media work, as documented in previous research, must be understood against a background of policy change and political decisions, rather than only being seen as an effect of economic or technological shifts within the media industry. This article hence contributes to the current knowledge of the relationship between labor market policy and the media industry in Sweden; as such, it more generally contributes to the current knowledge of such a relationship in a Nordic welfare state, with all its specifi cities and differences from other parts of Europe and the world. Nevertheless, the results and discussions in this article are related – and relevant – to more general European tendencies in the area of labor market policy as it relates to the media.

  • 166.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Mediekritik2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    The automatic DJ?: Control, automation and creativity in commercial music radio2015In: Radio Audiences and Participation in the Age of Network Society / [ed] Bonini, Tiziano ; Monclús, Belén, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 137-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Jönköping University.
    The Political Economy of the Radio Personality2014In: Journal of Radio & Audio Media, ISSN 1937-6529, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 290-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In music radio broadcasting, radio personalities (presenters, hosts, DJs) have traditionally been of critical importance to programming success. In this article, I seek to add to the understanding of contemporary developments within radio, especially music radio, through focusing on the presenter from a political economy perspective. How do new business models and technologies affect the performances and forms of talk developed by presenters in contemporary radio? What new roles are assigned to presenters in commercial music radio? How are work practices and labor relations affected? The article shows how media convergence has impacted the work of radio personalities in traditional broadcasting.

  • 169.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The Sustainability of Native Advertising: Organizational Perspectives on the Blurring of the Boundary Between Editorial and Commercial Content in Contemporary Media.2017In: What is Sustainable Journalism?: Integrating the Environmental, Social and Economic Challenges of Journalism / [ed] Peter Berglez, Ulrika Olausson & Mart Ots, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 277-295Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Underhållning till döds?: Mediesatir som mediekritisk möjlighet2014In: Mediekritik / [ed] Fredrik Stiernstedt, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2014, 1:1, p. 95-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Ståhlberg, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Från marknadsföring till propagandakrig2017In: Ikaros, tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 37-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett projekt som inleddes som en studie i nation branding i Ukraina kom efter Majdanrevolten 2013-14 att övergå i en undersökning av hur ukrainska myndigheter och medier hanterar information i konflikten mellan Ukraina och Ryssland. Ryssland antas ha en mäktig propagandaapparat, men hur agerar Ukraina i informationskriget mot Ryssland?

  • 172.
    Ståhlberg, Per
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Bolin, Göran
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Nationen som vara och gemenskap: Identitet, agens och publik inom nationsmarknadsföring2015In: Nordisk Østforum, ISSN 0801-7220, E-ISSN 1891-1773, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 289-312Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Sundén, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Gender studies.
    Desires at Play: On Closeness and Epistemological Uncertainty2012In: Games and Culture: A Journal of Interactive Media, ISSN 1555-4120, E-ISSN 1555-4139, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 164-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This article discusses knowledge production in game studies by exploring notions of emotion, closeness and (queer) desire in new media ethnography. It uses field notes and experiences from an ethnographic study of the online game World of Warcraft. As opposed to the kind of fieldwork where being, living, and staying in the field is the only option, new media ethnography brings with it the possibility of moving through different locations and bodies to the point where the borders between them may start to blur. The text positions itself within this very uncertainty to investigate its consequences for ways of knowing online game cultures.

    Drawing on the body of ethnographic work interrogating erotic subjectivity and desire in the field, the discussion makes use of personal experiences – in particular an in-game as well as out-of-the game love affair - as potentially important sources of knowledge. Was it her, regardless of the game? Was it her through the game? Or was it the game ‘‘itself ’’? The article provides the story of a particular way of being introduced to and of falling for a game, a woman, and the ways in which these two were intensely connected. Set against the backdrop of ‘‘the affective turn’’ in cultural and feminist theory, and in making visible how desire may circulate through game spaces, the article argues for an articulation of desire as intimately related to technology; of desiring technology and of technological, or perhaps technologized desires.

  • 174.
    Sundén, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
    Glitch, genus, tillfälligt avbrott: Femininitet som trasighetens teknologi2016In: Lambda Nordica: Tidskrift om homosexualitet, ISSN 1100-2573, no 1-2, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies always implicate their own failures, breakdowns, and glitches. The purpose of this article is to develop an understanding of gender in general – and femininity in particular – as something fundamentally technological, and, as such, broken. Drawing on the technological undercurrent in current posthumanist feminist theory, arguing for a re-introduction of technologies in the midst of feminist posthumanist critique, the author puts into play a vocabulary of malfunctioning, broken, vulnerable technologies of gender. In particular, the term “glitch” is put to use to account for machinic failures in gender within the digital domain. By using glitch as a way of theorizing gender, the article is a dual contribution to digital media studies and feminist theory in a technological vein. Glitch is the spinning wheel on the computer screen, the delay between a command given and its execution. Etymologically, glitch (possibly) derives from the Yiddish word glitsh, meaning a “slippery place” or “a slip.” Glitch signals the slipperiness of something or someone off balance and a loss of control. It usually refers to a sudden unexpected event, a surge of current or an illegitimate signal that breaks the flow of energy, information, and affect. Glitch is, fundamentally, a struggle with binary code. Gender is a similar struggle to cope with binaries, with a loss of binaries, and about what happens when the vulnerability of the system is revealed. On this side of glitch, the tendency is toward hesitation and anticipation, irritation and annoyance, as well as pain and anxiety in the face of technologies and bodies that skip, crash, or get stuck. The default mode of gender is technological failure, and cis-gender normativity – what the author calls gender “high fidelity” – an unobtainable ideal of impossible perfection. If to glitch is to slip, to stutter, to stumble, gender high fidelity is to slip by unnoticed. In contrast to the notion of cis-gender normativity as a desire to cover or remove “noise,” to clear the channel, glitch is that which infiltrate, make dirty, and ultimately put pressure on the norms and ideals that structure gender as pure, clear, cold, binary code. In this sense, glitch is also about a perceived beauty in crashing and skipping, holding an intriguing critical, aesthetic, activist potential. In the hands of glitch artists, circuit breakers, and gamers, but also queers, and trans-performers, glitch becomes a celebration of the beauty of malfunction and gender-technological fragility.

  • 175.
    Sundén, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
    On trans-, glitch and gender as machinery of failure2015In: First Monday, ISSN 1396-0466, E-ISSN 1396-0466, Vol. 20, no 4, article id 5895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops an understanding of gender as something fundamentally technological, and as such broken. Drawing on the technological undercurrent in current posthumanist feminist theory, it puts into play a vocabulary of malfunctioning, broken, vulnerable technologies, and in particular uses the term ‘glitch’ to account for machinic failures in gender within the digital domain. As an intriguing example of the technologies of (trans)gender, the core example consists of the social media presence and public transition of Isabella Bunny Bennett — a musical performer and a member of the U.S.-based band Steam Powered Giraffe. Drawing on how glitch is understood as an accidental error and a critical potential in aesthetic practices, the article is a contribution to what recently has been coined ‘glitch feminism.’

  • 176.
    Sundén, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
    Steampunk Practices: Time, Tactility, and a Racial Politics of Touch2014In: Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, ISSN 2325-0496, E-ISSN 2325-0496, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Sundén, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
    Technologies of Feeling: Affect between the Analog and the Digital2015In: Networked Affect / [ed] Ken Hillis, Susanna Paasonen, and Michael Petit, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press , 2015, p. 135-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the midst of the affective networks of contemporary digital cultures, something seemingly of the opposite order is taking shape. It is a culture that contrasts speed with slowness, displaces the new with the old and the used, and replaces supposedly immaterial streams of data with highly material, tactile technologies, materials and fabrics. This chapter turns to steampunk cultures as compelling examples of a contemporary affective investment in the analog, coupled with intense digital connectivity. Drawing on affect theory in a neo-materialist vein, the author formulates a critique of Brian Massumi’s notion of the superiority of the analog and suggests that steampunk, rather than being understood as analog nostalgia, is more aptly understood in terms of the transdigital. The term transdigital accounts for analog passions that are shaped through the digital in ways that concretely activate, but also move across the borders of, or beyond the digital. Steampunk, rather than merely being a return to a bygone era, is a re-consideration, or transing, of the (digital) present. Within this chapter, steampunk is used as an especially intriguing example of a broader tendency toward transdigital modes of using and sensing media in contemporary media landscapes.

  • 178.
    Sundén, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Gender studies.
    Ångpunkens politik2012In: Senmoderna reflexioner: Festskrift till Johan Fornäs / [ed] Erling Bjurström, Martin Fredriksson, Ulf OIsson och Ann Werner, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, p. 91-99Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Steampunk – eller vad man på svenska ibland kallar för ångpunk – kan sägas vara en estetisk teknologisk rörelse som inbegriper science fiction, konst, ingenjörskonst och en livfull subkultur. Den kännetecknas av retrofuturistiska drömmar om vad som kunde ha hänt om 1800-talets ångdrivna, mekaniska teknologier hade fått ett annat spelrum. Dess retrofuturism är en anakronism i form av medvetna kronologiska misstag, en inkonsekvent tidslighet som felplacerar personer, händelser, objekt (i det här fallet främst teknologier). Det kan sägas handla om ett fantasins omskapande av det förgångna med hjälp av nutidens teknologiska sensibilitet och kunskap. 

    Den här texten följer några centrala teman inom ångpunken i skärningspunkten mellan teknologi, politik och estetik och organiseras i tre delar. Den första delen fokuserar på det första ledet i begreppet ångpunk, alltså ånga, och söker skissera på vilka sätt rörelsen inspireras och drivs av kraften hos maskiner från en svunnen tid. Den andra delen syftar till att ringa in vad som kan sägas vara ångpunkens punketos i termer av samhällskritik, tekniksyn och motståndsstrategier. Den tredje delen kretsar slutligen kring vad som skulle kunna benämnas ångpunkens kroppsanakronismer. Diskussionen koncentreras främst till de betydelseförskjutningar som uppstår då korsetter och urverksmekanik möter en viktoriansk genuslogik för 2000-talet.

  • 179.
    Sundén, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
    Paasonen, S.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Shameless hags and tolerance whores: feminist resistance and the affective circuits of online hate2018In: Feminist Media Studies, ISSN 1468-0777, E-ISSN 1471-5902, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 643-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores shamelessness as a feminist tactic of resistance to online misogyny, hate and shaming within a Nordic context. In our Swedish examples, this involves affective reclaiming of the term “hagga” (hag), which has come to embody shameless femininity and feminist solidarity, as well as the Facebook event “Skamlös utsläckning” (shameless extinction), which extends the solidarity or the hag to a collective of non-men. Our Finnish examples revolve around appropriating derisive terms used of women defending multiculturalism and countering the current rise of nationalist anti-immigration policy and activism across Web platforms, such as “kukkahattutäti” (aunt with a flower hat) and “suvakkihuora” (“overtly tolerant whore”). Drawing on Facebook posts, blogs and discussion forums, the article conceptualizes the affective dynamics and intersectional nature of online hate against women and other others. More specifically, we examine the dynamics of shaming and the possibilities of shamelessness as a feminist tactic of resistance. Since online humor often targets women, racial others and queers, the models of resistance that this article uncovers add a new stitch to its memetic logics. We propose that a networked politics of reclaiming is taking shape, one using collective imagination and wit to refuel feminist communities.

  • 180.
    Sundén, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Gender studies.
    Sveningsson, Malin
    Gender and Sexuality in Online Game Cultures: Passionate Play2012 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do gender and sexuality come to matter in online game cultures? Why is it important to explore "straight" versus "queer" contexts of play? And what does it mean to play together with others over time, as co-players and researchers?

    Gender and Sexuality in Online Game Cultures is a book about female players and their passionate encounters with the online game World of Warcraft and its player cultures. It takes seriously women’s passions in games, and as such draws attention to questions of pleasure in and desire for technology.

    The authors use a unique approach of what they term a "twin ethnography" that develops two parallel stories. Sveningsson studies "straight" game culture, and makes explicit that which is of the norm by exploring the experiences of female gamers in a male-dominated gaming context. Sundén investigates "queer" game culture through the queer potentials of mainstream World of Warcraft culture, as well as through the case of a guild explicitly defined as LGBT.

    Academic research on game culture is flourishing, yet feminist accounts of gender and sexuality in games are still in the making. Drawing on feminist notions of performance, performativity and positionality, as well as the recent turn to affect and phenomenology within cultural theory, the authors develop queer, feminist studies of online player cultures in ways that are situated and embodied.

  • 181.
    Sánchez Mata, María Gema
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Ethics within Journalistic Cultures in Spain and Sweden: A study on text and images from mainstream media online digital editions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of men’s violence against women has become visible in the recent years in the Western world, thanks to Social Media Network campaigns and digital news articles reporting these cases. The factors which affect or delimit journalist’s writings from different countries and their way of ‘doing’ journalism, might rely on the journalistic ethical boundaries within the journalistic cultures journalists inhabit.

    I explore and compare in this thesis the performative ethical action of journalists emerging from their writings and between the journalistic cultures of Spain and Sweden. Eighteen articles are analysed in a comparative and cross-national manner (Esser et al. 2012; Hanitzsch et al. 2011; Weaver 1998) helped by the Three Dimensional Critical Discourse Analysis model (Fairclough 1992/3; 1995)  and Semiotics (Wang 2014; Barthes 1957, 1963, 1964). ‘Diffraction’ (Barad 2007; Haraway 1997, 2004) is employed  as complementary perspective to reflect critically on differences, revealing where and how these materialize in regard to ethics within journalistic cultures.   

    The study  finds and concludes  that the performative ethical action of the journalist differs in regard to crime-news reported in each country. Detailed information of the parties involved in sexual violence is written in Spanish news-articles more often than in those from Sweden. The approach to these crimes seem to be framed by the journalistic ethical boundaries, journalistic cultures and personal ethical choices existing in both countries. These ethical ideas manifest by actions  -the published journalistic text - are relative and contextual. The cases told are part of the social realities of both countries, but are being experienced and performed (in writing) in a different manner also in terms of journalistic dimensions.

    The information presented to the news consumer in both written and visual form, differ or it is very similar between these countries, depending if it comes from mainstream ‘quality’ or ‘tabloid’ media outlets, but neutral images to illustrate the news-articles are the shown by both. Whereas the selected Spanish medias could be framed under a professional and relative ethical approach, the Swedish would fall under the category of professional and idealistic ethics. The similarities are that journalists from both countries keep-on informing on cases of men’s violence against women within the limits of  journalistic ethics and seem to be important key-actors producing information, culture and journalistic culture they inhabit while disseminating these stories. 

  • 182.
    Takemura, Aiko
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication.
    Challenges facing the profession of advertising in the digital age: An empirical study of Swedish advertising professionals2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how Swedish advertising professionals experience their work in the digital age. Findings from semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 15 people are organized using the concept of “media logic” re-interpreted by Mark Deuze, which covers four aspects of media work: institution, technology, organization and culture. The institution feature covers three developments occurring at the industry level, which are concentration, fragmentation and convergence. How these trends determine the way advertising professionals work is the main topic of this section. The findings show that especially due to extensive pressures from shifts of globalization and digitalization in recent years, an ongoing power struggle is taking place in all three institutional trends. The second feature is technology, in which the focus is to understand how technology shapes the way professionals interact with consumers. Interviewees were well aware of the increasing need to construct an interactive and participatory environment for brands and consumers. However, one should not be naïve and celebrate the powerful role of the consumers, nor assume that all advertising agencies are fully capable of harnessing digital technology. Organization is the third feature, where attention is paid to how professionals organize their projects and work styles. In advertising agencies, a major transformation was evident in the creative department where technologists who understand digital are becoming crucial assets next to art directors and copywriters. The last feature is culture, which examines how professionals perceive the cultures of production that influence the final advertising product. Many referred to positive aspects such as a flat and non- hierarchical culture promoting better collaboration. On the other hand, some interviewees indicated the misrepresentation of gender and ethnicity as problematic. These four features function to critically assess the challenges that lay ahead for Swedish advertising professionals in the digital age. 

  • 183.
    Temo, Sumbu
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Media freedom in Ghana: The repealing of the criminal libel law2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to study the connection between media freedom and media law, with focus on the Criminal Libel Law that was repealed in 2001.

    Development journalism was the applied theory. It is a suitable method to investigate the role of journalist as nation builders, government partners, and agents of empowerment and also as watchdogs. This way the correlation between media freedom and media law could be highlighted in different aspects.

    The study was handed out with anonymous surveys with respondents from a state-owned respective private press.  In total 21 journalists participated in the quantitative survey and three participated in the qualitative study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were applied on a randomly selected sample of the journalistic population. The quantitative survey was structured as on a traditional standard survey. Thus, the questionnaire began with closed-ended questions followed by open-ended questions. The qualitative study was designed after the replies in the quantitative study.

    The result shows that journalists perceive themselves as nation builders, agents of empowerment and watchdogs with the aim of promoting democracy and empowerment to the population. The majority did not think that media laws, such as the Criminal Libel Law, hindered their objectivity. However, the qualitative study showed that similar laws could have a deterrent effect. Furthermore, there was an equal belief on whether ownership affected journalism practice or not. The interviewees thought that Ghana had a free media, possibly even too free and needed to be monitored

     

     

  • 184.
    Thor, Christoffer
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Otterstål, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Streamingtjänsternas inverkan på det linjära TV-tittandet: En undersökning om tittandemönster och värdet i tillsammanstittande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to study whether streaming services has made a difference in the act of viewing linear TV together with others. The methods used in the research are: a focus group performed with six people, an email-interview with an expert in TV and a general survey used to define the user groups. The results shows that streaming services has had an impact on viewing patterns and also contributed with new ones. The Swedish consumer is more likely to use streaming services everyday except for Fridays, which can be attributed to a tradition called Fredagsmys (friday cosiness), co-viewing primetime TV on Fridays. Co-viewing TV is also affected by streaming services according to our studies, but not nearly as much as the viewing behaviours. We’re using a theory called Diffusion of Innovation to explain the usage of streaming services and why it has not been adopted by everyone as their main platform for viewing media. 

  • 185.
    Trost, Sigge
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Wahlström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Nolltolerans eller skademinimering: En studie av hur de svenska och brittiska drogideologierna återspeglas i Dagens Nyheter och The Guardian2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige för en narkotikapolitik som ideologiskt grundar sig i visionen om ett narkotikafritt samhälle, ofta omtalat som nolltolerans. Ett annat synsätt som anammats på flera andra håll i världen, bland annat i Storbritannien, grundar sig i principen om skademinimering. Skademinimering innebär att fokus ligger på att reducera drogernas skadeverkningar snarare än utrota drogerna i sig.

    Vi hade en hypotes om att nolltoleransen borde kunna skönjas i svensk journalistik då vi upplever att rådande politik inte ifrågasätts i någon större utsträckning. Som jämförelsepunkt ville vi även se hur det såg ut i Storbritannien. Ländernas journalistik representeras av tidningarna Dagens Nyheter och The Guardian. Våra frågeställningar blev således: Vad och hur skrivs det om narkotika i Dagens Nyheter och The Guardian? Återspeglas ländernas narkotikapolitik i journalistiken? Hur?

    För att besvara den första frågeställningen har vi använt oss av kvantitativ innehållsanalys som metod. Den andra frågeställningen besvarades med hjälp av kritisk diskursanalys. Vår förståelse av begreppen diskurs, ideologi och hegemoni samt den kritiska diskursanalysen har vi främst hämtat från van Dijk, Fiske och Berglez.

    I resultatet från den kvantitativa innehållsanalysen kunde vi se att det tycks mer kring ämnet narkotika i Dagens Nyheter än i The Guardian. Det skrivs även mer om konsekvenserna av droganvändning i Dagens Nyheter, samtidigt som det skrivs aningen mer om utlandshändelser i The Guardian. Resultatet från vår kritiska diskursanalys visade att ländernas respektive narkotikapolitiska ideologier i hög utsträckning återspeglades i det undersökta materialet.

    Resultatet av vår studie leder oss till att dra slutsatsen att medierna till viss del hjälper till att befästa rådande ideologier i folks medvetanden, särskilt vad gäller Sverige.

  • 186.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Agonism or antagonism? Divide in the Ukrainian media community in the times of crisis2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ukrainian media community since 2013 is undergoing a painful process of continuously adjusting to and counteracting the circumstances of conflict, with external and internal propaganda, economic pressure being a consequence of the more general crisis, and guidelines coming from the state institutions, such as the Ministry of Information Policy (MIP) (e.g. Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016, Pantti 2016, Nygren & Hök 2016). Nygren et al. (2016), based on content analysis and interviews with journalists, conclude that one of the main challenges for the Ukrainian journalists today is a conflict between the ideal of neutrality in coverage and favoring of “patriotic journalism” in practice. According to Ukrainian scholars, there are today three groups of journalists: patriotism-charged, who give up standards for the sake of fighting propaganda; supporters of universal standards; and a mixed group (Dutsyk 2017). 

    In order to highlight the role of professional journalism organizations in this divide, this paper focuses on a specific case: project “Two countries – one profession” initiated and supported by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media. Being based on the dialogue between Ukrainian and Russian professional journalism organizations around professional standards and safety of journalists, the project is perceived as contradictory and provocative by a part of the Ukrainian media community who suggest that it is “non-patriotic” and “anti-Ukrainian”. 

    The paper is based on analysis of observations of meetings between the National Union of Journalists of Ukraine and the Russian Union of Journalists, interviews with representatives of these and other media organizations and experts in Ukraine, focus groups with the journalists involved in the project, and negative and positive reactions to this project by the Ukrainian media community. It uses Hanitzsch’s model of deconstruction of journalism culture (Hanitzsch 2007, Nygren et al 2016) and Mouffe’s (2013, p.7) conceptualization of agonistic vs. antagonistic struggle.

  • 187.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Between Two Democratic Ideals: Gendering in the Russian Culture of Political Journalism2014In: Women in Politics and Media: Perspectives from Nations in Transition / [ed] Maria Raicheva-Stover & Elza Ibroscheva, New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014, p. 115-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the attitudes of Russian journalists toward media representations of women politicians. It seeks to answer the following questions: How does the culture of political journalism influence gendering of women politicians? And what makes the Russian culture of political journalism unique when it comes to the coverage women politicians get? The chapter addresses the journalists’ interpretations of the low number of women politicians in media content, and turns to the journalists’ reasoning behind gender spotlighting and stereotyping. Highlighting the contradictions between the ideas, practices, and ideals present in the culture of the ‘quality’ political journalism in Russia, the chapter discusses how journalists envision the future of media representations of women politicians and how this relates to the problem of gender inequality in the political realm.

  • 188.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Constructing gendered politicians: Russian and Swedish journalists about media representations of female and male politicians and the process of their production2012In: ECREA 2012 Conference Proceedings, ECREA: European Communication Research and Education Association , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Crisis and journalism culture transformation: The case of Ukraine2017In: Nordmedia conference 2017: 23rd Nordic Conference on Media and Communication Research Tampere, 17–19 August 2017, Abstracts, Division 2, Journalism, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism culture is described by scholars as “one of the resources journalists draw upon to coordinate their activities as reporters, photographers, and editors” (Zelizer 2005, p. 204). Importantly, journalism cultures should be analyzed not only in connection to the contexts, but also in and as processes (Voronova 2014, p. 221). While most journalism cultures in the world face similar challenges, such as commercialization and digitalization, some of them are challenged by more radical challenges, such as war conflicts. Ukrainian journalism culture since 2013 is undergoing a painful process of continuously adjusting to and counteracting the circumstances of conflict, with external and internal propaganda (e.g. coming from the so-called “people’s republics” of Donetsk and Luhansk), economic pressure being a consequence of the more general crisis, and guidelines coming from the state institutions, such as the Ministry of Information Policy (MIP) (e.g. Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016, Pantti 2016, Nygren & Hök 2016). 

    Nygren et al. (2016), based on content analysis and interviews with journalists, conclude that one of the main challenges for the Ukrainian journalists today is a conflict between the ideal of neutrality in coverage and favoring of “patriotic journalism” in practice. This paper takes this discussion further and suggests to look at how the professional journalism organizations in Ukraine reflect upon this conflict, which journalists themselves define as a split between journalists and “Glory-to-Ukraine-journalists” (Sklyarevskaya 2016, October 20th). How does the participation of Ukrainian journalism organizations in the discussion of objectivity vs. patriotism look like on different levels – international, regional, national and local? Is there a possibility to retain a national culture of journalism in the situation of crisis, or does it inevitably end up in splitting to many journalism cultures that have their own rules, beliefs and ideals? 

    Using Hanitzsch’s model of deconstruction of journalism culture (Hanitzsch 2007, Nygren et al 2016), and focusing specifically on the dimension of epistemological beliefs, this paper analyzes a specific case: project ”Two countries – one profession” initiated and supported by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media. The project consists of regular round tables where senior representatives from Ukrainian and Russian professional journalism organizations meet to discuss ways to improve professional standards and safety of journalists, as well as collaborative projects between young journalists from the two countries. The project is perceived as contradictory and provocative by a part of the Ukrainian media community (e.g. Rudenko 2016, December 15th). The paper is based on analysis of observations of meetings between the National Union of 

    Journalists of Ukraine and the Russian Union of Journalists, interviews with representatives of these and other media organizations and experts in Ukraine, focus groups with the young journalists involved in the project, and negative and positive reactions to this project by the Ukrainian media community.

  • 190.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    From gendering to intersectional labelling. Russian and Swedish political journalists' perspective on discriminating and promoting mechanisms in the media content2015In: Communication Papers. Media Literacy & Gender Studies, ISSN 2014-6752, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 64-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests to study the phenomena of gendering in political journalism from intersectionality perspective (Davis, 2008; McCall, 2005) in order to understand gendering in the framework of other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in political news. Gendering is understood as the perceived imprint of gender on the media portrayal of politics and politicians, as well as the processes whereby gendered media representations materialize ( V oronova, 2014). The paper is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political journalists working for the quality press in Russia and Sweden. The choice of the countries is driven by the wish to explore the difficulties and similarities of the journalists’ conceptualizations of gendering and other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in two very different political and cultural contexts. The paper shows that the journalists in both countries highlight the importance of not only gender mainstreaming, but diversity in the content as a democratic value, where gender stands in the same row with other difference-making categories (such as ethnicity, sexuality etc.). The paper highlights the difficulties and contradictions the Russian and Swedish political journalists face trying to achieve their diversity ideal. The paper suggests a definition of intersectional labelling in political journalism, and proposes that it is an ambiguous process, which can be either discriminatory or promoting, depending on its manifestations. Moreover, its application is contextual, and is related to the journalists’ vision of ethics, commercial benefits of the media organization, and press freedom. 

  • 191.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Gender politics of the ‘war of narratives’: Russian TV-news in the times of conflict in Ukraine2017In: Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies, ISSN 1757-1898, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 217-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the gender politics of the news broadcast on the Russian state-controlled TV channels – Channel One (Pervyj kanal), Russia-1 (Rossiya-1), Russia-24 (Rossiya-24), NTV and RT (formerly Russia Today) – from January to September 2015, a period when the TV news closely followed the conflict in Ukraine and the growing tensions between Russia and Europe. The study shows that the news on the state-controlled TV channels interpret the state politics in only one possible way – ascribing the most traditional and essentialist characteristics to the country, prioritizing male actors and military activities and suggesting no alternatives to ‘(re)masculinization’ of the image of Russia in the situation of the conflict on the territory of another state, despite the alleged disengagement of the country in it. The article concludes that the state-controlled TV channels use essentialist gendering as a part of nation-branding and nation-building strategies, with an aim to construct the gendered and intersectionalized ideology of the ‘Russian world’ that would target both internal and external audiences and go beyond the borders of the Russian Federation.

  • 192.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    ”Gender v politicheskoj zhurnalistike kak vopros demokratii: rossijskie i shvedskie zhurnalisty o svobode pechati i gendernom ravenstve” [Gender in political journalism as a democracy issue: Russian and Swedish journalists on press freedom and gender equality]2015In: Zhurnalistika v 2014 godu: SMI kak faktor obschestvennogo dialoga [Journalism in 2014: Media as a factor of public dialogue], Collection of theses of international scientific and practical conference Journalism 2014, Moscow: MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, Moscow: MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, 2015, p. 116-117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [ru]

    Гендер в политической журналистике как вопрос демократии: российские и шведские журналисты о свободе печати и гендерном равенстве

    Воронова Людмила Александровна, PhD, преподаватель кафедры медиа-исследований университета Седерторн (Стокгольм, Швеция)

    Гендерные медиа-исследователи часто обсуждают гендерные стереотипы как проблему демократии. Так, Китцингер (Kitzinger 1998) понимает политическую журналистику как «гендер-политику», дискурсивную практику, несущую в себе потенциал как для продвижения демократического идеала гендерного равенства, так и для воспроизведения традиционных стереотипов и утверждения существующей гендерной иерархии. Калламар (Callamard 2006) предлагает считать гендерные стереотипы в СМИ особым видом цензуры, которая, как правило, действует в пользу мужчин, сокращая для женщин возможность быть объективно представленными в медиа-дискурсе. Более того, гендерное равенство, по мнению исследователей, практически рифмуется со свободой печати, причем равенство мужчин и женщин воспринимается ими как «показатель реализации настоящей и зрелой демократии» (Hermes 2013).

    Проведя интервью с сорока журналистами, работающими в качественных изданиях России и Швеции (интервью проводились в 2011-12 гг.), мы выяснили, что российские и шведские журналисты воспринимают свободу печати и гендерное равенство как непременные атрибуты демократии. Тем не менее, между их представлениями о балансе этих двух идеалов есть существенные различия. Так, российские журналисты находят свободу прессы гораздо более ценным элементом демократии, чем гендерное равенство, и готовы поступиться принципом продвижения последнего, если это необходимо для выполнения роли «сторожевой собаки» власти. Гендерные стереотипы, хоть и идут вразрез с демократическими идеалами качественной прессы, могут становиться одним из инструментов критики политиков. Более того, по мнению российских журналистов, политики могут использовать гендерную повестку для «обуздания» свободной прессы.

    Шведские журналисты не видят никакого противоречия между идеалами гендерного равенства и свободы печати, считая естественной ситуацию, когда в продвижении гендерного равенства одинаково заинтересованы и качественные издания, и власть, что позволяет им вступать в гармоничный диалог. Хотя шведские журналисты крайне критично настроены по отношению к каким-либо ограничениям относительно контента, вводимым извне, они признают необходимость тщательной проработки внутренних ограничений: так, к примеру, они внимательно прислушиваются к гендерной критике контента, поступающей не только от читателей, но и от политиков.

    Таким образом, и российские, и шведские журналисты считают гендер в политической журналистике вопросом демократии. Несмотря на бóльшую критичность российских журналистов по отношению к ограничениям свободы печати, их позиция защиты более уязвима, чем позиция их шведских коллег: оправдывая использование гендерных стереотипов в прессе, они поощряют и традиционное представление о гендерной иерархии в обществе, где власть воспринимается как мужчина и доминанта, а пресса как зависимая женщина. Тем не менее, позиция шведских журналистов тоже неоднозначна: воспринимая шведскую политическую и медийную систему как воплощение демократии, они перестают критически воспринимать исчезновение гендерного равенства как темы в журналистской повестке дня – факт, отмечаемый гендерными экспертами и активистами (Rönngren 2014).

  • 193.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gender v politicheskoj zhurnalistike Rossii i Shvetsii: sravnitelnyj analiz transformiruyuschikhsya media-kul’tur dvukh stran Baltijskogo regiona (Gender in political journalism in Russia and Sweden: a comparative analysis of transforming media cultures of the two countries in Baltic region)2012In: Mass Media after Post-Socialism: Trends of 2000s: Extended abstracts’ collection / [ed] Vartanova, Elena, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, MSU , 2012, p. 110-114Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gendering in political journalism behind the curtains: journalists’ perspective2014In: Gender in Focus: (New) Trends in Media / [ed] Cabecinhas, Rosa et al., Braga: University of Minho , 2014, p. 88-88Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960-s, when gender media studies originated, a special attention of gender media scholars has been paid to the different aspects of political communication. “Gendered mediation” (Gidengil and Everitt 1999), or “gendering”, of politicians and politics is considered to have a crucial influence both on the voter recognition of female and male candidates, and political participation of women and men. Scholars have provided potential reasons, which can explain the way women and men politicians, as well as the problem of the gender imbalance in political sphere are covered in political journalism (e.g. Braden 1996, Ross 2002, Falk 2008). Despite the media institution (its logic, organization, and individual characteristics of the media producers) being defined as the key “guilty party” of the patterns revealed by the scholars, journalists have remained silent producers of the assumed “gendered mediation”.

    This paper turns to the political journalists’ vision of the (gendered) media portrayal of politicians and politics. Its aim is to explore the reasons of gendering in quality press, as they are conceptualized by political journalists. The study focuses on journalists working in two different cultural and political contexts – in Russia and in Sweden. The choice of the cases is driven by the wish to define the similar and different elements in the journalists’ conceptions of the reasons of gendering in different political and cultural contexts, where the two cases work as an illustration of the global tendency of mediatization of politics.

    Based on the analytical framework suggested by Hanitzsch (2007), the paper turns to the journalists’ conceptions of gendering in relation to their concern of the professional norms and ethical standards, institutional roles, and epistemological beliefs. The concluding discussion links gendering as a component of the national culture of political journalism and the global tendency of mediatization of politics.

  • 195.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gendering in political journalism in the framework of other “ing-s”: Russian and Swedish political journalists about gender, ethnicity and sexual identity as politicians’ characteristics and political categories2015In: On conference website, 2015, p. -30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores gendering in political journalism – the perceived imprint of gender on the media portrayal of politics and politicians, as well as the processes whereby gendered media representations materialize. Gendering here is understood as an ambiguous process, which can be either discriminatory or promoting, depending on its manifestations (e.g. gender stereotypes or counter-stereotypes, gender-spotlighting or gender-aware story). Moreover, this paper suggests to study this phenomena from intersectionality perspective (Davis 2008, McCall 2005) in order to understand gendering in the framework of other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in political news.

    The paper is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political journalists working for the quality press in Russia and Sweden. The choice of the countries is driven by the wish to explore the difficulties and similarities of the journalists’ conceptualizations of gendering in two very different political and cultural contexts. The paper shows that the journalists in both countries highlight the importance of not only gender mainstreaming, but diversity in the content in general as a democratic value, where gender stands in the same row with other difference-making categories (such as ethnicity, sexuality etc.). The paper highlights the difficulties and contradictions the Russian and Swedish political journalists face trying to achieve their diversity ideal. As such, the paper discusses the reasons for the “double othering” of foreign women politicians in the Russian press and the ridiculing of Russian male politicians in the Swedish press, the attempts of the Russian journalists to remain gender-neutral in the current homophobic context and their Swedish colleagues’ striving for keeping gender as an issue on the media agenda when it is being replaced from the political agenda by the discussions of race and ethnicity issues.

  • 196.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Gendering in political journalism: manifestation of media power or political strategy? Swedish and Russian press-people about gender dimension of media–politics interactions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gendering in political journalism: modes of origin2014In: Communication for Empowerment: Citizens, Markets, Innovations : 5th European Communication Conference : book of abstracts, Lissabon, Portugal: ECREA , 2014, p. 169-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960-s, when gender media studies originated, a special attention of gender media scholars has been paid to the different aspects of political communication. “Gendered mediation” (Gidengil and Everitt 1999), or “gendering”, of politicians and politics is considered to have a crucial influence both on the voter recognition of female and male candidates, and political participation of women and men. Scholars have provided potential reasons, which can explain the way women and men politicians, as well as the problem of the gender imbalance in political sphere are covered in political journalism (e.g. Braden 1996, Ross 2002, Falk 2008). Despite the media institution (its logic, organization, and individual characteristics of the media producers) being defined as the key “guilty party” of the patterns revealed by the scholars, journalists have remained silent producers of the assumed “gendered mediation”.

    This paper turns to the political journalists’ vision of the (gendered) media portrayal of politicians and politics. Its aim is to explore the reasons of gendering in quality press, as they are conceptualized by political journalists. The study focuses on journalists working in two different cultural and political contexts – in Russia and in Sweden. The choice of the cases is driven by the wish to define the similar and different elements in the journalists’ conceptions of the reasons of gendering in different political and cultural contexts, where the two cases work as an illustration of the global tendency of mediatization of politics. The study is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political and international reporters, department- and chief-editors working for the quality press in the two countries.

    Based on the analytical framework suggested by Hanitzsch (2007), the paper turns to the journalists’ conceptions of gendering in relation to their concern of the professional norms and ethical standards, institutional roles, and epistemological beliefs. The concluding discussion links gendering as a component of the national culture of political journalism and the global tendency of mediatization of politics.

  • 198.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Gendernye Problemy V Politicheskoj Zhurnalistike Rossii I Shvetsii (Gender Problems In Political Journalism In Russia And Sweden)2013In: Zhurnalistika v 2012 godu: sotsialnaya missija i professija. (Journalism in 2012: Social Mission and Profession : Collection of materials of the International scientific and practical conference), Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2013, p. 384-385Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gendernye reprezentatsii kak instrument privlecheniya chitatelej i reklamodatelej (na primere kachestvennoj pressy Rossii i Shvetsii) [Gender representations as a tool for attracting readers and advertisers: Russian and Swedish quality press]2014In: Гендер и СМИ [Gender and Media] / [ed] Olga Smirnova, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2014, p. 117-129Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on gendered media representations as an instrument of getting economicbenefits and a tool of interaction with readers. Based on interviews with Russian and Swedish quality press’ employees, this study shows that gendered media representations are one of the resources of the quality press’ competitiveness on the media-market. However, the choice of the gendered representations, which attract both the audiences and advertisers, is strictly context-dependent.

  • 200. Voronova, Liudmila
    Images of women–politicians in the media of Sweden and Russia2009In: Nordic Media: Concepts and Current Issues / [ed] Elena Vartanova & Marina Pavlikova, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
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