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  • 151.
    Theodoridis, Fotis
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Η σημασία του έργου του Καστοριάδη για την κοινωνική και ιστορική έρευνα: Title in English: The legacy of Castoriadis’ work for the social-historical research2007In: Ψυχή, λόγος, πόλις : Αφιέρωμα στον Κορνήλιο Καστοριάδη: Title in English: Psyche, Reason, City / [ed] Collective Work, Ύψιλον , 2007, p. 193-214Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Theodoridis, Fotis
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Πέραν τοῦ ἀναγωγιστικοῦ σκέπτεσθαι-ποιεῖν2000In: Νέα Κοινωνιολογία (New Sociology), Vol. 31, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Vishaj, Violeta
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Issa, Claudia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Prostitution: ett samhällsproblem2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte Syftet med denna studie är att få en förståelse för vad som motiverar kvinnor till att ta sig in i prostitution. Dessutom vill vi ta reda anledningarna till varför de har valt att sig ut ur prostitution samt hur de har gått tillväga.

    Frågeställningar Vilka är de bakomliggande faktorerna till att kvinnorna valde att prostituerar sig?

    Hur gick kvinnorna tillväga för att ta sig ur prostitutionen och vad var orsaken till deras uppbrott?

    Metod Denna studie har utgått från den kvalitativa metoden i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer då vi vill få en djupare förståelse kring respondenternas uppfattning, åsikter och erfarenheter kring prostitution.

    Teori Studien baseras på tre olika teorier, sociala band, idealtyper samt exitprocessen.

    Slutsatser En av studiens frågeställningar var att ta reda på de bakomliggande faktorerna till varför unga tjejer väljer att prostituera sig. Slutsatsen visar att unga tjejer som väljer att prostituera sig beror på att individen har haft svår uppväxt, separerade föräldrar, ekonomiska behov samt svag självkänsla. Den andra frågeställningen var att ta reda på hur kvinnorna gick tillväga för att ta sig ur prostitutionen och vad orsaken till deras utbrott var. Det vi kom fram till är att en stark relation till omgivningen har en stor del av deras uppbrott ur prostitutionen. Stöd från terapi har också haft en betydelse för de före detta prostituerade då de lyckats ta sig ut ur sexhandeln med hjälp av terapi.

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  • 154.
    Wahlström, Mattias
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wennerhag, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Göteborgs universitet.
    Alone in the crowd: Lone protesters in Western European demonstrations2014In: International Sociology, ISSN 0268-5809, E-ISSN 1461-7242, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 565-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While corroborating the fact that the majority of protesters attend demonstrations together with friends, family and/or fellow members of their organizations, this article shows that protesting alone remains an option for many people – under the right circumstances. Through multilevel analysis of survey data from participants in 69 demonstrations in eight Western European countries, the authors study lone protesters in different types of demonstrations. On the individual level, they show that protesting alone is closely linked to relative detachment from interpersonal mobilizing networks, as well as to short decision times. The authors also develop demonstration-level explanations for why lone protesters are more common in some demonstrations than in others. Precipitating events and inclusive social movement communities increase the proportion of lone demonstrators, which is also higher in static rallies than in moving demonstrations. These factors arguably make personal networks less crucial for protest mobilization.

  • 155. Wahlström, Mattias
    et al.
    Wennerhag, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Methods for studying May Day demonstrators: Sampling, estimating non-response bias and pooling data with general population surveys2016In: The Ritual of May Day in Western Europe: Past, Present and Future / [ed] Abby Peterson & Herbert Reiter, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2016, p. 262-278Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter concerns some methodological aspects of protest surveys and data analysis. We start by providing an overview of the demonstrations we surveyed, describe the protest survey sampling method and proceed to an analysis of non-response bias. Thereafter we discuss how we combine the data from different demonstrations into averages, and we also discuss some of the more technical aspects of coding.

  • 156.
    Wennerhag, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Who takes part in May Day marches?2016In: The Ritual of May Day in Western Europe: Past, Present and Future / [ed] Abby Peterson & Herbert Reiter, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2016, p. 187-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I examine which socio-demographic groups take part in contemporary May Day demonstrations in Western Europe. In particular I focus on social class, but also on other relevant social categories such as gender, age and ethnicity and whether they vary between specific types of demonstrations and between the countries in our sample. Firstly, the chapter discusses the socio-demographic profiles of those taking part in such annual events. Are May Day participants more or less representative of the wider population? Do they differ from participants in other types of demonstrations? Secondly, I interrogate the composition and role of social class in May Day marches, both with regard to the individuals’ objective positions in the labour market and their subjective class identifications, and analyse the factors that shape May Day marchers’ class identity. Thirdly, I analyse which social and political characteristics most strongly influence individuals’ decisions to join a May Day parade. This chapter’s analysis is based on the survey data for individual demonstrators collected within the international research programme Caught in the Act of Protest: Contextualising Contestation (CCC). In this chapter I analyse the participants in fifteen May Day demonstrations in six Western European countries surveyed during the period 2010–2012 (cf. chapter 7). In order to determine whether participants in May Day demonstrations differ from participants in other types of street protests and marches, I also compare them with data from a sample of 23 additional demonstrations surveyed within the CCC project. In order to compare the social composition of the surveyed May Day demonstrations with the general population, I also use data from the European Social Survey and the Swedish SOM Institute’s national survey.

  • 157.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Maybe Baby?: Reproductive Behaviour, Fertility Intentions, and Family Policies in Post-communist Countries, with a Special Focus on Ukraine2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies different aspects of reproductive behaviour on the international, national, and local levels in post-communist countries. The main focus is Ukraine, where fertility rates are very low and the population is in severe decline. The studies contribute new knowledge about the applicability of a family policy typology developed on the basis of Western countries’ experience for post-communist countries, and about the influence of family policies on fertility levels in these countries. Moreover, the studies investigate whether and how macro-level influences impact on individuals’ reproductive behaviour. Four articles are included in the thesis:

    Family policies in Ukraine and Russia in comparative perspective analyses the institutional set-up of family policies in both countries and compares the findings to 31 other countries. The results show that Ukrainian family policies support a male-breadwinner type of family, while the benefit levels of Russian family policies are low, compelling families to rely on relatives or the childcare market.

    Family policies and fertility - Examining the link between family policy institutions and fertility rates in 33 countries 1995-2010 comparatively explores whether family policies have an effect on fertility rates across the case-countries. Pooled time-series regression analysis demonstrates that gender-egalitarian family policies are connected to higher fertility rates, but that this effect is smaller at higher rates of female labour force participation.

    To have or not to have a child? Perceived constraints on childbearing in a lowest-low fertility context investigates the influence of the perception of postmodern values, childcare availability and environmental pollution on individuals’ fertility intentions in a city in Eastern Ukraine. It is shown that women who already have a child perceive environmental pollution as a constraint on their fertility intentions.

    Prevalence and correlates of the use of contraceptive methods by women in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007 examines changes in the prevalence and the correlates of the use of contraceptive methods. The use of modern contraceptive methods increased during the period and the use of traditional methods decreased, while the overall prevalence did not change. Higher exposure to messages about family planning in the media is correlated with the use of modern contraceptive methods.

  • 158.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Prevalence and correlates of the use of contraceptive methods by women in Ukraine in 1999 and 20072015In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 67, no 10, p. 1547-1570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the prevalence and the correlates of the use of contraceptive methods in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007. Between those years, the overall use of contraceptive methods decreased slightly. However, the use of modern contraceptive methods, and especially the use of condoms, increased considerably, while the use of traditional contraceptive methods decreased. Higher exposure to messages about family planning in the media was correlated with the use of modern contraceptive methods. It is posited that the results suggest that state policies influence individual behaviour in contraception.

  • 159.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Stockholms universitet.
    Borodachova, J.
    Shukhatovich, V.
    Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.
    Репродуктивные установки в Беларуси [Fertility intentions in Belarus]: анализ социальных и демографических детерминант [Analysis of social and demographic determinants]2017In: ЗДОРОВЬЕ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ: ПРОБЛЕМЫ И ПУТИ РЕШЕНИЯ [Health of the population: Problems and solutions]: Материалы международного научно-практического семинара, 18-19 мая 2017: СБОРНИК НАУЧНЫХ СТАТЕЙ, Minsk: Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus , 2017, p. 342-350Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet.
    Family policies and fertility: Examining the link between family policy institutions and fertility rates in 33 countries 1995-2010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In what ways are family policies related to fertility? Previous studies of OECD countries have arrived at mixed results when analysing the effects of family policy expenditures or formal benefit rates. This study draws on new institutional family policy data from a wider set of 33 countries in a multidimensional analysis of the link between family policy institutions and fertility 1995-2010. Pooled time-series regressions show that more extensive gender-egalitarian family policies, i.e. earner-carer support, are linked to higher fertility, while policies supporting more traditional family patterns show no statistically significant effects. Analyses of the interaction between earner-carer support and female labour force participation indicate that the impact of introducing more gender-egalitarian policies is stronger in countries with lower levels of female labour force participation. Regressions with differenced data sustain ideas of earner-carer support being linked to total fertility increase.

  • 161.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet.
    Family policies in Ukraine and Russia in comparative perspectiveArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the institutional setting of family policies in Ukraine and Russia with 31 countries, including post-communist countries and other EU and OECD countries. Large-scale systematic comparisons of family policies in Ukraine and Russia with longstanding welfare states and other post-communist European countries have so far been lacking. The analyses are based on a comparative institutional approach, which captures the content of legislation multidimensionally instead of focusing only on social expenditure. This enables an evaluation of the structure of Ukrainian and Russian family policies in relation to other countries in 2005. Analyses show that Ukraine and Russia differ considerably in terms of family policy, as do other post-communist countries. Ukraine more actively supports traditional family patterns, while Russia leaves greater room for market forces. The policies in Ukraine and Russia are likely to be insufficient when it comes to addressing work-family conflicts and increasing long-term fertility.

  • 162.
    Westman, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Potrus, Petrus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Ett mynt har alltid två sidor?: En jämförelse av polisens förebyggande metoder mot ungdomsbrottslighet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How do the police prevention methods work against juvenile delinquency? The purpose of this study is to see how the police work to prevent juvenile delinquency in two municipalities in Stockholm, Södertälje and Sundbyberg. Additionally, the purpose of this study is also to find out if there are any similarities or differences between the police methods the police use in these two municipalities. We have used qualitative method in which we have interviewed the police and young people from the communities. We interviewed young people to see their attitudes to the police and the area to find their perception of police work in the fields as well as the police forces attitude toward the young people. Our theories revolve around police methods of prevention, stigma, labeling and social ecological condition. The study also shows differences between the municipalities, such as local socio-economic conditions, segregation and unemployment. The result shows that some of the young people’s answers vary. A few people said that the police are doing a good job while others thought that the police had a prejudiced view against them because of their ethnicity. On the contrary the police believe they are doing a good job and they have no idea why young people have this point of view.

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    Ett mynt har alltid två sidor?: – En jämförelse av polisens förebyggande metoder mot ungdomsbrottslighet
  • 163.
    Winter, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bogren, Alexandra
    Stockholms universitet.
    The realization of sexed bodies: Stable and fragile gender dichotomies in Swedish media representations of biomedical alcohol research2013In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 37, p. 53-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Zakharov, Nikolay
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Attaining Whiteness: A Sociological Study of Race and Racialization in Russia2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Attaining Whiteness is the first book-length sociological study of how ideas about race resonate in post-Soviet Russia. The book charts how tropes of self, hybridity, and maturity constitute important symbolic vehicles for applying the idea of race to the drawing of differences. A new theoretical framework is developed that casts light on fields of study that have not yet received sufficient attention in Western European and American research concerning racial issues. This study of racialization takes a step towards providing a better understanding of how the discourses of race are extended and transformed through the production of social knowledge and social relations. This volume addresses the resilience of genetic criteria for defining cultures and behaviors in both the sciences and humanities in Russia, and also examines the ongoing and pervasive policy of racialized exclusion. The study argues that the concepts and practices of race, whiteness, and Russianness operate ambivalently insofar as they both hold the social fabric together, organizing the perception of the “Other”, but also undermine the unity of society. Racialization thus fosters, first, the sense that Russia belongs to the core of civilization as opposed to the Third World; second, the formulation of policies towards the internal peripheries that support social control informed by the notion of human material; and, finally, the promotion of exclusionary ethnic self-identifications that employ the discourse of hybridity.

  • 165.
    Zakharov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Ivanou, Aleh
    ‘Tolerance' Frame As a Hindrance to Effective Public/Authorities Feedback in Belarus2014In: RC36 Alienation Theory and Research (host committee): Post-colonized Eastern Europe: Overcoming Alienation and Social Fatigue, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report is going to consider ‘tolerance’ as an ideological frame. A critical assessment will be done of tolerance on the part of Belarusian people.

    It is going to be shown that a) tolerance as an invariably beneficent trait of the Belarusian people is quite mistaken, b) that the ‘tolerance’ frame interferes with democratic governance principles as accepted and practiced worldwide, c) that responses to public dissatisfaction (part and parcel of normal governance systems) in Belarus are complicated due to persistence of the ‘tolerance’ frame; and d) that for the more fortunate and sustainable democratic outcomes in Belarus a regular public/authority feedback should be restored by getting rid of ‘tolerance’ as part of the ideological apparatus.

    The idea of this paper concerns ‘tolerance’ as it enters democratic governance schemes and might be leading to their malfunction. The word tolerance is widely used in liberal democracies and is ascribed a positive meaning. However, it appears that tolerance is not necessarily a virtue. The word tolerance has negative connotations as it acknowledges a problem. The danger with the ideological frame ‘tolerance’ is that it might enter democratic governance models where it can effectively block public responses to dissatisfaction. This way, the system is incapable of conveying public dissatisfaction, and the stimulus is removed for the authorities to improve their work. This might be evident in Belarus, where people have little opportunity to convey their dissatisfaction, given that they are considered as well as consider themselves ‘tolerant’. In this case, their tolerance, being mere holding on, is a potential volcano.

  • 166.
    Zetterberg, Kristoffer
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    “Us gamers want exactly what we have always wanted”: den avpolitiserade spelaren och dess ideologiska andra2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the sharp criticism directed at video games that embrace different types of what I call progressive elements, primarily those that include diversity, representation, or deviate from traditional video gaming mechanics and norms. The study is a discourse analysis of YouTube videos, where the starting point has been how the arguments construct a problem in relation to these progressive elements, with specific causes and solutions. By deconstructing these statements and then reconstructing a chain of equivalence, i.e. relations between subject positions, this shows how a binary logic carries the discourse where a specific ‘we’, The Gamer, are up against a specific ‘them’, the Social Justice Warriors (SJWs). By ways of binary discursive exclusions, the groups are constructed as opposites. In the discourse, The Gamer becomes depoliticized by relating it to concepts of rationality, game culture and the free market, whilst SJWs are associated with censorship, ideology, and non-games. In this way, The Gamer makes invisible its association with masculinity and an often pseudo-meritocratic and Social Darwinist ideology, and claims an interpretative prerogative and oppose any kind of change, on basis of truth and facts.

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  • 167.
    Åkerlund, Andreas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History.
    Börjesson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet.
    Collsiöö, Astrid
    Akademiskt utbyte och internationell migration: En studie av stipendiater inom Svenska institutets stipendieprogram 1997-20152018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Akademisk mobilitet är en aspekt av internationell migration, som sällan får samma uppmärksamhet som flykt eller arbetskraftsmigration. Denna mobilitet möjliggörs ofta genom stipendier, och i Sverige är Svenska institutet en av de viktigaste stipendiegivarna. Föreliggande rapport handlar om personer som fått ett mobilitetsstipendium inom Visbyprogrammet. Programmet har funnits sedan 1997 och är inriktat mot länder i östra Europa. Ur ett migrationsperspektiv är dessa stipendiater en intressant grupp vad gäller migrationsmönster och internationella nätverk.

    Stipendieutdelning är en av många faktorer som är med och formar internationella migrationsflöden. Det innebär att de regler som svenska staten ställer upp för sina stipendier i kombination med Svenska institutets praktiska hantering av samma stipendier påverkar migrationen, då de gör internationell akademisk mobilitet möjlig för vissa specifika grupper. Över tid har Visbyprogrammet gått från att ha en näringslivsfrämjande, biståndspolitisk och tillväxtskapande inriktning till att handla om regionalt samarbete, avspänning och social utveckling. Programmet tillhör alltså tre politikområden, nämligen a) bistånds- och utvecklingsarbete, b) internationaliseringen av den högre utbildningen och c) offentlig diplomati, främjandet av Sverige och svensk ekonomi.

    Inom existerande forskning är det mycket ovanligt att ovan nämnda politikområden relateras till varandra. Studiens utgångspunkt är dock att relationen dem emellan är grundläggande för att förstå Visbyprogrammet. Utifrån detta antagande undersöks fem olika områden. Först och främst i vilken utsträckning stipendiaterna utgör en viktig resurs för ekonomin, politiken eller forskningen i sina hemländer (1), i vilken mån stipendiaterna fortfarande är förbundna med Sverige och det svenska samhället eller till och med är bosatta i Sverige och verksamma på svensk arbetsmarknad (2), samt om stipendiaterna flyttat vidare till andra länder och en internationell arbetsmarknad (3). Därutöver undersöks även i vilken utsträckning stipendierna skapar ett utbildningskapital, ett språkligt kapital och ett svenskt symboliskt kapital (4), samt hur stipendiaterna själva värderar sin stipendievistelse och de primäramotiven för att söka sig till Sverige (5).

    Som underlag för den aktuella studien genomfördes en enkätundersökning med tidigarelångtidsstipendiater inom Visbyprogrammet. Enkäten innehöll 34 frågor ochbesvarades av total 482 personer. Huvudresultaten är att stipendiatsgruppen harförändrats mellan 1997 och 2015. Från att initialt ha kommit från Baltikum, Polenoch Ryssland, kommer dagens stipendiater företrädelsevis från Ukraina, Rysslandoch Vitryssland. Dessutom har stipendiaternas ämnesinriktning förskjutits frånteknik och naturvetenskap mot samhällsvetenskap och humaniora. Orsaken tilldetta är att ekonomi och tillväxt tonats ned inom Visbyprogrammet till förmånför säkerhetspolitik och bistånd. Ett politiskt formulerat stipendieprogram som Visbyprogrammet och en mediär som Svenska institutet, har därmed en stor betydelseför hur den internationella student- och forskarmobiliteten ser ut och hur den varierar över tid.

    Ett annat centralt resultat är att stipendieperioden öppnar upp för tre olika livsbanor. Majoriteten av respondenterna flyttade tillbaka till sina hemländer (50 procent)medan mer än en på fyra (27 procent) bodde kvar i Sverige. En nästan lika stor grupp (23 procent) bosatte sig istället i ett tredje land, vanligtvis ett västeuropeiskt land eller USA. Samma mönster syns även om man ser till de länder där respondenterna bott en kortare period efter stipendieperioden. En vistelse i Sverige genererar alltså utbildningskapital som även har ett värde i andra länder. Visbystipendierna fungerar som en viktig del i en såväl socialt uppåtstigande som geografisk mobilitetsrörelse.Den främsta pullfaktorn för att söka sig till just Sverige var dock existensen av stipendierna och den ekonomiska säkerhet de innebär. En övervägande majoritet av stipendiaterna uppskattar att tiden i Sverige har haft en avgörandebetydelse för deras vidare karriär, men också att de har kunnat etablera stabila kontakter mellan Sverige och ursprungslandet.

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  • 168.
    Öberg, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    MOTIVATION BLAND LEDARE I ETT STÄDFÖRETAG: Fallstudie Städ AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The service sector in Sweden is growing. This fact, in combination with tax-reduction when buying household services has contributed to the growth of cleaning companies. Considering that the business of cleaning companies is growing makes it an interest sector to study closer. The purpose of this study is to investigate what motivates leaders within a cleaning company who are CEO´s and have ownership in the company. How does the ownership of the company affect their motivation? The methodology of this study is qualitative and resulted findings were thematically analyzed supported by the theoretic framework consisting of Maslows need hier-archy, Herzberg two-factor theory and McClellands theory on needs and motivation. During this assignment, two main themes were identified as sources of motivation among the leaders: flexibility and personal growth. The motivation of the leaders originates from what Maslow defines as need of self-esteem. Three of the leaders in the study found motivation with source in what McClelland defines as the need for achievement and one of the leaders showed a high degree of need of power and affiliation. The ownership of the company had a great impact on the motivation on the three leaders and affected the achievement in a positive direction. One reason is that the ownership in the company allows an entrepreneurial behavior, which satisfies the need for achievement among the leaders.

  • 169.
    Övelius, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Hur organiseras det oförutsägbara?: En kvalitativ studie om att hantera det plötsliga i jourverksamheter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A society handle on one hand uncertain, unpredictable and incalculable events and on the other hand planned, calculated and predictable occasions. In this essay, I will investigate how these events and situations that we do not know anything about are socially organized. Sweden, among other developed countries worldwide, may be an interesting field of a new upcoming discourse of security and safety. New agencies in the form of alarm centres with on-call and on-site services are popping up more often these days. Two of those agencies are analysed in this essay. Earlier research on this theme handle phenomenon such as rationality, crisis, chaos and catastrophes. Also, phenomenological sense-making studies of organizations working with these kinds of events have been gone through.

    The sociological theoretical framework of system and lifeworld, developed by Jürgen Habermas in his work of Theories of Communicative Action1 is the theoretical outset in this study. With mentioned organizations, at somewhat different domains, I have used the qualitative methodologies of semi-structural interviews and participant observations. Interpersonal verbal communication is here problematized together with technological and digital forms of communication. The result gave that some forms of systematic organized processes, but also reflexive and intuitive forms of action can explain the dichotomy of system and lifeworld in the structural middle level (meso) for investigated organizations.

    1 Jürgen Habermas 1987.

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    Hur organiseras det oförutsägbara?
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