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  • 151.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg.
    Knowledge for environmental governance: probing science–policy theory in the cases of eutrophication and fisheries in the Baltic Sea2017In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 769-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How science and policy interact has been a major research focus in the International Relations (IR) tradition, using the epistemic community (EC) concept, as well as in the alternative perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Should science be autonomous and as apolitical as possible in order to ‘speak truth to power’, as suggested by EC or should the inevitable entanglement of science and politics be accepted and embraced so as to make advice more conducive to negotiating the explicit travails of political decision-making as suggested by STS? With this point of departure, we compare similarities and differences between science–policy interactions in the issue areas of eutrophication and fisheries management of the Baltic Sea. To examine how knowledge is mobilised, the concepts of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘coherence’ are developed, drawing on both EC and STS thinking. We then reflect on the explanatory value of these approaches in both cases and discuss how a separation of science and policy-making in the pursuit of achieving scientific consensus leads to ineffectual policies. Drawing on STS thinking, we urge for a re-conceptualisation of coherence in order to accommodate a more reflexive practice of science–policy interactions.

  • 152.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Adding People to the Sea: Conceptualizing Social Sustainability in Maritime Spatial Planning2019In: Maritime Spatial Planning: past, present, future / [ed] Jacek Zaucha & Kira Gee, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 175-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is growing critique emerging to address social sustainability in marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP), overwhelmingly attention has been on governance, economic and environmental aspects. This chapter redresses this by proposing a conceptual framework to elucidate key features of social sustainability in MSP. The ambition is to both note the existing critique of MSP and go beyond it by more clearly and comprehensively articulating how social sustainability could be conceived in MSP, as well as how this framework could be applied to analyse MSP practice. Key features of social sustainability elaborated are: deepening democratic decision-making, inclusion of socio-cultural values and knowledge, equitable distribution and social cohesion. Finally, the chapter concludes by nominating strategies to give greater visibility to social sustainability as a key MSP concern.

  • 153.
    Self, Angela E.
    et al.
    The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, UK.
    Klimaschewski, Andrea
    Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.
    Solovieva, Nadia
    University College London, UK / Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies, Kazan, Russia.
    Jones, Vivienne
    University College London, UK.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andreev, Andrei A.
    Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies, Kazan, Russia / Universität zu Kӧln, Germany.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Brooks, Stephen J.
    The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
    The relative influences of climate and volcanic activity on Holocene lake development inferred from a mountain lake in central Kamchatka2015In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, no SI, p. 67-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sediment sequence was taken from a closed, high altitude lake (informal name Olive-backed Lake) in the central mountain range of Kamchatka, in the Russian Far East. The sequence was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology and used for multi-proxy analyses (chironomids, pollen, diatoms). Although the evolution of Beringian climate through the Holocene is primarily driven by global forcing mechanisms, regional controls, such as volcanic activity or vegetation dynamics, lead to a spatial heterogeneous response. This study aims to reconstruct past changes in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and to separate the climate-driven response from a response to regional or localised environmental change. Radiocarbon dates from plant macrophytes gave a basal date of 7800 cal yr BP. Coring terminated in a tephra layer, so sedimentation at the lake started prior to this date, possibly in the early Holocene following local glacier retreat. Initially the catchment vegetation was dominated by Betula and Alnus woodland with a mosaic of open, wet, aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Between 7800 and 6000 cal yr BP the diatom-inferred lake water was pH 4.4 -5.3 and chironomid and diatom assemblages in the lake were initially dominated by a small number of acidophilic/acid tolerant taxa. The frequency of Pinus pumila (Siberian dwarf pine) pollen increased from 5000 cal yr BP and threshold analysis indicates that P. pumila arrived in the catchment between 4200 and 3000 cal yr BP. Its range expansion was probably mediated by strengthening of the Aleutian Low pressure system and increased winter snowfall. The diatom-inferred pH reconstructions show that after an initial period of low pH, pH gradually increased from 5500 cal yr BP to pH 5.8 at 1500 cal yr BP. This trend of increasing pH through the Holocene is unusual in lake records, but the initially low pH may have resulted directly or indirectly from intense regional volcanic activity during the mid-Holocene. The chironomid-inferred July temperature reconstruction suggests cool periods between 3200 – 2800 cal yr BP and 1100 – 700 cal yr BP and a warmer period between 2800 and 1100 cal yr BP. Chironomid and diatom DCA scores decline from ca. 6000 cal yr BP, indicating compositional changes in these aquatic assemblages. In comparison declines in pollen PCA scores are delayed, starting ca. 5100 cal yr BP. The results suggest that while catchment vegetation was responding primarily to climate change, the biota within the lake and lake water chemistry were responding to localised environmental conditions.

  • 154.
    Siebenhüner, B.
    et al.
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlan.
    Ecker, F.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Social learning research in ecological economics: A survey2016In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 55, p. 116-126Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding of human behaviour in contrast to the limited focus on incentive-driven behaviour. Our study analyses the emergence and thematic foci of social learning studies within ecological economics over the past 15 years. We selected and analysed 54 articles published after peer review in established journals adhering to the epistemological tradition of ecological economics. This study is guided by the interest in how social learning is conceptualised, how this research is positioned in terms of process dynamics, causal factors and outcomes of learning. Results show, that the number of related papers grew substantially in recent years. Also the role of formal or informal institutions has been found to be a strong causal factor for social learning and change processes vis-à-vis technological, economic or political factors. In addition, there is a growing awareness of social learning processes in various environmental policy fields such as biodiversity governance, water and land management, fisheries, and climate adaptation. We conclude that these insights can give new impulses to research on socio-ecological transition and to the related debate on societal change and transformation processes as core topics for ecological economics.

  • 155.
    Solovieva, Nadia
    et al.
    University College London, UK / Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation.
    Klimaschewski, Andrea
    Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.
    Self, Angela E.
    The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
    Jones, Vivienne
    University College London, UK.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andreev, Andrei A.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation / University of Cologne, Köln, Germany.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Lepskaya, E.V.
    Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, Russian Federation.
    Nazarova, L.B.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation.
    The Holocene environmental history of a small coastal lake on the north-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula2015In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A radiocarbon and tephra-dated sediment core from Lifebuoy Lake, located on the north-east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, was analysed for pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids and tephra in order to uncover regional environmental history.

  • 156.
    Sommer, Christian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Sex odour preference in guppy (Poecilia wingei) males is influenced by the social environment2016In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 153, no 12, p. 1419-1434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social environment of animals, particularly in the early stages of life, can have great impact on species-specific and sex-specific behaviours. These changes can be irreversible and continue during the entire life. In the present study we asked the question whether the social environment of male Endler's guppies, Poecilia wingei, housed in an all-male community could affect their preference response to female or male odour cues in a flow through Y-maze. After 30 days in an all-male group males were tested for their preference-avoidance responses to conspecific odours. The males were attracted to male-scented water but not to water scented by females. In simultaneous choice between male and female odours they demonstrated no significant preference. The males were attracted to male-scented water after they were kept for 48 h or 12 days with females. After the Y-maze tests the males' were placed with two females and their courting behaviour were recorded. The males showed low frequencies of reproductive behaviours. In the all-male group the males had been courting each other. The results show that the social environment influence sexual odour preference and courting behaviour in guppy males.

  • 157.
    Stepanova, A.
    et al.
    Texas A&M University, College Station, USA.
    Obrochta, S.
    Akita University, Akita, Japan.
    Quintana Krupinski, N. B.
    Lund University.
    Hyttinen, O.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kotilainen, A.
    Geological Survey of Finland, Marine Geology, Espoo, Finland.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Late Weichselian to Holocene history of the Baltic Sea as reflected in ostracod assemblages2018In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents the first description and analysis of ostracod records from three sites cored in different parts of the Baltic Sea during the IODP Expedition 347, Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment. Our data present the first high-resolution ostracod records from the Late Weichselian and Holocene sediments collected across the Baltic Sea Basin. Using published data on modern ostracod species ecology of the Baltic Sea, we were able to provide ostracod-based palaeoreconstructions of the history of the region. The stratigraphical framework for the sites is based on radiocarbon-based age models. The three studied sites reveal different ostracod assemblage successions that reflect environmental changes in the study area. Site M0060, located in the Kattegat area, contains the oldest ostracod assemblages that document a marine environment with very high sedimentation rates during the most recent deglaciation. Between ~13 000 and 7500 cal. a BP a modern-like near-shore environment developed. Site M0059 in the southwestern Baltic Sea, Little Belt area, contains assemblages reflecting the transition from a freshwater lake to the brackish Littorina Sea between ~7500 and 7300 cal. a BP. Site M0063 is the deepest location in the central Baltic, Landsort Deep, and yielded very limited ostracod data, but comparison with our organic carbon data allowed us to distinguish the Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea intervals. The ostracod record correlates well with the organic carbon record with alternation between periods of hypoxia and periods of low oxygen that still supported ostracods.

  • 158.
    Suškevičs, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Macura, Biljana
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pahl-Wostl, Claudia
    University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Learning for social-ecological change: a qualitative review of outcomes across empirical literature in natural resource management2018In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 1085-1112Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is considered as a promising mechanism to cope with rapid environmental change. The implications of learning for natural resource management (NRM) have not been explored in-depth and the evidence on the topic is scattered across multiple sources. We provide a qualitative review of types of learning outcomes and consider their manifestations in NRM across selected empirical literature. We conducted a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature (N = 1,223) and a qualitative meta-synthesis of included articles, with an explicit focus on learning outcomes and NRM changes (N = 53). Besides social learning, we found several learning concepts used, including policy and transformative learning, and multiple links between learning and NRM reported. We observe that the development of skills, together with a system approach involving multi-level capacities, is decisive for implications of learning for NRM. Future reviews could systematically compare how primary research applies different learning concepts and discusses links between learning and NRM changes.

  • 159.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    et al.
    Institutionen för rysslandsstudier Uppsala universitet.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Cios, Stanislaw
    Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs,Warsaw, Poland.
    Fishing For Smelt, Osmerus Eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758): A traditional food fish – possible cuisinein post-modern Sweden?2016In: Slovak Ethnology, ISSN 1335-1303, Vol. 2, no 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the rural population in Sweden, fishing in lakes and rivers was of great importanceuntil recently. Many fish species served as food or animal fodder, or were used tomake glue and other useful products. But the receding of lakes in the nineteenthcentury, and the expansion of hydropower and worsening of water pollution in thetwentieth, contributed to the decline of inland fisheries. At the same time, marinefish became more competitive on the Swedish food market. In some regions, however,certain freshwater species continued to be caught for household consumption wellinto the twentieth century. One such species was the smelt (Osmerus eperlanus),which fifty years ago was still of economic importance. Nowadays, however, smeltis only caught in very low volumes; its role is therefore insignificant. In neighbouringcountries, however – such as Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia – it is still being exploitedcommercially. In Germany, where water quality has improved in rivers and restaurantshave shown increasing interest in smelt, a successful revival for the fish as a regionaland seasonal food can be seen. Smelt fishing has dimensions which are not onlyculinary, but social and cultural as well. Traditional ways of food preparation can betransformed into modern haute cuisine. Smelt fishing has the potential to developcommercially in Sweden also.

  • 160.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kern, Kristine
    eibniz Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning (IRS) & University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    ‘Environmental Governance’ and ‘Ecosystem Management’: Avenues for Synergies between Two Approaches2016In: Interdisciplinary Environmental Review, ISSN 1521-0227, E-ISSN 2042-6992, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a literature review of over 160 journal articles and books, this paper examines the ecosystem management and environmental governance approaches, and looks for common topics and integrated research agendas. While scientific articles on environmental governance stem primarily from social science research, the ecosystem management approach is more natural-science-oriented. A review of journal articles from the ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science) reveals that the two research communities hardly interact. The paper discusses two thematic linkages between the two approaches: the debates dealing with the scale and level of environmental policy; and the discussions surrounding multi-stakeholder participation. Moreover, the article identifies areas with a high potential for the establishment of common ground, such as the current discussion on science-policy interfaces. We argue for more interaction, claim that the two research approaches can learn from each other, and discuss the potential for the development of interdisciplinary research agendas

  • 161.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kern, Kristine
    Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Marine Governance in the Baltic Sea: Current Trends of Europeanization and Regionalization2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, p. 163-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Taking power to sea: Towards a post-structuralist discourse theoretical critique of marine spatial planning2018In: Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, ISSN 2399-6544, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 58-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to calls for a more theoretically driven, post-positivist and radical marine spatial planning research that approaches the policy as a political project, this paper develops a poststructuralist discourse theory approach to critical marine spatial planning. Elaborating radical contingency as an ontological condition of social life, which points to the ineradicability of power and conflict in marine spatial planning social relations, the paper problematizes marine spatial planning as constituting politics, or key practices that attempt to organize human coexistence and thus, conceal this radical contingency. These practices (e.g. ecosystem-based management, participation, planning regulation and the organization of socio-natural spaces), whose outcomes are far from adaptive, consensual or neutral are discussed as sites of ‘politics’ that effectively marginalize particular groups of people and ‘herd’ their participation and ways of knowing toward achieving limited policy outcomes. Drawing on the EU Marine Spatial Planning Directive, the paper further teases out how specific narratives and rhetorical signifiers around ‘integrating’ and ‘balancing’ potentially irreconcilable sustainable development objectives may interpellate particular stakeholders in ways that render them ideologically complicitous in sustaining, rather than challenging, neoliberal logics of managerialism and economic maximization of marine resources. But in tune with the ontological condition of the social as radically contingent, the paper discusses how and why participatory spaces may constitute a potential space of contestation for marginalized voices and thus, reveal the political moment of marine spatial planning. Calls are made for future empirically grounded research that explores how these marine spatial planning practices are lived in both planning and extra-planning settings, and with what implications for marine protection and extant social relations of power in different marine spatial planning contexts.

  • 163.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Howarth, David
    University of Essex, UK.
    Griggs, Steven
    De Montfort University, UK.
    The Politics of Estonia's Offshore Wind Energy Programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning2019In: Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, ISSN 0263-774X, E-ISSN 1472-3425, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 157-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing recognition that marine spatial planning is an inherently political process marked by a clash of discourses, power and conflicts of interest. Yet, there are very few attempts to make sense of and explain the political practices of marine spatial planning protests in different contexts, especially the way that planners and developers create the conditions for the articulation of objections, and then develop new strategies to negotiate and mediate community resistance. Using poststructuralist discourse theory, the article analyses the politics of a proposed offshore wind energy project in Estonia within the context of the country’s marine spatial planning processes. First, through the lens of politicization, it explores the strategies of political mobilization and the rival discourses of expertise and sustainability through which residents and municipal actors have contested the offshore wind energy project. Secondly, through the lens of depoliticization, it explains the discursive and legalistic strategies employed by developers, planners and an Administrative Court to displace – spatially and temporally – the core issues of contestation, thus legitimizing the offshore wind energy plan. We argue that the spaces created by the preplanning conjuncture offered the most conducive conditions for residents to voice concerns about the proposed project in a dialogical fashion, whereas the marine spatial planning and post-planning phases became mired in a therapeutic-style consultation, set alongside rigid and unreflexive interpretations and applications of legality. We conclude by setting out the limits of the Estonian marine spatial planning as a process for resolving conflicts, while offering an alternative model of handling such public controversies, which we call pragmatic adversarialism.

  • 164.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Politics of Land Grabbing: State and corporate power and the (trans)nationalization of resistance in Cameroon2019In: Journal of Agrarian Change, ISSN 1471-0358, E-ISSN 1471-0366, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 41-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approaching land grabbing as a site of politics wherein power functions in the challenge and/or stabilization of agrarian socioecological injustices, we capture agrarian relations in Cameroon in 2 fundamental ways. Drawing on Laclauian insights, we discuss power as a “counter‐hegemonic” practice, to characterize the resistance strategies of local NGOs, in terms of their articulated discourses around the socioecological effects of land grabs, on the one hand, and the political possibilities that this articulatory practice opens, in terms of (trans)nationalizing resistance across social identities and space, on the other hand. Here, the analysis adopts a Foucauldian‐inspired critique with strong commitments towards agrarian socioecological justice, in a context where policies to protect democratic access to land are absent. Second, framed as a hegemonic/governmental “form of rule,” we capture how state and diplomatic actors sought to override dissent and stabilize the contentious land deal. We also show how a moment of presidential “nondecision,” characterized by a hyper‐centralized bureaucracy conjoined with these hegemonic forces to disempower local administrative and judicial leverage, thereby fostering corporate power. The article thus contributes to debates on state and corporate powers, as well as the strategies of, or possibilities and constraints for resistance “from below” to irradiate and structure into a compelling force.

  • 165.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Power and resistance in Cameroon: strategies, intentionality, intersectionality, and shifting spaces and identities2015In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 321-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how forest communities in Cameroon engage in social transformation when faced with social injustices and uneven power relations in their interactions with local state authorities and transnational corporations. It focuses on the different strategies that marginalized resource-dependent communities employ in resisting existing forms of domination manifested in public–private-community forest governance relations. We show how power operates in closed governance spaces to work against equitable, democratic and effective policy-making. We take as a point of departure that resistance or social change cannot be understood in isolation from power. Moreover, we engage with the intentionality debate and make the case that some forms of resistance are goal oriented in character. We reveal how disenfranchised communities, using powerful traditional ritual as a form of public protest, can effectively open up closed spaces and obtain effective participation in processes denied them. Our findings have significance for resistance and power debates relating to intentionality, intersectionality and outcomes.

  • 166.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Power Relations and Cassava: Conservation and Development in Cameroon2015In: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 82-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linking conservation and development activities requires local institutional change that can deliver global conservation as well as local socioeconomic benefits. Participatory approaches are considered a key element to this end, although recent research demonstrates that they may reinforce existing inequitable governance systems. This article examines microinstitutional formations and development interventions in the Mount Cameroon National Park. The study found that blending new governance approaches with traditional institutions at Mount Cameroon National Park led to diminished participation of the project and a failure to listen to and deliver meaningful development opportunities to Bavenga villagers. The article concludes that while local participation and governance institutions constitute laudable additions to Integrated Conservation and Development Projects, the implications of reproducing traditional authority structures must be carefully considered, and locally grounded development opportunities need to be better embedded into these projects.

  • 167. Thompson, Luke R.
    et al.
    Sanders, Jon G.
    McDonald, Daniel
    Amir, Amnon
    Ladau, Joshua
    Locey, Kenneth J.
    Prill, Robert J.
    Tripathi, Anupriya
    Gibbons, Sean M.
    Ackermann, Gail
    Navas-Molina, Jose A.
    Janssen, Stefan
    Kopylova, Evguenia
    Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki
    González, Antonio
    Morton, James T.
    Mirarab, Siavash
    Zech Xu, Zhenjiang
    Jiang, Lingjing
    Haroon, Mohamed F.
    Kanbar, Jad
    Zhu, Qiyun
    Jin Song, Se
    Kosciolek, Tomasz
    Bokulich, Nicholas A.
    Lefler, Joshua
    Brislawn, Colin J.
    Humphrey, Gregory
    Owens, Sarah M.
    Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad
    Berg-Lyons, Donna
    McKenzie, Valerie
    Fierer, Noah
    Fuhrman, Jed A.
    Clauset, Aaron
    Stevens, Rick L.
    Shade, Ashley
    Pollard, Katherine S.
    Goodwin, Kelly D.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Gilbert, Jack A.
    Knight, Rob
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zhao, Hongxia
    A communal catalogue reveals Earth’s multiscale microbial diversity2017In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 551, p. 457-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our growing awareness of the microbial world's importance and diversity contrasts starkly with our limited understanding of its fundamental structure. Despite recent advances in DNA sequencing, a lack of standardized protocols and common analytical frameworks impedes comparisons among studies, hindering the development of global inferences about microbial life on Earth. Here we present a meta-analysis of microbial community samples collected by hundreds of researchers for the Earth Microbiome Project. Coordinated protocols and new analytical methods, particularly the use of exact sequences instead of clustered operational taxonomic units, enable bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA gene sequences to be followed across multiple studies and allow us to explore patterns of diversity at an unprecedented scale. The result is both a reference database giving global context to DNA sequence data and a framework for incorporating data from future studies, fostering increasingly complete characterization of Earth's microbial diversity.

  • 168.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Franzetti, Andrea
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Science for Life Laboratories / Linnéuniversitetet.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e1593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning.

  • 169.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. KTH & Stockholm University.
    Plathan, Josefin
    Stockholm University.
    Poole, Anthony M
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    A Metagenomics Transect into the Deepest Point of the Baltic Sea Reveals Clear Stratification of Microbial Functional Capacities2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e74983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by hyposaline surface waters, hypoxic and anoxic deep waters and sediments. These conditions, which in turn lead to a steep oxygen gradient, are particularly evident at Landsort Deep in the Baltic Proper. Given these substantial differences in environmental parameters at Landsort Deep, we performed a metagenomic census spanning surface to sediment to establish whether the microbial communities at this site are as stratified as the physical environment. We report strong stratification across a depth transect for both functional capacity and taxonomic affiliation, with functional capacity corresponding most closely to key environmental parameters of oxygen, salinity and temperature.

    We report similarities in functional capacity between the hypoxic community and hadal zone communities, underscoring the substantial degree of eutrophication in the Baltic Proper. Reconstruction of the nitrogen cycle at Landsort deep shows potential for syntrophy between archaeal ammonium oxidizers and bacterial denitrification at anoxic depths, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation genes are absent, despite substantial ammonium levels below the chemocline. Our census also reveals enrichment in genetic prerequisites for a copiotrophic lifestyle and resistance mechanisms reflecting adaptation to prevalent eutrophic conditions and the accumulation of environmental pollutants resulting from ongoing anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea.

  • 170.
    Torkar, Janina
    et al.
    Slovenija.
    Brečko Grubar, Valentina
    Univerza na Primorskem, Slovenija.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Univerza v Wageningenu, Nizozemska.
    Razvoj podeželja na območju predvidenega Krajinskega parka Dragonja: mnenje aktivnih prebivalcev2017In: Geografski vestnik - Geographical Bullentin, ISSN 0350-3895, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents the results of a research done in rural settlements located within the area of the prospective Dragonja Landscape Park. We analysed documents of local communities, undertook observation of a workshop, and interviewed ten local inhabitants in order to obtain information about local inhabitants’ awareness and their interest in being involved in rural development, and about their valuing of the environment and natural resources, and to gain insight into their expectations in the matters of quality of life. We have established that our respondents are entirely familiar with the past and current development programs and projects, that they are well aware of the importance the protection of natural and cultural heritage has for sustainable development, and that they want to participate actively in the future. With the help of our respondents, observation in the workshop, and analysis of the documents also the less promising aspects of development have been revealed. We found out that local participation was weak in the past, that those who were active are in the minority, and that changes depend on the collective efforts of individuals. Those living in the remote villages located in the area of the prospective Dragonja Landscape Park are few and mostly of advanced age. It seems that the younger ones have resigned themselves to being powerless, and therefore it is urgent, in order to foster their participation in local development, to increase their awareness and motivation and extend their education. We also can expect that the incoming young people will have an important role to play.

  • 171.
    Tran, T. A.
    et al.
    National University of Singapore, Singapore / Australian National University, Australia / An Giang University, Vietnam.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    Integrating farmers’ adaptive knowledge into flood management and adaptation policies in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta: A social learning perspective2019In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 55, p. 84-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood management and adaptation are important elements in sustaining farming production in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD). While over the past decades hydraulic development introduced by the central government has substantially benefited the rural economy, it has simultaneously caused multiple barriers to rural adaptation. We investigate the relational practices (i.e., learning interactions) taking place within and across the flood management and adaptation boundaries from the perspective of social learning. We explore whether and how adaptive knowledge (i.e., experimental and experiential knowledge) derived from farmers’ everyday adaptation practices contributes to local flood management and adaptation policies in the selected areas. We collected data through nine focus groups with farmers and thirty-three interviews with government officials, environmental scientists, and farmers. Qualitative analysis suggests that such processes are largely shaped by the institutional context where the boundary is embedded. This study found that while the highly bureaucratic operation of flood management creates constraints for feedback, the more informal arrangements set in place at the local level provide flexible platforms conducive to open communication, collaborative learning, and exchange of knowledge among the different actors. This study highlights the pivotal role of shadow systems that provide space for establishing and maintaining informal interactions and relationships between social actors (e.g., interactions between farmers and extension officials) in stimulating and influencing, from the bottom-up, the emergence of adaptive knowledge about flood management and adaptation in a local context. 

  • 172.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Linköping University.
    Models of science-policy interaction: Exploring approaches to Bisphenol A management in the EU2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485-486, no 1, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated science-policy interaction models and their limitations under conditions of uncertainty. In detail, it looked at the management of the suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol A (BPA). Despite growing evidence that BPA is hazardous to human and environmental health, the level of scientific uncertainty is still high and, as a result, there is significant disagreement on the actual extent and type of risk. Analysis of decision-making processes at different regulatory levels (EU, Sweden, and the Swedish municipality of Gothenburg) exposed chemicals risk management and associated science-policy interaction under uncertainty. The results of the study show that chemicals management and associated science-policy interaction follow the modern model of science-policy interaction, where science is assumed to 'speak truth to policy' and highlights existing limitations of this model under conditions of uncertainty. The study not only explores alternative models (precautionary, consensus, science-policy demarcation. and extended participation) but also shows their limitations. The study concludes that all models come with their particular underlying assumptions, strengths, and limitations. At the same time, by exposing serious limitations of the modern model, the study calls for a rethinking of the relationship between science, policy, and management.

  • 173.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Participation and post-normal science in practice?: Reality check for hazardous chemicals management in the European marine environment2014In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 63, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses whether science-policy interactions linked to the management of hazardous chemicals in the European marine environment have developed in accordance with general theories on public involvement in policymaking in general and post-normal science (PNS) in particular. Special attention is given to a comparison between key EU policy frameworks, namely the "polluter-oriented" registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) and the "environment-oriented" Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), based on in-depth analysis of key policy-related documents and interviews with scientists and policy actors. The results outline that in spite of a substantial amount of rhetoric in EU sources about recommending wide and ambitious public involvement, current participation and deliberation practices are rather undeveloped in the studied EU policy frameworks. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the introduction of more radical approaches to knowledge co-production and participation (like PNS) would require epistemological, institutional and constitutional changes that are not feasible in the foreseeable future, at least not in respect to chemicals management. This study generates empirical data with regard to the management of chemicals in the European marine environment, specifically data on participation, the role of science, and uncertainty treatment at the science-policy interface. These data provide empirical information that can be used by environmental managers involved in the development of EU marine policy. At the same time, the results can be used theoretically to reflect on and problematise the current state of wider public participation in EU environmental policies and PNS development in particular cases.

  • 174.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hedren, Johan
    Linköping University.
    Utopian ideas about sustainability?: the case of chemical management in the EU2014In: International Journal of Sustainability Policy and Practice, ISSN 2325-1182, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 47-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines EU chemical management regimes with a focus on the treatment of uncertainty. Referring to current discourses on sustainability, the study criticizes existing practices and discusses alternative approaches to chemical management. In addition to highly discussed options for management under conditions of uncertainty (e.g., precautionary management and adaptive management), we argue that chemical management might also benefit from introducing the "sufficiency" concept into the production context. More generally, this would entail a shift in seeing quality of life as based on a sufficiency rather than an abundance of chemicals. The article concludes that, although these chemical management ideas might be very problematic, more integrated and holistic visions of future chemical and environmental policies might emerge from considering new sustainability ideas in various branches of the current economic system.

  • 175.
    van Helmond, Niels A.G.M.
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Quintana Krupinski, Nadine B.
    Lund University.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    Uppsala University.
    Obrochta, Stephen P.
    Akita University, Akita, Japan.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Slomp, Caroline P.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Seasonal hypoxia was a natural feature of the coastal zone in the Little Belt, Denmark, during the past 8 ka2017In: Marine Geology, ISSN 0025-3227, E-ISSN 1872-6151, Vol. 387, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of the hypoxic area in the Baltic Sea has rapidly expanded over the past century. Two previous phases of widespread hypoxia, coinciding with the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 2–0.8 ka BP), have been identified. Relatively little is known about bottom water redox conditions in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene, however. Here we studied the geochemical composition of a sediment sequence from a currently seasonally hypoxic site in the Danish coastal zone, the Little Belt, retrieved during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 (Site M0059). The base of the studied sediment sequence consists of clays low in organic carbon (Corg), molybdenum (Mo) and iron sulfides (Fe-sulfides), and rich in iron oxides (Fe-oxides), indicative of a well-oxygenated, oligotrophic (glacial) meltwater lake. An erosional unconformity separates the glacial lake sediments from sediments that are rich in Corg. The absence of Mo, in combination with high Corg/S values, indicates that these sediments were deposited in a highly productive, well-oxygenated freshwater lake. The transition to modern brackish/marine conditions was very rapid, and subsequent continuous sequestration of Mo in the sediment and high ratios of reactive iron (FeHR) over total Fe (FeTOT) suggest (seasonal) hypoxia occurred over the last ~ 8 ka. Maxima in sediment Corg, Mo and FeHR/FeTOT ratios during the HTM and MCA suggest that the hypoxia intensified. Our results demonstrate that the Little Belt is naturally susceptible to the development of seasonal hypoxia. While periods of climatic warming led to increased deoxygenation of bottom waters, high nutrient availability in combination with density stratification were likely the main drivers of hypoxia in this part of the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene.

  • 176.
    van Wirdum, Falkje
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wienholz, D.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kotthoff, U.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Moros, M.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany.
    Fanget, A. -S
    University of Perpignan, Perpignan, France.
    Seidenkrantz, M. -S
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Middle to late holocene variations in salinity and primary productivity in the central Baltic Sea: A multiproxy study from the landsort deep2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic forcing has led to an increased extent of hypoxic bottom areas in the Baltic Sea during recent decades. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is naturally prone to the development of hypoxic conditions due to its geographical, hydrographical, geological, and climate features. Besides the current spreading of hypoxia, the Baltic Sea has experienced two extensive periods of hypoxic conditions during the Holocene, caused by changing climate conditions during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4.8 cal ka BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 1–0.7 cal ka BP). We studied the variations in surface and bottom water salinity and primary productivity and their relative importance for the development and termination of hypoxia by using microfossil and geochemical data from a sediment core retrieved from the Landsort Deep during IODP Expedition 347 (Site M0063). Our findings demonstrate that increased salinity was of major importance for the development of hypoxic conditions during the HTM. In contrast, we could not clearly relate the termination of this hypoxic period to salinity changes. The reconstructed high primary productivity associated with the hypoxic period during the MCA is not accompanied by considerable increases in salinity. Our proxies for salinity show a decreasing trend before, during and after the MCA. Therefore, we suggest that this period of hypoxia is primarily driven by increasing temperatures due to the warmer climate. These results highlight the importance of natural climate driven changes in salinity and primary productivity for the development of hypoxia during a warming climate.

  • 177.
    Vinter, Tiina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Danzer, Ulrika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The relationship between landscape configuration and plant species richness in forests is dependent on habitat preferences of species2016In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 135, no 6, p. 1071-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the effects of landscape configuration on local plant species richness, we tested whether local species richness of forest understory plants is affected by the total forest area and forest edge length in the adjacent landscape. We also tested whether the landscape effect on species richness is different for forest and edge species. We estimated species richness from 113 forest sites in four regions in Northern Europe. At each site, we studied two plots, one at the edge and one in the core of the forest. Total forested area and forest edge length in circles with a 1-km radius, together with plot-specific variables of environmental conditions and temporal continuity of forests, were recorded at each plot. The amount of forest and the length of the forest edge in the adjacent landscape had a significant positive effect on local species richness of all understory plant species. As expected, edge species were positively affected by increasing length of the forest edge in the landscape, but surprisingly there was no effect of forest area on species richness of forest species. Temporal forest continuity had a negative effect on species richness of edge species but no effect on species richness of forest species. Our results suggest that forest edge length had a stronger landscape effect on understory plant species richness than forest area. Implications of these findings for the management of forest landscapes depend on priorities given to different species groups in biodiversity conservation, i.e. if emphasis is in total species richness or species richness of forest or edge species.

  • 178.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Caspillo, Nasim Reyhanian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 17α-Ethinylestradiol affects non-reproductive behavior and fertility as adults, and increases anxiety in unexposed progeny2015In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 73, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) during of development affects fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. These effects can also be transferred to coming generations. In fish, the effects of developmental EDC exposure on non-reproductive behavior is less well studied. Here, we analyze the effects of 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) on anxiety, shoaling behavior and fertility in zebrafish after developmental treatment and remediation in clean water until adulthood. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from day 1 to day 80 post fertilization to actual concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2. After remediation for 82days non-reproductive behavior and fertilization success were analyzed in both sexes. Males and females from the 1.2ng/L group, as well as control males and females, were bred, and behavior of the untreated F1 offspring was tested as adults. Developmental treatment with 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2 significantly increased anxiety in the Novel Tank test and increased shoaling intensity in both sexes. Fertilization success was significantly reduced by EE2 in both sexes when mated with untreated fish of opposite sex. Progeny of fish treated with 1.2ng/L EE2 showed increased anxiety in the Novel tank test and increased light avoidance in the Scototaxis test compared to control offspring. In conclusion, developmental exposure of zebrafish to low doses of EE2 resulted in persistent changes in behavior and fertility. The behavior of unexposed progeny were affected by their parents' exposure, which might suggest transgenerational effects.

  • 179.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro university.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Uppsala university.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Transgenerational effects of 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol on anxiety behavior in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata2015In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 223, p. 66-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Warnock, J.P.
    et al.
    University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA, USA.
    Bauersachs, T.
    Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany.
    Kotthoff, U.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Brandt, H.-T.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Holocene environmental history of the Ångermanälven Estuary, northern Baltic Sea2018In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 593-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea has experienced a complex geological history, with notable swings in salinity driven by changes to its connection with the Atlantic and glacio-isostatic rebound. Sediments obtained during International Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 allow the study of the effects of these changes on the ecology of the Baltic in high resolution through the Holocene in areas where continuous records had not always been available. Sites M0061 and M0062, drilled in the Ångermanälven Estuary (northern Baltic Sea), contain records of Holocene-aged sediments and microfossils. Here we present detailed records of palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental changes to the Ångermanälven Estuary inferred from diatom, palynomorph and organic-geochemical data. Based on diatom assemblages, the record is divided into four zones that comprise the Ancylus Lake, Littorina Sea, Post-Littorina Sea and Recent Baltic Sea stages. The Ancylus Lake phase is initially characterized as oligotrophic, with the majority of primary productivity in the upper water column. This transition to a eutrophic state continues into the Initial Littorina Sea stage. The Initial Littorina Sea stage contains the most marine phase recorded here, as well as low surface water temperatures. These conditions end before the Littorina Sea stage, which is marked by a return to oligotrophic conditions and warmer waters of the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Glacio-isostatic rebound leads to a shallowing of the water column, allowing for increased benthic primary productivity and stratification of the water column. The Medieval Climate Anomaly is also identified within Post-Littorina Sea sediments. Modern Baltic sediments and evidence of human-induced eutrophication are seen. Human influence upon the Baltic Sea begins c. 1700 cal. a BP and becomes more intense c. 215 cal. a BP.

     

  • 181.
    Yakusheva, Natalya
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Socio-demographic changes in and around protected areas and management responses: Case studies from the Carpathians2016In: Parks of the Future:: Protected Areas in Europe Challenging Regional and Global Change / [ed] Thomas Hammer, Ingo Mose, Dominik Siegrist, Norbert Weixlbaumer, Munich: oekom verlag, 2016, p. 225-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Öhlund, Erika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Björklund, J.
    Örebro University.
    Managing conflicting goals in pig farming: farmers’ strategies and perspectives on sustainable pig farming in Sweden2017In: International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, ISSN 1473-5903, E-ISSN 1747-762X, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 693-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial meat production has several negative environmental effects. Governments’ agricultural policies aim for cost efficiency combined with high environmental and animal welfare, which puts farmers in a difficult situation trying to navigate between sometimes contradictory requirements. This paper studies how Swedish pig farmers resolve or cope with conflicting goals in pig farming. We have analysed the regulations governing EU and Swedish pig farming. We have also interviewed five Swedish pig farmers about their views of the different goals of pig farming and strategies for resolving conflicts between the goals of low environmental impact, high animal welfare and enough profitability to continue farming. The greatest divide was between the conventional farmers, who emphasized natural resource efficiency, and the organic farmers who stressed animal welfare, multifunctionality and ecosystem service delivery. We suggest four strategies to contribute to resolving some of the conflicting goals: improve communication about different types of pig farming; use public procurement as a driver towards more sustainable pork production; work towards improving the Common Agricultural Policy, perhaps by implementing payments for ecosystem services or multifunctionality; and finally, decrease the total production of pork to lower the emissions per land unit.

  • 183.
    Öhlund, Erika
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Zurek, Karolina
    Stockholm University / Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Towards Sustainable Agriculture?: The EU framework and local adaptation in Sweden and Poland2015In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 270-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural systems can be seen as nested social-ecological systems. European Union (EU) Member States vary considerably in terms of their agricultural, socio-economic and environmental circumstances. Yet, as participants in the common agricultural market, they are subject to a uniform Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). An important question is whether there is enough room for flexibility to sustain diverse agricultural systems and facilitate national targeting of sustainability-promoting measures. This article analyses the institutional arrangements concerning cross-scale interactions and interdependencies at national and regional (EU) levels, focusing on how Poland and Sweden implement CAP funds in relation to sustainable agriculture, in particular the agri-environmental schemes, for the period 2007-2013. What room is there in practice for accommodating national differences and sustainability priorities offered by the EU agricultural policy, and how are the existing opportunities used by the two countries? It is shown that agri-environmental funds are too small to prevent transition towards large-scale farming in new Member States and CAP does not effectively promote transformation towards sustainable practices in the EU.

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