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  • 101.
    Bökmark, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Linnala, Laura
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Miljön som handelsvara: en diskursanalys över utsläppsrättssystem2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Växthusgasnivåerna i atmosfären har nått nivåer som påverkar klimatet på jorden. Det här ställer krav på politiska överenskommelser som effektivt kan verka för en minskning av växthusgaser i atmosfären. Kyotoprotokollet implementerades 1997 och innehåller lagbindande krav på medlemsländerna att minska sina växthusgasutsläpp och presenterar utsläppsrätter som styrmedel för att nå målen. Utsläppsrätter innebär att politiker sätter ett pris på rätten att släppa ut och låter verksamheter som förorenar handla med rätterna, vilket enligt nationalekonomisk marknadsteori är det mest effektiva sättet att gå tillväga. Detta kan däremot kritiseras av ekologiska ekonomer som motsätter sig prissättande av miljön.

    Diskursteori används för att studera vad som har normaliserats med införandet av utsläppsrättssystem och därför inte ifrågasätts. Analysen visade att två diskurser primärt råder i den utvalda empirin; ekonomisk liberalism och teknologisk tilltro. Fokus på vinst, tillväxt, kostnadseffektivitet samt teknikoptimism återkom i alla tre dokumenten och framställs som avgörande för att nå målen för utsläppsreduktion.

    Utsläppsrätter är ett ekonomiskt styrmedel vars styrka ligger i marknadsmekanismer, men ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv finns problematik med prissättande av miljön; framförallt att det vilar på svag hållbarhet. Även marknadens otillräckliga förmåga att ta hänsyn till moraliska angelägenheter, prissättning av miljön och att ansvarsförskjutning mot företag placerar en större klyfta mellan människa och miljö kan tolkas som problematiskt.

  • 102.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. natasja.borjeson@sh.se.
    Toxic Textiles: Towards Responsibility in Complex Supply Chains2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En av våra samtida stora utmaningar är hanteringen av de miljö- och hälsoproblem som följer i svallvågorna av en globaliserad handel. En av dessa utmaningar rör hanteringen av kemikalierisker. Inom textilbranschen är produktionen kemikalieintensiv och handelsmönstren karakteriseras av komplexa varukedjor som inte sällan sträcker sig över flera kontinenter. Samtidigt pågår en förändring av inblandade aktörers roller, där marknadsaktörer uppmanas att på ett ansvarstagande sätt hantera frågan om kemikalierisker och de utmaningar som hör därtill. Denna process försvåras ofta till följd av ett komplext samhälle präglat av kunskapsbrister. Detta komplicerar ansvarstagande och gör det svårt att hålla specifika aktörer, såsom företag och inköpande organisationer, ansvariga, då det inte är uppenbart vem som är ansvarig för vad. Denna avhandling undersöker hur en grupp marknadsaktörer – privata och offentliga textilinköpare – tar ansvar för kemikalierisker längs med sina varukedjor i en situation som karaktäriseras av osäkerhet och komplexitet. Avhandlingen syftar till att fördjupa förståelsen för vad som händer när marknadsaktörer uppmanas att hantera miljö- och hälsorisker från till exempel kemikalier i textil. Fokus ligger på svenska privata och offentliga textilinköpare, som exempelvis kläd- och textilföretag, offentlig förvaltning och andra inköpande organisationer. I avhandlingen konstrueras en analytisk modell baserad på nyckelbegreppen responsible governance, responsibilisation och responsible supply chain management. Avhandlingen är explorativ och genom intervjuer, deltagande observationer och litteraturstudier samt fallstudier undersöks en potentiell process av ansvarstagande samt de hinder, utmaningar och möjligheter som de inköpande organisationerna möter i sitt arbete med kemikalierisker längs med sina varukedjor. Resultaten belyser en pågående process av ansvarsförfarande på både organisations och sektornsivå. Avhandlingen visar också att på grund av kedjans komplexa struktur så förekommer större hinder och utmaningar än möjligheter för de textilinköpare som strävar efter ansvarstagande. Trots detta pekar resultaten på att samarbete, kraftfullare styrmedel och ett reflexivt tillvägagångssätt skulle kunna vara en väg mot ökat ansvarstagande inom textilsektorn.

  • 103.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro Universitet.
    Towards reflexive responsibility in a textile supply chain2018Ingår i: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 230-239Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 104.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Knowledge challenges for responsible supply chain management of chemicals in textiles - as experienced by procuring organisations2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, s. 130-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A great number of chemicals - many of which are hazardous to human health and the environment - are used along the complex supply chains of textiles. These complexities and hazards make knowledge for understanding chemical properties and management practices at multiple nodes central to the responsible management of textile supply chains. This study investigates the knowledge requirements of, and the knowledge strategies used by, textile procuring organisations in response to both external stakeholders and internal pressure. Based on a qualitative study of small and medium-sized Swedish textile procuring organisations, the paper describes these knowledge challenges and analyses how efforts to meet them relate to expressed commitments and capabilities for responsible supply chain management (RSCM), as well as to organisational characteristics (i.e. whether the organisation is private or public, small or large, and whether textiles is a core or peripheral activity). It was found that several textile procuring organisations expressed commitment towards achieving RSCM. However, most organisations felt that they lacked capacity to rise to the challenge. There was a poor state of knowledge regarding many chemical substances and inherent difficulties in gaining knowledge of chemical risks and how to manage these. Moreover, the input of knowledge was limited and based on only a few key sources. Such factors proved to be obstacles for procuring organisations when attempting to facilitate responsible management upstream in complex supply chains.

  • 105.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    KTH.
    Green Chemistry, the REACH Regulation and Textile CompaniesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 106.
    Börjesson, Hannah
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Miljömärkning av logianläggningar: En studie av effekterna på Green Key-märkta hotell och vandrarhems miljöprestanda2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Logisektorn står för en betydande del av resurskonsumtionen och den miljömässiga påverkan från turistindustrin. Idag finns ett växande antal miljömärkningar för att hjälpa logianläggningar att bli mer hållbara - en av de ledande internationella miljömärkningarna är Green Key. Logianläggningar kan ha olika motiv till att ansluta sig till en miljömärkning förutom ett internt miljöengagemang; kostnadsbesparingar, konkurrensfördelar, fler gäster och ökad lönsamhet.

    Den här studien har undersökt skillnader kring Green Keys effekter på anläggningar smiljöprestanda beroende på typ av anläggning, samt om antalet uppfyllda poängkriterier påverkar miljöprestandan. Syftet var framförallt att ta reda på om Green Key minskar logianläggningars miljöpåverkan över tid, och om märkningen leder till ett ökat antal gäster beroende på vilken typ av gäster anläggningarna hade främst.

    En kvantitativ metod valdes och longitudinell data över Green Key-anslutna hotell och vandrarhems årliga vatten-, el- och energiförbrukning samlades in. Även data över antal gästnätter per år, typ av gäster och total inomhusyta sammanställdes. Statistiska tester genomfördes och de visade att det inte fanns ett samband mellan antal uppfyllda poängkriterier och miljöpåverkan. Logianläggningarnas resursförbrukning skiljde sig endast åt gällande elförbrukning, där hotell hade en signifikant högre elförbrukning/m2 än vandrarhem. Resultatet visade att det fanns en effekt av Green Key på anläggningarnas resursförbrukning över tid. Effekten slog något olika, men majoriteten av anläggningarna hade minskat förbrukningen över tid. Det fanns en signifikant skillnad i vattenförbrukning/gästnatt från startåret med Green Key i jämförelse med 2015. Det fanns ingen skillnad i ökning av antalet gäster beroende på typ av gäster, men antalet gästnätter totalt var dock fler efter en miljömärkning med Green Key än före. Det är emellertid svårt att påvisa om effekten beror på Green Key eller andra faktorer.

  • 107.
    Bös, Julian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Collective learning in the multilevel governance project Civitas Dyn@mo: A case of knowledge management2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflexive approaches to (multilevel) governance are currently discussed as essential for sustainable outcomes of decision-making. A key element of reflexive governance has been called collective learning. Collective learning has been argued to be a necessary tool or safeguard against the misuse of power in the context of sustainable decision-making. Though being named a key element, the effects of collective learning processes on power and conflict dynamics have been defined very vaguely in reflexive governance approaches. If at all, collective learning is described as an excursive debate that - given the choice of experienced actors and a set of rules – will automatically lead to balanced power distribution. This work contributes to the scientific discourse on reflexive governance by conceptualizing the process of collective learning in two steps. The first involves a conceptual claim whereby it is shown that collective learning, in addition to a discursive debate, consists of three ‘aspects’, communication, participation, knowledge implementation. This claim is exemplified via the investigation of a case of knowledge management in the sustainable governance project Civitas Dyn@mo, as it reflects the suggested aspects of collective learning.

  • 108. Castillo, Luisa Eugenia
    et al.
    Martinez, Eduardo
    Ruepert, Clemens
    Savage, Candida
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Stockholm University.
    Pinnock, Margareth
    Solis, Efrain
    Water quality and macroinvertebrate community response following pesticide applications in a banana plantation, Limon, Costa Rica2006Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, nr 1, s. 418-432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pesticides used in banana production may enter watercourses and pose ecological risks for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and effects of pesticides in a stream draining a banana plantation was evaluated using chemical characterization, toxicity testing and macrobenthic community composition. All nematicides studied were detected in the surface waters of the banana plantation during application periods, with peak concentrations following applications. Toxicity tests were limited to the carbofuran application and no toxicity was observed with the acute tests used. However, since pesticide concentrations were generally below the lowest LC50 value for crustaceans but above calculated aquatic quality criteria, there remains a risk of chronic toxicity. Accurate ecological assessments of pesticide use in banana plantations are currently limited by the lack of local short-term chronic toxicity tests and tests using sensitive native species. Relatively constant levels of four pesticides (imazalil, thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos and propiconazole), which had toxic effects according to the 96h hydra and 21d daphnia chronic test, were recorded in the effluent of the packing plant throughout the study, indicating that the solid waste trap used in this facility was not effective in eliminating toxic chemicals. Certain taxa, such as Heterelmis sp. (Elmidae), Heteragrion sp. (Megapodagrionidae, Odonata), Caenis sp. (Caenidae, Ephemerotera), and Smicridea sp. (Hidropsychidae, Trichoptera), were more abundant at reference sites than in the banana farm waters, and may be good candidates for toxicity testing. Multivariate analyses of the macroinvertebrate communities clearly showed that the banana plantation sites were significantly different from the reference sites. Moreover, following the pesticide applications, all the banana plantation sites showed significant changes in community composition, with the same genera being affected at all sites and for all pesticides (terbufas, cadusafos and carbofuran). Consequently, the results presented here show that multivariate analysis of community composition was more sensitive in distinguishing pesticide effects than the toxicity tests and richness and composition measures used. We conclude that monitoring macroinvertebrate communities can be a powerful tool in the assessment of ecological effects of banana production.

  • 109. Clarke, A. L.
    et al.
    Weckström, K.
    Conley, D. J.
    Anderson, N. J.
    Adser, F.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Jonge, V. N. de
    Ellegaard, M.
    Juggins, S.
    Kauppila, P.
    Korhola, A.
    Reuss, N.
    Telford, R. J.
    Vaalgamaa, S.
    Long-Term Trends in Eutrophication and Nutrients in the Coastal Zone2006Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 385-397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We used high-resolution paleoecological records of environmental change to study the rate and magnitude of eutrophication over the last century in two contrasting coastal ecosystems. A multiproxy approach using geochemical and biological indicators and diatom-based transfer functions provides a long-term perspective on changes in nutrient concentrations and the corresponding biological and sedimentary responses. In Roskilde Fjord, Denmark, total nitrogen (TN) increased 85% during the last century, with the most rapid increase occurring after the 1950s, corresponding to the postwar increase in N fertilizer use. In Laajalahti Bay, an urban embayment near Helsinki, Finland, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) increased with growing wastewater inputs and decreased with the remedial actions taken to reduce these discharges. These changes are small relative to the order of magnitude increases in nutrient loading that have occurred in northwestern Europe, where the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) load has increased more than threefold in certain areas.

  • 110.
    Cortobius Fredriksson, Moa
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Involvement without Influence?: Theoretical and Organisational Premises for Women´s Empowerment in Development Programmes2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the thesis is to discuss how the theoretical and organisational premises of the gender approaches of development programmes affect their possibilities to empower women and to enhance gender equality. This will be done through a study of the gender approaches of six development programmes for democratic and economic governance in the water and sanitation sector located in Angola, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay and Philippines respectively. The programmes strive towards the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals and are financed by the Spanish Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund. The programmes‟ gender approaches are defined as: the way the programmes interpret the concepts of women‟s empowerment and gender equality; the way they incorporate the concepts into their programme design and organisational structure, and; the activities and strategies implemented to enhance women‟s empowerment and gender equality in the programme areas. The analysis of the gender approaches of the programmes will be centred on the five theoretical assumptions which together state that a) a gender approach based on a collective postulation, with; b) adequate mechanisms for women‟s influence and; c) a purposeful involvement of men, backed-up by; d) adequate resource and responsibility allocation, and; e) a gender integrated design enabling evaluation and monitoring, is more probable to empower women. The main findings of the thesis are that: 1) all of the six gender approaches of the programmes are fundamentally individualistic and driven by efficiency rationales; 2) women‟s possible influence is generally limited and partial because of inadequate scope of participatory spaces; 3) men are not considered in any of the gender approaches; 4) the responsibility allocation for gender issues is the most important organisational feature for the implementation of the approaches, but it is weak in the majority of the programmes; 5) the integration of gender in the programme design and the funding mechanisms appear to not affect the implementation directly. Based on the results of the thesis it is concluded that both the theoretical and organisational premises of the gender approaches create small possibilities for the programmes to empower women and to enhance gender equality. The results also point to what appears to be fundamental structural weaknesses in the present gender interpretation, integration and implementation of international development agencies.

  • 111.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik. Swedish Environm Protect Agcy.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Tolerance to apical and leaf damage of Raphanus raphanistrum in different competitive regimes2015Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, nr 22, s. 5193-5202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tolerance to herbivory is an adaptation that promotes regrowth and maintains fitness in plants after herbivore damage. Here, we hypothesized that the effect of competition on tolerance can be different for different genotypes within a species and we tested how tolerance is affected by competitive regime and damage type. We inflicted apical or leaf damage in siblings of 29 families of an annual plant Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae) grown at high or low competition. There was a negative correlation of family tolerance levels between competition treatments: plant families with high tolerance to apical damage in the low competition treatment had low tolerance to apical damage in the high competition treatment and vice versa. We found no costs of tolerance, in terms of a trade-off between tolerance to apical and leaf damage or between tolerance and competitive ability, or an allocation cost in terms of reduced fitness of highly tolerant families in the undamaged state. High tolerance bound to a specific competitive regime may entail a cost in terms of low tolerance if competitive regime changes. This could act as a factor maintaining genetic variation for tolerance.

  • 112.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University.
    Dahlgren, Henrik
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, s. 1597-1604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.

  • 113.
    Dick, Jan
    et al.
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, UK.
    Verweij, Peter
    Earth Informatics, Alterra, Wageningen-UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Carmen, Esther
    Earth Informatics, Alterra, Wageningen-UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Andrews, Christopher
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, UK.
    Testing the ecosystem service cascade framework and QUICKScan software tool in the context of land use planning in Glenlivet Estate Scotland2017Ingår i: International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, ISSN 2151-3732, E-ISSN 2151-3740, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 12-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ecosystem services has been extensively studied in recent decades. Most studies have focused on describing the specific aspects such as production, spatial extent, valuation of services and the trade-off between services. Few studies however assess the practitioners? views on the frameworks, models or tools developed. In this paper, we report on a multi-stakeholder workshop where two tools were tested (i) the ecosystem service cascade framework was tested as a means to frame the issues and (ii) a participatory-spatial modelling method, QUICKScan, was tested as an aid to support discussion over natural resource management and planning in a multi-use landscape. A focused group discussion was utilised to determine stakeholders? views of the cascade framework and pre- and post-workshop questionnaires quantified the stakeholders? views of the QUICKScan method. The stakeholders identified both positive and negative aspects of both tools. The diversity of views expressed were associated with (i) the past experience of the individual with the issues discussed, (ii) the technical aspects of the tools i.e. the ability with GIS and (iii) the level of new shared knowledge they reported acquiring on the day which was related to their initial knowledge of the issue and area studied.

  • 114.
    Dicks, Lynn
    et al.
    University of East Anglia, UK .
    Haddaway, Neil
    Stockholm Research Institute.
    Hernández-Morcillo, Monica
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.
    Mattsson, Brady
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Randall, Nicole
    Harper Adams University, UK.
    Failler, Pierre
    University of Portsmouth, UK.
    Ferretti, Johanna
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany.
    Livoreil, Barbara
    FRB, France.
    Saarikoski, Heli
    SYKE.
    Santamaria, Luis
    Spanish Research Council, Spain.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Velizarova, Emiliya
    Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria.
    Wittmer, Heidi
    UFZ.
    Knowledge synthesis for environmental decisions: an evaluation of existing methods, and guidance for their selection, use and development : a report from the EKLIPSE project2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 115.
    Dreyer, Marion
    et al.
    DIALOGIK Non-Profit Institute for Communication and Cooperation Research, Stuttgart, Germany .
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Participatory Deliberation, Risk Governance and Management of the Marine Region in the European Union2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 497-515Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, marine environmental risks are governed in a complex multi-level system. The role that the marine region could or should play as a level of risk governance has attracted growing attention of late. In this context, reference has been made to the regional sea as one level at which participatory processes in the future governing of European Union's (EU) marine environment and resources are required. The paper unfolds the particular challenges that one faces when trying to implement stakeholder and citizen participatory deliberation at marine region level. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive is highlighted as a key European environmental policy initiative and participatory deliberation at regional sea level is underlined as a requirement for the Directive's successful implementation. The paper's account of participatory deliberation is informed by perspectives of inclusive risk governance and reflexive governance. The discussion of the challenges draws on the distinction between horizontal and vertical risk governance. The paper's main argument is that frequently encountered problems of participatory deliberation are exacerbated when deliberation is to be carried out at the regional sea level, i.e. at a large trans-boundary scale. These problems include the 'inclusivity-effectiveness dilemma', a fragmentation of participation efforts and a loose connection to actual decision-making.

  • 116. Dreyer, Marion
    et al.
    Sellke, Piet
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Jönsson, Anna-Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Structures and processes of stakeholder and public communication on Baltic Seaenvironmental risks: RISKGOV Deliverable 102011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 117.
    Dublinowska, M.
    et al.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Zabrzańska, S.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Czerniawska, N.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Intersexuality in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis Complex (Mytilidae) from the Baltic Sea and the Danish Strait2016Ingår i: American Malacological Bulletin, ISSN 0740-2783, E-ISSN 2162-2698, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 28-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations of Mytilus edulis complex were studied from 13 stations located at three areas of the Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland; Tvärminne area, Finland; Trosa Archipelago, Sweden) and the Skagerrak sound (Kristineberg, Sweden). The main purpose of the study was to document the occurrence of intersexuality along longitudinal salinity change using squash and histology for comparative reasons. Intersex was identified in all four geographical areas at an average frequency of 1.8%. Squash technique revealed the highest intersex frequency in the Gulf of Gdańsk (up to 6.25%) whereas histology examination did so in the Kristineberg area (up to 10%). In the Tvärminne area and in the Trosa Archipelago the average frequency of intersex did not exceed 2% regardless of the technique used; this suggests a natural induction of the phenomenon. Statistically significant spatial differences in intersex frequency were confirmed for mussels inhabiting polluted hotspots in the Gulf of Gdańsk and at the west coast of Sweden (Kristineberg). Therefore, for these localities artificial induction of intersexuality as a consequence of adverse environmental threats (pollution, parasite outbreaks) is further suggested. Furthermore, squash technique - being less sensitive in identifying intersex when compared to histology - is not recommended for mussels with severe reproductive impairments making a proper analysis of gonads impossible. Intersexual individuals were also characterized by less developed gonads and lower gonado-somatic index (GSI) than males and females. Significantly lower GSI revealed less energy allocation towards reproduction in populations from the Trosa Archipelago and Tvärminne area in comparison to those from the Gulf of Gdańsk and from Kristineberg.

  • 118.
    Edlund, Nathalie
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gaspar, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jordbruksfåglarnas minskning i Stockholms län: En kvantitativ studie av fåglarna i jordbrukslandskapet2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1970s, a breeding bird survey was conducted to see how many birds are breeding in Sweden. This was done because the research at the time pointed out that there was a decrease in the number of bird species. This inventory became known as atlas inventory 1, and an additional inventory was done in the 2000s, which was called atlas inventory 2. The second inventory was carried out in order to see trends in bird population distribution and to be compared with atlas inventory 1. The purpose of this study was to examine if it is possible to compare the inventories with each other to see if there are any changes in the number of breeding birds in Sweden. The study was limited to the Stockholm report area, which includes all municipalities in Stockholm County except for Norrtälje. A limitation was also made to only examine agricultural birds, where six species were selected. The results show that the number of atlas squares with data for breeding birds within the Stockholm report area have decreased between atlas inventory 1 and atlas inventory 2. To obtain these results, information was retrieved from the website Artportalen, and was then compiled and processed in Excel and ArcMap. A comparison between the period 2013-2016 and atlas inventory 2 was also done, which showed a decrease in the number of atlas squares with available data, as well as a reduction in the number of observations of breeding birds.

  • 119. Einarsson, Peter
    Policy interventions for ecological recycling agriculture: Available options for governments in the Baltic Sea region2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 120.
    Ekblom, Mikaela
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Challenges Facing Food Processing MSEs in Tanzania: A Qualitative Case Study of the Sunflower Oil Industry in Babati, Manyara2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Food processing micro- and small-scale enterprises (MSEs) play an important role in the national economic development of Tanzania. Though many of them have great growth potential, they face a number of constraints hindering further development, and large amounts of cooking oil are imported each year. The aim of thesis has therefore been to identify and analyse the different factors affecting these MSEs in order to find out which the major growth challenges are. The case study is mainly based on individual semi-structured interviews with sunflower oil processors and farmers in Babati districts, conducted in February and March 2016, and earlier research and studies on the topic of MSE growth make up the theoretical framework used for analysis of the data. The findings show that there are indeed numerous challenges facing these processors, and the major constraint was found to be lack of capital; an issue causing or worsening a majority of the other challenges at hand. Other problems are related to raw material, equipment & electricity for processing, regulations, market accessibility, and competition. These obstacles need to be overcome in order to enable the industry's expansion within and outside of Tanzania, and further research is recommended.

  • 121.
    Ekblom, Olga
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The Green Wave: How communication, advocacy andparticipation measures are included indocuments important for increase bicycling inStockholm City and Nacka Municipality2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens allt mer urbaniserade värld börjar fler funktioner i staden sättas under hårt tryck, inte minst transportsektorn. Motordriven trafik är orsaken till en rad negativa miljöeffekter, så som koldioxidutsläpp och partikelföroreningar. För att stävja denna utveckling och öka framkomligheten i de allt mer fullbelagda städerna behöver andelen cyklister öka. Tre områden som är av stort intresse för att öka andelen cyklister är kommunikation, påverkan och delaktighet. Därav undersöktes dessa områden i en jämförande studie. Stockholms län är en region med kraftigt ökande befolkningsandel och där transportsektorn är särskilt ansatt. Därför valdes regionen för att genomföra en jämförande studie där Stockholms stad och Nacka kommun selekterades som studieobjekt. Detta eftersom Stockholms stad är den störta kommunen i regionen, de är många som arbetar i de centrala delarna och de finns ökande framkomlighetsproblem i kommunen. Därefter valdes Nacka kommun som jämförande kommun, baserat på differensmetoden. Stockholms stad och Nacka kommun har liknande socio-ekonomisk sammansättning och de har liknande förutsättningar vad gäller cykelmöjligheter. Utöver det har båda kommunerna egna cykelstrategier. De som skiljer kommunerna åt är att Nacka kommun under senare år har blivit prisat för sitt arbete inom cykelområdet. De tilldelades 2016 Årets Cykelprestation av Stockholms regionala cykelkansli under 2017 placerade sig Nacka kommun som nummer ett för medelstora kommuner, och fyra totalt, i Kommunvelometern presenterat av Cykelfrämjandet. I Kommunvelometern hamnar Stockholm Stad som 8 av 11 stora kommuner och på plats 16 totalt. Undersökningen gjordes genom analys av dokument som ansågs ha betydelse för cykelsatsningar inom respektive kommun. Det innefattade bland annat översiktsplaner, framkomlighetsstrategier och interna kommunikationsdokument. Analysen gjordes med hjälp av två typologier. För att se hur kommunikation och påverkan används i dokumenten användes en utveckling av typologin Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) och för att se hur delaktighets beskrevs i dokumenten användes Arnsteins delaktighetsstege. Analysen visade många likheter mellan fallen. Dock framgick det att Nacka kommun presterade bättre med sin användning av sociala medier och genom främst två aktiviteter, Cykelvänlig arbetsplats och Cykla på vintern. Från slutsatsen kunde sedan tre rekommendationer lämnas. För det första bör cyklister inkluderas tidigt i processerna genom någon from av cykelråd. Det är också viktigt att försöka skapa cykelförebilder runtom i hela kommunerna, både i socio-ekonomiska starka och svaga områden. Till sist bör cykeldedikerade kommunikationskanaler skapas, förslagsvis på sociala medier. Detta ger en plattform som ger cykling ökad status, där cykling kan främjas och det skapar inte minst en möjlighet för medborgarkommunikation.

  • 122.
    Ekedahl, Sanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Trädet, tillståndet, turerna: Konflikten i samband med beslutet om TV-ekens fällning2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hösten 2011 fälldes den flera hundra år gamla skyddsvärdesklassade ek, kallad TV-eken, som stod på Oxenstiernsgatan på Östermalm i Stockholm. I samband med fällningsbeslutet – ett på papperet tekniskt beslut om att fälla ett riskträd, men som av protesterande människor tolkades som ett helt annat beslut – uppstod en konflikt mellan ansvariga beslutsfattare och personer som ville bevara eken. Syftet med denna studie är att förstå vilka händelser och processer som ledde fram till den konflikt som uppstod i samband med beslutet om fällningen av TV-eken. Intervjuer med ansvarig tjänsteman på Stockholms stads trafikkontor och tre ekaktivister har genomförts och kompletterats med en mindre granskning av relevanta dokument. På grund av parternas bakgrund och förutfattade bild av varandra kom konflikten att handla om fler frågor än sakfrågan (TV-ekens fällning). De nya studier som gjordes av ekens tillstånd förvärrade konflikten då ingen av undersökningarna ansågs legitima av båda parter. Båda parter har uttryckt stor misstänksamhet gentemot den andra parten och många handlingar har tolkats som strategiska. Bristfällig kommunikation mellan parterna är den övergripande förklaringen till att konflikten uppstod och växte.

  • 123.
    Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Loftsson, Elfar
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och samhälle, Statsvetenskap.
    Norling, Sofia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhälle och historia, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Strandskyddsproblematiken på Ornö: En kritisk diskussion kring miljöpolitisk decentralisering2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ofta hävdas att de lokala, direkt berörda parterna är mest lämpade att fatta beslut i miljöfrågor. I denna pilotstudie sätts det ifråga. En undersökning presenteras av hur lagen om strandskydd fungerar på kommunal nivå, mer specifikt dess tillämpning i Haninge kommun och skärgårdsön Ornö.

  • 124.
    Elander, Lina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Diatom analyses of sediment from Himmerfjärden estuary, southern archipelago of Stockholm: has the water discharge from a constructed sewage treatment plant led to eutrophication?2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A sediment core from Himmerfjärden estuary, south of Stockholm, was examined to detect records of eutrophication on the site since the opening of the sewage treatment plant Himmerfjärdsverket in 1974. The core was analysed with respect to the diatom record and lithology. Four macrofossil that were found in the sediment were dated using 14C-dating.    This study aims to detect changes in the environment of Himmerfjärden by using the diatom stratigraphy record. The results have been interpreted and discussed regarding natural environmental and climate change and/or anthropogenic impact, and detected changes will be associated with the history of the sampling site. The results show that the lowermost zone started to deposit around 1300-1490 cal yr BP and the homogeneous sediment indicates that the area was not suffering from hypoxia at that time. There is a successive transition towards more distinct lamination further up in the core which show that the environment in Himmerfjärden have changed and become hypoxic. This may have to do with factors such as the opening of heavily trafficked Södertälje Canal, and also the increased nutrient input from Himmerfjärdsverket.    This study could be a part of the process of working towards a “good environmental status” in the Baltic Sea. However, continued and improved work is needed for further and more accurate interpretations.

  • 125.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Niklas
    Uppsala University.
    Matsdotter, Elina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Arntyr, Johan
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of climate information on milk demand: Evidence from a field experiment2016Ingår i: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 58, s. 14-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that carbon labelling of food, on voluntary or non-voluntary basis, could reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there is limited empirical evidence on the influence of such labels on consumer purchases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether voluntary carbon labelling affects the demand for milk. A randomized field experiment was conducted in 17 retail stores in Sweden, where a sign provided consumers with qualitative information about the carbon impact of climate-certified milk. The results suggest that the sign increased the demand for the climate-certified milk by approximately 6-8%, and the result is robust to alternative model specifications. The effect is entirely driven by large stores, such as supermarkets. We find no statistically significant impact on total milk sales, and the dataset is too small to verify the consequences for other milk brands. The effect on the demand for the labelled milk is short-lived. (C) 2015 The Authors.

  • 126.
    Enström Garnström, Åsa
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Science - A fishermen’s friend?: A study of communication and policy legitimacy between researchers and fishermen in Sweden2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently available communication studies within fisheries politics largely concern communication between scientists and decision makers, to some extent stakeholders and decision makers, but seldom merely fishermen and scientists. This thesis attempts to discuss the relationship between fishermen and scientists in Sweden, on a more local level. This is carried out through the analysis of the possible barriers blocking communication at the higher levels of the fisheries hierarchy, together with the implication of these barriers on whether fishermen find fisheries policies legitimate or not. The empirical data in this thesis is based upon face-to-face interviews, with four fishermen and four scientists concerning their involvement in communication with the opposite group. The results from these interviews are analysed through the use of a framework resting upon the basis of environmental governance, marine governance and risk communication theory. Within this theoretical base, legitimacy will be used as a central concept. As a part of the theoretical framework, communication barriers indicating a cultural difference will also be examined. In the analysis section of this thesis, indications of several communication barriers are discussed along with the respective potential effects of these barriers on the acceptance of science and the legitimacy of fisheries policies. It was found that in terms of detecting the main functions of risk communication, the lack of a structure for communication between fishermen and scientists may be holding back the full potential of communication between the two groups. The cultural differences spotted in the data are, as far as this study shows, inconclusive and do not seem severe enough to set up any potential communication barriers. Instead, this study did find four major communication barriers: media polarisation; several differing opinions within the Swedish fisheries sector; hierarchy and a lack of a communicational structure between fishermen and scientists. Although all of these communication barriers are seen as risks to legitimacy, the most significant risk appears to be lowered legitimacy due to the difference between experience-based knowledge and research-based knowledge. It is believed that a more structured communication together with cooperative research and / or cooperative management would be able to mend these barriers.Keywords: Cultural barriers, Communication barriers, Media polarisation and Knowledge bases.

  • 127.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Gilek, MichaelSödertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.Rudén, Christina
    Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 128.
    Eriksson, M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Ebert, Karin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Stockholm University.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Stockholm University.
    Well salinization risk and effects of Baltic Sea level rise on the groundwater-dependent Island of Öland, Sweden2018Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we estimate baseline conditions in terms of the current risk of well salinization on the Baltic Sea island of öland, Sweden, and assess the effects of future sea level rise on the land area, infrastructure and cultural values. We use a multicriterion geographical information systems (GIS) approach. Geomorphological and physical parameters affect the risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, including their hydrology, geomorphology, and climatology; the spatial distribution of the current risk of salinization is mapped in this study. In the event of a future 2 m sea level rise, a total land area of 67 km2 will be inundated on öland, corresponding to approximately 5% of the island's land surface. Inundation includes urban areas, nature reserves, and animal protection areas, implying the loss of environmental and socioeconomic values. A future 2 m sea level rise will also cause direct inundation of 3% of all wells on the island. Currently, 17.5% of all wells are at a high risk of becoming saltwater contaminated. More generally, the present results add evidence showing a relatively high vulnerability of major Baltic Sea islands and their infrastructure to future sea level rise. The approach used here and related results, including salinization risk maps, may prove useful for decision-makers in the planning of infrastructure. Drilling of new wells could for instance preferably be done in areas with identified lower risk-index values, which would facilitate an overall higher freshwater withdrawal in the interest of the entire island. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 129.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Cross-scale perspectives on heterogeneity in Swedish boreal forests2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining species diversity, ecosystem functioning, and socioeconomic values requires continued ecosystem heterogeneity across scales. This thesis aims to bridge gaps between ecological theory, environmental goals, and practical application of sustainable forest management needed to maintain such heterogeneity. Included case studies of boreal Sweden concern three challenges in the cross-scale understanding of heterogeneity: matrix qualities and composition; acquiring and incorporating historical information; and interactions between forest composition and management. Paper I cover three large-scale forest companies in four boreal counties today, outlining available information on matrix qualities and composition from the companies. Papers II-III cover the village scale from 1720s–1850s–present in Dalarna County and papers IV-V the parish scale from 1860s–present in the same county. Geographic Information Systems were used to integrate historical maps with present data, perform spatiotemporal analyses, and extract data for statistical testing in primarily generalized linear models. For the practical realization of sustainable forest management, the results indicate a need for further monitoring across scales to understand matrix composition, especially in relation to small voluntary reservations in a larger spatiotemporal perspective. Historical material can provide information on temporal connectivity and spatial separation between the past and present forest composition from analysis of change trajectories respectively interacting variables. This thesis suggests that models of forest dynamics are more relevant for local implementation of sustainable forest management efforts if including interactions between forest dynamics and ownership as an approximate driver of local change.

  • 130.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Stockholm University.
    Skånes, Helle
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Current distribution of older and deciduous forests as legacies from historical use patterns in a Swedish boreal landscape (1725–2007)2010Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 260, nr 7, s. 1095-1103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We combine historical maps and satellite derived data to reconstruct the development of a Swedish boreal landscape over the past 300 years. The aim is to understand legacies from past use patterns in present-day forest composition and consequences for conservation objectives from a landscape perspective. We analyze landscape development in cross-tabulation matrixes, building change trajectories. These trajectories are tested in linear models to explain the distribution of present-day landscape composition of coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forests >110 years. Of 49 tested change trajectories, 11 showed a significant association. Associations for mixed and coniferous forests were similar and linked to characteristics such as forest continuity, which characterized the studied landscape. Deciduous older forests did not show any association to forest continuity but were more likely to occur on areas that specifically shifted from forests with grazing in the 1720s to open impediment (likely indicating low tree coverage) in the 1850s. There were large shifts and spatial redistribution in ownerships over time. Use patterns and legacies varied between small- and large-scale ownership categories as well as within small-scale categories. The legacies found in the study indicate a complex origin of heterogeneous landscape elements such as older deciduous forests. Additionally, the origin of the legacies indicates a potential need to diversify conservation management based on the influence of past use patterns. Despite large inconsistencies in historical and contemporary data we argue that this type of analysis could be used to further understand the distribution of landscape elements important for conservation objectives.

  • 131.
    Espínola, Fernando
    et al.
    Centro Nacional Patagónico, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Dionisi, Hebe M
    Centro Nacional Patagónico, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Borglin, Sharon
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA.
    Brislawn, Colin J
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Mac Cormack, Walter P
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Instituto Antártico Argentino, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Carroll, JoLynn
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lozada, Mariana
    Centro Nacional Patagónico, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation Processes2018Ingår i: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, nr 1, s. 123-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon's index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.

  • 132.
    Forsberg, Victoria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Effects of population size and environmental factors on habitat choice and migration patterns of the Eastern Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua callarias): consequences for stock assessment2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om torsken i det östra Östersjöbeståndet. En litteratursammanfattning har gjorts gällande hur miljömässiga faktorer såsom salthalt, syretillgång, temperatur samt storleken på bestånden påverkar migrationsmönster och habitatval hos torsken. Resultaten visar bland annat att när torskbestånden är små blir torskens utbredningsområden begränsade till de södra delarna av Östersjön. Höga salthalter leder till större utbredningsområden medan låga syrehalter i djupbassängerna leder till vertikala migrationer såväl som längre migrationer söder och norr om bassängerna, till områden med bättre syretillgång. Torsken verkar dessutom föredra habitat med varmare vatten om syre- och salthaltsförhållandena är gynnsamma, åtminstone under lekperioden.

    Vidare inkluderar denna uppsats en bedömning av hur väl de årliga vetenskapliga trålningsundersökningarna som utförs av länder med kust mot Östersjön, återspeglar den faktiska storleken på torskbestånden. Denna bedömning baseras på en kritisk granskning av den information som finns tillgänglig gällande de vetenskapliga trålningsundersökningarna, i förhållande till torskens migrationsmönster, distribution och habitatval. Dessutom har ett test gjorts av hur väl de årliga beståndsuppskattningarna för 1996-2009 presenterade i International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Annual Report of the Baltic Sea Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), reflekterar de bästa tillgängliga beståndsuppskattningarna från 2010. Resultaten indikerar att de vetenskapliga provtrålningsundersökningarna inte fungerar tillfredsställande, vilket visar på att vidare studier måste göras inom området. Möjliga alternativ, såsom jämförelser av positioneringsdata för kommersiell- samt vetenskaplig trålning, samt intervjuer med yrkesfiskare presenteras.

  • 133.
    Franzen, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. KTH.
    Kinell, Gerda
    Walve, Jakob
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Participatory Social-Ecological Modeling in Eutrophication Management: the Case of Himmerfjarden, Sweden2011Ingår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 27-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholder participation is increasingly seen as central in natural resource management. It is also required by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which identifies three levels of participation; information, consultation, and active involvement. In this paper we discuss the active involvement of stakeholders, using our experience from a case study in the Himmerfjarden region, which is a coastal area southwest of Stockholm, Sweden. Our study used the systems approach proposed by the European Union research project called Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment (SPICOSA), in which local stakeholders and a study site team constructed an integrated simulation model of a crucial coastal management issue. In this case the issue was nitrogen enrichment. We showed how stakeholder participation in the modeling process helped identify interesting and currently relevant management scenarios, and how the modeling process facilitated communication of the likely ecological, economic, and social effects of these scenarios to the stakeholders. In addition, stakeholders also reported social gains in terms of network building. We managed to actively involve local stakeholders in water issues, and the research process clearly strengthened the social capital in the Himmerfjarden region, and created a basis for future collaboration regarding water management. Our experience indicates that the approach we tried is a useful tool for promoting active stakeholder involvement in water management projects. Also, the results of our science and policy integration approach indicated that the study site team assumed a leadership role, which is a commonly recognized factor in successful natural resource management.

  • 134.
    Franzén, Frida
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    From words to action: Lessons from active stakeholder participation in water management2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Water governance worldwide is going through a shift towards more holistic and participatory approaches. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) adopted in 2000, aims at protecting surface water and groundwater. The WFD emphasizes the importance of stakeholder participation in planning and implementation of the directive, and in order to reach environmental objectives. However, the empirical findings are insufficient regarding how stakeholder participation can lead to improved decisions and implemented plans. In Sweden, a major water quality problem is eutrophication caused to a large extend by diffuse nutrient leakage from agriculture. Therefore, it is important to involve farmers in water management, since their participation can lead the commitment of mitigation measures for reduced nutrient leakage. The overall aim of this study is to contribute the knowledge and understanding of active stakeholder participation in water management, in particular how it can lead to implementation of water quality objectives. The thesis addresses stakeholder participation in eutrophication management in local Swedish catchments, with a particular focus on farmers’ participation in the commitment of mitigation measures. The results are based on case study research, involving four catchment areas in Sweden with severe eutrophication problems. The thesis identified socio-demographic factors, farmers’ knowledge, and the level of existing information and economic support for wetland creation, as factors affecting farmers’ willingness to participate in wetland creation to mitigate nutrient leakage. In the local catchment groups studied, farmers and other local stakeholders participated to discuss potential mitigation activities. In these, farmers emphasized other emitting actors’ responsibility and commitment in local action plans. Where this was realized, social capital within the group increased and led to further collaboration. The thesis also analyzed large-scale wetland programmes at catchment scale, where the organizational and institutional arrangements were central to realize farmers’ participation: inter-municipal agreements entailed sufficient resources, the organization involved the most relevant actors; and leadership resources were important. The thesis argues that organizing water management at a catchment level can be important to cope with challenges related to stake-holder participation for mitigating diffuse nutrient leakage. In particular for dissemination and collection of information, suggesting potential measures for all concerned actors, provide resources needed to realize actions, and to build trust and collaboration. The thesis also emphasized that stakeholder participation has to be underpinned by a genuine meaning, both for the initiators and the participants.

  • 135.
    Franzén, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Factors affecting farmers' willingness to participate in eutrophication mitigation: a case study of preferences for wetland creation in Sweden2016Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 130, s. 8-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Local stakeholder participation in water management is emphasized in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Wetland creation to mitigate nutrient leakage from agriculture is one example where participation of local farmers is needed. In this case study of the Himmerfjärden coastal catchment area, south of Stockholm, Sweden, we assessed both the importance of several demo-graphic factors, and of the main subsidy factors in the present Agri-Environmental Scheme (AES) for their effects on farmers’ willingness to create wetlands on their farms. The farm and farmer characteristics analyzed were age, gender, knowledge of the WFD, education, farm size, land ownership, current measures to reduce nutrient leakage and trust for other actors. The main factors from the AES were defined as five attributes in a discrete choice experiment approach related to the current agri-environmental policy instrument for wetland creation applied in the area. The results showed that approximately 30 % of the farmers were interested in wetland creation at their farms. The most common reason for not wanting to create a wetland was economic cost. Males were significantly more willing than females to create wetlands. Younger farmers were significantly more willing than older. Prior knowledge of the WFD increased willingness almost threefold, and land owners were significantly more willing than leaseholders. The choice experiment showed that higher cost ceiling for subsidies, higher compensation percentage and higher annual subsidies can significantly increase the willingness to create wetlands. However to attract also the remaining 70% of all farmers to join the AES we must look at other options than only using action based AES.

  • 136.
    Franzén, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Institutional development for stakeholder participation in local water management-An analysis of two Swedish catchments2015Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 43, s. 217-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) promotes a change of European water governance towards increased stakeholder participation and water management according to river basins. To implement the WFD, new institutional arrangements are needed. In Sweden, water councils have been established on the local level to meet the requirements of the WFD of a broad stakeholder involvement in water management. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge on institutional arrangements for meeting the WFD requirements on stakeholder participation in local water management. A case study of two adjacent catchments in southern Sweden is presented to analyze how institutional legacy affect organizational arrangements and stakeholder participation. Based on literature studies and semi-structure interviews, the case study is analyzed with special emphasis on the scope, the organization and the activities in practical water management in catchments. The result shows different institutional arrangements for water management, despite similarities of the catchments' characteristics and the regulatory framework on national and regional level.The study identifies four important factors regarding institutional arrangements for water councils and local stakeholder participation in water management. Firstly, an organization involving key stakeholders that are committed to the scope and goals of the water council and willing to provide resources for the implementation of the planned activities. Secondly, institutional arrangements that include a willingness for flexibility and awareness of the need to include the most relevant stakeholders. Thirdly, a clear leadership to drive the process to realize the specific goals and assess the outcome. Fourthly, voluntary involvement of farmers to take part in the implementation of the measures and contribute with knowledge and experiences regarding local conditions.

  • 137.
    Franzén, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Quin, Andrew
    KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Involving farmers in local water eutrophication management: lessons learnt from two Swedish catchmentsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholder participation is increasingly important in water governance worldwide. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires Member states to encourage the active involvement of stakeholders in planning and implementation of the WFD. In Sweden, eutrophication is one of the major water quality problems, which is primarily caused by diffuse nutrient leakage from agriculture. Farmers are, therefore, increasingly invited to participate in local water groups to discuss potential local action to mitigate nutrient leakage. This paper presents the lessons learnt from two Swedish catchments, where farmers and other local stakeholders participated in local water groups. Both catchments have severe eutrophication problems, and have been pointed out as “hot-spots” for wetland creation as mitigation measure. The overall aim of this study was to identify farmers’ primary concerns regarding local water management and wetland creation in particular. The results were based on data from meeting observation, interviews and a questionnaire. The paper identified four major aspects: (i) farmers’ concern about the commitment of other actors in local action plans; (ii) farmers desired improved information on local water management, monitoring of water quality, as well as improved information on wetland creation; (iii) farmers were concerned about phosphorus scarcity, and were interested in wetlands as phosphor traps; and, (iv) farmers requested developments in catchment-based platforms. Therefore, the paper suggests that organization of water management at catchment level could play an important role to cope with farmers’ primary concerns: Catchment platforms should disseminate information on local water management, identify information and data gaps, distribute responsibilities and commitment, enhance incentives for farmers’ commitment and enable trust-building. Consideration of these aspects could lead towards more robust forms for participation, inducing action and, consequently, improved water quality.

  • 138.
    Fredrikson, Oskar
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Biofuel Production: Examining the development of sub-Saharan Africa through the concepts of land grabbing, environmental justice and different views on development theories2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines and problematize the effects of biofuel production by focusing on local communities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The premise lays in a critique of neoliberal thoughts of development and the concept of sustainable development. The establishment of biofuel production in SSA has been depicted to carry with it opportunities of development for the rural population. However, there have been a big interest from foreign actors looking to invest in sub-Saharan biofuel production which have raced concern for land grabbing. A conflict of interest has emerged between Southern and Northern interests. A literature study is used as the method to examine reported outcomes on local communities in the proximity of biofuel production in order to determine if sub-Saharan biofuel production is established for the development need of SSA or the interest of the North. To analyze the results a theoretical framework has been constructed from concepts of large-scale land acquisition (land grabbing), environmental justice and the four worldviews market liberalism, institutionalism, bioenvironmentalism and social greens. The paper concludes that the large-scale production of biofuels is highly problematic due to the risk of land grabbing and Northern mitigation schemes are based on Southern lands raises the question of environmental justice. Depending on which worldview one adopts there can be several explanations to why this occur. 

  • 139.
    Fridfeldt, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Geografi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Rämgård, Margareta
    Malmö högskola.
    Trygger, Sophie
    Stockholms universitet.
    Schaerström, Anders
    Medicinsk geografi på svenska universitet2014Ingår i: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 72, nr 4, s. 182-187Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 140.
    Frost, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Populationsdifferentiering hos kransalger2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kransalger är en viktig nyckelart i Östersjön. De förökar sig med hjälp av oosporer och denna studie har syftat till att urskilja morfologisk differentiering mellan oosporer inom och mellan individer och populationer. Främst ställde jag mig frågan huruvida skillnader och likheter i morfologi kan associeras med skillnader mellan olika geografiska avstånd och habitat samt i vilken mån oosporer kan återföras till korrekt population och individ. Kransalger av arten Chara aspera har insamlats på lokaler i östra Svealand och elliptiska Fouriertransformationer har använts för att med hjälp av vågfunktioner beskriva oosporernas konturer. Parametrarna i vågfunktioner har sedan använts för statistiska analyser. Resultaten visade att de olika populationerna kunde separeras morfologiskt när oosporernas populationstillhörighet varit känd för analysen. Däremot var det svårare att separera individer från varandra men det fungerade bra i den population där flest oosporer insamlats. Då oosporernas identitet varit okänd för analysen återfördes endast hälften av dem till rätt population. Det gick inte att återföra okända oosporer till individer. De tre populationerna från bräckt vatten grupperades tillsammans i diskriminantanalysen, skilda från de två sötvattenpopulationerna som i sin tur var tydligt skilda från varandra. En spridning mellan de olika populationerna i brackvatten är trolig. Däremot är en spridning mellan populationerna i sött vatten inte sannolik. Det finns inte heller något som talar för en spridning mellan habitaten. Slutligen kan jag konstatera att det finns tillräckligt mycket information att hämta i oosporerna morfologi för att mäta relativa skillnader mellan individer och grupper liksom för att skatta variabilitet.

  • 141.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala universitet.
    From Seascapes of Extinction to Seascapes of Confidence: Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries in Chile: El Quisco and Puerto Oscuro2008Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chile, the indiscriminate harvest for export of the edible shellfish, Concholepas concholepas or false abalone, propelled by a neo-liberal market economy during the 1970s, almost led to the extinction of the species, thereby threatening the dependant small-scale artisan fishers’ survival as well as the ecosystem. To reverse this, fishers’ organizations in Chile have adopted the state created regulatory measure, Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABR; locally known as Management Areas -- MAs). Replacing the former unsuccessful fishing regulatory measurements, the MEABR regime empowers the fishers with exclusive territorial use rights (TURF) to manage the species, often under commons institutions, thus creating new seascapes of confidence. However, as is often the case with new solutions, emergent problems are posed that threaten to undermine the reform. With the new regulated extraction measure and geographical expansion of this novel labour and production alternative, fishers experience a transition from ‘nomadic’ to sedentary fishing leading to a transformation of their lifestyle and skills. If MAs become permanent, fishing in rural areas may lead to tensions as the fishers settle on coastal lands without entitlement, or are hindered from developing their own fisheries infrastructure. The legal system does not seem to fully foresee the consequences of the reform, and prevailing power relations and private property rights work to disadvantage the fishers. Using a participatory approach for the first research location of El Quisco (Valparaíso Region), and interviews with key informants for the second research location of Puerto Oscuro (Coquimbo Region), fishers’ views of the Chilean TURF were evaluated. How fishers perceive this experience should be central for the success or failure of the MAs as a viable alternative to the earlier conditions of open access. While the assessment of El Quisco deals more with the performance of the MA, Puerto Oscuro is used to portray the seascapes of conflict that have emerged as ownership of the coastal land is contested. The study shows that while the reform has brought better incomes from the benthic resources, the overall economic importance of the MAs for the fishers is reduced relative to the incomes coming from fishing activities realized outside the MAs. Experiences in both cases have been otherwise positive in terms of the recuperation of the species, ecological concerns and strengthening fishers’ so-called soft assets. Nevertheless, many problems remain, among them the problem of access to the sea border and those related to ambiguous land rights to support coastal settlement and fishing infrastructure development.

  • 142.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Commoditization of rural lands in the semi-arid region of Chile—the case of the huentelauquén agricultural community2018Ingår i: Agriculture, E-ISSN 2077-0472, Vol. 8, nr 2, artikel-id 26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The agri-pastoralist communities of the semi-arid region of Chile, with their unusual common land ownership, have not escaped economic neo-liberalism. The general pattern of insatiable demand of land for agricultural production, mining, energy generation and real-estate development has become a challenge for these communities. How are these processes affecting the traditional practices of these localized agri-food systems, based on rain-fed-agriculture, pastoralism and the fading practice of transhumance? In this article, we look at how the Huentelauquén Agricultural Community in the Canela Commune has dealt with, reacted to, and been affected by regional economic shifts geared towards market liberalization. In particular, we analyze the structural changes in the community in regard to alienation of the commons and changes in land tenure. Qualitative interviews were conducted with key informants in this setting. To provide a richer contextual setting, this article draws on several other empirically-based works on the commons’ emergence and evolution, land commoditization and local struggles for livelihoods. Our study shows that a community can adopt different strategies when dealing with powerful sectoral development that can involve resistance as well as positioning that seeks to find favorable terms of engagement. Our findings highlight that processes affecting the traditional commons are resulting in the re-appropriation and re-occupation of the land. This is resulting in social differentiation, weakening of the community’s social bonds, depeasantization and further degradation of an already vulnerable ecosystem. In sum, these shifts are posing an existential threat to this form of traditional agri-pastoralism. 

  • 143. Gallardo, Gloria
    et al.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Efterord – förändringens horisont2018Ingår i: Ekonomi för Antropocen: skiftet till en hållbar värld / [ed] Robert Österbergh ; Mikael Malmaeus, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2018, s. 338-349Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 144.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sokolov, Tatiana
    Uppsala University.
    Börebäck, Kristina
    Stockholm University .
    van Laerhoven, Frank
    Utrecht University.
    Kokko, Suvi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    We adapt … but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic: Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic2017Ingår i: Journal of political ecology, ISSN 1073-0451, E-ISSN 1073-0451, Vol. 24, s. 667-691Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer herding (RDH) is a livelihood strategy deeply connected to Sami cultural tradition. This article explores the implications of two theoretical and methodological approaches for grasping complex socio-environmental relationships of RDH in Subarctic Sweden. Based on joint fieldwork, two teams – one that aligns itself with political ecology (PE) and the other with social-ecological systems (SES) – compared PE and SES approaches of understanding RDH. Our purpose was twofold: 1) to describe the situation of Sami RDH through the lenses of PE and SES, exploring how the two approaches interpret the same empirical data; 2) to present an analytical comparison of the ontological and epistemological assumptions of this work, also inferring different courses of action to instigate change for the sustainability of RDH. Key informants from four sameby in the Kiruna region expressed strong support for the continuation of RDH as a cultural and

    economic practice. Concerns about the current situation raised by Sami representatives centered on the cumulative negative impacts on RDH from mining, forestry and tourism. PE and SES researchers offered dissimilar interpretations of the key aspects of the RDH socio-economic situation, namely: the nature and scale of RDH systems; the ubiquitous role of conflict; and conceptualizations of responses to changing socio-environmental conditions. Due to these disparities, PE and SES analyses have radically divergent socio-political implications for what ought to be done to redress the current RDH situation.

  • 145. Garnier-Laplace, J.
    et al.
    Copplestone, D.
    Gilbin, R.
    Alonzo, F.
    Ciffroy, P.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Agueero, A.
    Björk, Mikael
    Oughton, D. H.
    Jaworska, A.
    Larsson, C. M.
    Hingston, J. L.
    Issues and practices in the use of effects data from FREDERICA in the ERICA Integrated Approach2008Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 99, nr 9, s. 1474-1483Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ERICA Integrated Approach requires that a risk assessment screening dose rate is defined for the risk characterisation within Tiers 1 and 2. At Tier 3, no numerical screening dose rate is used, and the risk characterisation is driven by methods that can evaluate the possible effects of ionising radiation on reproduction, mortality and morbidity. Species sensitivity distribution has been used to derive the ERICA risk assessment predicted no-effect dose rate (PNEDR). The method used was based on the mathematical processing of data from FRED (FASSET radiation effects database merged with the EPIC database to form FREDERICA) and resulted in a PNEDR of 10 mu Gy/h. This rate was assumed to ascribe sufficient protection of all ecosystems from detrimental effects on structure and function under chronic exposure. The value was weighed against a number of points of comparison: (i) PNEDR values obtained by application of the safety factor method, (ii) background levels, (iii) dose rates triggering effects on radioactively contaminated sites and (iv) former guidelines from literature reviews. In Tier 3, the effects analysis must be driven by the problem formulation and is thus highly case specific. Instead of specific recommendations on numeric values, guidance on the sorts of methods that may be applied for refined effect analysis is Provided and illustrated.

  • 146.
    Gee, Kira
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum, Germany.
    Blazauskas, Nerijus
    Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Lithuania.
    Dahl, Karsten
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Kannen, Andreas
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum, Germany.
    Leposa, Neva
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Weig, Barbara
    s.Pro – sustainable projects, Germany.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Can tools contribute to integration in MSP?: A comparative review of selected tools and approaches2019Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 179, s. 1-11, artikel-id 104834Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of tools and approaches is currently much debated in maritime spatial planning (MSP). Past evaluation has mainly concentrated on decision support tools and the tangible outputs these can provide for MSP, but little attention has so far been been given to the soft or indirect benefits tool use can have in MSP. This paper assesses the potential benefits of tool use in the context of four common integration challenges in MSP. Drawing on case study material from the Baltic Sea region, the paper reviews the potential contribution of five selected tools and approaches to multi-level and transboundary, policy and sector, stakeholder and knowledge integration. Specific end points are defined for each integration challenge, including general desired outcomes of integrated MSP processes as a template for assessment. Our review shows that the selected tools play different roles in moving towards the various end points of MSP integration. There is an important difference between the potential of each tool, or its inherent capacity, and how it is applied, e.g. in a participative or non-participative setting. Another lesson is that some integration benefits can be achieved by the tools alone, while others – often secondary benefits - depend on how the outcomes of tool use are taken up by the subsequent MSP process. Although the nature of a tool does restrict its potential contribution to MSP integration challenges, the secondary “soft” benefits that can be achieved through certain styles of application and good links to the MSP process can add important integration benefits up and beyond the tool itself. The results presented here may also be relevant to other types of spatial planning and conservation management.

  • 147.
    George, Anna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Social responsibility and import of certified organic food: A case study of 13 Swedish firms2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen undersöker hur företag som importerar certifierade ekologiska livsmedel från utvecklingsländer arbetar med socialt ansvar. 13 svenska firmor intervjuades om sina förhållningssätt, varav de flesta var små eller medelstora (<250 anställda) och ingen tillhörde de marknadsdominerade dagligvaruhandelskedjorna. Resultaten visar att en majoritet av företagen tar upp socialt ansvar med sina underleverantörer, men då resurserna är begränsade handlar de flesta via mellanhänder som också ansvarar för uppföljningen. Företagen upplever en osäkerhet kring om ekologisk certifiering som inkluderar socialt ansvar berättigar till ett högre pris på varan. Förekomsten av olika sociala program relaterat till ekologisk produktion möjliggör flexibilitet men uppfattas också av vissa som subjektivt och oklart i fråga om kontrollmekanismerna. Detta riskerar att minska tilliten till systemet. Det har fördelar att arbeta via mellanhänder men samtidigt förloras den direkta kopplingen till platsen för produktionen och till producenterna. Ytterligare forskning behövs för att förstå och jämföra vilka sociala effekter och olikheter på producentnivå som kan uppnås med de fyra identiferade förhållningssätten till socialt ansvar: Ekologisk certifiering enligt en standard som innehåller socialt ansvar, en kombination av minimistandard för ekologisk produktion och separat social certifiering eller kombinerad med företagets egen sociala uppförandekod, och slutligen synsättet att ekologisk produktion automatiskt resulterar i bättre sociala förutsättningar

  • 148.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Environmental Risk Governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Final report : Deliverable 122012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea area is still unable to fully support implementation of the ecosystem approach to management. Hence, the aims of the international RISKGOV project were: 1) to improve our understanding of environmental risk governance and its challenges in the Baltic Sea; 2) to suggest possible avenues for improvement.

    These aims were addressed by integrating social and natural science approaches on five strategically selected environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges).

    The findings, recommendations and dissemination products of RISKGOV are described in detail in the Final report (http://www.sh.se/riskgov). Researchers from Södertörn University were involved in all case studies and cross-case comparisons. In summary, RISKGOV concludes that it is necessary to improve the robustness and responsiveness of governance practices to achieve sustainable ecosystem management. Specifically, RISKGOV recommends that: (i) Governance structures need to move towards more reflexive governance by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration, and interaction space for reflexivity. This is, for example, exemplified by increased interactions between HELCOM and the EU aiming at the combination of mandatory regulation and voluntary agreements; (ii) Assessment-management interactions require improvements e.g. relating to the regional and interdisciplinary knowledge-base, stakeholder participation and coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement; (iii) Stakeholder participation and communication require improvements in terms of a more integrated system of stakeholder input possibly via an expansion of HELCOM’s stakeholder involvement policy and enhanced efforts to communicate environmental issues to the general public. Implications of these general recommendations for specific actors and stakeholders were analysed and developed through thematic roundtable discussions.

  • 149.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    RISKGOV – Environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 150.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Engkvist, Fanny
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Kern, Kristine
    The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan: challenges of implementing an innovative ecosystem approach2013Ingår i: Political State of the Region Report 2013: Trends and Directions in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Bernd Henningsen, Tobias Etzold and Anna-Lena Pohl, Copenhagen: Baltic Development Forum , 2013, s. 58-61Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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