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  • 101.
    Hedman, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Women, Water, and Perceptions of Risk: a case study made in Babati, Tanzania 20082009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    More than 1 billion people in developing countries lack access to safe water and sanitation. Drinking water in these countries is often collected from unsafe sources outside the home. Even piped well water in the developing world can be unsafe due to inadequately maintained pipes, low pressure, intermittent delivery, lack of chlorination, and clandestine connections. Furthermore, drinking water often becomes contaminated after collection, either during transport or during storage in the home. Improvements in water supply, hygiene education and safe storage can reduce the spread of waterborne diseases, such as diarrhoea. However it is not an easy task to combat unsafe drinking water, and several factors have to be taken into account. Correct management of water at the household level is a vital factor in reducing contamination of water in areas where water is not available in the home, and often has to be transported for long distances before storage.

    It is often a woman's responsibility to collect and store water. The aim of this study is to provide an understanding of women’s knowledge and perceptions of the risks associated with drinking water and waterborne diseases in Babati, Tanzania. Furthermore, the study sets out to investigate the methods utilized at the household-level to prevent waterborne diseases. Interviews were the key method to collecting primary data and the results present findings from 20 women in two villages in Babati. All of the respondents had access to community water pipes but none had taps in their household. Among the respondents who treated their water, the most common method of treatment was boiling. The study shows that there is a link between lived experience, perceptions of risk, and the way water is managed in the household.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 102.
    Heinig, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och företagande.
    Biståndets idé och praktik : en studie om genomförandet av ett biståndsprogram i Burkina Faso 2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on the implementation of a bilateral rural development program in Burkina Faso. The main purpose of this study was to put the actual implementation process of a bilateral development program in view. This was done by investigating how two dominant perspectives in the implementation literature can explain what in fact happens during the realization of an aid program. A further aim of the thesis was to explore the limitations of these two dominant theories, in order to get a full understanding of the complexity of the realization of an aid program. Based on the implementation theory, this study shows that the realization of an aid program can be understood from three different angles. Firstly, through a top-down perspective, we can understand the process as an implementation problem, where the organisation fails to put policy into effect. Secondly, from the bottom-up perspective, the importance of the formal decision is questioned. Consequently the implementation process can be explained by the interaction among those involved in an implementation structure where the implementation takes place. Thirdly, also from the bottom-up perspective, the implementation process can be seen as a negotiation process between those who seeks to put policy into effect and those upon whom policy outcome depends. The result of this study shows that the top-down, as well as the bottom-up perspective, can be useful to explain the implementation process of a bilateral program. Yet they cannot alone give us the full picture. The analysis from a bottom-up view plays an important role as it explores the complexity both within and between organisations, in which the complexity outside the control of the formal organisation is also discovered. Nevertheless, this perspective has its limitations. As it does not consider an explicit theory, it overlooks the factors that are affecting the behavior on the ground. The top-down analysis is interesting in the context of development cooperation as it analyzes whether an organisation has the capacity to put policy into effect. Yet the top-down approach has a rational way of examining the implementation process and does not reflect on different reasons for various behaviors. As this perspective is restricted to the formal decision, it fails to analyse what side effects the realization process can bring. Neither implementation theories take into account how institutional factors, in a global context, are influencing the local situation where the implementation takes place. This thesis argues that institutional factors (in terms of norms) could give complementary explanations to the implementation theories, in order to develop our understanding for the realization of a program. By regarding the implementation process as a part of a greater process of development cooperation, complementary explanations could be given about why actors behave like they do. Particularly within the actual context of strong changing trends among donors concerning how sustainable development can be achieved. This study claims that we could learn more about development programs as a whole by illuminating the implementation process itself. Considering the changes in development cooperation, in which the processes and ownership-based programs are gaining importance, the implementation theory is fruitful as it highlights the process.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 103.
    Hellström, Benjamin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Utveckling och internationellt samarbete.
    Sultan, Leila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Utveckling och internationellt samarbete.
    Hybrid patches of commoning - Unpacking influences of the hydrosocial cycle on commoning in a downstream desert reclamation area: case study in Youssef El Seddik, Egypt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Water stress is increasing globally, especially affecting arid regions of the world such as Egypt. Due to challenges related to intensifying effects of climate change and a rapidly growing population, the levels of and access to water is a continuous area of concern for the country – making it important to analyze how these water issues are managed. This study connects the hydrosocial cycle and commoning frameworks in analyzing how water is managed in a downstream, desert reclamation area in Fayoum, Egypt – and how this management, or lack thereof, affects the livelihoods of the people living there. In doing so, we examine how possible commoning practices are influenced by factors related to the hydrosocial cycle. Fieldwork has been conducted for this case study by holding participatory workshops, semi-structured interviews, and observations. Our findings imply that the hydrosocial cycle has shaped the management of water in our studied site, which has in turn affected the commoning practices that take place there. The low water levels and the saline quality of the water is what has created the prevalent forms of commoning that can be seen in the community.  The presence of a local agricultural association has also influenced the commoning practices. The quality and levels of water in the area are in part managed by neighbors borrowing irrigation minutes from each other, and by collective olive harvest. To a lesser extent there are also instances of neighbors helping each other with agricultural work throughout the year, and sharing reservoirs. There are indications that these commoning practices play a part in sustaining livelihoods in the community. The commoning practices found in the studied site have emerged in a relatively new social context and can be characterized as context specific patches of commoning, occurring on the peripheries of hybrid institutions – that have largely been shaped by hydrosocial forces. As the hydrosocial cycle is ever-changing, these commoning practices will likely also come to change.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Hellström B. & Sultan L. (2020) Hybrid patches of commoning
  • 104.
    Herbertsson, Nicole
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper.
    Miljöledningssystem som verktyg för att bidra till en hållbar utveckling2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Humankind has always had a changing impact on its natural environment. With an ever increasing population and an ever increasing consumption of natural resources, the impact of human activity on the natural environment have become larger and larger. Nature has in turn responded with global warming and deteriorating biodiversity and all natures signals combined have created a wake-up call for society to act. The so called Brundtland report of 1987, “Our Common Future”, introduced the concept of sustainable development. Corporations have been identified as vital to bring about the necessary solutions to the complexity of environmental problems.

    This thesis concentrates on small sized businesses in Sweden and their ability and possibilities to contribute to sustainable development, by using the tool of environmental management systems. The thesis deals with both obstacles to successful environmental management systems and the potential advantages of successful performance leading to environmental, financial and social benefits. The thesis also discusses the criticism of the environmental management systems and the international ISO 14001-standard.

    The outcome of this thesis shows that environmental management is an important stepping stone to contribute to sustainable development. The level of positive impact that environmental management systems can generate is entirely dependent upon the level of corporate responsibility and ambition of each company. The benefits of proactive environmental management presented in this bachelor thesis are based on both literature studies and a case study of a Swedish manufacturing company.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 105.
    Hjert, Carl-Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    People vs. Wildlife: Buffer zones to integrate wildlife conservation and development?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania is famous for it’s beautiful nature and rich wildlife. Proud of it’s natural heritage, Tanzania has dedicated over 20% of it’s territory as protected areas to shield the wildlife from human interference. But the wildlife is regarded as a menace by the local communities that lives close to the impressive national parks. At the same time, the increasing human population threatens the survival of the large migratory species in the parks by blocking vital dispersal areas.

    This essay describes the human/wildlife conflict around Tarangire National Park and focuses on communities close to park borders. The intention is to examine if a buffer zone could solve the conflict in this area. By studying the political ecology of wildlife conservation in Tanzania, from local to global scale and through a historical perspective, it is concluded that the poor state-society relation as experienced in local communities is a crucial factor for the diminishing wildlife.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 106.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Education 4.0.: Nordic long-term planning and educational policies in the fourth industrial revolution2021Inngår i: The Nordic Economic, Social and Political Model / [ed] Anu Koivunen; Jari Ojala; Janne Holmén, London: Routledge, 2021, s. 242-256Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyzes how government planning in Sweden, Finland, and Norway perceives the challenges caused by rapid technological and societal change, and its recommendations for how the educational system should adapt to these challenges. Long-term forecasts and plans for economic and social development will be investigated to determine whether they predict a future in which technological advancement will continue at the current pace, or whether they foresee an imminent dramatic increase in the pace of innovation and technological advancement. Wolfgang Streeck bases his prediction that the current interregnum will continue indefinitely on the absence of a practically possible vision of a progressive future. A common explanation for the rise of income inequalities since the 1970s is skill-biased technological change. The most visible advocate of the idea that people are approaching a fourth industrial revolution is Klaus Schwab, executive chairman of the World Economic Forum (WEF).

  • 107.
    Häggblom, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och företagande.
    Alija, Edona
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för ekonomi och företagande.
    Mavian eller Rica-själ?: En analys av servicekulturen på Malmö Aviation och Rica Talk Hotel2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to compare and analyze Malmö Aviation and Rica Talk Hotel's service culture. This is done by examining three themes, the organizations ways of working with training, motivation and empowerment of frontline employees.

    Method: The essay is a case study-based qualitative research which mainly focuses on semi-structured, qualitative interviews with various people within the two organizations.

    Theory: The theoretical framework considers theory within two sections. The first section, the organizations importance in service quality, focuses on service culture or service climate and different management strategies. Section two, the employees’ importance in service quality, focuses on three themes: training, motivation and empowerment of frontline employees

    Results: Both Malmö Aviation and Rica Talk Hotel are companies that put great emphasis on developing and maintaining a quality service culture within the organization. The main difference between Malmö Aviation and Rica Talk Hotel in service culture is that Malmö Aviation has a well established and well functioning service culture within the company, while Rica Talk Hotel is in the middle of a development process where they are reviewing their existing service culture. The new service culture has not yet been established in the company, and therefore there is a great development potential within education, motivation and empowerment of frontline employees.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Mavian eller Rica-själ?
  • 108.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kommunikation, medier och it, Informatik.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kommunikation, medier och it, Journalistik.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kommunikation, medier och it, Journalistik.
    Making The Case For Data Journalism – Challenges For An Ongoing Evolution2012Inngår i: i-COME international conference on communication and media 2012: Revisiting Communication for Organisational and Social Change: Exploring the Missing Link / [ed] Che Su Mustfaffa, Hassan Abu Bakar, Mohd Bahardin Othman, Timothy Wlaters, Mohd Khairie Ahmad, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 109.
    Isberg, Michel
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Arkivvetenskap.
    Kulturarv, autencitet & demokrati: En undersökning om hur Slussens roll som kulturarv förhandlas via Stockholms stad, Skanska Sverige AB och relaterad opinion i en demokratisk diskussion om maktförhållanden2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    What impact does the conversation between citizen, market and governance have on inherent meaning in cultural heritage? How does it manifest and unfold concerning values it presents in the given context of Slussen´s preservation and reconstruction? As cultural beings, what significance does these values have on democracy?

    The aim of this studie is to measure how the concept of cultural heritage is negotiated and established by the city of Stockholm, Skanska Sweden and relating practitioners towards the significance of democracy. This with the approach of archival studies from e-archive Stockholm and an analysis of records from Skanska Sweden in combination with an ethnological perspective.

    This conversation exposes that the representational democracy which city of Stockholm represents endangers its senior citizens with exclusion. The values that late modern society evokes is in discrepancy with which values Stockholm´s senior citizens stands up for, relating back to the aftermath from World war II. The results points out that Stockholms collective memory aims to wipe out values which the ladder stands for, acting within Slussens cultural heritageprocess.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Kulturarv, autencitet & Demokrati. C-Uppsats. Michel Isberg, Arkivvetenskap C. VT-20. Södertörn högskola
  • 110.
    Izadi, Paria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Social media effects on diaspora tourism: A case study on second generation of Iranian immigrants in Stockholm2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of social media in tourism industry is significant. This study examines the role, impact, and relationship of social media platforms among second generation Iranian Swedish in Stockholm as a segment of tourism market when travelling to Iran. In addition, the purpose of this study is to explore if social media has a motivational role for diaspora tourism on second generation of immigrants’ trip to their origin country. The study uses content analysis and online questionnaire to collect data of 22 second generation Iranian diaspora who have traveled to Iran at least once during their lifetime. Three themes were identified from the collected qualitative answers based on the objectives of the research: Iranian diaspora motivations to visit homeland, feelings, and traveler experience by social media. Findings demonstrate the social media platforms are working as a motivation-pull factor influencing second generation immigrants to visit Iran, in much the same as other pull factors do. Also, the results show the User Generated Contents (UGC) such as travelers generated reliable travel information and introduction of new destinations can persuade second generation of diaspora immigrants to go back to their origin country for another visit. Finally, the findings of this research have revealed that two outcomes of trip to Iran by second generation of Iranian immigrants are Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) and visiting tourism attractions. Such outcomes can highly affect the diaspora members’ decisions in planning their travel to their origin country.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 111.
    Jakobsen, Monika Dybdahl
    et al.
    The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Bromseth, Janne
    Eastern Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    Siverskog, Anna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Genusvetenskap.
    Krane, Martin Sollund
    The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    The provision of healthcare services to older LGBT adults in the Nordic countries: a scoping review2023Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 359-371Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     Objectives:  Our objectives were to examine what is known about the provision of healthcare services to older LGBT adults in the Nordic countries, identify knowledge gaps, map implications of this research for the education of healthcare professionals and delivery of healthcare, and identify key future research priorities to advance policy and practice for older LGBT adults in this region.

     Design:  We conducted searches in nine databases. Peer-reviewed articles and PhD theses published in and after 2002 written in English, Norwegian, Swedish or Danish languages were included. 41 studies met our inclusion criteria. However, only eight of these studies focused specifically on older LGBT adults. Therefore, to answer all research questions, five book chapters about older groups were also included.

     Results:  There were few studies from countries other than Sweden and few quantitative studies. Bisexual people represented a neglected group in research. The studies included showed that healthcare personnel lack knowledge on LGBT issues, particularly about older LGBT adults and non-binary gender identification. Older LGBT adults frequently reported being met with cis- and heteronormative expectations in healthcare encounters. For transgender people, access to medical treatment has been managed by gatekeepers influenced by a binary understanding of gender.

     Conclusions:  Relevant measures to enhance practices are increased attention on LGBT issues in education; training of healthcare professionals; measures at the institutional level; and ensuring that transgender people identifying as non-binary receive the same quality of care as individuals identifying in a binary way. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 112.
    Johansson, David
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    Project Awaiting: #projectawaiting is about movement:of people with stories;stories in need of time; your time! initiated April 18, 2017 as part of a master's @ sh.se2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Research Report Project Awaiting
    Download (pdf)
    Project Awaiting (texts)
  • 113. Johansson, Jennie
    Causes of Child Labour: A case study in Babati town, Tanzania2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child 1991, but still 32 per cent of the Tanzanian children estimate to be involved in child labour. Why children work, the work they most commonly do, and under the conditions which they work differ regionally. This study aims to find the underlying causes behind child labour among boys in Babati Town, both from the researcher’s - and the children’s own perspective. The study was accomplished through a qualitative case study in Babati Town and the data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, primarily with the child labourers’ themselves to get the right child perspective. The data from the interviews was analyzed according to four chosen theories of underlying causes behind child labor with the purpose to see to what extent the findings of the study correlate to the indicators outlined in each theory. The study found that indicators from each theory correlating with the Babati case with poverty as the major underlying cause behind the labouring. From the child labourer’s perspective was poverty the underlying cause for their labouring. Poverty on its own was though, from the researcher’s perspective, found to be insufficient to explain the prevalence of child labour. The problem of child labour is massive due mainly widespread poverty but also due the social context and its traditions, insufficient funding, school policies and inadequate implementing of important regulations as the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Causes of Child Labour - A case study in Babati, Tanzania
  • 114.
    Johansson, Jerker
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Proactivity and sustainable transition at the fish counter?: A study about ecological sustainability regarding fish at four ICA Kvantum supermarkets within the Stockholm region2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Fish and shellfish are important sources of protein for the world population. Nearly 50 percent of fish and shellfish products originate from aquaculture, and the rest comes from traditional fishing. The marine stocks are under threat from unsustainable fishing practices. Together with fishing, aquaculture constitutes extra stress on the marine stocks and ecosystems. Aquaculture also causes other environmental side effects. International trade rules do not sufficiently take care of the ecological problems. Voluntary initiatives, like ecolabels, are one way of dealing with the problems. This thesis does an attempt to, from an environmental science perspective, analyze how the fish counters at four ICA Kvantum stores in the Stockholm region work with ecological sustainability issues with regards to fish and shellfish. The overall purpose is to examine the shops’ historical, current and potential future work and to analyze if the work is conducted in a proactive, reactive or in a passive way. The main findings include that the knowledge, sustainability statuses, responsiveness, and changes in time, and the intentions or plans for the future differed a lot between the different shops. Furthermore, many of the investigated potential problem areas seemed to constitute problems in practice. Additionally, it seemed like additional pressure may be needed if the aggregated ecological status should be raised. The research method consisted of case studies with semistructured qualitative interviews and analysis of corporate documents, and a minor quantitative investigation of the frozen assortment at the stores.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fish_counter
  • 115.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Piskan, moroten eller predikaren: Om förutsättningar att styra för omställning2022Inngår i: Route to Paris: Forskning om skogens klimatnytta / [ed] Malin von Essen; Lotta Möller, 2022, s. 15-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 116.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    The stick, the carrot or the sermon: on the conditions to steer for change2024Inngår i: Route to Paris: Unlocking climate change mitigation potential of Swedish forests / [ed] Malin von Essen; Lotta Möller, 2024, s. 15-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The forest is attributed a key role in a green societal transition. Even though the climate benefits of the forest are already significant, the forest's contribution must further increase according to the Paris Agreement. In the interdisciplinary project Route to Paris, we investigate the potential of Swedish forests to contribute to a climate-neutral society. The research program is based on close collaboration with stakeholders who want to participate in developing innovative concepts that can stimulate climate-smart forestry. This work is intended to provide an initial overview of the research that the project will encompass and lay the groundwork for dialogue among stakeholders.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 117.
    Jondell Assbring, Malin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    What factors affect economic growth in China?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to find out what factors have been the main sources of economic growth in China in 2003 and 2010. It also aims to find out whether the Solow model can be used to explain growth in China, if factors of growth are the same in rich and poor regions, whether the factors are the same in 2003 and 2010 and if the results are in line with previous research.

    The theoretical framework is the Solow model. Empirical tests are performed using econometrics, and therefore this thesis has a quantitative approach. Factors used are growth in GDP per capita which is tested against investments, household savings, the level of GDP per capita, population growth, healthcare and education.

    The results show that the Solow model can explain economic growth in China. Investments, the level of GDP per capita and population growth are the factors most significant to growth. In poor regions, both investments and population growth are more significant than in rich regions, whereas healthcare is more significant in rich regions. Investments and population growth also have a smaller impact in 2010 than 2003. Healthcare is more significant in 2010 and than 2003, and education is only significant in 2010. Previous research shows a wide range of results, and the results of investments and population growth are consistent with those. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 118.
    Jordaan, Agneta
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Utbildning för hållbar utveckling: En studie av de möjligheter, svårigheter, kunskaper och erfarenheter som präglar utbildning för hållbar utveckling idag2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In agreement with Agenda 21, Baltic 21 Education and the UN decade for education for sustainable development 2005-2014, Sweden has agreed to reform its educational system in order to support a sustainable development. This thesis aims to examine the implications of education for sustainable development from the perspective of teachers of grade seven to nine by identifying the possibilities, difficulties and knowledge that exists around the concept today. This has been done by combining a literature review and a qualitative case-study, which was conducted through five indepth interviews with teachers. The purpose of these interviews was to identify a few different opinions regarding what sustainable development could imply in the reality of the school and classroom. The most important results derived from this study were: Firstly, that there exist problems in applying education for sustainable development in schools today. The reason for this is a lack of understanding of the need for dealing with sustainable development in schools, as well as a lack of understanding of what education for sustainable development implies for education. The second result of importance was that the teachers who took part in the case-study had knowledge and experiences that could easily be combined with education for sustainable development, but that there is a need for teacher education and training on several levels to increase the possibilities of successfully implementing education for sustainable development in the Swedish school-system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 119.
    Karlberg, Eva
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Organizing Social Movements: the Cases of Women’s Umbrellasin Poland and Sweden2018Inngår i: Power, Violence and Justice: Reflections, Responses and Responsibilities, 2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 120.
    Karlberg, Eva
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Organizing the Polish women’s movement field: the role of NEWW Polska2016Inngår i: 12th international conference of the International Society for Third Sector Research (ISTR), 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 121.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Governance of Chemicals in the Baltic Sea Region: A Study of Three Generations of Hazardous Substances2016Inngår i: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, s. 97-123Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study zooms in on public governance in the Baltic Sea region of three generations of notorious hazardous substances, namely, PCBs, PBDEs and PFOS/PFOA. Following regulation, PCB concentrations in the Baltic Sea have decreased substantially although they are still above pre-industrial levels. PBDE levels have also decreased in some places, but they too are well above targeted levels, whereas the situation for PFOS and in particular for PFOA has hardly improved at all. In the case of PCBs, while comprehensive measures took long to implement, initial preventive measures were taken early based on the precautionary principle. This contrasts with the cases of PBDEs, PFOS and PFOA, where the burden of proof on policy-makers has been high and hence caused severe delays in policymaking. There has, however, generally been a positive interplay in all three cases between the EU, which has legislated, and HELCOM, which has taken the role of concept and agenda setting. While environment-oriented policies, such as the Ecosystem Approach to Management under MSFD and BSAP, have grown in importance over time, polluter-oriented chemical legislation has been more important when it comes to final decision-making. Nevertheless, the general response has been reactive rather than proactive, and there is no indication that society responds faster today than in the past, at least not given the fact that awareness, experience and knowledge are greater today than a few decades back. Based on that insight, the article discusses various options for improving governance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 122.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Mind the gap: Coping with delay in environmental governance2020Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 49, nr 5, s. 1067-1075Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 123.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lundberg, Cecilia
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Eutrophication and the Ecosystem Approach to Management: A Case Study of Baltic Sea Environmental Governance2016Inngår i: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, s. 21-44Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if and how present institutional structures and interactions between scientific assessment and environmental management are sufficient for implementing the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the case of Baltic Sea eutrophication. Concerning governance structures, a number of institutions and policies focus on issues relating to eutrophication. In many cases, the policies are mutually supportive rather than contradictory, as seen, for example, in the case of the mutually supportive BSAP and MSFD. The opposite is true, however, when it comes to the linkages with some other policy areas, in particular regarding agricultural policy, where the EU CAP subsidises intensive agriculture with at best minor consideration of environmental objectives, thereby undermining EAM. Enhanced policy coherence and stricter policies on concrete measures to combat eutrophication seem well needed in order to reach stated environmental objectives.  When it comes to assessment-management interactions, the science- policy interface has worked well in periods, but the more specific that policies have become, for example, in the BSAP case, the more question marks have been raised about science by affected stakeholders. At present, outright controversies exist, and EAM is far from realised in eutrophication policy in the Baltic Sea region. Besides coping with remaining uncertainties by improving the knowledge on problems and solutions– not least in terms of the socio-economic impacts of eutrophication – it may therefore be valuable to develop venues for improved stakeholder participation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 124.
    Kjellqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Mutvei, Ann
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Medieteknik.
    Articulating Voices of the Young: How to bring youth into contemporary planning and governance?2022Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS of the 28th Annual Conference, International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS) 2022: Sustainable Development and Courage: Culture, Art and Human Rights / [ed] Dobers, P.; Gawell, M.; Gärde, J.; Silfverskiöld, S., Stockholm: Södertörns högskola, 2022, s. 1160-1169Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The youth movement “Fridays for Future” has spurred new interest from the research community aboutthe way in which young people engage in politics and governance of social and physical environment.The recent wave of youth activism originated from school strikes concerning the failure of the adults totake any serious measures against climate change. Over the past two years, there is a growing researchinterest to study how youth articulate their concerns about the present and the future, and how adults payattention to these, and act on these demands in practical terms e.g., if, and how these translate into currentsocial and political affairs. Youth research trending in the last decades has investigated why youth politicalorganizations fail to attract young people. Researchers have investigated the ways in which young peopleengage politically e.g. via social media, rather than being loyal to traditional political parties. Much ofthis literature is research done on the young, but more recently a new strand of research has been emergingwhere researchers work with the young, in order to gain a better understanding of how social and politicalengagement can be articulated.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 125.
    Koivunen, Anu
    et al.
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Ojala, Jari
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Always in crisis, always a solution?: The Nordic model as a political and scholarly concept2021Inngår i: The Nordic Economic, Social and Political Model / [ed] Anu Koivunen; Jari Ojala; Janne Holmén, London: Routledge, 2021, s. 1-19Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the Nordic model as an empirical, policy-based phenomenon and as a political idea and a trope for the imagination through the lenses of social scientists and historians. The emergence and development of the Nordic model as a concept in international discussion can be roughly outlined by a quantitative bibliometric analysis using Google Books Ngrams. The notion of a distinctive Nordic social model began to attract international attention during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The prime minister of Denmark, Anker Jørgensen, answered by defining the common core of the Nordic model as democracy, welfare state, peace, solidarity with the Third World and, despite the differences between the Nordic countries, a strong cultural affiliation. In the Nordic context, scholarship on the Nordic model is a vast and lively field – impossible to subsume in a way that accurately mirrors its diversity and complexity.

  • 126.
    Korolczuk, Elżbieta
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Genusvetenskap.
    Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Etnologi. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES).
    Anti-genuskampanjer: Globalt hot mot vetenskap och demokrati2018Inngår i: Feministiskt perspektiv, ISSN 2002-1542, nr 24 januariArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 127.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik okrętowy znaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 1: Wydawnictwa2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, nr July 14, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 128.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik zmaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 8: (Mikro-)politykla ostracyzmu2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, , s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 129.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 10: Parametryzacja2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, nr September 15, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 130.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 11: Nie wpuszczać zewnętrza do środka2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, nr September 22, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 131.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 12: Stopnie i tytuły2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości,, ISSN 2657-9030, nr September 29, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 132.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 13: Wkład w wiedzę2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, nr October 6, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 133.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 4: Paw i papuga2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, nr August 4, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 134.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 5: Merytokracja2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, nr August 11, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 135.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 6: Polak wielki zagranicą2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, nr August 18, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 136.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 7: Rankingi2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, , s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 137.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na tratwie. Odcinek 9: Ankiety studenckie2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, nr September 8, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 138.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na trwatwie. Odcinek 2: Recenzje2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, nr July 21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 139.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Dziennik znaleziony na trwatwie. Odcinek 3: Produkcja i pracowitość2021Inngår i: Zielone Wiadomości, ISSN 2657-9030, nr July, s. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 140.
    Kravchenko, Zhanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi.
    Ryssland bortom Putin: Recension av Tony Wood, Russia without Putin. Money, power and the myths of the new Cold War (Verso, London 2018)2019Inngår i: ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys, ISSN 2000-6225, E-ISSN 2000-6217, nr 11, s. 129-132Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 141.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Berlin, Germany.
    Die Krise des produktivistischen Universalismus: Zur Zukunft wohlfahrtsstaatlicher Politik in Schweden1992Inngår i: Zeitschrift für Sozialreform, ISSN 0514-2776, Vol. 38, nr 11/12, s. 746-786Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 142.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Genusvetenskap.
    Ethical Governance and National Ethics Councils: Comparative Insights2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The language of ethics has become a conspicuous feature of the politics of biomedical research and practice. The last two decades have seen the creation of governmental ethical advisory commissions, administrative bodies charged with ethical decision-making, and public funding for studying the ethical implications of new technologies. This paper analyses the  role of national ethical counsils as advisory bodies in national ethopolitical regimes. This paper addresses the question  wether the instituitonalsization of ethical expertise in  ethics councils as advisory bodies contributes to a limitation of political conflict concerning the biomedical issues. The paper compares two national cases, namely Germany’s National Ethics Council with the Swedish National Council on Medical Ethics. Both countries represent contrasting cases of dominant ethical traditions and with regard to the time of emergence of such bodies. The Swedish council was a pioneer institution inaugurated in 1985, whereas Germany´s council  was a latecomer, established in 2001. This paper explores how such advisory institutions actually work from a double perspective. On the one hand, the paper examines the emergence and role of such bodies in political processes and thus how they have come to be understood as “political expertise”; on the other hand, the paper investigates the concrete working procedures of these councils and thus their modes of producing “ethical expertise”. Despite the differences the results of the study indicate similarities in the modes of producing “ethical expertise” and gives indicators, that such national ethics councils infact contributes to a depoliticization of biomedical issues.

  • 143.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Genusvetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES).
    Eugenics and the Making of Universal Citizenship in Sweden: The Social Democratic State Revisited2006Inngår i: “Silence,Suffering,& Survival”: November 1-5, 2006, The Empire Landmark Hotel, Vancouvery British Columbia / [ed] Wenda Bauchspies & Penn State, 2006, s. 128-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The multifarious paths to modernity correspond with the various dramatizations of national narratives.  Sweden’s development has been composed as a linear success story. As the story goes: since the 1930s when the Social Democrats came into power, they had managed to lead the deprived smallish nation at the outskirts of Europe from the darkness of the poor house into the light of a prosperous welfare state combining a maximum of social security and equality with economic growth. In comparative perspective the Swedish welfare state was not only seen as outstanding in terms of class justice, but also in terms of gender equality.  Some scholars have there deemed it to be a “women-friendly welfare state”.[i] However, regardless of the importance of such narratives for the formation of national identity, success stories inevitably also produce distortions and omissions. The dark side of Sweden’s success story became most painfully apparent at the latest in autumn 1997. An article about forced sterilizations in the “peoples’ home” (folkhem), published in the country’s largest daily newspaper not only set off a heated national debate but it also caused an international sensation.[ii] Contrary to what the media suggested, knowledge of these practices was not a “recent” discovery.[iii] The new and challenging aspect, however, was that publicist Maciej Zaremba no longer attributed the sterilization policy to the zeitgeist or deemed it as a regrettable—although in the greater narrative as a negligible—episode but rather as an integral part of Sweden’s social democratic reform project. Through addressing the dark side of] the Swedish welfare state he broke a taboo that formed the quintessential core of Swedish identity. International reactions added insult to injury by comparing these sterilizations to practices of Nazi Germany.[iv]

    The abundance of international attention, among other things, incited the Swedish government to install a commission to investigate the policies during that time and to draft a bill that would afford compensation to victims of forced sterilization. Compared to how victims of sterilization in other countries, particularly in Germany, [v] were dealt with, the Swedish investigative commission and compensation act were exemplary. Yet, for Swedish historians and social scientists it was no easy task to deal with these dark sides of modernity and statehood. A sense of loyalty toward the social democracy and the Swedish model has caused many scholars to oscillate—as some have self-critically admitted—between engaging in scholarship and ideology production.[vi] This might explain why outstanding feminist scholars such as Yvonne Hirdman, which has been a pioneer of a more critical stand on Swedes social and gender policies, has joined the chorus of the welfare state defenders in that debate. [vii]  The fact that Swedish politics have been highly successful in so many ways makes theories, which categorically establish the ambivalences of modernity and the welfare state, not exactly a Swedish specialty.

    The same could be said about international comparative research that presents the development of the welfare state as a continuous extension of social rights. The establishment of a social democratic regime with universal benefits based on citizenship is often regarded the ultima ratio of this development.  This is not so surprising, as the power resources approach promoted by Scandinavian social scientists Walter Korpi and Gösta Esping-Andersen decisively contributed to establishing the Nordic state’s model status. Viewing Sweden in terms of a success story is not necessarily problematic because of what it says, but because of what it leaves out.  None of the common national or comparative interpretations can account for how the Swedish social democratic model’s supposedly inclusive welfare state and its universalistic programs could have been compatible with measures that classified people as “inferior” and propagated selection and institutionalization of their own people as well as sterilization as solutions to social problems.

    This essay is committed to resolving this puzzle. It focuses on what, today, is subsumed under “family policies” and contains an analysis of the emergence of social benefits in the 1930s, which were geared toward subsidizing and encouraging child rearing, and were thus a forerunner of the universal child allowances introduced in Sweden in 1948. This case study will reveal that measures primarily aimed to meet the needs of women (as mothers)—and were therefore largely considered part of the “women-friendly” concept of social citizenship in Sweden— were actually characterized by an amalgamation of pro-natalism and anti-natalism. In effect, amalgamation meant that those classified as “inferior” or “unwanted” were barred from social benefits.

  • 144.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Genusvetenskap.
    Explaining Gender Regimes of Welfare State Formation: A Plea for Gendered Discursive Institutionalism2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist scholars have provided us with an array of analytical perspectives on the comparative analysis of  welfare states. However despite the reachness of feminist scholarship in that field, it is also marked by a clear limitation. Feminist research focused, above all, on gender-specific contents and outputs of social policies. Much more widely neglected is the question of how country-specific differences may be explained, and whether gender contributed to the politics that created different welfare state regimes. There is one exeption however: scholars working within the tradition of historical institutionalism such as Theda Skocpol, Ann Orloff and Diane Sainsbury have made important efforts in order to explain the early formation of gendered welfare states.

    The aim of this paper is both theoretical and empirical. First it explores the contribution of gender sensitive historical institutionalism for the explanation of gendered welfare states regimes. In contrast to the way that this approach has frequently been understood, I do not see institutionalism’s major contribution simply as adding on a new set of variables – the variables of state capacity and structure – as it suggested within the policy analysis aproach launched by Amy Mazur und Dorothy Stetson. Rather, the central new insight that institutionalism imparts to comparative politics comes from its reflexive perspective on  the political. This goes hand in hand with a concept of configurative causation acknowledging that political developments are contextual, relational, and process-oriented. A critical review of feminist historical institutionalism reveals one important limitation of its conceptual framwork however as it reduces “gender” to “women”,  to be more precise: to the impact of women´s movements on welfare state formation. I regard this reductionsm as the last vestige of determinism. Within institutionalism, to be sure, collective identities constitute an important point of reference, but since the processes of identity formation as such are not theorized any further, the precise connections linking institutions and the ability to act remain vague. In order to overcome this reductionism I propose to broaden institutionalism’s framework by formulating an approach based on interweaving historical institutionalism with discursive analysis. Such an integrated approach enables to conceptualize gender as relational and a relevant analytical category, even if womens agency might be deemed an irrelvant explanatory factor in specific national contexts.

    The second aim of the paper is to demonstrate the fruitfulness of such an analytical approach in a comparative case study focusing on the emergence of gendered welfare state regime in Sweden and Germany. Sweden and Germany are ideal subjects for a comparative study of two countries. On the one hand, they present two similair cases of sociohistorical development. On the other hand, despite these similarities they produced quite different types of welfare states: Germany a conservative welfare state representing a strong male breadwinner and Sweden a social democratic, universalistic welfare state with a rather weak breadwinner model.

     

  • 145.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Genusvetenskap.
    Feminist concepts of bodily citizenship: a historical and comparative perspective: (PANEL) The body owner, the labourer and the victim citizen: citizenship and the female body in the age of biosciences2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to issues concerning bodily integrity (abortion, violence) reproductive technologies represent a topic,which has been highly controversial among feminist activists and scholars. Some regard it as an expansion of power over women´s bodies through medical expertise. Especially reprogenetics - the fusion of assisted reproductive technics and genetical knowlege - is percieved as a new form of biopower, where life itself is becoming objectified through instrumental sociotechnologies. Others welcome reproductive technologies as an extension of women´s  autonomy and right to choose, with regard to their bodies. As such reproductive technologies challenge the liberal notion of selfdetermination. Related to the classical integrity issues selfdetermination meant a "negativ" liberty right as freedom from various forms of coersion or force, when it comes to reproductive technologies, selfdetermination is linkd to a "claim right, namely to have a healthy baby. But can there be a right to have a healthy baby? Should it be an issue of state concern to satisfy the poeples yearning for children? In addition to such challenging question, reproductive technolgies profoundly destabilize central categories of the political and cultural order, on which feminist demands for bodily citizenship have rested. Drawing on sholarship from governmentality studies this paper aims to rethink the concept of  bodily citizenship.  I will discuss the fruitfullness of such an approach drawing on empirical research covering Sweden, Germany and Poland

  • 146.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Genusvetenskap.
    Föråldrad syn styr forskning med stamceller2012Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, nr 0 februari, s. 10-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    KOSTSAMT Sverige har lagt mycket prestige och pengar på att bli världsledande inom stamcellsforskning på embryon. Men redan nu har satsningarna visat sig felriktade. Forskningspolitiken styrs ofta av ett kortsiktigt nyttoperspektiv och en föråldrad syn på kunskapsutveckling.

    Vetenskapen i dag liknar knappast den bild som fortfarande präglar våra vardagliga föreställningar. Den fria forskningen, som drivs av sanningssökande, är satt på undantag. Dagens vetenskap är en i hög grad styrd verksamhet. Detta är inte minst tydligt i diskussionerna inför regeringens kommande forskningsproposition.

    Man hävdar att det gäller att placera Sverige i den ”kunskapsmässiga fronten”, samt, med Alfred Nobels berömda formulering, att åstadkomma ”största möjliga nytta”. Det är bara det att man lätt glömmer att Nobel avsåg nyttan för mänskligheten, inte för industrin. Det är långtifrån samma sak. Men i dagens argumentation blir kunskap liktydig med konkurrenskraft. Debatten som följt efter Astrazenecas besked att avveckla forskningsenheten i Södertälje är ett tydligt exempel på detta.

  • 147.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Gender, Discourses, and Institutions: The Formation of the Welfare State in Sweden and Germany1999Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relevance of gender in accounting for the formation of different welfare state regimes in Sweden and Germany. Recent feminist scholarship has provided us with an array of approaches to the comparative analysis of social policies. However, it has not fully succeeded in conceptualizing gender as an analytic category. Concerning the welfare state, Joan W. Scott's a critique of feminist theorizing is substantially correct today. Gender is still often used as a substitute for »woman,« as for example in Skocpols work. Gender relations - here meaning gendered welfare state institutions - are  usually explained in terms of »non-gendered« causal relations. Thus Jane Lewis claims, referring among other countries to Sweden among other countries that gender was irrelevant to the formation of different welfare regimes.

          My hypothesis, by constrast is, that gender plays a constitutive role in the creation of the early welfare state in Sweden and Germany. The purpose of this paper is therefore twofold: first to develop a theoretical framework which moves beyond the conceptual limitations of feminist inquiry mentioned above; and second to demonstrate its empirical usefulness in a comparative case study focusing on the emergence of protective labour legislation in both countries.

          The research strategy I pursue includes three levels of analysis: 1) processes of social and economic change; 2) political forces and institutions; 3) discourses and interpretative frameworks. My aim is to explore the mutual and complex relations among these different levels, in order to avoid a slippage into a determinist epistemology, whether conceptualized in terms of discourses, institutions or social/economic structures.

          Sweden and Germany are extremely well suited to this comparison. From the perspective of social history, they share several similarities: the tradition of a strong bureaucratic state, a weak liberal bourgeoisie, and an early political mobilization of the labour movement. With regard to the subject of inquiry, they differ considerably. Germany passed numerous gendered regulations in the field of protective legislation before 1914-- such as maternal leave in 1878 (repeatedly extended), prohibition of night work, and limitation of daily working hours for women in 1891. The Swedish development was in contrast rather modest: the first protective law in 1889 did not include any gender distinctions, a maternal leave was enacted in 1900 and women's night work was prohibited in 1909. 

          This analysis shows that the policy differences between the two countries can not be adequately explained in terms of socioeconomic structures indicated, by e.g. women's employment rates. The legal differences correspond to variations in formations of national discourses. Demands for protective legislation in Germany were formulated in a gender specific way from the outsest. This was not the case in Sweden. Characteristic of the German debate was an early enmeshment of moral with scientific discourses defining women's factory work as undesirable and harmful for the female and social body, as well as an explicitly articulated masculine political interest. The interpretative  frameworks of the Swedish dabate were quite different. This is well illustrated by the strategies of the early labour movements in both countries. The close relations between the Swedish and German labour movements led Swedish social democracy to take over the Gotha programme though with one notable exeption however: the paragraph demanding special protective legislation for women was excluded.

         

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 148. Kulawik, Teresa
    Gender, Institutions, and Solidarity: The Struggle for a Motherhood Insurance in Sweden and Germany2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the paradoxes of maternalist politics in Sweden and Germany at the turn of the century. Feminist scholarship on maternalism has convincingly demonstrated the importance of policy measures directed to women and children as well as women’s political agency for the early welfarestate formation. It has also provided us with insights into the limitations and failures of maternalist strategies due to different political opportunity structures as well as conflicting concepts of maternalism within women’s movments itself.

    In comparative historical perspective Sweden and Germany are usually portrayed as similair cases of well developed welfare states, with weak women’s movements however, and therefore strong paternalist policies, directed to women as dependents rather than in their own right as women and mothers. The difference between the two countries with regard to gender policies is considered to be a later phenomenon, due to the divergent paths of conservative and socialdemocratic welfarestate formation. This paper challanges such a view in several respects. The similairity of both countries refers to similair – as compared to the United States and Great Britain - trajectories of social development: the tradition of a strong bureaucratic state, a weak liberal bourgeoisie, and an early political mobilization of the labour movement. With regard to the early welfare state Sweden and Germany have produced quite divergend institutional solutions, which cannot be conflated into „paternalism“. From the outset both countries differed considerably, as will be argued in the paper, when it comes to gender. Inquiring maternalist policies and politics, no easy equatations – such as between „good“ policies and „strong“ women’s movments - can be made. The analysis of the struggle for a motherhood insurance in Sweden and Germany reveals a rather contradictory and paradox picture.

    Germany was the first country to invent a paid maternity leave. The sickness insurance law of 1883 - introducing a mandatory insurance for factory workers – included a payment for the period of three weaks after delivery. This maternity benefit was extended in the following years in correspondance with the protective labor legislation, which regulated the maternity leave for female factory workers. The campaign for a motherhood insurance, which started after the turn of the century, was carried by a variety of political forces with quite different motives. In its most radical version the concept aimed at an comprehensive insurance plan, which would give benefits to all mothers, not only to factory workers and not just for a couple of weeks after delivery but for a much longer - up to one or three years –period of time. Such an insurance was not only considered fiscally utopian. The more moderate bourgeois women’s movment opposed such a motherhood endowment on more fundamental grounds. Enableing women to become mothers without depending on men, such an institution would lead to a dissolution of the family, or even, as Alice Salomon feared, to the distruction of loving relations between men and women. She favored therefore a more „practical“ solution, e.g. the extension of the benefits to other professional groups. The principle, that the benefit should be a replacement for the loss of wages and not a payment for motherhood was central to this concept. With the reformact of 1911 (Reichsversicherungsordnung) major improvments of the paid maternity leaves within the sickness insurance were enacted. At that time the German welfare state included the best maternity benefits - when measured as coveragae rate of the female population and the duration of payments – in the industrilized world. In the long run however benefits for mothers were locked in an institutional logic based on principles of solidarity, which were rather hostile to the rights of women as mothers. Not only was motherhood treated as a sickness, the benefits were constructed according to criteria – professional status groups, replacment of the loss of wages – which were external to the social conditions of motherhood, creating different categories of mothers.

    The Swedish development took quite a different course. Compared to Germany, Sweden was a late comer with regard to regulations for mothers. A maternal leave was enacted in 1900. Because Sweden had no compulsory sickness insurance at that time, a law proposal for the introduction of an own motherhood insurance for female factory workers was elaborated in order to compensate for the loss of wages. In case the law would have been enacted in 1912, the motherhood insurance would have become the first branch of mandatory social insurance introduced in Sweden. However, the government never presented the law to the parliament. This was also due to an outspoken opposition of the different strands of the women’s movment. They rejected the plan because of its mode of finance. According to the proposal the insurance should be financed mainly with contributions from the employees and female factory workers in the age of 15 to 50. The women criticized the plan also because the benefits were restricted to women factory workers. They demanded payments for all mothers, but at least for all working women. The sharpest protests however were directed against the financing principles in which the fathers were left aside and women treated as en enforced community of solidarity. The Swedish debate on the motherhood insurance demonstrates the limitations of maternalism as a political strategy. Swedish women explicitly rejected the notion there can be solidarity among women based on the experience of maternity, which could give rise to redistributional policies. The failure of the motherhood insurance project finaly refers to structural limitations of justice within market society and social insurance institutions forged on this principles: Motherhood is simply not an insurable risk as sickness, accident or olde age. It has no „value“ and it is not a „damage“ to compensate for. The Swedish women were strong enough to prevent the institutionalization of a program which, as they percieved, was based on false solidarities. They had to wait for more than twenty years, until in 1931 a tax financed program was implemented, which - far from solving all problems of justice for mothers – laid the ground for much more mother friendlier policies, than in Germany

  • 149.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning 3, Genusvetenskap.
    Gender Representations and the Politics of Biotechnology in Sweden: Eplaining liberal Regulations in a Social Democratic State2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    What makes Sweden especially relevant for this case study? At first, Sweden appears to have quite a puzzling policy pattern indeed. As a social democratic regime with an extensive statist governance system, Sweden stands out in its biomedical policy through remarkably liberal, lenient regulations which, in European comparison, are closest to those of Great Britain. Sweden's legislation allows for the use of so-called "spare" human embryos, resulting from IVF procedures, for research purpose, pre-implantation diagnosis, and egg donation. This country also has a considerable amount of embryonic stem cell lines at its disposal and has recently initiated an entire research program involving their use. Furthermore, legislative processes have been initiated, which could legalize the creation of – instead of the use of "spare" – human embryos for research purposes and so-called therapeutic cloning.  This policy-making process provoked only a moderate deal of controversy. Parliamentary resolutions concerning the issue were backed by a broad consensus among all parties in Parliament. To say the least, the politicization of biomedical issues has been quite limited. This corresponds well to the virtual lack of noticeable  mobilization of extra-parliamentary  groups.

    Throughout the course of this essay I will de-riddle the puzzling features of Sweden's biopolitics through presenting the juncture between institutionalist and discursive approaches. In short, I argue that the Swedish model is based on a productivist paradigm, the institutional and discursive parameters of which have not been decisively extended through its "new politics." In this way, elitist policy-making structures within environmental and technology policies have remained intact. Ironically, this relative openness, which enabled the rapid integration of new issues and political actors, was what led to the blockage of extensive participatory rights (as a counter-concept to the elitist policy style) and hindered the development of oppositional public spaces and forms of knowledge. Sweden's heritage of utilitarian ethics and pragmatic legal tradition and its assertions make it even more difficult for leftist or feminist to formulate a critical stance. Therefore, the only anti-embryo research position taken in the political arena was by the Christian Democratic Party.

    I will start providing an overview of policy regulations, then analyze the peculiar relation between the social democratic state, and the so-called new politics. I will then examine the institutions and actors in the biomedical policy field, and finally reconstruct the lines of argumentation within policy discourse.

     

  • 150.
    Kulawik, Teresa
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Genusvetenskap.
    Institutionalization of Ethical Expertise: The  National Ethics Councils in Germany and Sweden2008Inngår i: Social Studies of Science, European Association For The Study Of Science And Technology: Book of Abstracts: Rotterdam 2008, 2008, s. 136-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a paradoxical development that characterizes the way modern societies deal with ethical problems. Issues concerning the good life are privatized and regarded as individual decisions. Simultaneously, there is a politicization of the ethical. The clearest expression may be the institutionalization of ethical expertise or public advisory bodies that act as consultants to political decision-makers. Public ethics bodies challenge conventional categorical ways of thinking about the distinctness of science, ethics and policy. Therefore, it is not surprising that this new type of institution is a contentious issue in both public and academic debates. The existing scholarly literature focusses largely on the relation between ethics advisory bodies and moral philosophy. This paper explores how such advisory institutions actually work from a double perspective. On the one hand, the paper examines the emergence and role of such bodies in political processes and thus how they have come to be understood as “political expertise”; on the other hand, the paper investigates the concrete working procedures of these councils and thus their modes of producing “ethical expertise”. The paper compares two national cases, namely Germany’s National Ethics Council with the Swedish National Council on Medical Ethics. Both countries represent contrasting cases of dominant ethical traditions and with regard to the time of emergence of such bodies. The Swedish council was a pioneer institution inaugurated in 1985, whereas Germany´s council  was a latecomer, established in 2001.  Despite the differences the results of the study indicate similarities in the modes of producing “ethical expertise” which in the longer run might lead to stronger convergence. For the most part, commission ethics proves to be a practical matter chiefly determined by pragmatism.

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