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  • 101.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain 7 CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Murphy, Adrianna
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Male solitary drinking and hazardous alcohol use in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2015In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 150, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU).

    METHODS: Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking.

    CONCLUSIONS: Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use.

  • 102.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of London.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Roberts, Bayard
    University of London.
    Richardson, Erica
    University of London.
    Abbott, Pamela
    University of Aberdeen.
    Tumanov, Sergei
    Lomonosov Moscow State University.
    McKee, Martin
    University of London.
    Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, article id e67978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) - a region where loneliness has been little studied to date.

    Methods: Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine - in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress).

    Results: The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova.

    Conclusions: Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

  • 103.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of London.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Roberts, Bayard
    Rotman, David
    McKee, Martin
    Criminal victimisation and health: Examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2013In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 91, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that might mitigate its impact on health that are contextually appropriate in the fSU.

  • 104.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala universitet / Yale University, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Center for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicide ideation and attempts: Findings from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 20072016In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 189, p. 321-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have an increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior. This study examined this association in the general adult population where there has been little research.

    METHODS: Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. This was a representative sample of the English adult household population aged ≥16 years (N=7403). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was used to obtain information on ADHD symptoms. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess six forms of common mental disorder (CMD). Information was also obtained on the lifetime and past 12-month occurrence of suicide ideation and attempts. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine these associations.

    RESULTS: After adjusting for comorbid disorders, adults with more ADHD symptoms had significantly higher odds for suicidal behavior. When a single cut-off point was used to classify ADHD (ASRS score ≥14), odds ratios ranged from 1.62 (lifetime suicide attempt) to 2.43 (past 12-month suicide ideation). When ADHD symptoms were categorized by strata (I: a score of 0-9; II: 10-13; III: 14-17; IV: 18-24), compared to adults in stratum I, those in stratum IV had odds ratios ranging from 2.16 (lifetime suicide ideation) to 3.68 (past 12-month suicide attempt).

    LIMITATIONS: ADHD and suicide data came from self-reports which may have been affected by socially desirable responding.

    CONCLUSIONS: ADHD symptoms were linked to suicidal behavior after controlling for comorbid conditions. Health care professionals should be alerted to the increased suicide risk among adults with ADHD symptoms.

  • 105.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Uppsala University.
    Inoue, Y.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Kamio, Y.
    National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and physical multimorbidity: A population-based study2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 45, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    ADHD Symptoms and Pain among Adults in England2016In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 246, p. 326-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Prior research has produced conflicting findings on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pain, while studies among community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and pain in the general adult population, and the extent to which this association is influenced by comorbid common mental disorders (CMDs). Data came from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey which included a representative sample of the English adult population aged ≥16 years (N=7403). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to obtain information on ADHD symptoms, while pain was assessed by the degree to which it interfered with work activity in the previous month. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to evaluate six categories of CMDs. In a binary logistic regression analysis adjusted for socio-demographic factors and physical health conditions, an ADHD symptom score ≥14 was strongly associated with extreme pain (odds ratio [OR]: 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.09–4.74). The OR was attenuated greatly after further adjustment for CMDs (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05–2.58) but remained statistically significant. Adults with ADHD symptoms have higher odds for experiencing pain. CMDs are influential in this association but do not fully explain it.

  • 107.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Uppsala University.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Yazawa, Aki
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 265, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis and a mediation analysis were performed to examine associations. Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with higher odds for feeling less happy. Emotional instability (percentage mediated 37.1%), anxiety disorder (35.6%) and depression (29.9%) were all important mediators of the association between ADHD and happiness. Given that happiness has been linked to a number of beneficial outcomes, the results of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing ADHD in adults and also of screening for and treating any comorbid psychiatric disorders in these individuals.

  • 108.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Uppsala universitet.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and loneliness among adults in the general population2017In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 62, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research on the association between adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and loneliness is scarce even though factors which have been previously linked to loneliness, such as divorce and poorer mental health may be more prevalent among adults with ADHD. This study investigated the relation between ADHD symptoms/symptom severity and loneliness in the general adult population.

    METHODS: Data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403, aged ≥16years) were analyzed. ADHD symptoms and common mental disorders (CMDs) were assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener and the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised, respectively. Loneliness was measured with a question from the Social Functioning Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations.

    RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, an ASRS score ≥14 was strongly associated with loneliness (OR=2.48 95%CI=1.83-3.36). ADHD symptom severity was related to loneliness in a dose-response fashion. Over one-third of the association between ADHD symptoms and loneliness was explained by CMDs.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adults with more ADHD symptoms are at an increased risk of feeling lonely. Future research should determine how ADHD symptoms are linked to loneliness and if loneliness is affecting well-being.

  • 109.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: findings from a population-based study2018In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 226, p. 332-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample.

    Methods: Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25–84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables.

    Results: In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for adult depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model.

    Limitations: Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations.

    Conclusion: Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course.

  • 110.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Andreev, Evgueni
    Razvodovsky, Yury
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    McKee, Martin
    Alcohol poisoning in Russia and the countries in the European part of the former Soviet Union, 1970-20022007In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 444-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute alcohol poisoning has now reached unprecedented rates in parts of the ex-USSR with worrying trends among men as well as among women. Effective action by the governments concerned is now essential.

  • 111.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York City, NY, USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelon, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sleep problems and depression among 237 023 community-dwelling adults in 46 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems are considered a core symptom of depression. However, there is little information about the comorbidity of sleep problems and depression in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and whether sleep problems with depression confer additional risk for decrements in health compared to sleep problems alone. This study thus examined the association between sleep problems and depression and whether sleep problems with depression are associated with an increased risk for poorer health in 46 LMICs. Cross-sectional, community-based data from 237 023 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. Information on sleep problems (severe/extreme) and International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision depression/depression subtypes was collected. Multivariable logistic (binary and multinomial) and linear regression analyses were performed. Sleep problems were associated with subsyndromal depression (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.70), brief depressive episode (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 2.09-2.95) and depressive episode (OR = 3.61, 95% CI = 3.24-4.03). Sleep problems with depression (vs. sleep problems alone) conferred additional risk for anxiety, perceived stress and decrements in health in the domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, and interpersonal activities. Clinicians should be aware that the co-occurrence of sleep problems and depression is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in LMICs. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

  • 112.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Bopp, Matthias
    Strand, Bjorn Heine
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Lundberg, Olle
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Artnik, Barbara
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality: a population-based comparative study of 12 European countries2012In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 877-884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has suggested that violent mortality may be socially patterned and a potentially important source of health inequalities within and between countries. Against this background the current study assessed socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality across Europe. To do this, longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from mortality registers and population censuses in 12 European countries. Educational level was used to indicate socioeconomic position. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for post, upper and lower secondary or less educational groups. The magnitude of inequalities was assessed using the relative and slope index of inequality. The analysis focused on the 35-64 age group. Educational inequalities in homicide mortality were present in all countries. Absolute inequalities in homicide mortality were larger in the eastern part of Europe and in Finland, consistent with their higher overall homicide rates. They contributed 2.5 % at most (in Estonia) to the inequalities in total mortality. Relative inequalities were high in the northern and eastern part of Europe, but were low in Belgium, Switzerland and Slovenia. Patterns were less consistent among women. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide are thus a universal phenomenon in Europe. Wide-ranging social and inter-sectoral health policies are now needed to address the risk of violent victimization that target both potential offenders and victims.

  • 113.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Razvodovsky, Yury E
    Homicide in post-Soviet Belarus: urban-rural trends2009In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 117-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is probable that a combination of factors such as high levels of poverty, the effects of alcohol consumption, as well as the poor provision of emergency medical services underlie both the high levels of lethal violence and the growing rural-urban divergence in homicide rates in contemporary Belarus. Urgent action is now needed to address the deteriorating social and economic conditions underpinning violence, especially in rural regions.

  • 114.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Narita, Z.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / nstituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid , Spain.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 

  • 115.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Homicide in the Russian Empire and Soviet Union2005In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 647-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the collapse of Communism, statistics relating to previously ‘taboo’ phenomena such as homicide became available in the Soviet Union for the first time in over 50 years. The current study builds on several recent studies of homicide in Russia by extending both its time-frame and geographical coverage. Taking data from the end of the tsarist (1910) and Communist (1989) periods, the study maps the changes that occurred in the geographical distribution of homicide rates in ‘European Russia’ across the Soviet years. While non-Russian areas tended to remain or become less violent, Russia became more violent. These differences may have had a cultural component underlying them which was further exacerbated by the role of the state in the Soviet period.

  • 116.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Ng, C F S
    Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Watanabe, C
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Inoue, Y
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Konishi, S
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    General thoughts of death and mortality: findings from the Komo-Ise cohort, Japan.2018In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsDeath ideation (thinking about/wishing for one's own death, thinking that one would be better off dead) is linked to an increased mortality risk. However, comparatively little is known about more general thoughts of death (GTOD) where no wish to die or life value is expressed. This study examined whether GTOD predicted mortality in a community-based cohort of older adults.

    METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort study in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The analytic sample comprised 8208 individuals (average age 61.3 (range 47-77)) who were asked in wave 2 of the study in 2000 if they had 'Thought about death more than usual, either your own, someone else's or death in general?' in the past 2 weeks. Death data were obtained from the municipal resident registration file. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine associations.

    RESULTS: During the follow-up period (2000-2008), there were 672 deaths. In a model adjusted for baseline covariates, GTOD were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.20-2.29). Stratified analyses showed an association between GTOD and mortality in men, older subjects (⩾70 years), married individuals and those with higher social support.

    CONCLUSIONS: GTOD are associated with an increased mortality risk among older citizens in Japan. Research is now needed to determine the factors underlying this association and assess the clinical relevance of screening for GTOD in older individuals.

  • 117.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JapanUniversity of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / Nagasaki Univiversity, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, Aki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Kodaka, Manami
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    DeVylder, Jordan E.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Birthdays are associated with an increased risk of suicide in Japan: Evidence from 27,007 deaths in Tokyo in 2001-20102016In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 200, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has produced conflicting findings concerning whether birthdays are associated with an increased risk of suicide. This study examined the association in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: Suicide data (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) for the period 2001-2010 were obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used with conditional logistic regression analysis being performed to estimate within-subject birthday exposures' while controlling for meteorological conditions and public holidays. Results: There were 27,007 suicides in the study period. For males the 5 days before the birthday and the week after the birthday were associated with significantly higher odds for suicide with the odds ratio being highest on the actual birthday (OR =1.677, 95% CI: 1.294, 2.172). For females, significantly higher odds for completed suicide were observed 7-11 days before the birthday. Stratified analyses showed different at risk time patterns among men from different age groups, and that married men had higher odds for suicide on, and for the 4 days before and in the 2 weeks after their birthday. Limitations: We lacked detailed information on suicides which would have enabled a better understanding of the observed associations. Conclusions: Birthdays are associated with an increased risk for suicide in Tokyo, Japan. Health professionals who work with individuals at risk of suicide should be made aware that birthdays are associated with an elevated suicide risk. This information should also be communicated in wider suicide prevention campaigns.

  • 118.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, T.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Mckee, M.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Koyanagi, A.
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Injury and depression among 212 039 individuals in 40 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsAlthough injuries have been linked to worse mental health, little is known about this association among the general population in low- A nd middle-income countries (LAMICs). This study examined the association between injuries and depression in 40 LAMICs that participated in the World Health Survey.MethodsCross-sectional information was obtained from 212 039 community-based adults on the past 12-month experience of road traffic and other (non-traffic) injuries and depression, which was assessed using questions based on the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations.ResultsThe overall prevalence (95% CI) of past 12-month traffic injury, other injury, and depression was 2.8% (2.6-3.0%), 4.8% (4.6-5.0%) and 7.4% (7.1-7.8%), respectively. The prevalence of traffic injuries [range 0.1% (Ethiopia) to 5.1% (Bangladesh)], and other (non-traffic) injuries [range 0.9% (Myanmar) to 12.1% (Kenya)] varied widely across countries. After adjusting for demographic variables, alcohol consumption and smoking, the pooled OR (95%CI) for depression among individuals experiencing traffic injury based on a meta-analysis was 1.72 (1.48-1.99), and 2.04 (1.85-2.24) for those with other injuries. There was little between-country heterogeneity in the association between either form of injury and depression, although for traffic injuries, significant heterogeneity was observed between groups by country-income level (p = 0.043) where the pooled association was strongest in upper middle-income countries (OR = 2.37) and weakest in low-income countries (OR = 1.46).ConclusionsAlerting health care providers in LAMICs to the increased risk of worse mental health among injury survivors and establishing effective trauma treatment systems to reduce the detrimental effects of injury should now be prioritised.

  • 119.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / 5Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2019In: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, E-ISSN 1741-2854, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 158-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:: Perceived discrimination has been linked to worse mental health. However, little is known about this association in the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU).

    AIM:: To address this deficit, this study examined the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine fSU countries.

    METHODS:: Data were analyzed from 18,000 adults aged ⩾18 years obtained during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2010 and 2011. A single-item measure was used to assess discrimination. Psychological distress was measured with a 12-item scale. Logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations.

    RESULTS:: After adjusting for all potential confounders, when using none/little discrimination as the reference category, moderate and strong discrimination were associated with significantly increased odds for psychological distress in the total population and in men and women separately with odds ratios ranging from 1.93 to 2.64. Meta-analysis based on country-wise estimates showed that the level of between-country heterogeneity was negligible.

    CONCLUSION:: Perceived discrimination is associated with psychological distress in countries throughout the fSU. Quantitative and qualitative research is now warranted to determine its specific forms and impact on population health in individual fSU countries.

  • 120.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Jacob, Louis
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France / Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Waldman, Kyle
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Perceived discrimination and psychotic experiences in the English general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 62, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination has been linked to psychotic experiences (PEs). However, as yet, information is lacking on the relationship between different forms of discrimination and PEs. This study examined this association in the English general population.

    METHODS: Nationally representative, cross-sectional data were analyzed from 7363 adults aged 16 and above that came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Self-reported information was obtained on six forms of discrimination (ethnicity, sex, religious beliefs, age, physical health problems/disability, sexual orientation), while PEs were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations.

    RESULTS: In a fully adjusted logistic regression analysis, any discrimination was significantly associated with PEs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.75-3.48). All individual forms of discrimination were significantly associated with PEs except sexual orientation. Multiple forms of discrimination were associated with higher odds for PEs in a monotonic fashion with those experiencing ≥ 3 forms of discrimination having over 5 times higher odds for any PE. In addition, experiencing any discrimination was associated with significantly increased odds for all individual forms of PE with ORs ranging from 2.16 (95%CI: 1.40-3.35) for strange experience to 3.36 (95%CI: 1.47-7.76) for auditory hallucination.

    CONCLUSION: Different forms of discrimination are associated with PEs in the general population. As discrimination is common at the societal level, this highlights the importance of public policy and evidence-based interventions to reduce discrimination and improve population mental health.

  • 121.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Pridemore, W. A.
    The effects of binge drinking and social capital on violent victimisation: findings from Moscow2010In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 902-907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Rates of violence in Russia are among the highest in the orld, and violent victimisation represents a major public health threat n the country. As yet, however, little research has been undertaken on hat factors are associated with non-lethal violent victimisation in his setting. This study used data from the Moscow Health Survey 2004 to xamine the effects of binge drinking and social capital on individuals' isk of non-fatal violent victimisation. ethods A stratified random sampling strategy was used across Moscow's 25 municipal districts to collect data from 1190 individuals aged 18+ ears. Respondents reported if they had been a victim of physical iolence in the previous 12 months. Data were also collected on binge rinking (defined for men as consuming >= 80 g of pure alcohol, and for omen >= 60 g of pure alcohol, at least once per month) and social apital (frequency of interaction with relatives, friends and cquaintances). esults Overall, 8.7% of the respondents had been a victim of violence n the past 12 months. Men who binge drink were more than twice as ikely to have been a victim of non-lethal violence (OR 2.19, CI 1.23 to .92), while greater levels of social capital acted as a protective actor against male victimisation (OR 0.82, CI 0.69 to 0.97). Neither inge drinking nor social capital was associated with violent ictimisation among women. onclusion Urgent public health measures are now needed to reduce xcessive alcohol consumption and detrimental drinking patterns to bring own the high levels of violent victimisation in Russia.

  • 122.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Pridemore, William Alex
    The social-structural correlates of homicide in late-tsarist Russia2007In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 80-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using official socio-economic and vital statistics data from the end of the tsarist period, this study builds on and extends previous investigations of homicide in early twentieth-century Europe by examining which social-structural factors were associated with the variation in homicide rates among the 50 provinces of European Russia in 1910. The results of negative binomial regression show heavy drinking to be positively associated, and population density and literacy inversely associated, with provincial homicide rates. These findings suggest that the tension between modernity and tradition, which was more generally evident in Russian society during this period, may also have underpinned the regional variation observed in aggregate-level homicide rates. Moreover, the high rural homicide rates seen in both tsarist Russia and at the end of the Soviet period might indicate that the 'criminological transition' that may have occurred in other Western countries during the course of the twentieth century could have taken a different form or have been delayed in Russia, due at least in part to the actions and policies of the Soviet state.

  • 123.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Razvodovsky, Y
    Mckee, M
    Alcohol mortality in Russia: A historical perspective2009In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine major changes in the supply of alcohol in Russia and its impact on health in late-tsarist and early-Soviet society. Study design and methods: Statistical data on acute forms of alcohol mortality were drawn from official publications and medical literature published in the period 1860-1930 that covered the 50 provinces of European Russia and some of the major cities in the Russian Empire. These data were examined for across-time changes in alcohol mortality in relation to changes in the availability of alcohol products, both in terms of increased and decreased levels of supply. Results: Rapid changes in the supply of alcoholic products in earlier periods of Russian history resulted in quick and marked changes in the levels of acute alcohol mortality. However, while restrictions on the availability of spirits have sometimes been effective in reducing alcohol mortality, there has often been a rapid recourse to alternative forms of alcohol, i.e. alcohol surrogates. Conclusion: The lesson of history suggests that any attempt to deal with the problem of hazardous drinking in Russia must deal with all sources of alcohol, both legal and illegal, as individuals have demonstrated a high degree of ingenuity in identifying alternative sources of alcohol, both in the past and the present.

  • 124.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Razvodovsky, Yury
    Alcohol Poisoning in Belarus: A Comparison of Urban-Rural Trends, 1990-20052009In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 326-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of alcohol poisoning in urban and rural regions of Belarus in the post-Soviet period. Methods: All-age male and female alcohol-poisoning mortality and population data were obtained for the years 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 for urban and rural regions of Belarus. These data were subsequently recalculated into three age categories and directly standardized. Poisson regression models were used to assess relative changes in rural-urban alcohol-poisoning rates across time. Results: Although extremely high in comparative terms in 1990, alcohol-poisoning rates had nevertheless risen considerably amongst men and women in all age groups in both urban and rural regions by 2005. In rural regions, the rise was continuous while amongst the urban population a small reduction was recorded in 2000 after a comparatively larger rise in 1995. By 2005, although alcohol-poisoning rates were significantly higher amongst rural men and women, the levels of acute alcohol mortality were nevertheless extremely high in nearly every age group in both urban and rural locations. Conclusions: It is probable that both the level and pattern of alcohol consumption in conjunction with the increasing use of illegal alcohol underlie the extremely high alcohol-poisoning rates in contemporary Belarus, and the growing rural-urban divergence in alcohol-poisoning mortality observed in recent years. Immediate action is now required to improve the poor social and economic conditions underpinning extreme levels of acute alcohol mortality, as well as to increase the provision of alcohol treatment services, especially in rural areas.

  • 125.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Razvodovsky, Yury
    The effects of beverage type on homicide rates in Russia, 1970-20052012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 257-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Previous research from Western Europe and North America has suggested that consuming different types of alcoholic beverage may have differing effects on homicide rates both within and between countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and homicide rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Design and Methods. Age-standardised male and female homicide data for the period 1970-2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained from the Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat). Time series analysis (autoregressive integrated moving average modelling) was used to examine the relation between the sale (consumption) of different alcoholic beverages and homicide rates. Results. Total alcohol consumption and vodka consumption as measured by sales were significantly associated with both male and female homicide rates: a 1 L increase in overall alcohol sales would result in a 5.9% increase in the male homicide rate and a 5.1% increase in the female homicide rate. The respective figures for vodka were 16.4% and 14.3%. The consumption of beer and wine was not associated with changes in homicide rates. Discussion and Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the consumption of distilled spirits has had an especially detrimental impact on lethal violence in Russia from at least 1970 onwards. In order to reduce homicide rates in this context, alcohol policy should focus on reducing overall consumption as well as attempting to shift the beverage preference away from distilled spirits.

  • 126.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Santini, Ziggi Ivan
    University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu/CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Urinary incontinence, mental health and loneliness among community-dwelling older adults in Ireland.2017In: BMC Urology, ISSN 1471-2490, E-ISSN 1471-2490, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with worse health among older adults. Little is known however, about its relation with loneliness or the role of mental health in this association. This study examined these factors among older adults in Ireland.

    METHODS: Data were analyzed from 6903 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 50 collected in the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) in 2009-11. Information was obtained on the self-reported occurrence (yes/no) and severity (frequency/activity limitations) of UI in the past 12 months. Loneliness was measured using the UCLA Loneliness Scale short form. Information was also obtained on depression (CES-D), anxiety (HADS-A) and other sociodemographic variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between variables.

    RESULTS: In a model adjusted for all potential confounders except mental disorders, compared to no UI, any UI was associated with significantly higher odds for loneliness (odds ratio: 1.51). When depression was included in the analysis, the association was attenuated and became non-significant while the inclusion of anxiety had a much smaller effect. Similarly, although frequency of UI and activity limitations due to UI were both significantly associated with loneliness prior to adjustment for mental disorders, neither association remained significant after adjustment for both depression and anxiety.

    CONCLUSION: UI is associated with higher odds for loneliness among older community-dwelling adults but this association is largely explained by comorbid mental health problems, in particular, depression.

  • 127.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Sheng Ng, C. F.
    Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Konishi, S.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Watanabe, C.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, 2001–20112017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 155, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has indicated that pollen might be linked to suicide mortality although the few studies that have been undertaken to date have produced conflicting findings and been limited to Western settings. This study examined the association between the level of airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, Japan in the period from 2001 to 2011. The daily number of suicide deaths was obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, with pollen data being obtained from the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. A time-stratified case-crossover study was performed to examine the association between different levels of pollen concentration and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 5185 male and 2332 female suicides in the pollen season (February to April). For men there was no association between airborne pollen and suicide mortality. For women, compared to when there was no airborne pollen, the same-day (lag 0) pollen level of 30 to <100 grains per cm2 was associated with an approximately 50% increase in the odds for suicide (e.g. 30 to <50 grains per cm2: odds ratio 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.076–2.303, p=0.020). The estimates remained fairly stable after adjusting for air pollutants and after varying the cut-points that defined the pollen levels. Our results indicate that pollen is associated with female suicide mortality in Tokyo.

  • 128.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, T
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Z
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Oh, H
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    DeVylder, J E
    Fordham University, New York, NY, USA.
    Jacob, L
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France / CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Koyanagi, A
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Physical injury and psychotic experiences in 48 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences (PEs) may be associated with injuries, but studies focusing specifically on low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs) are scarce. Thus, the current study examined the link between injuries and PEs in a large number of LAMICs.

    METHOD: Cross-sectional data were used from 242 952 individuals in 48 LAMICs that were collected during the World Health Survey in 2002-2004 to examine the association between traffic-related and other (non-traffic-related) forms of injury and PEs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations while controlling for a variety of covariates including depression.

    RESULTS: In fully adjusted analyses, any injury [odds ratio (OR) 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-2.31], traffic injury (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.53-2.21) and other injury (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.84-2.37) were associated with higher odds for PEs. Results from a country-wise analysis showed that any injury was associated with significantly increased odds for PEs in 39 countries with the overall pooled OR estimated by meta-analysis being 2.46 (95% CI 2.22-2.74) with a moderate level of between-country heterogeneity (I2 = 56.3%). Similar results were observed across all country income levels (low, lower-middle and upper-middle).

    CONCLUSIONS: Different types of injury are associated with PEs in LAMICs. Improving mental health systems and trauma capacity in LAMICs may be important for preventing injury-related negative mental health outcomes.

  • 129.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki
    National Medical Centre for Children and Mothers, Tokyo, Japan.
    Hashimoto, Keiji
    National Centre for Child Health and Development (NCCHD), Tokyo, Japan.
    Haraguchi, Hideyuki
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Miyake, Atsuko
    Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Morokuma, Seiichi
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Nitta, Hiroshi
    National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Oda, Masako
    Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
    Ohya, Yukihiro
    National Center for Child Health and Development (NCCHD), Tokyo, Japan.
    Senju, Ayako
    University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Yamagata, Takanori
    Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Assessment of Autistic Traits in Children Aged 2 to 4½ Years With the Preschool Version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-P): Findings from Japan2017In: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 852-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent development and use of autism measures for the general population has led to a growing body of evidence which suggests that autistic traits are distributed along a continuum. However, as most existing autism measures were designed for use in children older than age 4, to date, little is known about the autistic continuum in children younger than age 4. As autistic symptoms are evident in the first few years, to address this research gap, the current study tested the preschool version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-P) in children aged 2 to 4½ years in clinical (N = 74, average age 40 months, 26-51 months) and community settings (N = 357, average age 39 months, 25-50 months) in Japan. Using information obtained from different raters (mothers, other caregivers, and teachers) it was found that the scale demonstrated a good degree of internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability, and a satisfactory degree of convergent validity for the clinical sample when compared with scores from diagnostic "gold standard" autism measures. Receiver operating characteristic analyses and the group comparisons also showed that the SRS-P total score discriminated well between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those without ASD. Importantly, this scale could identify autistic symptoms or traits distributed continually across the child population at this age irrespective of the presence of an ASD diagnosis. These findings suggest that the SRS-P might be a sensitive instrument for case identification including subthreshold ASD, as well as a potentially useful research tool for exploring ASD endophenotypes. Autism Res 2016.

  • 130.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Tachimori, Hisateru
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shinkai, Takahiro
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Yoshimura, Reiji
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Nakamura, Jun
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Morita, Gihei
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Nishii, Shigeki
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Tokutsu, Yuki
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Otsuka, Yuka
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Egashira, Kazuteru
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Inoue, Miyuki
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Kubo, Takamitsu
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Tesen, Hirofumi
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Takashima, Naoyuki
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Tominaga, Hirotaka
    University of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicidal behavior in adult psychiatric outpatients2018In: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, ISSN 1323-1316, E-ISSN 1440-1819, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 713-722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidal behavior in psychiatric outpatients and whether this association differs among patients with different psychiatric disorders.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional data came from the Japan Prevalence Study of Adult ADHD at Psychiatric Outpatient Care (the J-PAAP study) which included psychiatric outpatients aged 18-65 years recruited from one university hospital and three general psychiatric outpatient clinics in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan in April 2014 to January 2015 (N=864). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to collect information on ADHD symptoms. Reports of current and lifetime suicidal behavior were also obtained. A multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the association between ADHD symptoms and suicidal behavior.

    RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates there was a strong association between possible ADHD (ASRS ≥ 14) and suicidal behavior with prevalence ratios ranging from 1.17 (lifetime suicidal ideation) to 1.59 (lifetime suicide attempt) and 2.36 (current suicidal ideation). When ASRS strata were used, there was a dose-response association between increasing ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Analyses of individual ICD-10 psychiatric disorders showed that associations varied across disorders and that for anxiety disorder ADHD symptoms were significantly linked to all forms of suicidal behavior.

    CONCLUSION: ADHD symptom severity is associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior in general psychiatric outpatients. As ADHD symptoms are common among adult psychiatric outpatients, detecting and treating ADHD in this population may be important for preventing suicidal behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 131.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Timofeeva, Irina
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Sparén, Pär
    Risk factors for intimate partner violence against women in St. Petersburg, Russia2008In: Violence against Women, ISSN 1077-8012, E-ISSN 1552-8448, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 483-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study examines which risk factors are associated with intimate partner violence against women in St. Petersburg, Russia. Women attending two crisis centers and a birthing house constituted the study sample. The male partner's frequent alcohol consumption and seeing his father hit his mother in childhood were associated with an increased risk of violence, whereas living in a communal apartment reduced the risk of intimate partner violence. The importance of crisis centers in Russia is highlighted by the study, as the women who turn to them are likely to have experienced more severe forms of violence.

  • 132.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Waldman, Kyle
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, NY, USA.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Jacob, Louis
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Psychotic experiences and accidents, injuries, and poisonings among adults in the United States2019In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 282, article id 112610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotic experiences (PEs) have been linked to an increased risk for accidents and injuries. However, this association remains little researched in many countries. To address this research gap, the current study used cross-sectional data from the United States to examine the association between PEs and accidents, injuries, and poisoning in a general population sample. Data were analyzed from 2274 individuals who completed the psychosis screen as part of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information was obtained on PEs (hallucinations and delusions) and the experience of past 12-month accidents, injuries, and poisoning. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association while adjusting for demographic variables and common mental disorders (CMDs). In a fully adjusted model past 12-month PEs were associated with almost three times higher odds for reporting accidents, injuries, and poisoning (odds ratio [OR]: 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-7.74). The results of this study indicate that PEs are associated with higher odds for accidents and injuries among adults in the United States. Research is now needed to determine the direction of this association and the factors linked to it.

  • 133.
    Takahashi, H.
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Nakahachi, T.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishitobi, M.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Y.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Stability of the acoustic startle response and its modulation in children with typical development and those with autism spectrum disorders: A one-year follow-up2017In: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 673-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory hyper-reactivity is a common sensory-perceptual abnormality that interrupts behavioral adaptations in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, prolonged acoustic startle response (ASR) latency and hyper-reactivity to weak acoustic stimuli were reported in children with ASD. Indexes of ASR and its modulation are known to be stable biological markers for translational research in the adult population. However, little is known about the stability of these indexes in children. Thus, the objective of our study was to investigate the stability of neurophysiological ASR indexes in children with ASD and typical development (TD). Participants included 12 children with ASD and 24 with TD. Mean startle magnitudes to acoustic stimuli presented at 65-105 dB in increments of 10 dB were analyzed. Average peak startle latency (PSL), ASR modulation of habituation, and prepulse inhibition were also analyzed. These startle measures were examined after a follow-up period of 15.7±5.1 months from baseline. At both baseline and in the follow-up period, children with ASD had significantly greater startle magnitudes to weak stimuli of 65-85 dB and more prolonged PSL compared with controls. Intraclass correlation coefficients for these ASR measures between both periods were 0.499-0.705. None of the ASR measures differed significantly between the two periods. Our results suggest that prolonged PSL and greater startle magnitudes to weak stimuli in children with ASD might serve as moderately stable neurophysiological indexes of ASD.

  • 134.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Nakahachi, Takayuki
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Ishitobi, Makoto
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Relationship between physiological and parent-observed auditory over-responsiveness in children with typical development and those with autism spectrum disorders.2018In: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 291-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between caregiver-reported sensory processing abnormalities, and the physiological index of auditory over-responsiveness evaluated using acoustic startle response measures, in children with autism spectrum disorders and typical development. Mean acoustic startle response magnitudes in response to 65-105 dB stimuli, in increments of 10 dB, were analyzed in children with autism spectrum disorders and with typical development. Average peak startle latency was also examined. We examined the relationship of these acoustic startle response measures to parent-reported behavioral sensory processing patterns in everyday situations, assessed using the Sensory Profile for all participants. Low-threshold scores on the Sensory Profile auditory section were related to acoustic startle response magnitudes at 75 and 85 dB, but not to the lower intensities of 65 dB. The peak startle latency and acoustic startle response magnitudes at low-stimuli intensities of 65 and 75 dB were significantly related to the low-threshold quadrants (sensory sensitivity and sensation avoiding) scores and to the high-threshold quadrant of sensation seeking. Our results suggest that physiological assessment provides further information regarding auditory over-responsiveness to less-intense stimuli and its relationship to caregiver-observed sensory processing abnormalities in everyday situations.

  • 135.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nakamura, Toru
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kim, Jinhyuk
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kikuchi, Hiroe
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nakahachi, Takayuki
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishitobi, Makoto
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ebishima, Ken
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ando, Tetsuya
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yamamoto, Yoshiharu
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Acoustic Hyper-Reactivity and Negatively Skewed Locomotor Activity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study2018In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigation of objective and quantitative behavioral phenotypes along with neurobiological endophenotypes might lead to increased knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here, we investigated the association between locomotor dynamics and characteristics of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation in ASD (n = 14) and typically developing (TD, n = 13) children. The ASR was recorded in response to acoustic stimuli in increments of 10 dB (65-105 dB SPL). We calculated the average ASR magnitude for each stimulus intensity and peak-ASR latency. Locomotor activity was continuously measured with a watch-type actigraph. We examined statistics of locomotor activity, such as mean activity levels and the skewness of activity. Children with ASD had a significantly greater ASR magnitude in response to a weak acoustic stimulus, which reflects acoustic hyper-reactivity. The skewness of all-day activity was significantly more negative in children with ASD than those with TD. Skewness of daytime activity was also more negative, although only of borderline statistical significance. For all children, the higher mean and more negatively skewed daytime activity, reflecting hyperactivity that was associated with sporadic large daytime "troughs," was significantly correlated with acoustic hyper-reactivity. The more negatively skewed locomotor activity occurring in the daytime was also associated with impaired sensorimotor gating, examined as prepulse inhibition at a prepulse intensity of 70 dB. This comprehensive investigation of locomotor dynamics and the ASR extends our understanding of the neurophysiology that underlies ASD.

  • 136.
    Tasmin, S.
    et al.
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Ueda, K.
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Yasumoto, S.
    Ritsumeikan University, Japan.
    Phung, V. L. H.
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Oishi, M.
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Yasukouchi, S.
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Uehara, Y.
    Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Michikawa, T.
    National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan.
    Nitta, H.
    National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan.
    Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566-567, p. 528-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7 μg/m3. In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10 μg/m3 increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in <3 weeks hospitalization or no hospitalization) when compared to severe medical conditions (e.g. critical cases, and cases that led to >3 weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being.

  • 137.
    Tasmin, Saira
    et al.
    University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Md, Nasiruddin
    Ministry of Environment and Forest, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Saroar, Golam
    Ministry of Environment and Forest, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Yasumoto, Shinya
    Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Effects of Short-term Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter on the Lung Function of School Children in Dhaka, Bangladesh2019In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 30, no Suppl 1, p. S15-S23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate pollution may adversely affect children's lung function. However, evidence on this association remains scarce in Asia despite this region having the greatest burden of disease due to air pollution.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) on the lung function of school children in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The possible seasonal modification of this association was also examined.

    METHODS: A panel of 315 school children who were 9-16 years of age were recruited from three schools in and around Dhaka. Lung function was assessed using a spirometry test during the cool and warm seasons in 2013, yielding six measurements per child. Daily PM data were retrieved from nearby air monitoring stations. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine associations. Seasonal modification was examined by stratification.

    RESULTS: An inverse association was observed for the lung function parameters with PM2.5; peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume within 1 second (FEV1) decreased with increasing PM2.5. The percent deviation from the personal median was -4.19% [95% confidence interval (CI): -5.72, -2.66] for PEF and -2.05% (95% CI: -2.92, -1.18) for FEV1 for a 20 µg/m increase in PM2.5 on the previous day. Results for PM10 were less consistent. The estimated effects of PM on lung functions were generally greater in the warm season.

    CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to PM is associated with worse lung function in children living in highly polluted settings, with the strength of these adverse PM effects varying by season.

  • 138.
    Tingstedt, Olga
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Koposov, Roman
    University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Blatný, Marek
    Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hrdlicka, Michal
    Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Somatic symptoms and internalizing problems in urban youth: a cross-cultural comparison of Czech and Russian adolescents.2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 480-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although the association between somatic complaints and internalizing problems (anxiety, somatic anxiety and depression) is well established, it remains unclear whether the pattern of this relationship differs by gender and in different cultures. The aim of this study was to examine cross-cultural and gender-specific differences in the association between somatic complaints and internalizing problems in youth from the Czech Republic and Russia.

    Methods: The Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey, was completed by representative community samples of adolescents, age 12-17 years, from the Czech Republic (N = 4770) and Russia (N = 2728).

    Results: A strong association was observed between somatic complaints and internalizing psychopathology. Although the levels of internalizing problems differed by country and gender, they increased together with and largely in a similar way to somatic complaints for boys and girls in both countries.

    Conclusion: The association between somatic symptoms and internalizing problems seems to be similar for boys and girls across cultures.

  • 139.
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    et al.
    University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Maria Haro, Josep
    University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Weight Perception, Satisfaction, Control, and Low Energy Dietary Reporting in the US Adult Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-20122016In: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, ISSN 2212-2672, E-ISSN 2212-2680, Vol. 116, no 4, p. 579-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Prior research has indicated that several factors are associated with low energy dietary reporting; however, there is comparatively little information on the association between body image, weight control, and low energy reporting. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the association between low energy reporting and aspects of weight perception, satisfaction, and control in a nationally representative US adult sample. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Participants/setting Data were analyzed from 13,581 adults aged 20 years and older who participated in the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data on sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics, and weight perception, satisfaction, and control were collected. The ratio of reported energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR) was calculated and used for the assessment of low energy reporting. Main outcome measures The relationship of low energy reporting with various aspects of weight perception, satisfaction, and control was evaluated. Statistical analyses performed Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between the variables. Results Low energy reporters were significantly more likely to consider themselves overweight (perception), want to weigh less (satisfaction), and to have tried to lose weight in the past 12 months (control). Compared with having no desire for weight change, wanting to weigh less was associated with 1.28 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.53) times higher odds for low energy reporting. Trying to lose weight was also associated with low energy reporting (odds ratio = 1.56; 95% CI 1.38 to 1.76). Effect modification by obesity status was observed for the weight perception, satisfaction, and control variables where the odds ratios of these factors for low energy reporting were higher among those who were not obese. Conclusion Weight perception, satisfaction, and control are related to low energy reporting, and should be taken into account in nutritional assessments. In addition, the effect of these factors can differ by obesity status.

  • 140.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Unhealthy Societies?: Health Stagnation and Growing Health Inequalities Are Not Consistent with Sustainable Development2006In: Realizing a Common Vision for a Baltic Sea Eco-Region: Report from a Research Symposium on Sustainable Development Patterns 28-29 October 2005 / [ed] Lars Rydén, 2006, p. 39-46Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Yazawa, Aki
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Fujiwara, Takeo
    National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shirai, Kokoro
    University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.
    Amemiya, Airi
    National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, Naoki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, Katsunori
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi, Japan.
    Association between social participation and hypertension among older people in Japan: the JAGES Study2016In: Hypertension Research, ISSN 0916-9636, E-ISSN 1348-4214, Vol. 39, p. 818-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in the world. Although previous studies have focused on individual-level behavioral risk factors associated with hypertension, there has been little research on how interacting with others, that is social participation, affects hypertension. To address this research gap, this study examined the association between social participation and hypertension in Japan, a country with a high prevalence of hypertension possibly linked to rapid population aging. Data were used from 4582 participants aged more than 65 years who participated in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Survey (JAGES) with blood pressure data collected during a health check-up. The frequency of participation in vertical organizations (characterized by hierarchical relationships) and horizontal organizations (characterized by non-hierarchical, egalitarian relationships) was measured by a questionnaire. In a Poisson regression analysis, participation in vertical organizations was not associated with hypertension, whereas participation in horizontal organizations at least once a month was inversely associated with hypertension (prevalence ratio: 0.941). This association remained significant after adjusting for social support variables, although further adjustment for health behaviors attenuated the association. As the frequency of going out and average time spent walking were both associated with hypertension, physical activity may be a possible pathway that connects social participation and hypertension. The results of this study suggest that expanding social participation programs, especially those involving horizontal organizations, may be one way to promote better health among older people in Japan.

  • 142.
    Yazawa, Aki
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Li, Dandan
    Hainan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Du, Jianwei
    Hainan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, article id e0139602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Season of birth (SOB) has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL), a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration (i.e., inflammatory status) among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old) in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  • 143.
    Zachrison, Linnea
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    Arctic University of Norway (UiT), Tromsø, Norway.
    Inhalant Use and Mental Health Problems in Russian Juvenile Delinquents2017In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 52, no 12, p. 1616-1623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Inhalant use by children and adolescents has been linked to an increased risk of multiple drug use, mental health problems and antisocial behavior.

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the frequency of inhalant use and psychiatric diagnoses among incarcerated delinquent youths in Russia.

    METHODS: A total of 370 incarcerated delinquents from a juvenile correction center in Northern Russia were assessed by means of a semi-structured psychiatric interview and by self-reports.

    RESULTS: Compared to non-users (N = 266), inhalant users (N = 104) reported higher rates of PTSD, early onset conduct disorder, ADHD, alcohol abuse and dependence, as well as higher levels of antisocial behavior, impulsiveness and more psychopathic traits. Frequent inhalant users also reported the highest rates of co-occurring psychopathology.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that inhalant use in delinquents is frequent and may require additional clinical measures to address the issue of psychiatric comorbidity.

123 101 - 143 of 143
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Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf