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  • 101.
    Simoff, Ivailo
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Moradi, Hossein
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Nygård, Odd
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Functional characterization of ribosomal protein L15 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae2009In: Current Genetics, ISSN 0172-8083, E-ISSN 1432-0983, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 111-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we provide general information on the little studied eukaryotic ribosomal protein rpL15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two genes, YRPL15A and YRPL15B that could potentially code for yeast rpL15 (YrpL15). YRPL15A is essential while YRPL15B is dispensable. However, a plasmid-borne copy of the YRPL15B gene, controlled by the GAL1 promoter or by the promoter controlling expression of the YRPL15A gene, can functionally complement YrpL15A in yeast cells, while the same gene controlled by the authentic promoter is inactive. Analysis of the levels of YrpL15B-mRNA in yeast cells shows that the YRPL15B gene is inactive in transcription. The function of YrpL15A is highly resilient to single and multiple amino acid substitutions. In addition, minor deletions from both the N- and C-terminal ends of YrpL15A has no effect on protein function, while addition of a C-terminal tag that could be used for detection of plasmid-encoded YrpL15A is detrimental to protein function. YrpL15A could also be replaced by the homologous protein from Arabidopsis thaliana despite almost 30% differences in the amino acid sequence, while the more closely related protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe was inactive. The lack of function was not caused by a failure of the protein to enter the yeast nucleus.

  • 102. Souter, Petra
    et al.
    Henriksson, Oskar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Patterns of genetic structuring in the coral Pocillopora damicornis on reefs in East Africa.2009In: BMC Ecology, ISSN 1472-6785, E-ISSN 1472-6785, Vol. 9, p. 19-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study showed that population differentiation in P. damicornis varied over spatial scales and that this variability occurred at both evolutionary and ecological time scales. This paradox is discussed in light of stochastic recruitment and small scale population structures found in other species of coral. The study also identifies potential source reefs, such as those within Mnemba Conservation area near Zanzibar and genetically isolated reefs such as those within Malindi Marine National Park and Reserve in northern Kenya.

  • 103. Stacey, N. E.
    et al.
    Van der Kraak, G. J.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Male primer endocrine responses to preovulatory female cyprinids under natural conditions in Sweden2012In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 147-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated two related aspects of male-female reproductive interactions in the family Cyprinidae: (1) whether ovulating female rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus (subfamily Leuciscinae) induce endocrine and gonadal priming responses in conspecific males, a phenomenon which has been described only in species from the subfamily Cyprininae such as goldfish, Carassius auratus, crucian carp Carassius carassius and common carp, Cyprinus carpio and (2) whether the stimuli mediating these responses are species-specific. Field studies of three sympatric European cyprinids, two leuciscins (S. erythrophthalmus and white bream Blicca bjoerkna) and one cyprinin (C. carassius), were conducted on fishes captured in Sweden in the spawning season and held in net pens under natural conditions. As previously reported in C. carassius, male S. erythrophthalmus increased milt (sperm and seminal fluid) volume and plasma concentrations of the sperm maturation hormone 4-pregnen-17,20 beta-diol-3-one (17,20 beta-P) when they were held with female S. erythrophthalmus induced to ovulate by injection of Ovaprim (GnRH analogue plus dopamine antagonist). Male S. erythrophthalmus had larger milt volumes than male C. carassius prior to and following exposure to ovulatory conspecifics, but exhibited a smaller proportional milt increase in response to stimulation, suggesting species differences in sperm allocation at spawning. The presence of female S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not affect milt volumes of C. carassius under two experimental conditions: (1) ovulating S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not increase the milt volumes of C. carassius and (2) S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not interfere with the milt volume increase induced in male C. carassius by ovulating conspecifics. These results suggest that, as in C. auratus, C. carassius and C. carpio (subfamily Cyprininae), female S. erythrophthalmus (subfamily Leuciscinae) release a preovulatory pheromone that exerts priming effects on male hormones and sperm allocation. The findings also indicate that C. carassius discriminate between the reproductive odours of conspecifics and heterospecifics.

  • 104. Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    et al.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Transnational multi-stakeholder standardization: Organizing fragile non-state authority2010Book (Other academic)
  • 105. Terragni, Laura
    et al.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Halkier, Bente
    Mäkelä, Johanna
    Can consumers save the world?: Everyday food consumption and dilemmas of sustainability2009In: Anthropology of Food, ISSN 1609-9168, E-ISSN 1609-9168, no Sept.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Rabilloud, Louise
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hazardous substances: a case study of environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea region2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to describe and analyse the structures and processes that shape risk governance of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea area and, based on this, discuss conditions and opportunities that could improve chemical risk governance. With this purpose in mind we have analysed the risk governance of hazardous chemicals along three dimensions and Work Packages (WP): governance structures (WP 1), risk assessment-risk management interactions (WP 2) and stakeholder communication (WP 3). The report is an initial outcome of the RISKGOV project, in which risk governance in various areas eventually will be compared in order to gain new insights on environmental risk governance and to extract policy-relevant advise on how to better deal with environmental risks in the Baltic Sea context.

     

    The report is based on a study of key documents treating policies and risks, 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews with stakeholders conducted in the period February–October 2010, as well as participatory observations at scientific conferences and stakeholder meetings.

    WP 1 identifies the most important risk governance structures, and maps actors and regulations. In particular, it is concluded that development at the EU and HELCOM level are of main importance for the management of chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. Thus, actors within the EU and HELCOM, as well as regulations within EU – most notably the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and the REACH regulation – and regulations and recommendations dealt with by HELCOM – in particular the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) – were identified as crucial for further analyses in WP 2 and WP 3. Although we recognise the importance and the substantial improvements that have been made in chemical regulation within the EU and HELCOM, these developments are not sufficient in order to meet key objective at hand, nor do they adequately manage relations with Russia. WP 1 concludes that, although there are numerous of national and international regulations creating a massive web of regulations, existing chemical regulation and informal governance structures are very far from covering all existing chemical risks (especially new chemicals and mixtures of chemicals) and to allow for a sufficient extent of safety. Care must be taken in the development of new regulations to promote synergies and data exchange rather than causing further barriers, overlaps and conflicts that could reduce the efficiency. Innovative policy developments, as well as improved international collaboration, are therefore needed, which will be placed in focus in further studies within the RISKGOV project.

    WP 2 focuses on an in-depth understanding of the interactions between risk assessment and risk management of chemicals. The main assessment and management activities in the Baltic Sea region are identified and analysed. It is concluded that assessments commonly are based on a rather technocratic separation of assessment and management activities (with often unclear strategies for bringing these activities together in decision-making). Assessments also generally suffer from lack of data, insufficient harmonisation of methodology, as well as unclear strategies for assessing uncertainties and adjusted communication of assessment results. Consequently, assessments would benefit greatly from more harmonised assessment methodologies, not least for chemical mixtures, ecological effects as well as methods for integrating various lines of evidence. Both assessment and management might benefit from increased stakeholder participation. Furthermore, we have analysed risk assessment and management interactions through the prisms of uncertainty and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). These aspects have become top challenges for the assessment and management of chemical risks as well as for coping with science-policy interactions connected with the governance of chemical risks. We conclude that the enormous knowledge gap (for most chemicals, for the risks of chemical mixtures, for ecosystem-specific risks etc) need to be addressed by combining increased efforts on data and knowledge production with better ways of assessing, communicating and managing uncertainty. Hence, a main question is how much evidence is needed for motivating decision-making on risk reduction. This is a policy-related issue, not a scientific one. However, science does need to develop and implement improved methodology for assessing and communicating uncertainty to relevant stakeholders. On the management side, the precautionary principle is increasingly stipulated for coping with uncertainty. In spite of that, there is no consensus on the exact implementation of the principle in practice, and regulations such as REACH, the WFD, the MSFD and the BSAP ought to be developed on this point. Risk reduction is needed and motivated even, or even particularly, under uncertainty. Looking at the EAM, the approach is clearly receiving increase attention (e.g. in the BSAP and the MSFD), but only partially in the field of chemical regulation and concrete measures. So far, it is therefore not certain that the EAM will substantially improve risk management in cases of high uncertainty. On the contrary, requirements on implementation of the EAM may stall measures and increase complexity. These initial insights will be further developed in coming RISKGOV publications.

    WP 3 describes and analyses how risks of hazardous chemicals are framed by key actors and stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region, such as governments, agencies, regionally inter-governmental agencies such as HELCOM, economic actors, academia, and civil society. It is shown that different actors have different ways of framing the risk of chemicals in the Baltic Sea. For example, differences were observed along a gradient spanning from framing chemicals and chemical products as basically useful for society, to framing chemicals as substantial threats to the environment and human health. Most interviewed stakeholders could be placed somewhere in the middle of this gradient between benefit and cost. This is reflected in the dominant opinions expressed on required general management approaches, which do not fundamentally question abundant production of chemicals, but rather suggest a focus on managing chemicals with proven hazardous properties, thus tilting towards a market rather than an environmental starting point. This view on chemical risk management is rather surprising given the major uncertainties and lack of data described in WP 2. In light of this we propose that the management of chemicals might benefit from a shift towards seeing quality of life as based on sufficiency of chemicals rather than on (over)-abundance of them. Many of the interviewed stakeholders (e.g. politicians, journalists and NGO staff) also expressed a surprising lack of interest in the environmental risks of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. If concern mostly expressed was health risks of chemicals. It is also clear that besides some NGOs and other stakeholders, quite few have a primary focus on taking initiatives for improving the management of chemicals, something that is a problem given the common political ambitions to increase participation in connection with implementation of the EAM. WP 3 also analyses existing institutional arrangements for and procedures of risk communication at the regional Baltic Sea level. Clearly, communication between the EU and Russia is still in need of improvement, as is two-way communications and cooperation between stakeholders, as well as between actors connected with risk assessment and risk management and the general public. For example, in those (rare) cases when scientific information about chemicals does exist, it is not well communicated among knowledge producers and stakeholders, and current scientific assessment activities seldom relate directly to concerns of stakeholders or the public.

     

    In conclusion our initial analysis and conclusions show that risks of chemicals are rather dealt with by traditional risk-based governmental strategies, than by broad environmental governance, based on precaution and the ecosystem approach to management. Furthermore, there are no clear strategies or guidelines on how to cope with uncertainty in assessment and management. As a result, even though there is a growing scientific capacity to develop new chemicals, there is at present no well functioning system for their safe management. We will address these challenges further in future RISKGOV publications.

  • 107. Visram, Shakil
    et al.
    Yang, Ming-Che
    Pillay, Ruby Moothien
    Said, Sadri
    Henriksson, Oskar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Chen, Chaolun Allen
    Genetic connectivity and historical demography of the blue barred parrotfish (Scarus ghobban) in the western Indian Ocean2010In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 157, no 7, p. 1475-1487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on genetic connectivity are essential for the design of management strategies for coral reef fisheries. In this study we used a mitochondrial DNA marker to investigate population structure of the reef-associated parrotfish, Scarus ghobban, from four countries, Kenya, Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania, in the western Indian Ocean. We obtained nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial control region for 117 individuals. Measures of haplotype diversity were relatively high. Pairwise population differentiation (F (ST)) was low, but not always non-significant. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed genetic differentiation between groups, when the data was partitioned into two groups consisting of samples from Mauritius and Tanzania in one group, and samples from Kenya and Seychelles in another group. Direction of gene flow was estimated using a Bayesian approach. Migration was sometimes asymmetric or directional, coinciding with the flow of major oceanic and coastal currents in the region. Mismatch distributions, based on the observed number of differences among haplotype pairs, produced a unimodal distribution, indicative of recent demographic expansion. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three clades without any geographic structure, suggesting recent migration between historically isolated lineages. We reconstructed the historical demography of S. ghobban and examined it in the context of Pleistocene climate stages and changes in relative sea level. Overall, these results showed that populations of S. ghobban are genetically diverse and have relatively high gene flow, with some genetic structuring in the western Indian Ocean.

  • 108.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Kot-Wasik, Agata
    Gdańsk University of Technology.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): Persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour2012In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 178, no 2, p. 282-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 ng/L and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminization of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analyzed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions.

  • 109. Wallin, Lotta
    et al.
    Svensson, Brita M.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Artificial dispersal as a restoration tool in meadows: Sowing or planting?2009In: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 270-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat fragmentation and the abandonment of former agricultural practices have led to extremely low dispersal rates for plant species growing in traditionally managed hay meadows in Sweden. Historically, seed dispersal between populations was maintained by hay movement, grazing animals, and farmers sharing their equipment. Because these means of dispersal typically are no longer occurring, artificial dispersal using seeds and plug-plants is tested here as a restoration tool. In this study, we chose two perennial herbs commonly occurring in meadows as test species, viz, Hypochoeris maculata L. (Asteraceae) and Succisa pratensis Moench. (Dipsacaceae). We found that plug-plant transplants were twice as effective as seed sowing for both species. The seed collection site was found to be important for seed-based establishment and survival; consequently, the choice of donor meadow is important when acquiring seeds used for restoration. We also found that survival of plants introduced as seeds was generally lower at sites harboring species favored by nitrogen as well as at sites in later successional phases. Both methods of introducing meadow species worked well, even though long-term establishment may well be more successful with the plug-plant method due to higher plug-plant establishment 2 years after introduction in the field.

  • 110.
    Wouters, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Janson, Sven
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Luskova, Vera
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Molecular identification of hybrids of the invasive gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio and crucian carp Carassius carassius in Swedish waters2012In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 80, no 7, p. 2595-2604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both mitochondrial DNA sequence and two nuclear microsatellite markers were used to confirm the identity of the first record of Carassius auratus gibelio in the western (Swedish) Baltic Sea region. A total of 49 fishes were analysed, where 22 were from three Swedish sites connected to the Baltic Sea. The D-loop mitochondrial DNA sequences showed that 16 of 22 Swedish fishes were related to C. a. gibelio. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that these fish are probably not native, but represent different lineages of C. a. gibelio from China, Japan and Russia. All except three of these 16 fishes had microsatellite alleles suggesting hybridization with Carassius carassius. These findings suggest that a cryptic invasion of C. a. gibelio might be in progress.

  • 111.
    Wouters, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Janson, Sven
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Why didn’t we notice them earlier? The invasive fish Carassius gibelio(gibel carp) identified by genetic methods in Swedish waters.2011In: 7th International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions: Abstract Book, 2011, p. 162-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Wramner, Per
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Coastal Management Research Center (COMREC). Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Nygård, Odd
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Från naturskydd till bevarande av biologisk mångfald: Utvecklingen av naturvårdsarbetet i Sverige med särskild inriktning på områdesskyddet2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken beskriver och analyserar utvecklingen av naturvårdsarbetet i Sverige under dess första sekel. Tonvikten ligger på områdesskyddet och de naturvetenskapliga, naturvårdsideologiska och naturvårdspolitiska grunderna för detta. Tyngdpunkten ligger på den senare delen av naturskyddets utveckling i Sverige, en period som hittills endast tilldragit sig begränsat forskningsintresse.

    I en kommande bok kommer skeendena i samband med införandet av EU:s naturvårdsdirektiv i Sverige att behandlas mer ingående.

  • 113.
    Wramner, Per
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Coastal Management Research Center (COMREC). Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Nygård, Odd
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Godset Almnäs i Norra Fågelås socken: natur- och naturvårdsförhållanden2012Report (Other academic)
123 101 - 113 of 113
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