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  • 101.
    Oh, H.
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Waldman, K.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    DeVylder, J. E.
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic experiences and physical health conditions in the United States2019In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 90, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Psychotic experiences are associated with physical health conditions, though the associations have not always been consistent in the literature. The current study examines the associations between psychotic experiences and several physical health conditions across four racial groups in the United States.

    Methods: We analyzed data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys to examine the associations between psychotic experiences and physical health conditions across four racial groups (White, Black, Asian, Latino). We used multivariable logistic regression to calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals.

    Results: Psychotic experiences were significantly associated with several physical health conditions depending on the condition and the racial group being examined. Further, the number of physical health conditions was associated with increasingly greater risk for psychotic experiences in a linear fashion.

    Conclusions: Psychotic experiences may serve as useful markers for physical health conditions and overall physical health status. Future studies should examine the underlying mechanisms between psychotic experiences and health, and explore the clinical utility of psychotic experiences for preventive interventions.

  • 102.
    Oh, Hans
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain..
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Seasonal Allergies and Psychiatric Disorders in the United States2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id E1965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal allergies have been associated with mental health problems, though the evidence is still emergent, particularly in the United States. We analyzed data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and the National Latino and Asian American Survey (years 2001⁻2003). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relations between lifetime allergies and lifetime psychiatric disorders (each disorder in a separate model), adjusting for socio-demographic variables (including region of residence) and tobacco use. Analyses were also stratified to test for effect modification by race and sex. A history of seasonal allergies was associated with greater odds of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders, but not alcohol or substance use disorders, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and tobacco use. The associations between seasonal allergies and mood disorders, substance use disorders, and alcohol use disorders were particularly strong for Latino Americans. The association between seasonal allergies and eating disorders was stronger for men than women. Seasonal allergies are a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. Individuals complaining of seasonal allergies should be screened for early signs of mental health problems and referred to specialized services accordingly.

  • 103.
    Oh, Hans
    et al.
    University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Lincoln, Karen D
    University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Deu , Barcelona , Spain / CIBERSAM , Madrid , Spain.
    Allergies, infections, and psychiatric disorders among Black Americans: findings from the National Survey of American Life2019In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: An emerging body of literature shows that allergies and infections are associated with psychiatric disorders, though there is little research to confirm these associations among Black Americans in the United States. Design: We analyzed data from the National Survey of American Life, and used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between past 12-month allergies/infections and past 12-month psychiatric disorders, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use, lifetime diabetes, and body mass index. Results: We found that allergies/infections were associated with mood, anxiety, and eating disorders, but not alcohol or substance use disorders. We detected effect modification by ethnicity, with stronger odds for mood, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders, with no significant associations for substance use or eating disorders among Caribbean Blacks. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of screening for psychiatric disorders among Black individuals complaining of allergies/infections, and the need to also treat allergies/infections among people with psychiatric disorders.

  • 104.
    Oh, Hans
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Singh, Fiza
    University of California, La Jolla, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Self-reported asthma diagnosis and mental health: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication2019In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 271, p. 721-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, asthma has had a mixed association with mental health. More research is needed to examine the associations between asthma and specific psychiatric disorders, and whether these associations hold true across racial groups in the general population of the United States. Using the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, we examined the associations between lifetime asthma and specific DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and smoking status. We found that when looking at the entire sample, self-reported diagnosis of asthma was associated with greater odds of reporting mood disorders (AOR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). Asthma was not significantly associated with total anxiety disorders (AOR 1.25; 95% CI: 0.98-1.60), though it was specifically associated with generalized anxiety disorder. Asthma was associated with greater odds of having alcohol use disorders (AOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.24-2.37), but was not associated with total eating disorders (AOR:1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-2.51) (though it was significantly associated with higher odds for binge eating disorder, but lower odds of reporting bulimia). The strength and the significance of the associations between asthma and psychiatric disorders varied when stratified by race, underscoring the importance of examining race as a potential explanation for the mixed findings observed previously in the literature.

  • 105. Petrova, Saska
    et al.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Umeå University.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Bouzarovski, Stefan
    Perceptions of thermal comfort and housing quality: exploring the microgeographies of energy poverty in Stakhanov, Ukraine2013In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1240-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing recognition of the importance of indoor environments as 'active political-ecological spaces' has rarely been followed up by a systematic empirical engagement with the constituent dynamics and conceptual issues associated with infrastructural deprivation in this domain, particularly in non-Western contexts. Therefore, we investigate the relationship between self-reported perceptions of thermal comfort in the home, on the one hand, and a range of sociodemographic, housing, and health-related variables, on the other, via a quantitative analysis of a large-scale survey undertaken in the Eastern Ukrainian town of Stakhanov. Using the perceived level of thermal comfort as a starting point for its empirical explorations, we estimate the number and type of households who feel that they are receiving inadequate energy services in the home. Special attention is paid to the role of buildings in shaping the perceptions of thermal comfort.

  • 106. Pray, Leslie
    et al.
    Cohen, ClaraMäkinen, Ilkka HenrikSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).Värnik, AiriMacKellar, F. Landis
    Suicide in Eastern Europe, the CIS, and the Baltic Countries: Social and Public Health Determinants. A Foundation for Designing Interventions. Summary of a Conference2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Reile, R
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). The National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Differentiating positive and negative self-rated health: results from a cross-sectional study in Estonia2013In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 555-564Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Reile, R.
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Re: Letter to the Editor of Public Health in response to ‘Large variation in predictors of mortality by levels of self-rated health: results from an 18-year follow-up study’2017In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 147, p. 157-158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia .
    Helakorpi, Satu
    National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland .
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania .
    Tekkel, Mare
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    The recent economic recession and self-rated health in Estonia, Lithuania and Finland: a comparative cross-sectional study in 2004-20102014In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 68, no 11, p. 1072-1079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The late-2000s financial crisis had a severe impact on the national economies on a global scale. In Europe, the Baltic countries were among those most affected with more than a 20% decrease in per capita gross domestic product in 2008-2009. In this study, we explored the effects of economic recession on self-rated health in Estonia and Lithuania using Finland, a neighbouring Nordic welfare state, as a point of reference.

    METHODS: Nationally representative cross-sectional data for Estonia (n=10 966), Lithuania (n=7249) and Finland (n=11 602) for 2004-2010 were analysed for changes in age-standardised prevalence rates of less-than-good self-rated health and changes in health inequalities using logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of less-than-good self-rated health increased slightly (albeit not statistically significantly) in all countries during 2008-2010. This was in sharp contrast to the statistically significant decline in the prevalence of less-than-good health in 2004-2008 in Estonia and Lithuania. Health disparities were larger in Estonia and Lithuania when compared to Finland, but decreased in 2008-2010 (in men only). In Finland, both the prevalence of less-than-good health and health disparities remained fairly stable throughout the period.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the rapid economic downturn, the short-term health effects in Estonia and Lithuania did not differ from those in Finland, although the recession years marked the end of the previous positive trend in self-rated health. The reduction in health disparities during the recession indicates that different socioeconomic groups were affected disproportionately; however, the reasons for this require further research.

  • 110.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ethnic variation in self-rated health–mortality association: Results from a 17-year follow-up study in Estonia2017In: Medicina (Kaunas), ISSN 1010-660X, E-ISSN 1648-9144, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 114-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has highlighted the role of self-rated health (SRH) as an important predictor of mortality. With substantial ethnic differences in SRH and mortality reported in Estonia, this study aims to examine the ethnic variation in SRH–mortality association in this setting. Materials and methods The baseline data come from nationally representative 1996 Estonian Health Interview Survey. Individual records of 3983 respondents in the 25–79 age group were linked with mortality data with 17 years follow-up time. The association between SRH and all-cause mortality was analysed using the Cox regression for two ethnic groups and separately for men and women. Results Among ethnic Estonians, both men and women with bad or very bad SRH had about 60% higher mortality compared to those with good or very good SRH even after adjustment for age, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In contrast, SRH did not predict mortality among non-Estonian men and women. A strong and universal inverse association with mortality was found for personal income. Education (among men) and occupation (among women) predicted mortality only among non-Estonians, whereas ever smoking was associated with mortality in Estonian men and women. Overweight women had lower mortality risk compared to women in normal weight category. Conclusions We found considerable ethnic variation in SRH–mortality association and in socioeconomic predictors of mortality. Further research, preferably focusing on cause-specific mortality and reporting heterogeneity of SRH could potentially shed further light on ethnic differences in SRH–mortality association in Estonia and more generally on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Eastern Europe.

  • 111.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Factors associated with improving diet and physical activity among persons with excess body weight2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1166-1171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in Eastern Europe, the study examined the trends and factors associated with self-reported weight reducing behaviours among individuals with excess body weight in Estonia.

    METHODS: Study used nationally representative cross-sectional data from 2006 to 2016 including 4302 men and 3627 women aged 20-64 years with excess body weight (BMI ≥ 25). Trends in the prevalence of changing eating habits and physical activity and their sociodemographic and health-related correlates were studied using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Among overweight or obese respondents, 41% of men and 48% of women reported improvements in dietary habits and 19% of men and women reported increase in physical activity during the past 12 months in 2016. Positive trend for 2006-2016 regarding both outcomes was observed for men whereas no statistically significant differences were found for women. Women and those with lower than tertiary education had higher odds for reporting change in eating habits whereas older age and smoking or excessive alcohol consumption reduced the odds. Improvement in physical activity was more likely among younger respondents, women, ethnic Estonians and those with tertiary education, whereas poorer health and smoking reduced the odds. Weight-related advice from health professionals or family had strong effect on both outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic and health profiles differentiate the self-reported behavioural change among persons with excess body weight. Advice from either health professionals or family may have a potential to facilitate positive changes in eating habits and physical activity among those individuals.

  • 112.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Large variation in predictors of mortality by levels of self-rated health: Results from an 18-year follow-up study2017In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 145, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To analyze the variation in factors associated with mortality risk at different levels of self-rated health (SRH).

    Study design: Retrospective cohort study.

    Methods: Cox regression analysis was used to examine the association between mortality and demographic, socioeconomic and health-related predictors for respondents with good, average, and poor SRH in a longitudinal data set from Estonia with up to 18 years of follow-up time.

    Results: In respondents with good SRH, male sex, older age, lower income, manual occupation, ever smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption predicted higher mortality. These covariates, together with marital status, illness-related limitations, and underweight predicted mortality in respondents with average SRH. For poor SRH, only being never married and having illness-related limitations predicted mortality risk in addition to older age and male sex.

    Conclusions: The predictors of all-cause mortality are not universal but depend on the level of SRH. The higher mortality of respondents with poor SRH could to a large extent be attributed to health problems, whereas in the case of average or good SRH, factors other than the presence of illness explained outcome mortality.

  • 113.
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fullman, Nancy
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Ng, Marie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Abajobir, Amanuel
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy..
    Abera, Semaw Ferede
    Univ Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.;Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Abraham, Biju
    NMSM Govt Coll Kalpetta, Kalpetta, Kerala, India..
    Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, St Louis, MO USA..
    Aleman, Alicia V.
    Univ Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay..
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Al Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth LIH, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Allebeck, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad
    Minist Hlth, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Marshall Univ, Huntington, WV USA..
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Dignitas Int, Zomba, Malawi..
    Ammar, Walid
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Amrock, Stephen Marc
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines..
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Qom, Iran..
    Atnafu, Niguse Tadela
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia.;PMA 2020, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Azzopardi, Peter
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Basto-Abreu, Ana Cristina
    Univ Montreal, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, 1621 E 120th St, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA..
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Coll Publ Hlth & Trop Med, Jazan, Saudi Arabia..
    Bell, Brent
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Bello, Aminu K.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Bhala, Neeraj
    Queen Elizabeth Hosp Birmingham, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;Univ Otago, Sch Med, Otago, New Zealand..
    Biryukov, Stan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Bolt, Kaylin
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Butt, Zahid
    Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Cavalleri, Fiorella
    Univ Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay..
    Cercy, Kelly
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Chen, Honglei
    Michigan State Univ, Lansing, MI USA..
    Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    New York Med Coll, Valhalla, NY 10595 USA..
    Colistro, Valentina
    Univ Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay.;Minist Salud Publ, Montevideo, Uruguay..
    Colomar, Mercedes
    UNICEM, Montevideo, Uruguay..
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Dai, Xiaochen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Damtew, Solomon Abrha
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.;Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Dansereau, Emily
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Davletov, Kairat
    Republican Inst Cardiol & Internal Dis, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.;Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan..
    Dayama, Anand
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Degfie, Tizta Tilahun
    African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Deribew, Amare
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Dignitas Int, Zomba, Malawi..
    Dimtsu, Balem Demtsu
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    RMIT Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.;Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Univ Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
    Russian Acad Sci, Moscow, Russia.;Minist Hlth Russian Federat, Moscow, Russia..
    Estep, Kara
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino
    Univ Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines.;Dept Hlth, Manila, Philippines..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Auckland Univ Technol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Feigl, Andrea B.
    Harvard Univ, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Fischer, Florian
    Univ Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany..
    Friedman, Joseph
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Ghiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Gall, Seana L.
    Univ Tasmania, Hobart, Tas, Australia..
    Gao, Wayne
    Taipei Med Univ, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Gillum, Richard F.
    Howard Univ, Washington, DC 20059 USA..
    Gold, Audra L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Govt Federated States Micronesia, Palikir, Micronesia..
    Gotay, Carolyn C.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Gupta, Rahul
    West Virginia Dept Hlth Human Resources, Bur Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA..
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Gupta, Vipin
    Univ Delhi, Delhi, India..
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Manama, Bahrain..
    Hankey, Graeme
    Univ Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.;Harry Perkins Inst Med Res, Nedlands, WA, Australia..
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Horino, Masako
    Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Carson City, NV USA..
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Yokohama City Univ, Grad Sch Med, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Husseini, Abdullatif
    Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Palestine..
    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Islami, Farhad
    Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA USA..
    Jiang, Guohong
    Tianjin Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Tianjin, Peoples R China..
    Jiang, Ying
    Univ Occupat & Environm Hlth, Inst Ind Ecol Sci, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Mannheim, Germany..
    Kabir, Zubair
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    Kamal, Ritul
    Indian Inst Toxicol Res, CSIR, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
    Indian Inst Toxicol Res, CSIR, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Khader, Yousef S.
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan..
    Khalil, Ibrahim
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khera, Sahil
    Northeastern Univ, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kim, Daniel
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Southern Univ Coll, Skudai, Malaysia..
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Simmons Coll, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Knibbs, Luke D.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Natl Cerebral & Cardiovasc Ctr, Suita, Osaka, Japan..
    Kolte, Dhaval
    Brown Univ, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    Kopec, Jacek
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    NIHRD, Hlth Policy & Humanities, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Kotsakis, Georgios A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Sherikashmir Inst Med Sci, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain..
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Krueger, Hans
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Hacettepe Univ, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kulkarni, Chanda
    Rajrajeswari Med Coll Hosp, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Guragon, India..
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Ft Lauderdale, FL USA..
    Lee, Alexander
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Li, Tong
    Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Linn, Shai
    Univ Haifa, Haifa, Israel..
    Liu, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Liu, Shiwei
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lo, Loon-Tzian
    Lopez, Alan D.
    UnionHlth Associates LLC, St Louis, MO USA.;Alton Mental Hlth Ctr, Alton, IL USA.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Ma, Stefan
    Minist Hlth Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore..
    Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy
    Mansoura Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Manamo, Wondimu Ayele
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Martinez-Raga, Jose
    Hosp Univ Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain.;CEU Cardinal Herrera Univ, Valencia, Spain..
    Mekonnen, Alemayehu Berhane
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund, Lima, Peru..
    Miller, Ted R.
    Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA.;Curtin Univ, Bentley, WA, Australia..
    Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
    Univ Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraw..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Queensland Univ Technol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Univ Sci Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia..
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Univ Ulm, Ulm, Germany..
    Neupane, Sudan Prasad
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Nguyen, Quyen
    Nguyen, Grant
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel
    North West Univ, Mafikeng, South Africa. JSS Univ, Mysore, Karnataka, India..
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Pana, Adrian
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Kosin Univ, Busan, South Korea..
    Patil, Snehal T.
    Sch Dent Sci, Karad, India..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Pedro, Joao
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Karaj, Iran..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan.;Contect Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    St Pauls Hosp, Millenium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India..
    Ram, Usha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal
    Yonsei Univ, Wonju, South Korea..
    Refaat, Amany H.
    Walden Univ, Minneapolis, MN USA.;Suez Canal Univ, Ismailia, Egypt..
    Reinig, Nickolas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Roba, Hirbo Shore
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.;Lincoln Univ, Lincoln, England..
    Roman, Yesenia
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Roth, Gregory
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Washington, Harborview Med Ctr, 325 9Th Ave, Seattle, WA 98104 USA..
    Roy, Ambuj
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Sagar, Rajesh
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Salomon, Joshua
    Harvard Univ, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Sanabria, Juan
    Marshall Univ, Huntington, WV USA.;Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Santos, Itamar de Souza
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sartorius, Benn
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa..
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Natl Cerebral & Cardiovasc Ctr, Suita, Osaka, Japan..
    Sawyer, Susan
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Saylan, Mete
    Bayer Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Schaub, Michael P.
    Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Schluger, Neil
    World Lung Assoc, New York, NY USA.;North West Univ, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth
    North West Univ, Potchefstroom, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Tygerberg, South Africa..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Serdar, Berrin
    Univ Colorado, Aurora, CO USA..
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan..
    She, Jun
    Fudan Univ, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Korea Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shishani, Kawkab
    Washington State Univ, Spokane, WA USA..
    Shiue, Ivy
    Northumbria Univ, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.;Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Silverberg, Jonathan I.
    Northwestern Univ, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Singh, Jasvinder
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA.;Asthma Bhawan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Singh, Virendra
    Asthma Bhawan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Slepak, Erica Leigh
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Soneji, Samir
    Dartmouth Coll, Hanover, NH USA..
    Soriano, Joan B.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Soshnikov, Sergey
    Minist Hlth Russian Federat, Moscow, Russia..
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Int Med Univ, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Unit Anxiety Stress Disorders, Tygerberg, South Africa..
    Stranges, Saverio
    Univ Warwick, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Subart, Michelle L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Indian Council Med Res, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Tefera, Worku Mekonnen
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, Krakow, Poland..
    Tran, Bach
    Hanoi Med Univ, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Tsilimparis, Nikolaos
    Univ Heart Ctr Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany..
    Tymeson, Hayley
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    UCL, London, England..
    Updike, Rachel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Violante, Francesco Saverio
    Univ Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    Vladimirov, Sergey K.
    Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Vlassov, Vasiliy
    Natl Res Univ, Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wen, Chi-Pan
    Natl Hlth Res Inst, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Wilson, Shelley
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wubshet, Mamo
    Arba Minch Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Arba Minch, Ethiopia..
    Xiao, Lin
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Yakob, Bereket
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Ye, Penpeng
    Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Korea Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS USA..
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Wuhan Univ, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Univ Hosp, Setif, Algeria..
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Mansoura Univ, Mansoura, Egypt..
    Zhang, Anthony Lin
    RMIT Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia..
    Zipkin, Ben
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 389, no 10082, p. 1885-1906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The scale-up of tobacco control, especially after the adoption of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is a major public health success story. Nonetheless, smoking remains a leading risk for early death and disability worldwide, and therefore continues to require sustained political commitment. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) offers a robust platform through which global, regional, and national progress toward achieving smoking-related targets can be assessed. Methods We synthesised 2818 data sources with spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and produced estimates of daily smoking prevalence by sex, age group, and year for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We analysed 38 risk-outcome pairs to generate estimates of smoking-attributable mortality and disease burden, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). We then performed a cohort analysis of smoking prevalence by birth-year cohort to better understand temporal age patterns in smoking. We also did a decomposition analysis, in which we parsed out changes in all-cause smoking-attributable DALYs due to changes in population growth, population ageing, smoking prevalence, and risk-deleted DALY rates. Finally, we explored results by level of development using the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Findings Worldwide, the age-standardised prevalence of daily smoking was 25.0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 24.2-25.7) for men and 5.4% (5.1-5.7) for women, representing 28.4% (25.8-31.1) and 34.4% (29.4-38.6) reductions, respectively, since 1990. A greater percentage of countries and territories achieved significant annualised rates of decline in smoking prevalence from 1990 to 2005 than in between 2005 and 2015; however, only four countries had significant annualised increases in smoking prevalence between 2005 and 2015 (Congo [Brazzaville] and Azerbaijan for men and Kuwait and Timor-Leste for women). In 2015, 11.5% of global deaths (6.4 million [95% UI 5.7-7.0 million]) were attributable to smoking worldwide, of which 52.2% took place in four countries (China, India, the USA, and Russia). Smoking was ranked among the five leading risk factors by DALYs in 109 countries and territories in 2015, rising from 88 geographies in 1990. In terms of birth cohorts, male smoking prevalence followed similar age patterns across levels of SDI, whereas much more heterogeneity was found in age patterns for female smokers by level of development. While smoking prevalence and risk-deleted DALY rates mostly decreased by sex and SDI quintile, population growth, population ageing, or a combination of both, drove rises in overall smoking-attributable DALYs in low-SDI to middle-SDI geographies between 2005 and 2015. Interpretation The pace of progress in reducing smoking prevalence has been heterogeneous across geographies, development status, and sex, and as highlighted by more recent trends, maintaining past rates of decline should not be taken for granted, especially in women and in low-SDI to middle-SDI countries. Beyond the effect of the tobacco industry and societal mores, a crucial challenge facing tobacco control initiatives is that demographic forces are poised to heighten smoking's global toll, unless progress in preventing initiation and promoting cessation can be substantially accelerated. Greater success in tobacco control is possible but requires effective, comprehensive, and adequately implemented and enforced policies, which might in turn require global and national levels of political commitment beyond what has been achieved during the past 25 years.

  • 114. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Gilmore, Anna
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of London & Univesity of Tokyo.
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Prohoda, Vladimir
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Prevalence and Psychosocial Determinants of Nicotine Dependence in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union2013In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 271-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Despite the high prevalence of smoking in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly among men, there is very little information on nicotine dependence in the region. The study aim was to describe the prevalence of nicotine dependence in 9 countries of the fSU and to examine the psychosocial factors associated with nicotine dependence. Methods: Cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys using multistage random sampling were conducted in 2010 with men and women aged 18 years and over in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. The main outcome of interest was nicotine dependence using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Multivariate regression analysis was then used to explore the influence of a range of psychosocial factors on higher nicotine dependence. Results: Mean nicotine dependence among men in the region as a whole was 3.96, with high dependence ranging from 17% in Belarus to 40% in Georgia. Among women, mean dependence was 2.96, with a prevalence of high dependence of 11% for the region. Gender (men), younger age of first smoking, lower education level, not being a member of an organization, bad household economic situation, high alcohol dependence, and high psychological distress showed significant associations with higher nicotine dependence. Conclusions: High nicotine dependence among men was recorded in a number of study countries. Findings highlight the need for tobacco programmes to target early age smokers and less educated and poorer groups and suggest common ground for programmes seeking to reduce nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use, and psychological distress.

  • 115. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of London & Univesity of Tokyo.
    Gilmore, Anna B.
    Danishevski, Kirill
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Bryden, Anna
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union2013In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 22, no 6, p. e12-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support.

    Methods Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18?000 men and women aged 18years and older in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores.

    Results Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of light' cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never-smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures.

    Conclusions Increasing public awareness of tobacco's health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures.

  • 116.
    Rodin, Johnny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Åberg, Pelle
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Fatherhood across space and time: Russia in perspective2013In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. 6, no 3-4, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Informal social capital in childhood and suicide among adolescent and young adult women: A cross-sectional analysis with 30 countries2014In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 42, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2005/2006, and World Health Organization (WHO), this study examined the relationship between girls' informal social capital and female suicide rates in adolescence and young adulthood in 30 European and North American countries. Regression analyses using normal, robust and bias-corrected confidence intervals were used for this purpose. Informal social capital (involvement with friends after school) among 15 year-old girls explained,9% of the total variation in the young female suicide rate. This effect was of approximately the same magnitude as that of the corresponding male suicide rate. Although the findings of this study provide support for the common notion that female suicide can be understood in relation to male suicide, the association we observed between female informal social capital in adolescence and early adult female suicide highlights the need for more female-specific studies on suicide.

  • 118.
    Ruchkin, V.
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Koposov, R. A.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Suicidal Behavior in Juvenile Delinquents: The Role of ADHD and Other Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders2017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 691-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the role of psychiatric morbidity in relation to a history of suicidal behavior, with a particular focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Suicidality and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in 370 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia using the semi-structured K-SADS-PL psychiatric interview. A lifetime history of suicidal ideation only (24.7 %) and suicidal ideation with suicide attempts (15.7 %) was common. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A history of suicidal ideation and of suicide attempts were associated with higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and with the number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. An ADHD diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for both suicidal ideation and for suicide attempts. The comorbidity of ADHD with drug dependence further increased the risk for suicidal ideation, while ADHD and alcohol dependence comorbidity increased the risk for suicide attempts. Our findings highlight the importance of adequately detecting and treating psychiatric disorders in vulnerable youths, especially when they are comorbid with ADHD.

  • 119.
    Saito, A.
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Haraguchi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishitobi, M.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Y.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Association Between Autistic Traits in Preschool Children and Later Emotional/Behavioral Outcomes2017In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 3333-3346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although children with a greater number of autistic traits are likely to have other mental health problems, research on the association between earlier autistic traits in preschool children and later emotional/behavioral outcomes is scarce. Using data from 189 Japanese community-based children, this study examined whether autistic traits at age 5 were related to emotional/behavioral outcomes at age 7. The results showed that prior autistic traits were subsequently associated with all emotional/behavioral domains. After controlling for baseline emotional/behavioral scores autistic traits continued to predict later emotional symptoms and peer problems. This study highlights that in addition to clinical ASD, it is also important to focus on subthreshold autistic traits in preschool children for better subsequent emotional/behavioral outcomes.

  • 120.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, R.
    The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Madrid, Spain.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Community Violence Exposure in Russian Adolescents2019In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of research has shown that exposure to community violence is common for many children across the world. However, less is known about exposure in particular subgroups such as those children with developmental disorders. To address this research gap, the aim of this study was to examine community violence exposure (CVE) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the role of gender in this association. Data were analyzed from 2,782 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from Arkhangelsk, Russia that were collected during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). ADHD status was assessed with the hyperactivity/inattention scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Information was obtained on past-year witnessing and violence victimization in the community. Results showed that CVE was more prevalent in children with ADHD symptoms. Specifically, 75.1% of children with ADHD symptoms had been exposed to any violence versus 62.3% in the non-ADHD group (χ2 = 18.65, p <.001). Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVAs) revealed that CVE was significantly higher for adolescents with ADHD symptoms for both witnessing and victimization, while exposure was significantly higher for ADHD boys compared with girls. The findings of this study suggest that CVE may be elevated in adolescents with higher ADHD symptoms. Given that CVE has been associated with a variety of negative social and psychological outcomes in typically developing children, an important task for future research is to determine what factors are associated with CVE in adolescents with ADHD symptoms including those relating to such phenomena as comorbid psychopathology, the family, and peer relations, so that interventions can be designed and implemented to reduce CVE and its detrimental effects in this population.

  • 121.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Yazawa, Aki
    University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future expectations in Russian adolescents2019In: ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, ISSN 1866-6116, E-ISSN 1866-6647, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 279-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of future expectations-the extent to which a future outcome is deemed likely-in the health and well-being of adolescents, with research linking future expectations to outcomes such as an increased likelihood of engaging in risky health behaviors. As yet, however, there has been no research on future expectations and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status and future expectations in a school-based sample of adolescents. Data were analyzed from 537 Russian adolescents (aged 12-17) with teacher-reported ADHD symptoms and self-reported future expectations. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. In fully adjusted analyses, inattention symptoms/possible ADHD inattentive status was associated with lower future educational expectations, while a possible ADHD hyperactivity status was associated with increased odds for negative future expectations relating to work, family and succeeding in what is most important. The findings of this study suggest that greater ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status in adolescence may be linked to an increased risk for negative future expectations across a variety of different life domains.

  • 122.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, KodairaJapan.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure2019In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 683-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As yet, however, little is known about the factors associated with co-occurring depression in this population. To address this research gap, the current study examined the role of community violence exposure in the association between ADHD symptoms and depression.

    METHODS: Data came from 505 Russian adolescents [mean age 14.37 (SD = 0.96)] who had teacher-reported information on ADHD symptoms that was collected in conjunction with the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Adolescent self-reports of witnessing and being a victim of community violence were also obtained while depressive symptoms were self-assessed with an adapted version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.

    RESULTS: In univariable analyses, both witnessing and being a victim of violence were associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms in adolescents with ADHD symptoms compared to non-ADHD adolescents who had not experienced community violence. However, in the multivariable analysis only being a victim of violence continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for depression [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-16.35].

    CONCLUSION: Exposure to community violence may be associated with depression in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Clinicians should enquire about exposure to community violence in adolescents with ADHD/ADHD symptoms. Early therapeutic interventions to address the effects of violence exposure in adolescents with ADHD may be beneficial for preventing depression in this group.

  • 123.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Madrid, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Koposov, R.
    Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Blatný, M.
    Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hrdlička, M.
    University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Schwab-Stone, M.
    Yale University, New Haven, USA.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University.
    Loneliness and its association with psychological and somatic health problems among Czech, Russian and U.S. adolescents2016In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Loneliness is common in adolescence and has been linked to various negative outcomes. Until now, however, there has been little cross-country research on this phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to examine which factors are associated with adolescent loneliness in three countries that differ historically and culturally-the Czech Republic, Russia and the United States, and to determine whether adolescent loneliness is associated with poorer psychological and somatic health. Methods: Data from a school survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), were used to examine these relations among 2205 Czech, 1995 Russian, and 2050 U.S. male and female adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine if specific demographic, parenting, personal or school-based factors were linked to feeling lonely and whether lonely adolescents were more likely to report psychological (depression and anxiety) or somatic symptoms (e.g. headaches, pain). Results: Inconsistent parenting, shyness, and peer victimisation were associated with higher odds for loneliness in at least 4 of the 6 country- and sex-wise subgroups (i.e. Czech, Russian, U.S. boys and girls). Parental warmth was a protective factor against feeling lonely among Czech and U.S. girls. Adolescents who were lonely had higher odds for reporting headaches, anxiety and depressive symptoms across all subgroups. Loneliness was associated with other somatic symptoms in at least half of the adolescent subgroups. Conclusion: Loneliness is associated with worse adolescent health across countries. The finding that variables from different domains are important for loneliness highlights the necessity of interventions in different settings in order to reduce loneliness and its detrimental effects on adolescent health. © 2016 Stickley et al.

  • 124.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, A.
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ueda, M.
    Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Inoue, Y.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Waldman, K.
    Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Physical multimorbidity and suicidal behavior in the general population in the United States2020In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 260, p. 604-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As yet, there has been little research on the association between physical multimorbidity (the co-occurrence of two or more physical illnesses) and suicide, and results have been mixed. This study examined if physical multimorbidity is associated with suicidal behavior in the general population in the United States. Method: Data were analyzed from 15,311 adults that were obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). Information was obtained on nine self-reported physical health conditions and lifetime suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plan, and attempts). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: An increasing number of physical health conditions was associated with higher odds for suicidal behavior. Compared to those with no physical conditions, individuals with ≥ 4 physical illnesses had 2.99, 4.82, and 4.39 times higher odds for reporting suicidal ideation, a suicide plan, and suicide attempts, respectively. An interaction analysis showed that for suicide attempts the association was stronger in younger rather than older adults. Limitations: The data were cross-sectional and information on physical conditions and suicidal behavior was self-reported and may have been subject to reporting bias. Conclusions: As multimorbidity has increased in recent decades in the United States, alerting medical practitioners to the increased risk of suicidal behavior in adults who have multiple medical conditions as well as screening for suicidality in this group may be important preventive measures to help reduce suicidal behavior in the general population.

  • 125.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Loneliness, common mental disorders and suicidal behavior: Findings from a general population survey2016In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 197, no June, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Loneliness has been linked to an increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior. To date, however, there has been comparatively little research on this in the general adult population, or on the role of common mental disorders (CMDs) in this association. The current study examined these associations using nationally representative data from England.

    METHODS: Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. Information was obtained from 7403 household residents aged ≥16 years on perceived loneliness and lifetime and past 12-month suicide ideation and attempts. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess six forms of CMD. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine these associations.

    RESULTS: Loneliness was associated with suicidal behavior. Although adjusting for CMDs attenuated associations, higher levels of loneliness were still significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts with odds ratios (OR) for those in the most severe loneliness category ranging from 3.45 (lifetime suicide attempt) to 17.37 (past 12-month suicide attempt). Further analyses showed that ORs for suicidal behavior were similar for individuals who were lonely without CMDs, and for those respondents with CMDs who were not lonely. Lonely individuals with CMDs had especially elevated odds for suicidal ideation.

    LIMITATIONS: This study used cross-sectional data and a single-item measure to obtain information on loneliness.

    CONCLUSION: Loneliness is associated with suicidal behavior in the general adult population. This highlights the importance of efforts to reduce loneliness in order to mitigate its harmful effects on health and well-being.

  • 126.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study2018In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e0191651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

  • 127.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / nstituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Childhood hunger and thoughts of death or suicide in older adults2018In: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1070-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective There is little research on the effects of childhood hunger on adult mental health. This study examined the association between childhood hunger and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. Design Data were analyzed from adults aged 60 and above collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006 (N=2455). Retrospective information was obtained on the frequency (never, seldom, sometimes, often) of going to bed hungry in childhood, and on the presence of recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in the past 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Experiencing hunger in childhood was common (37.6%) with 14.3% of the respondents stating that they often went to bed hungry. In a univariate analysis going to bed hungry either sometimes or often more than doubled the odds for thoughts of death or suicide. Although adjustment for a range of covariates (including physical diseases and depressive episode) attenuated the associations, in the fully adjusted model going to bed hungry sometimes continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for thoughts of death or suicide in older adults (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10–2.74; Wald χ2 = 5.7, df = 1, p = 0.017). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the effects of childhood hunger may be long lasting and associated with mental health and well-being even in older adults.

  • 128.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Kawakami, N.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Childhood adversities and adult-onset chronic pain: Results from the World Mental Health Survey, Japan2015In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1418-1427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childhood adversities (CAs) have been associated with adult-onset chronic pain. However, to date, most single country studies on this association have been undertaken in Western countries. This study examined the association in Japan where information is scarce. Methods: Data were drawn from the World Mental Health Survey Japan, a population-based cross-sectional survey undertaken in 11 areas of Japan in 2002-2006. We analyzed data from adults aged ≥20 years who provided information on CAs occurring before age 18 years and chronic pain (n = 1740). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk for different forms of adult-onset chronic pain (arthritis/rheumatism, neck/back pain, headache and any pain) as a function of the presence of 11 different types of CA and the number of CAs. Results: In the adjusted models, significant associations were observed between: physical abuse and neck/back pain (HR 2.55) and any pain (HR 1.88); sexual abuse and any pain (HR 2.84). Significant dose-dependent relationships were also observed between a greater number of CAs and some adult-onset chronic pain conditions (neck/back and any pain). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that in Japan, some forms of CA may be associated with certain types of adult-onset chronic pain, in particular neck/back pain. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  • 129.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain..
    Koposov, Roman
    The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Blatný, Marek
    Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic..
    Hrdlička, Michal
    University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University.
    Correlates of Weapon Carrying in School among Adolescents in Three Countries2015In: American Journal of Health Behavior, ISSN 1087-3244, E-ISSN 1945-7359, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 99-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with weapon carrying in school among Czech, Russian, and US adolescents.

    METHODS: Logistic regression was used to analyze data drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA).

    RESULTS: Violent behavior (perpetration / victimization) was linked to adolescent weapon carrying in all countries. Substance use was associated with weapon carrying among boys in all countries. Greater parental warmth reduced the odds for weapon carrying among Czech and Russian adolescents. Associating with delinquent peers was important for weapon carrying only among US adolescents.

    CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with weapon carrying in school vary among countries although violent behavior and substance use may be associated with weapon carrying across countries.

  • 130.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Murphy, Adrianna
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University.
    Binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents2015In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 540-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Binge drinking may be linked to problematic eating behavior, although as yet, little research has been conducted on this association. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents.

    METHODS: Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment, a cross-sectional school-based survey of 6th to 10th grade students (aged 12 to 17 years old) carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Information was collected on various eating problems (worries about weight, feeling fat, excessive eating, fasting and excessive exercise, and purging behaviors) and binge drinking (5 or more drinks in a row). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems.

    RESULTS: Among the 2,488 adolescents included in the statistical analysis, nearly 50% of girls expressed worries about their weight, while 35.0 and 41.5% of adolescent boys and girls reported excessive eating, respectively. The prevalence of purging behaviors (vomiting/using laxatives) was, however, much lower among both sexes (females-2.6%; males-3.3%). In a regression model adjusted for demographic factors and depressive symptoms, among girls, binge drinking was associated with 5 of the 6 eating problems with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.21 (upset about weight gain) to 1.68 (excessive eating). For boys, binge drinking was linked to feeling overweight (OR: 1.47, confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.81) and vomiting/used laxatives (OR: 4.13, CI: 1.58 to 10.80).

    CONCLUSIONS: Many adolescents in Russia report problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, and eating problems are associated with binge drinking. More research is now needed in this setting to better understand adolescent eating problems and their association with alcohol misuse, so that contextually suitable interventions can be implemented to reduce these behaviors and mitigate their potentially detrimental effects.

  • 131.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    McKee, Martin
    Roberts, Bayard
    Murphy, Adrianna
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Binge drinking among adolescents in Russia: Prevalence, risk and protective factors2013In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 1988-1995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite evidence that alcohol misuse has been having an increasingly detrimental effect on adolescent wellbeing in Russia in recent years this phenomenon has been little researched. Using data from 2112 children from the Arkhangelsk Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) 2003, this study examined which factors acted as 'risk' or 'protective' factors for adolescent binge drinking within three domains we termed the 'family environment', the 'alcohol environment' and 'deviant behaviour'. The results showed that in the presence of comparatively moderate levels of binge drinking among both boys and girls, being able to access alcohol easily, being unaware of the risks of binge drinking and having peers who consumed alcohol increased the risk of adolescent binge drinking - as did playing truant, smoking and marijuana use, while parental warmth was protective against binge drinking for girls. Our finding that risk and protective factors occur across domains suggests that any interventions targeted against adolescent binge drinking may need to simultaneously focus on risk behaviours in different domains, while at the same time, broader social policy should act to limit the availability of alcohol to adolescents in Russia more generally.

  • 132.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    McKee, Martin
    Roberts, Bayard
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Peer victimisation and its association with psychological and somatic health problems among adolescents in northern Russia2013In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence from countries around the world suggests that school-based peer victimisation is associated with worse health outcomes among adolescents. So far, however, there has been little systematic research on this phenomenon in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between peer victimisation at school and a range of different psychological and somatic health problems among Russian adolescents.

    METHODS: This study used data from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) - a cross-sectional survey undertaken in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was collected from 2892 adolescents aged 12-17 about their experiences of school-based peer victimisation and on a variety of psychological and somatic health conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between victimisation and health.

    RESULTS: Peer victimisation in school was commonplace: 22.1% of the students reported that they had experienced frequent victimisation in the current school year (girls - 17.6%; boys - 28.5%). There was a strong relationship between experiencing victimisation and reporting worse health among both boys and girls with more victimisation associated with an increased risk of experiencing worse health. Girls in the highest victimisation category had odds ratios ranging between 1.90 (problems with eyes) and 5.26 (aches/pains) for experiencing somatic complaints when compared to their non-victimised counterparts, while the corresponding figures for boys were 2.04 (headaches) and 4.36 (aches/pains). Girls and boys who had the highest victimisation scores were also 2.42 (girls) and 3.33 (boys) times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety, over 5 times more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress and over 6 times more likely to experience depressive symptoms.

    CONCLUSION: Peer victimisation at school has a strong association with poor health outcomes among Russian adolescents. Effective school-based interventions are now urgently needed to counter the negative effects of victimisation on adolescents' health in Russia.

  • 133.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    Razvodovsky, Yury
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Adolescent binge drinking and risky health behaviours: Findings from northern Russia.2013In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 133, no 15, p. 838-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia.

    METHODS: Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours.

    RESULTS: Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours.

    CONCLUSIONS: Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being.

  • 134.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koposov, Roman
    The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway .
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, USA .
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Loneliness and health risk behaviours among Russian and US adolescents: a cross-sectional study2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For some adolescents feeling lonely can be a protracted and painful experience. It has been suggested that engaging in health risk behaviours such as substance use and sexual behaviour may be a way of coping with the distress arising from loneliness during adolescence. However, the association between loneliness and health risk behaviour has been little studied to date. To address this research gap, the current study examined this relation among Russian and U.S. adolescents. Methods: Data were used from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school-based survey conducted in 2003. A total of 1995 Russian and 2050 U.S. students aged 13-15 years old were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between loneliness and substance use, sexual risk behaviour, and violence. Results: After adjusting for demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms, loneliness was associated with a significantly increased risk of adolescent substance use in both Russia and the United States. Lonely Russian girls were significantly more likely to have used marijuana (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-4.45), while lonely Russian boys had higher odds for past 30-day smoking (OR, 1.87; CI, 1.08-3.24). In the U.S. loneliness was associated with the lifetime use of illicit drugs (excepting marijuana) among boys (OR, 3.09; CI, 1.41-6.77) and with lifetime marijuana use (OR, 1.79; CI, 1.26-2.55), past 30-day alcohol consumption (OR, 1.80; CI, 1.18-2.75) and past 30-day binge drinking (OR, 2.40; CI, 1.56-3.70) among girls. The only relation between loneliness and sexual risk behaviour was among Russian girls, where loneliness was associated with significantly higher odds for ever having been pregnant (OR, 1.69; CI: 1.12-2.54). Loneliness was not associated with violent behaviour among boys or girls in either country. Conclusion: Loneliness is associated with adolescent health risk behaviour among boys and girls in both Russia and the United States. Further research is now needed in both settings using quantitative and qualitative methods to better understand the association between loneliness and health risk behaviours so that effective interventions can be designed and implemented to mitigate loneliness and its effects on adolescent well-being.

  • 135.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Sabawoon, W
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    McKee, M
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Loneliness and health in Eastern Europe: findings from Moscow, Russia2015In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 403-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine which factors are associated with feeling lonely in Moscow, Russia, and to determine whether loneliness is associated with worse health.

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

    METHODS: Data from 1190 participants were drawn from the Moscow Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine which factors were associated with feeling lonely and whether loneliness was linked to poor health.

    RESULTS: Almost 10% of the participants reported that they often felt lonely. Divorced and widowed individuals were significantly more likely to feel lonely, while not living alone and having greater social support reduced the risk of loneliness. Participants who felt lonely were more likely to have poor self-rated health (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.76), and have suffered from insomnia (OR: 2.43; CI: 1.56-3.77) and mental ill health (OR: 2.93; CI: 1.88-4.56).

    CONCLUSIONS: Feeling lonely is linked to poorer health in Moscow. More research is now needed on loneliness and the way it affects health in Eastern Europe, so that appropriate interventions can be designed and implemented to reduce loneliness and its harmful impact on population well-being in this setting.

  • 136.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Richardson, Erica
    Roberts, Bayard
    Balabanova, Dina
    McKee, Martin
    Prevalence and factors associated with the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union2013In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 13, article id 83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research suggests that since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a sharp growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in some former Soviet countries. However, as yet, comparatively little is known about the use of CAM in the countries throughout this region. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of using alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in eight countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) and to examine factors associated with their use. Methods: Data were obtained from the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health (LLH) survey undertaken in eight former Soviet countries (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine) in 2001. In this nationally representative cross-sectional survey, 18428 respondents were asked about how they treated 10 symptoms, with options including the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the treatment of differing symptoms by such practitioners in these countries. Results: The prevalence of using an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner for symptom treatment varied widely between countries, ranging from 3.5% in Armenia to 25.0% in Kyrgyzstan. For nearly every symptom, respondents living in rural locations were more likely to use an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner than urban residents. Greater wealth was also associated with using these practitioners, while distrust of doctors played a role in the treatment of some symptoms. Conclusions: The widespread use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in some fSU countries and the growth of this form of health care provision in the post-Soviet period in conditions of variable licensing and regulation, highlights the urgent need for more research on this phenomenon and its potential effects on population health in the countries in this region.

  • 137.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Fundacio St Joan Deu, Barcelona, Spain / Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Goryakin, Yevgeniy
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK .
    Mckee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK .
    Crime and subjective well-being in the countries of the former Soviet Union2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Criminal victimisation and subjective well-being have both been linked to health outcomes, although as yet, comparatively little is known about the relationship between these two phenomena. In this study we used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to examine the association between different types of crime and subjective well-being. Methods: Data were obtained from 18,000 individuals aged 18 and above collected during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Ukraine. Information was obtained on respondents' experience of crime (violence and theft) and self-reported affective (happiness) and cognitive (life satisfaction) well-being. Ordered probit and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses were undertaken to examine the associations between these variables. Results: In pooled country analyses, experiencing violence was associated with significantly lower happiness and life satisfaction. Theft victimisation was associated with significantly reduced life satisfaction but not happiness. Among the individual countries, there was a more pronounced association between violent victimisation and reduced happiness in Kazakhstan and Moldova. Conclusions: The finding that criminal victimisation is linked to lower levels of subjective well-being highlights the importance of reducing crime in the fSU, and also of having effective support services in place for victims of crime to reduce its detrimental effects on health and well-being.

  • 138.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Goryakin, Yevgeniy
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Smoking status, nicotine dependence and happiness in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2015In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration has established a policy of substantially discounting the health benefits of reduced smoking in its evaluation of proposed regulations because of the cost to smokers of the supposed lost pleasure they suffer by no longer smoking. This study used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to explore this association in a setting characterised by high rates of (male) smoking and smoking-related mortality.

    METHODS: Data came from a cross-sectional population-based study undertaken in 2010/2011 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Information was collected from 18 000 respondents aged ≥18 on smoking status (never, ex-smoking and current smoking), cessation attempts and nicotine dependence. The association between these variables and self-reported happiness was examined using ordered probit regression analysis.

    RESULTS: In a pooled country analysis, never smokers and ex-smokers were both significantly happier than current smokers. Smokers with higher levels of nicotine dependence were significantly less happy than those with a low level of dependence.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study contradicts the idea that smoking is associated with greater happiness. Moreover, of relevance for policy in the fSU countries, given the lack of public knowledge about the detrimental effects of smoking on health but widespread desire to quit reported in recent research, the finding that smoking is associated with lower levels of happiness should be incorporated in future public health efforts to help encourage smokers to quit by highlighting that smoking cessation may result in better physical and emotional health.

  • 139.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Urban-rural differences in psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2015In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 178, p. 142-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness can vary between urban and rural locations. This study extended research to the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) by assessing the association between settlement type and psychological distress and whether factors associated with psychological distress vary by settlement type.

    METHODS: Data on 18,000 adults aged ≥18 years from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2010/11 were analyzed. Settlement types were country capitals, regional capitals, cities/other urban settlements, and villages. Psychological distress was defined as the country-specific highest quintile of a composite score based on 11 questions. Logistic regression analysis with random effects was used to examine associations.

    RESULTS: In a pooled country analysis, living in a smaller urban settlement or village was associated with significantly higher odds for psychological distress compared to living in the country capital. Lower social support was a strong correlate of psychological distress in all locations except capital cities.

    LIMITATIONS: The psychological distress measure has not been formally validated in the study countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of urbanicity are associated with greater psychological distress in the fSU countries. As many Western studies have linked greater urbanization to poorer mental health, this highlights the need for caution in extrapolating findings from one part of the world to others and the importance of undertaking research on the geographical correlates of mental health in different world regions.

  • 140.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain 7 CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Murphy, Adrianna
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Male solitary drinking and hazardous alcohol use in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2015In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 150, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU).

    METHODS: Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking.

    CONCLUSIONS: Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use.

  • 141.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of London.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Roberts, Bayard
    University of London.
    Richardson, Erica
    University of London.
    Abbott, Pamela
    University of Aberdeen.
    Tumanov, Sergei
    Lomonosov Moscow State University.
    McKee, Martin
    University of London.
    Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, article id e67978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) - a region where loneliness has been little studied to date.

    Methods: Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine - in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress).

    Results: The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova.

    Conclusions: Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

  • 142.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of London.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Roberts, Bayard
    Rotman, David
    McKee, Martin
    Criminal victimisation and health: Examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2013In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 91, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that might mitigate its impact on health that are contextually appropriate in the fSU.

  • 143.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala universitet / Yale University, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, National Center for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and suicide ideation and attempts: Findings from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 20072016In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 189, p. 321-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have an increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior. This study examined this association in the general adult population where there has been little research.

    METHODS: Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. This was a representative sample of the English adult household population aged ≥16 years (N=7403). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was used to obtain information on ADHD symptoms. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess six forms of common mental disorder (CMD). Information was also obtained on the lifetime and past 12-month occurrence of suicide ideation and attempts. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine these associations.

    RESULTS: After adjusting for comorbid disorders, adults with more ADHD symptoms had significantly higher odds for suicidal behavior. When a single cut-off point was used to classify ADHD (ASRS score ≥14), odds ratios ranged from 1.62 (lifetime suicide attempt) to 2.43 (past 12-month suicide ideation). When ADHD symptoms were categorized by strata (I: a score of 0-9; II: 10-13; III: 14-17; IV: 18-24), compared to adults in stratum I, those in stratum IV had odds ratios ranging from 2.16 (lifetime suicide ideation) to 3.68 (past 12-month suicide attempt).

    LIMITATIONS: ADHD and suicide data came from self-reports which may have been affected by socially desirable responding.

    CONCLUSIONS: ADHD symptoms were linked to suicidal behavior after controlling for comorbid conditions. Health care professionals should be alerted to the increased suicide risk among adults with ADHD symptoms.

  • 144.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Uppsala University.
    Inoue, Y.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Kamio, Y.
    National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and physical multimorbidity: A population-based study2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 45, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    ADHD Symptoms and Pain among Adults in England2016In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 246, p. 326-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Prior research has produced conflicting findings on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pain, while studies among community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and pain in the general adult population, and the extent to which this association is influenced by comorbid common mental disorders (CMDs). Data came from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey which included a representative sample of the English adult population aged ≥16 years (N=7403). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to obtain information on ADHD symptoms, while pain was assessed by the degree to which it interfered with work activity in the previous month. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to evaluate six categories of CMDs. In a binary logistic regression analysis adjusted for socio-demographic factors and physical health conditions, an ADHD symptom score ≥14 was strongly associated with extreme pain (odds ratio [OR]: 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.09–4.74). The OR was attenuated greatly after further adjustment for CMDs (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05–2.58) but remained statistically significant. Adults with ADHD symptoms have higher odds for experiencing pain. CMDs are influential in this association but do not fully explain it.

  • 146.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Uppsala University.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Yazawa, Aki
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 265, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis and a mediation analysis were performed to examine associations. Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with higher odds for feeling less happy. Emotional instability (percentage mediated 37.1%), anxiety disorder (35.6%) and depression (29.9%) were all important mediators of the association between ADHD and happiness. Given that happiness has been linked to a number of beneficial outcomes, the results of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing ADHD in adults and also of screening for and treating any comorbid psychiatric disorders in these individuals.

  • 147.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Uppsala universitet.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and loneliness among adults in the general population2017In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 62, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research on the association between adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and loneliness is scarce even though factors which have been previously linked to loneliness, such as divorce and poorer mental health may be more prevalent among adults with ADHD. This study investigated the relation between ADHD symptoms/symptom severity and loneliness in the general adult population.

    METHODS: Data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403, aged ≥16years) were analyzed. ADHD symptoms and common mental disorders (CMDs) were assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener and the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised, respectively. Loneliness was measured with a question from the Social Functioning Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations.

    RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, an ASRS score ≥14 was strongly associated with loneliness (OR=2.48 95%CI=1.83-3.36). ADHD symptom severity was related to loneliness in a dose-response fashion. Over one-third of the association between ADHD symptoms and loneliness was explained by CMDs.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adults with more ADHD symptoms are at an increased risk of feeling lonely. Future research should determine how ADHD symptoms are linked to loneliness and if loneliness is affecting well-being.

  • 148.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: findings from a population-based study2018In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 226, p. 332-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample.

    Methods: Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25–84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables.

    Results: In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for adult depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model.

    Limitations: Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations.

    Conclusion: Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course.

  • 149.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York City, NY, USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelon, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sleep problems and depression among 237 023 community-dwelling adults in 46 low- and middle-income countries2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems are considered a core symptom of depression. However, there is little information about the comorbidity of sleep problems and depression in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and whether sleep problems with depression confer additional risk for decrements in health compared to sleep problems alone. This study thus examined the association between sleep problems and depression and whether sleep problems with depression are associated with an increased risk for poorer health in 46 LMICs. Cross-sectional, community-based data from 237 023 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. Information on sleep problems (severe/extreme) and International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision depression/depression subtypes was collected. Multivariable logistic (binary and multinomial) and linear regression analyses were performed. Sleep problems were associated with subsyndromal depression (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.70), brief depressive episode (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 2.09-2.95) and depressive episode (OR = 3.61, 95% CI = 3.24-4.03). Sleep problems with depression (vs. sleep problems alone) conferred additional risk for anxiety, perceived stress and decrements in health in the domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, and interpersonal activities. Clinicians should be aware that the co-occurrence of sleep problems and depression is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in LMICs. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

  • 150.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Narita, Z.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / nstituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid , Spain.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 

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