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  • 101.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rafferty, Michael
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Unplanned: Introduction of the Key Themes2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 11-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 102.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.Rafferty, MichaelRMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 103.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Nakamura, Richard
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Building the Baltic Sea Region through investment and trade, 1989-20092017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some twenty years after the fall of the communist dictatorships that divided the European continent the European Union in late 2009 adopted its first ever macroregional strategy – the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. The strategy was a symbolic second milestone with regard to the political endeavours to reintegrate the continent; the first being the 2004 enlargement. Having transformed the Baltic Sea from a Mare Dividum to a European Mare Nostrum is indeed also a sign of the success of such integrative political processes. However, at the same time the perceived need for a specific strategy in order to further and deepen the integration and reduce the economic gaps within the European Union gives an indication that there is more to be wished for with regard to this region.

    It has been suggested that regionalism is defined “as an economic process whereby economic flows grow more rapidly among a given group of states [in the same region] than between these states and those located elsewhere”. In this paper we thus approach the economic underpinnings for the Baltic Sea Region by analysing the developments with regard to investment and trade flows during the last twenty years.

    We ask ourselves whether these developments are in congruence with the notion of the building of one integrated region and whether it makes economic sense to talk about a Baltic Sea Region? For example, to what extent have the developments with regard to foreign direct investments proved sustainable? What sectors are leading the way and which are lagging? What divisions remain to be tackled? These are some of the questions that this paper attempts to address based upon a thorough analysis of the existing sources with regard to trade and investment flows.

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    Building the Baltic Sea Region through investment and trade, 1989-2009
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  • 104.
    Rafferty, Michael
    et al.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Toward a Post-Transition Political Economy Theory of Transformation: The Case of Financial Services2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 29-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Rafferty, Michael
    et al.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Unplanned from Plan to Market: A Concluding Analysis2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 281-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 106.
    Ragnar, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Axolot Solutions.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Hedh, Jan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Åkerbär: Europas godaste bär2017Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    De vilda åkerbären är en alltmer sällsynt och utrotningshotad del av vårt biologiska kulturarv, men de är också en inspirationskälla till litteratur och konst och på grund av sin smak och doft är den också en mycket uppskattad norrländsk delikatess. Denna populärvetenskapliga bok belyser historien om bäret, om de försök som gjorts för att domesticera bäret, den forskning den gett upphov till, samt hur den gestaltats i vår dåtid och samtid. Boken omfattar också ett antal recept författade av kocken, konditorn och kokboksförfattaren Jan Hedh.

  • 107.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Before the invention of the “New World” Argentinean and Chilean wines in Sweden before 19502019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Before the new world became a concept related to the upswing of wines from Australia, Latin America, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States, occasionally, wines from these countries could be sold in countries like Sweden. One such point in time was during WWII, when importing wines from Europe became impossible and a very short window of trade opened-up between Argentina, Chile and Sweden. This paper partially describes this story, based on the scarce sources found at the archive of the former Museum of Wines and Spirits in Stockholm. The purpose of the paper is to shed light on the amount of wine imports from Argentina and Chile during the trade window between Sweden, Argentina and Chile caused by WWII. Some sources analyzed are sales statistics of the Swedish wholesale and import monopoly Aktiebolaget Vin & Spritcentralen, price lists of the regional alcohol monopoly in Stockholm (Stockholmssystemet) and by analyzing the labels of the wines found in the archive. Some of the questions to be answered are: How much wine from Argentina and Chile was sold during the studied period? Who were the exporters? Why was this trade window opened and closed?

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  • 108.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Culinary Heritage, Governance and Rural Development In Jämtland and Västernorrland (Sweden)2016In: Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World: Proceedings from the 7th International Conference on Localized Agri-Food Systems : 8-10 May 2016, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen and Ursula Hård, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2016, p. 33-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades a remarkable process of rural development based on the revival of local culinary heritage has been set in motion all over Sweden. In Västernorrland and Jämtland, two counties that share the same culinary heritage and history and at least in some parts, have common geographical features, the shift towards this culinary place based development has been quite different. Differences can partly be explained through institutional explanations. But as will be showed by this study, there are also important historical and other reasons behind different patterns. What was left of a once common culinary heritage has been decisive for the possibility of economic success. In this article the main emphasis is put on how the nature and character of culinary heritage influences the possibility of promoting rural development. 

  • 109.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    De-Localizing the Agri-Food System Governance, Livelihoods and Vulnerability in El Alfalfal (Chile)2016In: Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World: Proceedings from the 7th International Conference on Localized Agri-Food Systems : 8-10 May 2016, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen and Ursula Hård, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2016, p. 173-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the impact of the of the hydro-power plant Alto Maipo, on a localized agri-food system (LAFS) in Cajón del Maipo (Chile). Although extensive research was done before starting the construction of Alto Maipo, the possible impact on transhumance and thereby on the ancient LAFS in the area that carries important elements of the cultural heritage and national identity has until now been neglected. Results show how an exogenous impact on the local institutions that linked landscape, people, animals and products together in the conformation of a LAFS have been disturbed through the creation of alternative income opportunities and enforced change. Current events generated alternative short term income opportunities, but also a long term negative impact on livelihoods and nature. 

  • 110.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Genus, företagande och politik2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, p. 7-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a review of some of the most important contributions in the field of gender and entrepreneurship in Sweden. The gender perspective is one of society's most important organizing principles, while entrepreneurship is seen as important for promoting growth, creating jobs, etc. The study of gender and entrepreneurship in combination is therefore important to understand the forces that shape our history, our present and our future. This field of research focuses on the study of the entrepreneur,  enterprise, entrepreneurship, business relevant organizations, industries, and business and how these are affected by gender issues and gender contracts. It involves formal and informal institutional arrangements that influence, highlights and explains differences in conditions for women and men in employment and in their roles as business owners, as well as the socio-economic consequences of the same. Gender orders put an imprint on both the public and private sectors, the division of labor inside and outside the home, in education, in the allocation of resources in society, etc. Gender issues are embedded in a variety of institutional and contextual circumstances and for instance also of a dimension and such class of ethnicity. Therefore intersectionality both a common and important approaches in gender studies in general and in the study of gender and entrepreneurship in particular. Today therefore research on female and male immigrant entrepreneurship and conditions of the same are becoming more frequent, but also how the deregulation of the public sector has funneled low-income people, mainly women in health care to low-profit businesses. The chapter also raises the recent criticism raised about how this research field has now matured and a need to move towards more critical and problem oriented research is needed. The critical voices argue that improving and increasing the contextualization of  research by problematizing the state's support to women in business, to analyze the restructuring of the public sector restructuring, which in practice promotes entrepreneurship and entrepreneurialism is a viable way to address current shortcomings in current research.

  • 111.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Hur vinet blev populärt i Sverige: en historia om välstånd, nya tider och alkoholpolitik2019In: 1959 års ekonomiska historia: en festskrift i samband med professor Lena Andersson-Skogs 60-årsdag 2019 / [ed] Strömberg, Helén, Umeå: Enheten för ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet , 2019, p. 60-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är vin en ganska vanlig dryck i Sverige. Men det var först under 1900–talets andra hälft som vinkonsumtionen ökade. Varför blev vin så populärt i Sverige? Och vilken roll spelade 1950–talets samhällsförändringar i nämnda utveckling? Tidigare forskning brukar lyfta två huvudförklaringar till att det konsumeras vin i Sverige. Den första betonar att vinet blev ett substitut till brännvin under motbokstiden (1919–1955). Den andra hävdar att den ökade vinkonsumtionen berodde på den vinpropaganda som lanserades av Systembolaget under 1958 med syfte att minska alkoholkonsumtionen genom att förmå befolkningen att ersätta konsumtion av brännvin, med konsumtion av drycker med lägre alkoholhalt. Båda hypoteserna verkar rimliga, men förklaringarna förenklar bilden av det som skedde eftersom de bortser från de stora sociala, ekonomiska och kulturella förändringar som ägde rum i Sverige, särskilt efter andra världskrigets slut. I ekonomisk neoklassisk teori behandlas förändringar i konsumtion i relation till de marknadsförutsättningar som konsumenten upplever vid en viss tidpunkt. I teorin antas konsumenten kunna fatta rationella beslut och variabler som pris anses vara centrala för konsumentens köpbeslut, därför antas exempelvis skatter kunna påverka den mängd alkohol som konsumeras i ett land. Men det finns många andra faktorer som påverkar konsumtion av alkohol. Under de senaste decennierna har exempelvis sambandet mellan modernisering och vinkonsumtion uppmärksammats i en rad empiriska studier om EU:s vinproducerande länder. Men även kulturella faktorer och dolda samhällsstrukturer rörande vad som är accepterat beteende liksom socialt och kulturellt inbäddade normer som påverkar konsumtionen av alkohol har alltmer betonats. Därtill kopplas alkohol ofta till skapandet och firandet av olika typer av traditioner och kulturuttryck. Denna artikel syftar till att ge en vidgad förklaring till orsakerna bakom ökningen av vinkonsumtion i Sverige efter andra världskriget genom att belysa ett bredare socialt och kulturellt perspektiv. Artikelns fokus ligger på ”lättviner”, dvs. den produkt som vi idag till vardags benämner som vin. Källorna utgörs av årsböcker, offentliga rapporter, samtida tidningsartiklar, tidigare forskning, samt intervjuer. I så stor utsträckning som möjligt har triangulering av källor tillämpats.

  • 112.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Imports of Latin American Wines in Sweden 1917-19552013In: Revista Encuentros Latinaomericanos, E-ISSN 1688-437X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 142-171Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Argentinean wine sector experienced several over production or financial crises’ sincethe late 19th Century. Exports therefore might have been a regular option for survival, butthese have until now been neglected by researchers. In the case of Chile, exports have beenknown, but have not attracted too much interest, because very few scholars have had anyinterest in the history of the wine sector. This essay aims to make a purely empiricalcontribution with previously unknown sources about Swedish imports of wines fromArgentina and Chile. The article contains a full presentation of available primary sources onthe imports of wines from Argentina and Chile in Sweden before 1955. Even though it is notpossible to offer full answers with such a scarce material the article describes the economicwindow opened up in Sweden during the Second World War. Some of the questionsanswered are: How did the economic window in Sweden open up and close down? Howmuch wine from Argentina and Chile was imported and consumed? Which wines wereimported and consumed? Who produced these wines?

  • 113.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    ”Jag är en fäbodjänta”: Arbetsdelning, institutioner företagande och identiteter inom gårdsnära mejerihantering igår och idag2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, p. 79-108Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter studies the development of the dairy sector from a gender perspective from the early 1900s to today. During the first part of the century agriculture was modernized and milk processing moved out from the farms and into the emerging food industry. During this process technological change was one of the main driving forces behind the outcrowding of women, who dominated the elaboration of dairy products, by men who became dominant in the emerging industry. During the outset of the 20th century, on-farm elaboration of dairy products became marginalized and decimated as a farm activity. But since the 1970’s farm elaboration of dairy products has made a comeback and has become and emblematic case for the emergence of the new rurality in Sweden. Results show that the prevalance of female examples has contributed to inspire women into starting new businesses within the trade, this is why the majority of the business owners within the trade are women. The main challenges for this trade are not related to gender issues, but are the result of the struggle between the productivist production system in which farm elaboration of food had no place and the post-modern one, in which farm elaboration and a variety of farm sizes (including small ones) are key elements. Farm dairy owners are therefore called ”jam makers” by representatives of the old structure. But despite the resistance, farm dairy owners are slowly creating new spaces for their businesses and creating a gradual change of current institutional arrangements.

  • 114.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Girard, Chloe
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Tunón, Håkan
    Centrum för biologisk mångfald, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bringing the Consumer Back in—The Motives, Perceptions, and Values behind Consumers and Rural Tourists’ Decision to Buy Local and Localized Artisan Food—A Swedish Example2018In: Agriculture, E-ISSN 2077-0472, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the motivational factors behind consumers’ and tourists’ decisions to buy local artisan cheese in Jämtland (Sweden). Empirically, the case itself diverts from the typical Franco-Mediterranean case in which both the actions of producers and consumers are embedded in historical, long-term culinary traditions and territorial features, nor is it the typical farmers’ market or another market-driven direct produce system. The main purpose is to shed light on the motivational factors behind the purchasing decision of consumers and tourists by studying the attributes that consumers embody in the products. The article is based on two consumer surveys/short interviews, the first conducted in June 2012 and the second in February 2017. The results were tested against/related to the wider local food discussion conceptualized through four types of attributes. Namely, intrinsic and extrinsic attributes; post-modernity and environmental attributes; geographical and territorial attributes; and local and rural development attributes. The results in this article clearly show that consumers value a combination of different attributes from both market-driven direct produce systems and close typicity systems. Therefore, the construction of proximity from the point of view of the consumer can be derived from a complex set of attributes and motivational factors not normally highlighted in the localized food discussion

  • 115.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Hård, UrsulaEkonomisk historiska institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World: Proceedings from the 7th International Conference on Localized Agri-Food Systems : 8-10 May 2016, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World was the title of the 7th International Conference on Localized Agri-Food Systems. The contributions in this volume are written by conference participants. The themes highlighted relate to four topics. The first topic refers to various aspects of the articulation of the New Rurality and its challenges and opportunities, with a specific focus on the Nordic countries, the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, and the Eastern European Countries. Also in focus is the role of knowledge in the promotion of rural development and ‘glocal’ links as enablers of opportunities and sources of challenges in relation to entrepreneurship and rural development – in theory and practice in particular Europe and the Americas. The second topic highlights various aspects of territorial governance and localized agri-food systems in particular Europe, North and South America. The third topic relates to the impact of the market on localized agri-food systems, with a special focus on short food chains, public procurement and tourism. The fourth and final topic highlights questions related to the connection between localized agri-food systems and the environment. Special interest was devoted to possible synergies, (organizational) innovations and challenges between localized agri-food systems and environmental benefits, proposing agroecology as a framework for action in the transition from conventional production to more sustainable agro-food production systems.

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  • 116.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Kinossian, NadirLeibniz Institute for Regional Geography, Germany.
    Life in the Archipelago: The Baltic Sea Region Archipelagos and Islands: Conditions and challenges2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Merouani, Youssouf
    Ekonomisk historiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet, Sverige.
    Small Island Societies, Livelihoods, Challenges and Opportunities duringthe Covid-19 Pandemic in Sweden2022In: AGER: Journal of Depopulation and Rural Development Studies, ISSN 1578-7168, no 36, p. 131-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Covid-19 increased the social and economic vulnerability of island societies. Swedishislands are key tourism destinations but are also home to many island residents. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of Covid-19 on core areas, but our knowledge of its impact on island communities is lacking. We use phenomenology to analyse how communities in small Swedish islands perceive the impact ofCovid-19. We use institutional theory and the concepts of social capital and accessibility in the analysis.Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus groups with islanders and representatives of local organizations on sampled islands. Pandemic regulations affected island communities differently.Authorities and shipping companies strove to discourage people from visiting islands. This affected tourismnegatively in some islands, whereas tourism increased in others. Informal institutions established a basis forgood community relations; enabled the mobilization of social capital, especially given action by local agentswho were endorsed by the community. Cooperation was a key to reducing negative impact. Accessibilityincreased on islands with well-developed and expanded IT-infrastructure that enabled holiday homeownersto work from their holiday islands. This helped create a sustained positive economic trend for grocery storesand the construction industry

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    Small Island Societies, Livelihoods, Challenges and Opportunities duringthe Covid-19 Pandemic in Sweden
  • 118.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Degerstedt, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Onn, Gustaf
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Utmaningar och möjligheter för små och medelstora företag i Stockholms skärgård2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att inventera de utmaningar och möjligheter som före­tagarna i Stockholms skärgård står inför. Rapporten har skrivits inom ramen för Interreg-projektet Archipelago Business Development och omfattar en inventering av skärgårdsföretagarnas behov, utmaningar och möjligheter i Stockholms skär­gård.

    Undersökningen har bland annat gjorts genom gruppintervjuer med företagare på Dalarö, Ornö, Sandhamn och Utö. Därutöver har enskilda in­ter­vjuer genomförts med företagare i fem olika kommuner. Geo­grafiskt fördelas urvalet på Stockholms södra och mellersta skärgård.

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  • 119.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Merouani, Youssouf
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ö- och skärgårdsturism under pandemin: Halvtidsrapport2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport bygger på resultatet från intervjuer och fokusgrupper som genomförts inom ramen för ett forskningsprojekt som syftar till att undersöka hur den pågående Coronapandemin påverkat besöksnäringen på öar och i skärgårdar i Sverige. 

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  • 120.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Merouani, Youssouf
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ö- och skärgårdsturism under pandemin: Slutrapport2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ö-samhällen kan rimligtvis antas vara extra sårbara för extern påverkan, inte minst av en sådan chock som utgjorts av Covid-19-pandemin. 

    Denna rapport bygger på undersökningar som genomförts inom projektet Ö- och skärgårdsturism under pandemin, och innefattar bland annat fokusgrupper och intervjuer med företagare och representanter från en mängd svenska ö- och skärgårdsföreningar.

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  • 121.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ragnar, Martin
    Axolot Solutions AB, Sweden.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Patterns of Collectivization and De-Collectivizationin the Swedish Dairy Sector from 1900 to 20152021In: Beyond Borders: Essays on Entrepreneurship, Co-operatives and Education in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg; Benson Otieno Ndiege; Besrat Tesfaye, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2021, p. 297-321Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the long term transformation of the dairy industry in Sweden from its establishement in the early 20th Century until 2015. The emphasis of the study was put on the the underlying causes behind the process of collectivisation and de-collectivisation and how such structural industrial transformation was fueled by an interaction between crisis and structural change.  Theoretically the article uses concepts and approaches development by the French annales school and by institutional theory. By adding the process of de-collectivisation to the analysis, this chapter offers a previously unknown view of the long term industrial development and transformation in Sweden and sheds light on societal change from an industrialising society to a post-industrial society.

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    Patterns of Collectivization and De-Collectivizationin the Swedish Dairy Sector from 1900 to 2015
  • 122.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Skoglund, Wilhelm
    Mid Sweden University,Sweden.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University,Sweden.
    Exploring the dynamics of innovation: Patterns of growth and contraction in the local food industry2024In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 126, no 13, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The purpose of this study is shed light on the underlying forces behind entrepreneurship within a regional innovation system (RIS) in a remote rural region. The authors examine the following questions: Which are the main underlying forces behind the entrepreneurial process in a rural RIS characterized by traditionally low-tech, small-scale businesses? How can the development of a low-tech regional innovation system be conceptualized?

    DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH

    The design of the study is based on entrepreneurship theory. Data analysis followed practices used in phenomenography, a research approach used to analyse and identify commonalities and variations in populations' perceptions of a certain phenomenon. Data are composed using semi-structured interviews and a database composed of company information of all firms in the population.

    FINDINGS

    A proactive mobilization of regional stakeholders and resources can be an important driving force behind the entrepreneurial process and generation of a rural RIS. Innovation can be generated within low-tech industries turning the rural context into an asset. An RIS in a remote rural context can be initiated and orchestrated by regional authorities, but knowledge brokering and orchestration can also be managed by networks of small-scale businesses brought together by mutual benefit and common interests.

    RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS

    Regional innovation systems theory is most often used to study high-tech industries. But by combining regional innovation systems with rural entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship context theory is a fruitful avenue to understand the role of rural entrepreneurship in regional development, even in remote and peripheral regions. Innovation does not need to entail high-tech international environments; it can appear as the result of efforts in low-tech industries in rural and remote environments. The authors’ findings need to be scrutinized; therefore, the authors call for more research on regional innovation systems in rural environments.

    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

    It is possible for regional authorities to orchestrate a development process through the actions of a strong regional agent but also by supporting the creation of networks of small businesses that are built on trust and common interests.

    ORIGINALITY/VALUE

    This study contributes to the literature with a new perspective to the study of entrepreneurship and of regional innovation systems. Entrepreneurship research with focus on rural contexts most often highlight limits to entrepreneurship and see entrepreneurship as “just running a business”. A perspective that starts from innovation and innovative behaviour, despite the rural context and embedded resources, helps to generate new knowledge that can enrich the understanding of entrepreneurship and also be the foundation for more precise business development policies in rural settings.

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  • 123.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Tunón, Håkan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Summer Farmers, Diversification and Rural Tourism: Challenges and Opportunities in the Wake of the EntrepreneurialTurn in Swedish Policies (1991–2019)2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, p. 1-26, article id 5217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s Swedish authorities have increasingly treated summer farms as businesses, expecting them to generate profits like any other firm. However, in addition to being financially independent, summer farms are expected to provide a number of services, to help maintain biological heritage, provide beautiful landscapes for tourists, and much more. Summer farmers are also forced to co-exist with other local stakeholders that base their activities on the same resources, e.g., adventure and nature-based tourism, agriculture, and other businesses. All of this creates a number of entrepreneurial challenges but can also open new windows of opportunity. The response of summer farmers has been to diversify activities to cope with shrinking income and the seasonal character of their trade. Most new business strategies include tourism or increasing the number of cattle rationalizing animal husbandry. The strategies have partly been influenced by policies and partly by new market opportunities. Departing from a business, spatial and institutional contextual analysis we identified five main entrepreneurial strategies, three of which are related to rural tourism, one is related to increasing the animal herd and the fifth is a no-strategy, maintaining status quo. This article analyses the reality of summer farms from a business perspective. The main questions to be answered are: How have summer farmers responded to the entrepreneurial turn in regional development policies? Which are their main business challenges and opportunities?

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  • 124.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Tunón, Håkan
    Centrum för Biologisk Mångfald, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bele, Bolette
    Norskt Institut för Bioekonomi.
    Affärsutvecklingsmanual för fäbodbrukare och mathantverkare2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Affärsutvecklingsmanual för fäbodbrukare och mathantverkare kan användas av alla företagare som har en verksamhet som är baserad på natur- och kulturvärden, men särskilt livsmedelsproducenter av olika slag. Den beskriver affärsutveckling utgående från koncept som sensoriska egenskaper, terroir, koppling till natur- och kulturvärden, historia och tradition samt frågor om lokala allianser. Målet är att trycka på konsten att värdera en vara utifrån dess unika egenskaper och att föra den insikten vidare till konsumenten. Denna manual har tillkommit inom ramen för interregprojektet Biologiskt kulturarv som hållbar värdeskapare (2016–2019) som hade som mål att gynna företagande baserat på traditionellt nyttjande av utmarken, främst i form av utmarksbete av olika slag.

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  • 125.
    Stryjan, Yohanan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Cooperators, Entrepreneurs, and Local Development: Conceptual Challenges and Practical Issues2021In: Beyond Borders: Essays on Entrepreneurship, Co-operatives and Education in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg; Benson Otieno Ndiege; Besrat Tesfaye, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2021, p. 199-213Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    Cooperators, Entrepreneurs, and Local Development: Conceptual Challenges and Practical Issues
  • 126.
    Tesfaye, Besrat
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lundström, Anders
    IPREG.
    Cross-Sector Collaboration - Mission Impossible?: Lessons From A Case Of Social Responsibility In The Integration Process2018In: The 7th International Conference on Social Responsibility, Ethics, and Sustainable Business: Oslo, Norway, October 12 & 13, 2018 / [ed] Dr. Georgiana GRIGORE, Alin STANCU, Caroline D DITLEV-SIMONSEN, Bucharest: ASE Publishing , 2018, Vol. 8, p. 19-20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sector collaboration has become a prominent feature of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in business organizations. In the past few years in Sweden, for example, a wide range of policies, programs, and projects have been initiated to facilitate the labor market integration of new migrants. A common feature of these projects is cross-sector collaboration between the private sector, the public sector, and civil society (nonprofit organizations). However, the phenomena is not yet well understood. Why are cross-sector CSR initiatives increasing? How are they organized? What are the sources of values? What factors influence cross-sector collaborations? How are cross-sector collaborations evaluated? Our main concern in this paper is how tri-sector CSR collaborations are initiated, implemented, and create values for various stakeholders. Furthermore, we explore the factors that influence the effectiveness of tri-sector collaborative efforts. The objective is to contribute to our understanding of the 20 conditions for cross-sector collaboration in addressing social issues. Understanding tri-sector collaboration is important because these have the potential to generate transformative values for individuals and society

  • 127.
    Tesfaye, Besrat
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ndiege, Benson Otieno
    Tanzania Co-operative Development Commission, Tanzania.
    Towo, Esther
    Moshi-Co-operative University, Tanzania.
    Institutional Constraints on Women Entrepreneurship in Tanzania2021In: Beyond Borders: Essays on Entrepreneurship, Co-operatives and Education in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg; Benson Otieno Ndiege; Besrat Tesfaye, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2021, 1, p. 51-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    Institutional Constraints on Women Entrepreneurship in Tanzania
  • 128.
    Tunón, Håkan
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bele, Bolette
    Norsk institutt for bioøkonomi (NIBIO), Ås, Norge.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Biologiskt kulturarv som som hållbar värdeskapare - slutrapport2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final report from the interreg project with the same name (Interreg project 20200961 / IR2016.04). The project was carried out between March 2016 and September 2019. The intention was to investigate how natural and cultural values ​​and especially biological cultural heritage can be used to create value through economic business development in the enterprise for livestock farmers and others who utilize resources from the outlying land. The aim has thus been to show ways to create better financial conditions for the farmer to continue to practice customary use without influencing the contribution of transhumance to biodiversity, cultural heritage and other aspects of biological heritage in a negative way. During the course of the project, we have consequently focused on concepts such as biodiversity, biological cultural heritage, intangible cultural heritage, terroir and sensory evaluation in order to show values ​​that are maintained through continued use of the outfield, which is now largely a growing resource for the future. The project has mostly been participatory and with elements of recurring workshops with farmers to help them develop their companies.

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  • 129.
    Tunón, Håkan
    et al.
    Centrum för Biologisk Mångfald, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Bele, Bolette
    Norskt Institut för Bioekonomi, NIBIO, Norway.
    Are There Lessons to Be Learnt?: A Comparative Study of Ethical Challenges between Community-Based Participatory Research and Case Studies in Sweden and Norway2020In: Co-creating Actionable Science: Reflections from the Global North and South / [ed] Gloria L. Gallardo Fernández ; Fred Saunders ; Tatiana Sokolova, Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020, p. 121-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying summer farming and farm dairies in Sweden and Norway – the shared empirical basis of this essay – using methods that require a close proximity between the researcher and the researched can be a challenge. This is especially obvious when the studied community is subjected to frequent studies conducted by scholars and authorities. It became even more complicated as the researchers had different roles in the three projects discussed in this text. In project one, researchers developed knowledge together with summer farmers, in project two the research group interacted with the summer farmers while implementing the UN Convention on Biological Diversity on behalf of the Swedish government and in project three researchers addressed summer farmers as respondents. It is our experience that research in which interaction with respondents is close often becomes a target of critique by other scholars who claim that this type of research is incapable of producing valid and impartial knowledge due to suspected bias. In this article we discuss five types of ethical challenges met in the three projects, two of which are based on a community-based participatory research approach (CBPR) and one on a case study approach (CS). Starting off, from previous literature, we compare ethical dilemmas in both CBPR and CS with the help of the following concepts: creation of partnerships, participation and perceptions of truth, sources of conflicts and mistrust and the consequences of such research for quality, reliability and research integrity. Our research questions are: What are the ethical, practical, methodological, and scientific challenges and implications of research conducted in close proximity to informants? What can the research community learn from such experiences?

    Results indicate that the case study approach (CS) may create power imbalances between the researcher and the informants which need to be addressed, as such projects not only risk replicating a negative and urban-based view of rural respondents, but can also lead to poorer results, i.e. poorer quality and lower reliability of results. The use of CBPR empowers respondents and their knowledge, but does little to prevent conflicts and power imbalances within the studied community, and may also lead to low reliability and, more generally, poor quality of research. One lesson from this article is that developing an ex-ante strategy to cope with potential conflicts is fruitful and can generate better results. In addition, the experiences from these three projects and the comparison between them indicate that research can win from several perspectives if an ethical strategy is developed early and weaved into the project as part of the research strategy and the research questions. Close proximity helps to formulate more practically relevant research questions and contributes to a more interdisciplinary interpretation of results and conclusions.

  • 130.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Gawell, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Mittuniversitetet / KTH.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Samhällsentreprenörskap: Kontexter, organisering och perspektiv för hållbar utveckling2014In: Samhällsentreprenörskap: Samverkande för lokal utveckling / [ed] von Friedrichs, Y., Gawell, M. & Wincent, J., Östersund: Mittuniversitetet , 2014, p. 7-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Gawell, MalinSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Mittuniversitetet / KTH / Institutet för entreprenörskap och småföretagnade.Wincent, JoakimMittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Samhällsentreprenörskap: Samverkande för lokal utveckling2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Landsbygden står inför stora utmaningar. I en allt mer konkurrensutsatt värld utmanas etablerade modeller i välfärdssamhället och bland annat har serviceutbudet och möjligheterna till försörjning minskat på den svenska landsbygden. Samtidigt vill många bo kvar då landsbygden upplevs bidra med livskvalitet samt närhet till kulturella och sociala sammanhang. Därför engagerar sig många människor för att skapa förutsättningar för att det ska vara möjligt att arbeta och bo även utanför större städer. Samhällsentreprenörskap har kommit att bli ett attraktivt alternativ för att bryta nedåtgående trender i lokalsamhället och för att finna nya lösningar för en hållbar utveckling. Inom ramen för forskningsprojektet Societal Entrepreneurship in Sparsely Populated Areas (SESPA), som bedrivits vid Mittuniversitetet mellan åren 2010- 2014, har forskare från olika ämnesdiscipliner studerat samhällsentreprenörskapets roll i den lokala utvecklingen. SESPA:s forskning har kunnat genomföras med hjälp av stöd från EU:s regionala strukturfondsprogram samt Mittuniversitetet och Länsstyrelserna i Jämtland och Västernorrland. Forskningen har bedrivits i nära samspel med företrädare från det lokala näringslivet, ideella organisationer samt offentliga institutioner. De studier som presenteras i denna antologi visar att samhällsentreprenörskapet kan ta sig många olika uttryck. Det rör sig dock genomgående om människors engagemang, idérikedom och aktiva handlingar. Det rör sig om individer, kreativitet och organiserande processer. Och att alla initiativ har sin egen kontext. Syftet med den här boken är dels att sprida resultat från den forskning om samhällsentreprenörskapets roll för den lokala utvecklingen som utvecklats inom ramen för SESPA men även att bidra till en ökad förståelse om fenomenet samhällsentreprenörskap ur ett välfärdssamhälles perspektiv. Vår förhoppning är att boken ska bidra till reflektion men även fungera som inspiration till fler samhällsentreprenöriella initiativ.

  • 132.
    Winroth, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Co-authors of branding processes intertwined with entrepreneurial processes: cases from the digital world2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technological development in the last decades and the practice of digital consumption are shifting the conditions of contemporary branding (Denegri-Knott and Molesworth 2010; Sanz 2014). The Internet enriches the possibility of communication around brands as it opens an autonomous arena still very accessible in everyday life. The net is not so much about transactions as about offering an arena for dialogue and relations. But as consumption has become a central lotus for community in our society, the conversation often shifts into a dialogue of transactions. 

    The Internet offers a ‘third space’ where social relations can be playfully constructed, creating a perfect arena for the shaping of a persona. It offers a space for exchange of information and for constituting an audience as members of a community. So participation in the Internet can be both ‘a formal social enterprise’ and ‘an organized public’ involving various forms of interaction between these two (Fish, Murillo, Nguyen, Panofsky and Kelty, 2011). The Internet opens possibilities for consumers to exchange information and sometimes build their own brands, as for instance bloggers, creating a public arena for their taste, suggestions and knowledge. As a consequence, for being an opportunity to building brands, the arena become a platform for these brand builders to develop their entrepreneurial talents.

    Even though many theories and models concerned with strategic branding suggest that brand managers seduce their consumers into consuming products and services, this point of view has been seriously questioned. Instead branding has become understood as a process where several actors contribute imbedded in socio-spatial interactions (Holt, 2004; Lury 2004; Power and Hauge, 2007). When trying to understand how a brand emerges out of the various voices that give meaning and significance to it, Holt (2004) introduces the concept of ‘co-authors’. By this, Holt means that several possible actors influence the symbolic message that is conveyed by a brand. Corporations, consumers, mediators (e.g. critics and agents) and the cultural industry are suggested to be the so-called ‘co-authors of significance’. Following Lury’s (2004, 1) suggestion brand is here understood not as a commodity set but ‘a set of relations between production and services’, emerging out of a network of relationships.

    Researchers in marketing and entrepreneurship (Hills & Hultman 2011, Whalen & Akala 2016) have increasingly incorporated the concepts of effectuation(Sarasvathy 2001) to emphasize the role of stakeholders in the processes of co-creating opportunities, values and markets. Sarasvathy’s (2001) critical view of the traditional marketing approach highlight the role of uncertainty and ambiguity in the marketing process of a new venture start-ups (Read et al 2009; Read & Sarasvathy 2012) and have opened up for compelling new research perspectives and questions in the area of marketing and entrepreneurship. However, the role of the brands and the process of branding in effectuation processes are still undeveloped topics. A proposed research contribution is to incorporate the concept of ‘co-authors’ in the effectuation literature.

    With a focus on how brands emerge out of a network of relations, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to illustrate brands as emerging out of a network of co-authors; and (2) to demonstrate how this process can be integrated into the idea of entrepreneurship as effectuation (Sarasvathy, 2001). The discussion will be illustrated by using two examples of branding processes intertwined with entrepreneurial processes in the digital world.

    One example of this is how the Internet can be, and often is, used for creating ‘celebrity’ (Hackley and Hackley, 2015) or in other words using the possibility offered by the web for ordinary consumers to reach a mass audience. The cause of this celebrity are shifting and sometimes only about somebody making themselves visible on the Internet, like for instance on Youtube, or a fashion blogger building a blog that has turned out to attract consumers.The phenomenon of fashion bloggers initially developing personal brands on the ‘labour market’ and later developing their brands into various entrepreneurial ventures has been acknowledged (Phil 2013). Bloggers’ personal brands have a possible competitive advantage, as their names are already known and established with an audience.Also, the visual economy assemble access through a screen, and it needs celebrities to give visual resonance and market definition to images of consumption (Schroeder, 2005). The cases illustrate how a fashion-blogger and a digital media-entrepreneur build and evolve their initial brand to expand into several well-established ventures. 

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