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  • 101.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Bring in the brewers: business entry in the Swedish brewing industry from 1830 to 20122017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 710-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses long-term business entry in the Swedish brewing industry, presenting new data on its organisational historiography. Since 1830, the rate of entry has varied considerably; entries increased progressively from the 1850s, and fell at a decreasing rate from the early twentieth century. An increasing tendency to enter the trade can be observed from the mid-1980s – in particular, there has been a considerable resurgence since the turn of the millennium. The article elaborates on explanations that are both exogenous and endogenous. Above all, the results provide support for the role of endogenous conditions. The results should be viewed as complementary to previous analyses of the (Swedish) brewing industry, which either have employed shorter analytical time-frames or have mainly focused on the role of exogenous conditions, such as changes in the institutional framework.

  • 102.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Destructive entrepreneurship in the small business sector: bankruptcy fraud in Sweden, 1830–20102020In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 54, p. 437-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship will not always productive: Baumol (1990, 1993) distinguishes between productive, unproductive, and destructive entrepreneurial activities, and in the last two cases, new values are not created. Setting of from the notion of destructive entrepreneurship and the bankruptcy institute as framework for the empirical analysis, we use long aggregate series on bankruptcies and bankruptcy frauds in Sweden, 1830–2010. We operationalize destructive entrepreneurship with bankruptcy frauds. The bankruptcy institute is not a pure cleansing mechanism; assets can be redistributed by criminal procedure. Thus, a form of destructive entrepreneurship can be conducted within this system. We link bankruptcy frauds to the selection mechanism—the aggregate bankruptcy volume—over time. We cannot establish any direct linkages between the bankruptcy volume and institutional changes. However, and in line with research on bankruptcy diffusion and diffusion of economic crimes, we find that bankruptcy frauds have significant, positive impacts on the bankruptcy volume. Therefore, our results indicate that increases in bankruptcy frauds, destructive entrepreneurship, would affect the economic system. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 103.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Företagsnedläggningar: Olika perspektiv och forskningsmetoder2018In: Insolvensrättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen redogör för förklaringar till företagsdödlighet i såväl offentliga utredningar som inom ekonomisk och sociologisk forskning och teoribildning. Två fundamentalt olika föreställningar om hur och varför företag beter sig på ett visst sätt har dominerat de flesta studier. Ett perspektiv förutsätter en central roll för företagsledningens beslutsfattande och kompetens. Ett andra och motsatt perspektiv ser företags beteenden bestämda av externa krafter över vilka företagsledningen saknar kontroll. De olika föreställningarna påverkar resultat och slutsatser inom forskningen och har också betydelse för utformningen av den ekonomiska politiken.

  • 104.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-20102016In: Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

  • 105.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship has gained increasing support from governments in recent decades. Entrepreneurship is considered to generate new jobs, innovations, and economic growth. In current research, a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth is maintained, where variations in entrepreneurship precede variations in economic output. Various models identify a positive effect entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades – a time when several Western countries transformed from ‘managed’ to ‘entrepreneurial’ economies.

    Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship in both policy and research. The present study analyzes the relationship between growth in self-employment and economic growth in Sweden between 1850 and 2000. For the entire period (1851–2000), variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. Using Granger causality tests, the results in this study show that variations in self-employment did not granger-cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948, which gives two different periods: 1851–1948 and 1949–2000.

    Between 1851 and 1948, Granger causality between self-employment and GDP in either (Granger) direction could not be established. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth granger-caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. Granger causality tests in the frequency domain show that for the period 1949–2000, but for no other periods, variations in self-employment lagged with GDP growth. Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth.

    Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator for entrepreneurship, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream entrepreneurship research.

  • 106.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    New-Firm Survival in Sweden: New Methods and Results2017In: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, no 4, p. 431-464, article id 1567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse firm survival and focus on several levels of analysis (both firm level and macro-level). We employ a unique longitudinal data set, recorded at the firm-level and covering nine complete entry cohorts of Swedish companies. The companies were founded between 1899 and 1992, and each firm is followed over nearly a decade. We adopt the semi-parametric complementary log-log (cloglog) model. The main novelty of our approach is that, unlike extant studies so far, we are able to distinguish between the impact on the hazard rate of founding conditions and contemporaneous, post-entry conditions. Using our new approach we test several hypotheses derived from the Industrial Organization and Organizational Ecology literatures.

  • 107.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    The Asymmetric Effect of Bankruptcy Fraud in Sweden: A Long-Term Perspective2019In: Journal of quantitative criminology, ISSN 0748-4518, E-ISSN 1573-7799, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 287-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The knowledge of the effects of white-collar crimes is incomplete. In the article, we operationalize white-collar crimes as bankruptcy frauds. Economic models maintain that interlinkages between firms may give ‘domino effects’: bankruptcy events could lead to ‘bankruptcy chains’ in which a bankruptcy spreads to other firms. Analogously, criminologists assert that social and economic networks can be a major source of fraud diffusion, with the potential to drive other firms bankrupt. Recent empirical results show that crimes may have detrimental and even asymmetric (nonlinear) effects on economic activity. We analyze the diffusion and the aggregate development of bankruptcy frauds in Sweden over nearly two hundred years, specifically focusing on the relationship between bankruptcy frauds and the bankruptcy volume. We also consider linkages between bankruptcy frauds, bankruptcies, and the macroeconomic cycle. Methods: We use long, aggregate time series, collected from several different historical and contemporary sources. Applying the recently developed cointegrating nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model, we investigate whether the bankruptcy volume reacts asymmetrically to increases and decreases in bankruptcy frauds, both in the short and the long run. Results: Bankruptcy frauds reveal a causal effect on bankruptcies, showing an asymmetric (nonlinear) diffusion effect from economic frauds to the bankruptcy volume. Increases in bankruptcy frauds have a positive and significant effect on the bankruptcy volume. However, decreases in bankruptcy frauds show no significant effect. No causal relationship between the macroeconomic cycle and bankruptcy frauds is found. Conclusions: Our data and research approach demonstrate how previously generated hypotheses in both criminology and economic research on the relationship between (economic) crimes, economic activity, and the diffusion of white-collar crime can be tested at an aggregate level. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 108.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Entrepreneurial Teams, Gender, and New Venture Survival: Contexts and Institutions2018In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The link between new venture survival and the presence of founding teams is investigated, in particular the effect of the gender composition of teams. Furthermore, we study venture survival, gender, and institutional change. A unique longitudinal database is employed, covering a large number of Swedish ventures established during 6 specific years, 1930-2005. These data capture the initial gender diversity of start-ups. The contextualization of entrepreneurship involves situational and temporal boundaries, and we elaborate on contextual factors at different levels of analysis. Our results show that ventures founded by teams have a higher probability of surviving, but show no overall team gender homogeneity/heterogeneity effect. However, we find some support for the fact that ventures founded by all-female teams have lower survival chances. Nevertheless, the clearest negative effect is found for female solo start-ups. Furthermore, our results support the fact that institutional transformation may gradually have increased the likelihood of ventures founded by females to survive. 

  • 109.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Genus och grundarteam: nya företags överlevnad i Stockholm under 1900-talets första hälft2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, p. 51-78Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Is There a Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002015Report (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002016In: Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth / [ed] Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

  • 112.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    From the Baltic rim to growth markets: Contextual issues and market strategies of dairy companies in the Baltic rim – the case of Arla2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    The Internationalization of the Swedish Dairy Industry2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Braidford, Paul
    et al.
    Durham University.
    Stone, Ian
    Durham University.
    Tesfaye, Besrat
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gender, disadvantage and enterprise support - lessons from women´s business centers in North America and Europe2013In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 143-164Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Brickstad, Filip
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rundqvist, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Impression management i hållbarhetsredovisning: En studie om bolag inom drivmedelsbranschen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemdiskussion: Sociala och miljömässiga frågor har blivit allt viktigare i dagens samhälle. Detta har gjort att trycket har ökat på företag till att lägga mer fokus på hållbarhetsfrågor. En bransch som tidigt ville förbättra sitt rykte och redovisa hur de arbetade med dessa frågor var drivmedelsbranschen.

    Vissa företag väljer att spendera mer tid på grön marknadsföring än faktiska åtgärder för att minimera företagets påverkan på miljön, vilket kallas för greenwashing. En process som beskriver skillnaden mellan faktiska åtgärder och vad företaget presenterar utåt är impression management.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur impression management används inom drivmedelsbranschen, då denna bransch kritiseras för sin användning av “grön marknadsföring”. Av denna anledning vill vi även jämföra hur hållbarhetsredovisningar utformas för att se hur användandet av impression management kan skilja sig åt.

    Teoretisk referensram: De teorier som presenteras i denna studie är impression management, attributionsteorin, legitimitetsteorin och intressentteorin.

    Metod: Studien bygger på de fem ledande företagen inom drivmedelsbranschen: Statoil, Shell, St1, OKQ8 och Preem. Tre kategorier inom impression management, reading ease manipulation, attribution of performance och rhetorical manipulation, användes som grund till att göra innehållsanalyser på företagens hållbarhetsredovisningar.

    Resultat och analys: Resultatet presenteras med hjälp av tabeller och figurer och analyseras utifrån de tre kategorierna inom impression management, den teoretiska referensramen samt tidigare forskning.

    Slutsats: Av de hållbarhetsredovisningar som granskades kunde vi se att alla företag använder sig av impression management i någon form och att det går att utläsa både likheter och skillnader mellan företagen och de studerade kategorierna. 

  • 116.
    Brohlin, Emil
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Edestav, Simon
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lön och lönsamhet: En kvantitativ studie om den verkställande direktörens ersättning och bolagets prestation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The chief executive officer is directly responsible for the day-to-day operations of a company. Through strategic decisions, the CEO can affect the company performance, this type of decision has a particularly great impact on companies operating in high-tech industries. A well-known incentive that is used to ensure that the CEO makes decisions that are in line with the owners' vision is the financial compensation. The remuneration received by a CEO has been widely discussed in both media and scientific articles, as skeptics believe that the compensation is unjustifiably high. The purpose of this study is to examine whether there is any correlation between the CEO's financial compensation and the companies' performance. This study is based on quantitative data for the period 2015 to 2018 and tests through statistical tests if there is any significant correlation between the CEO's remuneration and the company's performance. Based on previous research and the theoretical framework presented, four hypotheses have been developed. Furthermore, the hypotheses have been tested against a five percent significance level. Based on the result, none of the hypotheses could be rejected since no statistical significance could be proven. The result of this study is also supported by stewardship theory which claims that financial compensation does not act as the single strongest incentive, instead the theory claim that the CEO is driven by inner motives. This study is also in line with the results of previous research.

  • 117.
    Brorson, Angelica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Olsson, Linda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    IFRS 15 – Intäkter från avtal med kunder: En kvalitativ studie om implementeringsprocessen av den nya intäktsstandarden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research questions:

    What does the new revenue recognition standard mean for the financial reporting of the organization?

    What impact will the five-step model have on the companies?

    What problems and difficulties will the companies encounter during the implementations process and how do they handle them?

    Purpose:

    This study aims to widen the knowledge of the implementation process of IFRS 15. By analyzing how companies in different industries handles and work with the new revenue recognition standard before enters into force. This contributes to a greater understanding of the standards effects on the accounting.

    Method:

    In this study we used a qualitative research in terms of semi-structured interviews. Four companies and one accounting specialist has been interviewed. Four of the interviews were conducted by phone and the fifth was conducted in person. The collected primary data was analyzed by using the data presented in the theoretical framework.

    Conclusion:

    The interpretation/result of IFRS 15 is that companies need to make a solid preparatory work in order to gain comprehension regarding its incomes and to cater the rise in informational requirements. The impact of the new revenue recognition standard varies among companies, and industry affiliation and business models are two of the crucial factors determining the impact.

  • 118.
    Brstina, Aleksandar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Westberg, Rebecca
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Capital Asset Pricing Model: Skillnader i modellens tillämpbarhet mellan tre olika svenska branscher2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sambandet mellan risk och avkastning har en central roll inom investeringsteori och är ett omfattande studerat område i den finansiella litteraturen. Capital Asset Pricing Model grundades under 1960-talet av William Sharpe och är än idag enav de mest använda modellerna för att förklara detta risk- och avkastningssamband. De tidigaste empiriska testerna av modellen fann stöd åt dess användning men på senare år mötte modellen mycket kritik. Kritiker har genom sina undersökningar funnit resultat oeniga med CAPM, vilket tyder på att modellen inte längre verkar lika användbar som tidigare.

    Trots omfattande tidigare tester av modellen upplevs en brist på tester på den svenska marknaden finnas. Dessutom kan inge tidigare studie som undersökt skillnader i CAPMs tillämpbarhet olika branscher emellan hittas. Denna studie syftar därför till att fylla detta informationsgap genom att testa modellen på företag ifrån tre branscher på Stockholmsbörsen, samt undersöka om det förekommer skillnader i modellens tillämpbarhet mellan dessa branscher. Detta görs genom att testa ett av modellens centrala antaganden, nämligen att det existerar ett linjärt samband mellan tillgångars betavärden och avkastningar.

    Med en kvantitativ metod och ett deduktivt tillvägagångssätt har empiriska data i form av historiska aktiekurser analyserats. Dessa aktiekurser har använts för beräknandet av tillgångars betavärden för att sedan i en regressionsanalys tillsammans med ett marknadsindex ge svar på studiens frågeställning.

    Studiens resultat tyder på att det med säkerhet går att endast med hjälp av historiska data förutspå tillgångars framtida avkastning på den svenska marknaden. Det anses därför tveksamt att betavärde som ensamstående faktor kan förklara skillnader i tillgångars avkastning, vilket CAPM förutsätter. Resultaten visar även att en viss skillnad möjligen existerar för modellens tillämpbarhet olika branscher emellan, dock anses ytterligare studier vara nödvändiga för att bekräfta detta.

  • 119.
    Bäcklund, Jonas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Eskilsson, Joel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    WOM vs eWOM: En komparativ studie av WOM vs EWOM2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the perceived credibility of word of mouth (WOM) is compared with the perceived credibility of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) from a receiver's perspective. WOM can be described as verbal communication in trademarks, products and services where the transmitter does not have a profit motive. EWOM is all communications regarding brands, products and services that take place electronically over the Internet. The results of this qualitative study indicate that credibility is linked to the transmitter as a person rather than the message itself. Within WOM, the receiver usually has a relationship to the transmitter and therefore the credibility is to a large extent already given the recipient before the message is delivered based on past experience. Within eWOM the transmitter is often unknown or anonymous, which means that the receiver does not have a picture of the sender's credibility before the message is received. The receiver then creates a perception of the message and its sender based on language design. A language with certain qualitative characteristics tend to create greater credibility within eWOM. Another observation made in this study is that the quantity of messages affect the overall credibility of eWOM even when the messages alone are not considered to have high credibility from the recipient's perspective. The time aspect also proved to be of some importance for the credibility of the message in eWOM as older reviews were not as trustworthy as newer ones.

  • 120.
    Cairone, Cinzia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sjödin, Ida
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Konst och företagande: En studie av konstsamlingars betydelse inom företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What caught our attention when initiating this study is the fact that business interest in art has increased globally. This study examines how corporations are starting to prioritize investing in art and the purpose and value of art collections in established organisations. To conduct this study we decided to do a case study of the companies’ Cederquist, Folksam, IBM and SEB. The method used in this study is qualitative interviews with participants that have experience in procuring at least one art collection within each company. The results are clear, that art collections are mainly obtained due to senior executive’s individual passion for art, as well as when companies relocate offices. We found that the main purpose of art is to create a nice work atmosphere, where art can inspire and contribute to creativity amongst the staff. Conclusively, art within companies can also strengthen their own brand-image.

  • 121.
    Carlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Tidner, Ellen
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Företags redovisningsval: K2 eller K3: Hur väljer fastighetsbolag och FoU-företag regelverk för upprättande av årsredovisning?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inför införandet av K3 diskuterades det inom redovisningsprofessionen vilket regelverk mindre fastighetsbolag och forsknings- och utvecklingsföretag (FoU) skulle välja. De olika regelverken innebär både för- och nackdelar för företagen med betoning på komponentavskrivning för fastighetsbolagen och aktivering av utvecklingsutgifter för egenupparbetade immateriella tillgångar i FoU-företag. Redovisningsprofessionen trodde att majoriteten av fastighetsbolagen skulle välja K2 och att majoriteten av FoU-företag skulle välja K3. Då det i nuläget saknas en översikt över företags val av regelverk bidrar denna studie till att fylla igen den kunskapslucka tidigare fanns. Studien fokuserar på redovisningsval hos mindre företag inom fastighetsbranschen och företag med FoU-verksamhet. Anledningen till det är att olika val av regelverk innebär olika för- och nackdelar för företagen och redovisning är ett område inom vilket det ofta krävs professionella bedömningar. Studiens syfte är att ta reda på hur företagen gör sina redovisningsval samt vilka redovisningsmetoder och eventuella motiv beslutet baseras på.

    För studien har en deduktiv ansats och en kvantitativ metod har använts. Information har hämtats från 396 årsredovisningar samt från enkäter med tio representanter för ett fåtal företag. Hypoteser har ställts upp och testats med hjälp av ett signifikanstest i form av Chi-två. Studien visar att företags redovisningsval reflekterar redovisningsspecialisternas diskussioner och rekommendationer. Trots att endast ett av två resultat är statistiskt signifikant och trots en brist i empiri är det möjligt att utläsa mönster i företagens redovisningsval.

  • 122.
    Carlsson, Saga
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ramberg, Rebecka
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Av kvinnor, För kvinnor, Med kvinnor: en studie av organisationskulturen i kvinnodominerade idéburna organisationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 123.
    Carlsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Frölén, Caroline
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Så designade Lean management en modern vårdmiljö: En studie om användandet av Lean management principer i utformningen av en modern vårdmiljö på Capio Sankt Görans sjukhus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Lean management är en administrativ reform som gör anspråk på att ständigt förbättra och effektivisera för att förbättra kvalité inom flera sektorer, varav en är sjukvården. Ett sjukhus som arbetar med Lean Management för att förbättra sin vård är S:t Görans sjukhus. Vid design och utformning av ombyggnationerna inom Sjukhuset har Lean används. Det finns väldigt lite forskning utfört om Lean och design inom vården

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att studera Capio S:t Görans sjukhus arbete med Lean management och om det organisatoriska arbetet har influerat designen samt utformningen av sjukhusets nya vårdlokaler.

    Metod: Kvalitativ ansats med ett bekvämlighetsurval har använtsför att utföra studien. Observationer och intervjuer gjordes på S:t Görans sjukhus akutmottagning och Medicincentrum.

    Empiri och Analys: Intervjun och analysen presenteras i fem olika teman utifrån observationen som gjordes och intervjuerna. Empirin har bearbetats genom en innehållsanalys och analyserats med den teoretiska referensramen. Studien visar på att Lean management har influerat utformningen av de nya lokalerna. Främst kan det ses i undersökningsrum och hur patientens väg genom mottagningen ser ut. Det går även att se att inställningen till hur en sjukhusmiljö skall se ut är svår att bortse ifrån vid design och utformning av nya sjukhusmiljöer.

    Slutsats: Lean management principer kan uppfattas i de nya lokalerna. S:t Görans sjukhus kan anses ha lyckats med att utforma sina nya vårdmottagningar med hjälp av det redan förankrade arbetssättet.

    Avslutande kommentarer: I avslutande kommentarer diskuteras analysen och slutsatser, men även metodval och slutligen lyfts det fram vikten om mer forskning inom detta område.

  • 124.
    Cederfelt, Elin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Basmaci, Talita
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    No matter where you are recognition is always useful: A qualitative study about cross cultural management between Indian and Swedish female managers and their experiences in a new culture2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managers have an important role to companies’ globalization process and success. Leading organizations across national borders is a huge challenge due to different cultures requires different leadership styles. Culture is the most underrated external factor affecting the leadership. A great cultural distance between two countries, such as India and Sweden, can result in greater differences in organizational attributes.

    The purpose of this paper is to understand from female managers’ perspective how Indian and Swedish cultural aspects affect their leadership style towards their subordinates. To fulfill the purpose the authors have chosen to use and deductive approach in order to do a qualitative study. The authors interviewed eight Swedish female managers in India and two Indian female managers in Sweden.

    The theoretical framework is structured upon main themes including; leadership, cross-cultural management, culture, cross-cultural between India and Sweden and previous research. The theory chapter is followed with the empirical data and an analysis chapter where the authors analyzed the results based on the theories and previous research.

    In conclusion, there are common differences and challenges between Indian and Swedish managers. The managers received respect because of their title. Furthermore, the authors can conclude that Indians are more flexible with the time, while Swedes are the opposite, everything has to be planned. All the managers highlighted the importance of giving feedback to subordinates to improve the performance. Finally, preparation and collecting information about the host country's culture can never be too much.  

  • 125.
    Cederkäll, Jacob
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Karlsson, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Att säkra eller inte säkra: En kvantitativ studie om säkring av transaktionsexponering med valutaderivat2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an increasingly globalized world of multinational firms dominating the global market, firms have discovered the impact of transaction exposure on their business. To handle the risk, firms can hedge their transaction exposure with currency derivatives. This paper aims to determine and explain what variables, beyond the size of the transaction exposure, affect firms’ usage of currency derivatives for hedging purposes. Previous research shows a divided estimation of what underlying causes. The variables studied to explain the usage of currency derivatives are industry affiliation, size of firm, geographical dispersal and profitability. With a sample size of 70 major Swedish internationally active non-financial firms, a multiple regression analysis was constructed to potentially demonstrate causality. To create a method triangulation, an interview with a currency derivatives expert was conducted as a complement to the quantitative strategy. The result of this paper indicates that industry affiliation possibly affects firm’s usage of currency derivatives for hedging purposes, however none of the studied variables show a sufficient statistical significance to prove a causality.

  • 126.
    Celan, Mateo
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Öhrnberg, Albin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Säljtävlingar, bra eller dåligt?: En studie om säljtävlingars effekt på en telefonförsäljares motivation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag idag har många hjälpmedel att använda sig av tack vare moderniseringen och den snabba teknikutvecklingen. De anställda är dock fortfarande den mest vitala resursen av alla i företaget, utan de fungerar inte företaget som det är tänkt att göra. Frågan är hur man motiverar sina anställda så pass att de alltid gör så bra ifrån sig som möjligt varje arbetsdag? Att använda sig av tävlingar är något som många företag gör för att öka motivationen hos sina anställda då de har ett incitament att jobba mot. För telefonförsäljare är det av stor vikt att de känner sig motiverade och positivt inställda till att sälja varje dag. Tycker de då att dessa tävlingar har en påverkan på deras motivation?

    Syftet med denna studie är att få en djupare förståelse för hur telefonförsäljare påverkas av olika säljtävlingar som anordnas inom callcenterföretag. För att få svar på detta så har en enkätundersökning genomförts, dessa har sedan kompletterats med 8 intervjuer för att försöka få en djupare förståelse och inblick i hur olika typer av tävlingar påverkar en telefonförsäljare.

    Studien visar att en majoritet av telefonförsäljarna anser att säljtävlingar har en påverkan på deras motivation. Bland annat visar studiens resultat på att kön påverkar synen på både individuella säljtävlingar och säljtävlingar i lag. 

  • 127.
    Celepli, Dilan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Zaito, Jessica
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Är först alltid bäst?: En studie om alfabetisk bias2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today it is common for shares to be listed in alphabetical order in newspapers, indexes, databases, watch lists and statements. Investors often face a search problem because of the thousands of available shares. It causes investors to make use of a ready-made stock list to make a financial decision. In this study, we have investigated whether there is alphabetical bias on the Swedish stock exchange and whether it has any impact on the investment decision. Previous research shows evidence that alphabetical bias occurs in the selection of shares based on alphabetically arranged lists on the US stock exchange. In this study, a quantitative method was used for data collection, later data were processed using univariate analysis, bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis. Using the data collected, the different variables could be calculated, Tobin's Q, Market value, Name flow, Stock turnover rate, Stock price, and Age. The result cannot ensure whether alphabetical bias occurs in the Swedish stock market, however, we can with 99% certainty determine that early placed shares receive higher Tobin's Q than late placed.

  • 128.
    Celis, Sonia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sveriges image som varumärkesstrategi: En studie om hur bageriföretag använder sig av Sveriges image för att förstärka sitt varumärke2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur bageriföretag använder sig av Sveriges image och vilka egenskaper kopplas till deras varumärke. Vidare vill denna studie skapa förståelse på hur ett lands image kan användas som en varumärkesstrategi.

    Studiens resultat visar att svenska bageriföretag använder sig av olika svenska egenskaper som den svenska flaggan, svensk text och svenska symboler som älgar för att kommunicera deras svenska ursprung i utländska marknader. De intervjuade företag visar att det mest direkta sättet att påverka kommunikationen av deras svenska ursprung är genom förpackningar av deras produkter. Det svenska ursprunget av företagets varumärke och produkter kan ge konkurrensfördelar och hjälpa deras produkter att sticka ut från mängden i marknader som har en positiv respons för svenska livsmedelsprodukter. 

  • 129.
    Cenamor, J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Parida, V.
    Luleå University of Technology / University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Pesämaa, O.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Wincent, J.
    Luleå University of Technology / Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Addressing dual embeddedness: The roles of absorptive capacity and appropriability mechanisms in subsidiary performance2019In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 78, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how subsidiaries can manage dual embeddedness with both local partners and a multinational enterprise. Specifically, we examine the role of absorptive capacity and appropriability mechanisms on subsidiary performance. We analyse how absorptive capacity and appropriability enable subsidiaries to successfully address knowledge challenges related to internal and external networks. We conducted an empirical analysis on a sample of 165 subsidiaries. Our results suggest that absorptive capacity has a direct, positive effect on subsidiary performance, which is greater in emerging countries. The study also found an indirect effect of absorptive capacity on subsidiary performance, which is mediated through appropriability mechanisms. These findings extend the literature on international networks, dual embeddedness and absorptive capacity.

  • 130.
    Cengiz, Alex
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Danho, Markus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Styrformers spridning och översättning: En studie om agila metoder i litteratur och i praktiken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the diffusion possibilities of agile methods, and project managers' experiences regarding the motivation and implementation of agile methods.

    Theory: The following study has been done using Røvik's theories of institutionalized organization recipes. The theory of the diffusion of recipes has been used to analyze whether agile methods have the properties in order to spread. To investigate the motivation for using agile methods, the motivation phase has been used. In addition, the adoption phase with focus on translation of recipes has been used to analyze the implementation of agile methods.

    Method: A qualitative method with a deductive approach has been used in this study, as these were considered appropriate for the purpose of the study. The primary data has been collected through semi-structured interviews with project managers chosen through a convenience sample. The study has also been enriched with secondary data in the form of conceptual literature on agile methods.

    Conclusions: Based on the chosen theory, the possibilities for diffusion of agile methods appear to be weak. The stories told by the project managers regarding the implementation of agile methods show that the methods have been adapted, translated according to the circumstances of the projects. The methods that have been used and combined are Scrum and Kanban. The concepts of iteration, communication, customer and flexibility were recurring arguments for using the methods.

  • 131.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology / University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Social media engagement strategy: Investigation of marketing and R&D interfaces in manufacturing industry2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 74, p. 138-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Research shows that effective marketing and R&D interface is pivotal in a company’s new product development performance and future competitiveness. The increased popularity of social media promised to enhance interaction, collaboration, and networking between the two functions. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the key activities, infrastructure requirements, and potential benefits of social media in the marketing and R&D interface. This study aims to advance the current understanding of social media engagement strategies, which facilitates improved marketing and R&D interfaces and ultimately NPD performance for manufacturing companies. Based on a multiple-case study in two manufacturing companies, this study first presents the role of social media in facilitating improved marketing and R&D interface within a B2B context. Second, it presents the adoption process of the social media engagement strategy for an evolving marketing and R&D interface. The adoption process is divided into three phases, namely coordination, cooperation, and coproduction, to provide detailed insights regarding full-scale social media engagement. Taken together, the study provides novel insights into industrial marketing management literature by exemplifying the role of social media and proposing a systematic social engagement strategy for improved marketing and R&D interface in the manufacturing industry.

  • 132.
    Chrostowski, Aleksander
    et al.
    Kozminski University, Poland.
    Kostera, Monika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Managing for the common good: The case of Soplicex2019In: Tamara Journal, ISSN 1532-5555, E-ISSN 1545-6420, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to point to the potential value of an approach to management based on the idea of the common good, as opposed to classical capitalism based on private ownership. Such an approach makes it possible to resist a pursuit of short term oriented gains and a maximization of narrowly defined profits, and, instead, to focus on humanistic values, as to adopt a long term perspective. The much cited notion of the “tragedy of the commons” was based on deficient material and argumentation, but, most of all, it completely disregards of the issue of management. Using a case study developed through a longitudinal action research project in a big service enterprise we call “Soplicex”, we present the strategic process grounded in learning, as well as the building of a strong structure centred on teams. The engagement of the employees was, originally, strongly oriented towards the idea of the common good. The consultants and researchers adopted this principle as the guiding rule in their work with the organization. Even though the process was interrupted by the takeover by a foreign investor, we show how the findings of the study remain relevant for alternative organizing and managing today and in the future. The conclusions of this paper reach further than just being reflections on a historical case study: a model of management is presented, concerned with the care and protection of the common good.

  • 133. Cieslak, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Gullberg, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Controlleruppdraget2018In: Controllerhandboken / [ed] Fredrik Nilsson, Nils-Göran Olve, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 11Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Corsini, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Edman, Charlie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hur påverkas idrottsvarumärken av sponsoravtal med spelbolag?: En komparativ studie mellan Linköping HC och Brynäs IF2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today' s Sport organizations faces many challenges; they are to compete not just only on the pitch but also in many other fields. The commercialization of sports has contributed to that these sport organizations has evolved to be more like a regular company rather than just a non-profit sport team. With it comes the importance of brand and sponsorship. Today in 2019 it’s more common than ever that companies that offers gambling sponsor sport organizations. Public debate about the topic has concluded that gambling addiction is a growing public health problem in Sweden. This creates a dilemma for sport clubs and their directors, funding from sponsors is crucial for the success of the team but at the same time these sport clubs need to care about their brand. The purpose of this study is to examine how the attitudes of the supporters is affected by the sponsor agreements with gambling companies. The study also aims at seeking understanding in how sport organizations act according with Corporate Social Responsibility and the ideals of sports.

    To examine this topic five different theories has been used, in which four are brand theories and one is the Corporate Social Responsibility. The brand theories are as follows: Brand Equity, Brand Relationships, Word of Mouth and Brand Image Transfer. This study uses Triangulation as a method in form as semi-structured interviews and surveys.

    The result from this study implies that supporters indeed has negative attitudes towards gambling organizations, these negative attitudes affect sport brands in a negative way. Sponsorship deals from other organizations that the supporters have positive attitudes towards can help to decrease these negative impacts. The result also implies that most of the supporters doesn’t have an opinion about the club’s sponsorship deals.

  • 135.
    Cziszewska, Anna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Haddad, Renia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Tillämpning av finansiella metoder i mikroföretag inom detaljhandeln: Kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role of microenterprises is of significance for the Swedish economy, however statistics show that every third microenterprise goes bankrupt shortly after the startup. The retail sector is proving to be the second most exposed sector for competition in Sweden. One of the reasons for this may be because of the entrepreneur’s lack of knowledge about existing financial options. The purpose of this study is to investigate the choice of financing methods for microenterprises within the retail sector and how other financing methods can be used to increase a company’s capital. The study was conducted through a qualitative research method with semistructured interviews as a collection method. The study has been based on theories such as pecking order-theory, trade-off theory, financial gap and various financing methods. The empiricism in the study consists of three semistructured interviews with respondents from three microenterprises within the retail sector. The study’s conclusion shows that microenterprises within the retail sector choose to finance their operations mainly with equity. The study’s investigated microenterprises perceive difficulties with bankloans as a financing method due to information asymmetry between entrepreneurs and financiers. All investigated microenterprises experience high competition in the retail sector. 

  • 136. Cöster, Mathias
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Gullberg, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Westelius, Alf
    Wettergren, Gunnar
    Organisering och digitalisering: Att skapa värde i det 21a århundrandet2017Book (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Dache, Cristian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Nödtvedt, Tor Adrian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hur upplever individer med funktionshinder rekryteringsprocessen?: En kvalitativ studie om funktionshindrade individers upplevelser i rekryteringsprocessen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to create a deeper understanding of how the recruitment process is perceived by disabled individuals. The study is limited to individuals with invisible disabilities in the Stockholm area. To investigate this, a main question and two sub-questions were formulated. These questions regard how the individuals experience the recruitment process, what obstacles they experience and how they choose to handle these obstacles. The study has used a description of a normative recruitment process to describe what each individual needs to go through on the way to his/her future employment. Furthermore, the study has also used theories of affective states to discuss why individuals can experience things in a certain way. In this study, ten semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect empirical data. The result that emerged was that disabled individuals experience the recruitment process as problematic and difficult. The study concluded that disabled individuals can experience different dilemmas in their search for employment. These dilemmas are regarding when and how it is best to inform their employer about their disability. Furthermore, the study shows that the experience in the recruitment process differs depending on the age of the disabled individual. Disabled individuals with longer work experience have developed an understanding of the questions surrounding the disability. People with disabilities with less work experience experienced the same questions as shocking and offensive. In addition, the study concludes that the wage contribution can be used as a strategy for managing a refusal in the recruitment process. Finally, it describes how loyal disabled individuals can be against the company that offers them employment.

  • 138.
    Dagher, Mariam
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Mariam Dagher.
    Gerdin Hossain, Ellenor
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning i finansbranschen: - En studie om informationskvalitet avseende relevans och trovärdighet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund och problem: Diskussioner kring hållbarhet och hur det pågående hållbarhetsarbetet ska förbättras är i dagens värld utbrett. Genom att upprätta en hållbarhetsrapport redovisar företagen för omvärlden deras ansvar gällande hållbarhetsarbetet. Ökningen av mängd hållbarhetsrapporter som publiceras, vilket har uppmärksammats av tidigare forskning, medför brister gällande informationskvaliteten i rapporterna i olika branscher såsom finansbranschen.

    Syfte: Uppsatsens syfte är att beskriva och förstå begreppet informationskvalitet i hållbarhetsredovisningar. Studiens avsikt är därför att definiera informationskvalitet på hållbarhetsrapporter i företag med verksamhet i Sverige och sedan undersöka om förändringen i informationskvalitet har skett genom tiden.

    Metod: Studiens forskningsdesign är komparativ, vilket består av tvärsnittsdesign och innehållsanalys som tillsammans utgjorde en kvantitativ forskningsstrategi med kvalitativa inslag där förutbestämda bedömningskriterier användes i syfte att studera informationskvaliteten på hållbarhetsrapporter mellan år 2015- 2017 i tio olika företag i finansbranschen.

    Resultat och slutsats: Studiens resultat visade att en förbättring av hållbarhetsrapporternas informationskvalitet har skett över tid gällande relevansen och trovärdigheten. Informationskvaliteten på hållbarhetsrapporterna i finansbranschen har ökat i samma utsträckning avseende relevans och trovärdighet men det finns utrymme för förbättring.

  • 139.
    Dahlquist, Amanda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kunskapande organisationer: En fallstudie om det aktivitetsbaserade kontoret2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The activity- based office has been claimed to increase flexibility and work under its own responsibility among employees, where they decide when, where and how they want to perform their work, unlike the traditional office, where employees sit at personal offices during permanent working hours. Reorganization is relevant in all organizations, of which this study investigated how the internal relations of a knowledge-intensive company are influenced by this concept, as well as the impact of a top- management change process on the organization.

    The company being investigated is a multinational Tech Company in Stockholm and has about 650 employees. The study has been conducted through a qualitative case study where research been made through interviews, observations, annual reports and participation in lectures and inspiration seminars.

    The theory used in the study is the Community of Practice, which is a concept of how organizations can create a work environment in alignment with organizational members. A comparison has been made between empirical data and the theory in analyzing whether the knowledge-intensive company fulfills its requirements for extracting the desirable knowledge and skills from the labor force that would come with the activity- based office, focusing on investigating how internal conditions were affected by the work environment has changed. The theory has been used to study on what can be improved in order to create an organizational structure that opens up for employees to contribute more to business. This has been done by interviewing four managers who were part of the company’s project team who were aware of the organization’s goal of implementing the activity based office and further knowledge in the operation of the office today, six years after the office came to place. The interviews have been supplemented with subsequent interviews and observations by the company’s employees to investigate the workforce’s perception of the introduction of the activity-based office and its approach to the concept today. Similarities and links to previous research and theories have been identified, but also areas where the company’s internal conditions differ. There is a theoretical link in why the company uses an activity based approach, but the more differences in the reality of the workforce, where knowledge and participation are not as expected.

    The activity based office has been implemented by the company to create a work environment adapted to the workforce with the aim of achieving increased knowledge and productivity, but the change process demonstrates that the Company’s approach is not optimal and that there is scope for the activity based office to serve its purpose.

    The study’s conclusion is likewise explained as a recommendation on how companies could shape their organization to extract the desirable knowledge that they intent to access with the activity based office. 

  • 140.
    Dahlén, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Dahlén, Andreas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Flygplatsers arbete med att lyfta flygbolagens kundnöjdhet: En kvalitativ studie hur svenska flygplatser arbetar med att skapa och bibehålla nöjda flygbolagskunder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The airports are experiencing increasing competition this because of the implementation of deregulation in the 1990s of the Swedish aviation market, which has led to that the Swedish Airports today are no longer naturally monopolistic. This study highlights how Swedish airports are working with the airlines to make them more satisfied customers and how airports work to retain their existing customers to prevent that airlines don’t switch to a competing airport. By performing eight qualitative interviews with people working in airports and airlines, the respondents were asked how they are working to improve customer satisfaction. Their answers were then analyzed in comparison with different customer satisfaction theories. The airports' answers were also analyzed with what the airlines are seeking from airports and why discontent may arise from the airlines side. The results showed that the Swedish airports are working largely with improving customer satisfaction. However, we can confirm that it I still the price of airport services that is a critical factor that decides which airport an airline chooses. Another decisive factor in the choice of the airport is the geographical position. The airlines want to see that there is an attractive market in the form of a demand from travelers and the business industry. More new airlines have been formed after deregulation; still several of the smaller regional airports do not see a demand from the airlines to begin flying to them. In contrast, the lager airports get more and more customers.

  • 141.
    Damström, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Theorén, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Internkontroll och styrning: En fallstudie av Toyota Material Handling Sweden AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to create an understanding of how Toyota Material Handling Sweden AB organizes their work in regards to internal control, as well as investigate what essential conditions that are necessary to receive good internal control. 

    Delimitation: This study is limited to the finance department of Toyota Material Handling Sweden AB. The scope of this study concerns internal control only, that is, the control that the company performs itself. 

    Method: This study is characterized by a qualitative method. An internal case study to gain a deeper understanding of the study's investigated company. 

    Theoretical framework: The theoretical framework in this study is based on theories and previous studies on risk management, internal control, internal control framework and internal auditing. 

    Empirics: The empirics summarizes primary data consisting of an open interview and two semi-structured interviews eye-to-eye, one of them in combination with an observation, and six interviews via email. 

    Conclusion: Toyota Material Handling Sweden AB has a well developed and constantly present internal control through values, routines and the J-SOX framework. The company highlights the importance of integrating all individuals into the business to achieve the goals. In order to maintain good internal control, individuals are an essential condition, together with education, competence and follow-up.

  • 142. Dar, Ravi
    et al.
    Schultz Nybacka, Pamela
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Re-casting Legitimacy: Validation and Criticality as Contemporary Art Joins Cultural Business2016In: Arts and Business: Building a Common Ground for Understanding Society / [ed] Elena Raviola & Peter Zackariasson, Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 118-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 143.
    David, Aaltonen
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Sköld, Mathias
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Investmentbolag och Premiepension: En studie om premiepensionssystemet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is evaluate if there is another investment opportunity than the current investment opportunities in the Swedish pension system. In order to do this the study will produce a portfolio of a Swedishand an international investment company with a good balance between risk and return for a comparison of today’s premium pension scheme.

    Methodology: The study is based on historical data for ten years which further is analyzed through the Pearson R model. The selection consists of investment companies in the Nordic- and the American market. Along with the quantitative study an interview will be made with a representative well familiar with savings and pension investments. Finally the credibility of the study and methodology criticism is presented.

    Theoretical Framework: The theoretical frame of reference consists of previous theories that are relevant to produce the best-suited portfolio. Markowitz modern portfolio theory is the main theory which is supplemented by additional essential measures as the Sharpe ratio. Furthermore, a developed portfolio theory by Grubel & Solnik is applied to get an international perspective.

    Result: The result consists of a presentation of the processed data as underlies the analysis being carried out.

    Conclusions: The study produces a portfolio in the form of Bure Equity AB and Berkshire Hathaway. In comparison with the pre-existing pension options the study’s portfolio shows a significantly higher nominal return. The constellation of Bure Equity AB and Berkshire Hathaway exhibits a nominal return of 19,75 % in relation to the active saver in the premium pension with a nominal return of 7 %. The passive saver assigned to AP7 Safa exhibits a nominal return of 11 %.

  • 144.
    David, Aydin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Amanda, Sarkis
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Aktiekursutveckling i samband med införandet av amorteringskraven: En kvantitativ studie om bostadsfastighetsbolagens aktiekurser2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis intends to examine returns of residential real estate companies and if their share price has developed in connection with implementations of amortizations.

    Method: The study has issued from a quantitative research method where historical data have been collected for share prices and returns for all residential real estate companies. The study included 15 residential real estate companies. The research was delimited to listed residential real estate companies during the period 2014-06-01 to 2019-10-01.

    Conclusion: The results of the study have shown a development in the residential real estate companies share prices after the implementation of amortizations. The result has not shown a connection between the residential real estate companies share prices and different cyclical cycles.

  • 145.
    Dealzi, Rosa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Samin, Lalan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Presterar hållbara företag bättre?: En kvantitativ studie om CSR-påverkan på svenska börsnoterade företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Consumer interest in the community has increased, which has helped both Swedish and international companies to act and take their social responsibility. Sustainability affects all companies around the world and, such as, creates an issue for companies to work with CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility). How much responsibility should companies take? Is the goal to only maximize profits, or should the CSR-perspective be considered?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how CSR affects Swedish company’s financial performance, in terms of profitability (CFP).

    Methodology: This study has used a deductive quantitative method to be able to make a statistical generalization, to answer the question of the study as well as fulfillment the purpose. Folksam’s report “index för ansvarsfullt företagande” was chosen to operationalize the CSR-variable, and Tobin’s Q, ROE, ROA och profitmargin were used to operationalize profitability. To examine how CSR affects financial perfomance a multiple regression analysis was used.

    Conclusion: The studys results indicate that there is a negative correlation between CSR and ROE. Remaining profitability Tobin’s Q, ROA and profitmargin indicates that there is no significant correlation between CSR and profitability.

  • 146.
    Dementeeva, Tatiana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kulvietyte, Justina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Nedskrivningsprövning av goodwill enligt IAS 36 punkt 134: En jämförande studie om svenska Mid Cap och tyska MDAX/TecDAX företag år 20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: Since most of European companies have changed from goodwill write-offs to yearly impairment tests, goodwill has been the most complex and problematic financial post. Accounting in accordance with IAS 36 paragraph 134 is still lacking and goodwill takes up a big part of the companies’ total assets and equity.

    Research issue: How much does the accounting in accordance with IAS 36 paragraph 134 differ in middle-sized listed Swedish and German companies? Is there a connection between goodwill size relative to total assets and equity and compliance with IAS 36 paragraph 134?

    Purpose: The purpose is to find if any difference between Swedish and German companies when it comes to accounting for goodwill impairment tests in accordance with IAS 36 paragraph 134. Also, if a connection between goodwill size and the level of compliance with the standard can be found.

    Method: The study takes on a deductive approach. Hypotheses are developed on the ground of the study's framework. The data that is gathered from financial reports are processed with statistical methods to answer the developed research issues.

    Results and conclusions: No significant differences are found between the compliance of Swedish and German companies. The significant connection between goodwill size and compliances is only found in Swedish companies, however not in German, so the connection cannot be assumed.

  • 147.
    Deng, Antony
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Jurayev, Xisrav
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Nya intäktsredovisningsstandarden IFRS 15: en totalundersökning på hur börsnoterade bolag påverkas av IFRS 152018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem discussion: In revenue recognition, there’s a big problem about when a revenue should be recognised and to what amount. The new revenue recognition standard enters into force 1 january 2018 and supersedes all the previous standards that treated revenue. IFRS 15 focuses on a balance-sheet oriented approach compared to the previous standards that focused on an income-statement approach.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute an overview on how companies are affected by IFRS 15. This study also aims to investigate the revenue streams of the companies concerned by IFRS 15 by explaining why a certain revenue streams are affected and not affected.

    Method: The study is based on a quantitative approach where we collected empirical data from publicly traded companies’ financial reports. We also collected the companies’ analysis of IFRS 15 to analyze the revenue streams. In the study, we used the variables net sales, gross margin and operating margin to measure the effects of IFRS 15.

    Result: The study’s results showed that most the companies wouldn’t have a quantifiable impact by IFRS 15. Only a small portion of the population in the study received a quantifiable impact by IFRS 15. A large proportion of the population were classified as statistical loss since they haven’t started to analyze the effects yet.

  • 148.
    Denha, Lilian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Hasanagic, Sanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kraften av influencers på Instagram: En studie om konsumenters uppfattningar om influencers2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase knowledge about how consumers in southern Stockholm perceive influencer marketing via Instagram and understand the role of influences in the consumers' buying process.

    Theory: Influencers lose followers' trust because many associate influences with forced advertising, because it is known that influencers get paid for spreading marketing on their social channels. There is a concern among consumers, and borders are not drown between the private posts and the sponsored posts. This study includes theories such as consumer behavior, social media as well as influencer marketing. This includes theories like word of mouth, user-generated content, the consumer's buying process, opinion leaders and consumer behaviour.

    Method: This research strategy places more emphasis on words than quantification, ie numbers. Data collection has consisted of qualitative interviews, scientific articles as well as literature and a deductive approach have been adapted. The study's selection technique was based on a choice of convenience, which is a form of non-probability choice.

    Result: The result has been analyzed based on the above mentioned theories. A result from this study shows that consumers reflect on their choice of influences on Instagram, even though not much time is added to it. Shared interests and identification should exist in order for the respondents to click on the follow button. In order for a purchase to go through, it is required that respondents trust the influences and that the respondent should be interested in the product being marketed.

  • 149.
    Dilani, Marco
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Strimer, Kevin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gemensam organisationskultur – existerar den?: En studie om organisationskulturen på ett svenskt IT-konsultföretag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationskultur är ett brett begrepp som genom åren har definierats på flera olika sätt. En definition på organisationskultur är att det beskrivs som en uppsättning av normer och värderingar som har en påverkan på hur människor tänker, agerar och beter sig. Begreppet fick sin framfart under 1980-talet och har utvecklats sedan dess och ses idag som en viktig del av en organisation. Studiens teoretiska referensram grundar sig i Johnson, Scholes och Whittingtons (2008) modell “The Cultural Web” som beskriver organisationskulturen utifrån sex beståndsdelar.

    Studien har som syfte att undersöka om det existerar en gemensam organisationskultur på Xlent Consulting Group AB, som har flertalet dotterbolag utspridda på olika orter runt om i Sverige, där fyra av dem ingår i denna studie. För att få ledarnas syn på organisationskulturen har fem semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med ledare som ansvarar för de fyra dotterbolagen. För att få medarbetarnas syn på organisationskulturen har en webbaserad enkätundersökning genomförts med medarbetare på dessa fyra dotterbolag. Studien bygger därav på en forskningsstrategi innehållandes både en kvalitativ och en kvantitativ forskningsmetod.

    Resultatet från studien har påvisat att det existerar en gemensam organisationskultur mellan dotterbolagen och att en majoritet av ledarna och medarbetarna delar samma positiva syn på organisationskulturen. Däremot finns det en minoritet bland medarbetarna som i olika frågor inte delar samma syn som ledarna och övriga medarbetare. Trots denna minoritet, har dotterbolagen ett lättsamt, kamratligt och prestigelöst klimat där det är högt i tak. Vidare arbetar dotterbolagen med att tona ner hierarkierna genom att bland annat benämna alla ledare och medarbetare som konsulter vilket gör att ledarna ser sig vara på samma nivå som medarbetarna. 

  • 150.
    Djillali-Merzoug, Malika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Förändringar i svenska företags hållbarhetsrapportering under det senaste decenniet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att företag hållbarhetsredovisar har under 2000-talet ökat avsevärt och i takt med ökningen av företag som arbetar med hållbarhetsfrågor, så ökar också antalet företag som väljer att rapportera sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Lagändringar, FN-initiativ, viljan att uppnå och behålla legitimitet samt att tillfredsställa organisationens intressenter har i en större eller mindre utsträckning kommit att påverka företagen och deras rapportering kring hållbarhet.

    Det har under alla tider förekommit diskussioner kring företagens roll och ansvar i samhället. Företag hålls även alltmer ansvariga för hur de påverkar samhället, och hur de tolkar CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility), skiljer sig från företag till företag.

    Denna studies syfte är att undersöka vilka förändringar som har skett i hållbarhetsrapporteringen under det senaste decenniet hos svenska företag. Studien ämnar även söka förståelse kring vilka faktorer som kan ha kommit att påverka eventuella förändringar. För att uppnå studiens syfte har en kvalitativ innehållsanalys med både en induktiv och deduktiv ansats tillämpats. Studien visar att de förändringar som skett i företagens hållbarhetsrapportering snarare är relaterade till omfattning än innehåll och att företag följer de lagar och globala initiativ som finns.

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