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  • 101. Bergman, Mats
    When Should an Incumbent Be Obliged to Share its Infrastructure with an Entrant Under the General Competition Rules?2003Report (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Bergman, Mats
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Återgång till planekonomi ger oss inte lägre elpriser2005In: Dagens industri, ISSN 0346-640X, no 19 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 103.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    Södertörn University, School of Political Science, Economics and Law, Economics.
    When Should an Incumbent Be Obliged to Share itsInfrastructure with an Entrant Under the GeneralCompetition Rules?2005In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 5-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the essential-facilities doctrine, competition law requires an infrastructural monopoly to provide access. Under the "Bronner criterion", proposed by the EC Court, the doctrine is only applicable when a symmetric infrastructural duopoly is non-viable. This paper uses a simple model to illustrate that, from a welfare point-of-view, the Bronner criterion may provide too little monopoly protection for the incumbent in high-risk new markets, while requiring too much investments from the entrant in low-risk mature markets.

  • 104.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Coate, Malcom B.
    Mai Thi Van, Anh
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Ulrick, Shawn W.
    Does Merger Policy Converge After the 2004 European Union Reform?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. HUI Research.
    Granlund, D.
    Umeå University.
    Rudholm, N.
    HUI Research / Dalarna University.
    Reforming the Swedish pharmaceuticals market: consequences for costs per defined daily dose2016In: International Journal of Health Economics and Management, ISSN 2199-9023, E-ISSN 2199-9031, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 201-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies’ purchase prices). The empirical results suggest that the cost reductions were caused by the introduction of a price cap, an obligation to dispense the lowest-cost generic substitute available in the whole Swedish market, and the introduction of well-defined exchange groups. The reforms thus reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while being advantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase. However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction in the price received for their products.

  • 106.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Granlund, D.
    Umeå universitet.
    Rudholm, N.
    HUI Research / Högskolan Dalarna.
    Squeezing the Last Drop Out of Your Suppliers: An Empirical Study of Market-Based Purchasing Policies for Generic Pharmaceuticals2017In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 969-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of the degree of exclusivity for the lowest bidder on the average price of generic pharmaceuticals in the short and long terms. Our results indicate that a 1-percentage-point gain in market share of the lowest bidder reduces average costs by 0.2% in the short term and 0.8% in the long term, but also reduces the number of firms by 1%. We find that reducing the number of firms has a strong positive (and hence counteracting) effect on average prices, a 1% reduction raising prices by approximately 1%.

  • 107.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Johansson, P.
    Uppsala University.
    Lundberg, S.
    Umeå University.
    Spagnolo, G.
    Stockholm School of Economics / University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Italy.
    Privatization and quality: Evidence from elderly care in Sweden2016In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 49, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates – an important and not easily contractible quality dimension – using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates. © 2016

  • 108.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    Foreign ownership and investment: do firms locate investments close to the headquarter?2011In: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 147, no 4, p. 621-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an international panel data set of the European pulp and paper industry, we address the issue of a possible home-bias effect for real investments in plants with foreign and domestic locations. We find that there is no effect after controlling for firm effects and plant and firm size. These findings are rubust to a number of different econometric specifications, including a difference-in-difference approach. Our findings appear to be relevant for the debate on the effect of foreign takeovers. As far as we are aware, home-bias effects in real investments within multinational firms have not been studied previously.

  • 109.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, J.
    Umeå University.
    Lundberg, S.
    Umeå University.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    The Swedish Post and Telecom AuthorityStockholm.
    Interactions Across Firms and Bid Rigging2019In: Review of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0889-938X, E-ISSN 1573-7160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate whether an econometric technique that is used in the spatial econometrics and network effects literatures can be adopted as a test for collusive bidding in public procurement auctions. The proposed method is applied to the Swedish asphalt cartel that was discovered in 2001. Our dataset covers the period 1995–2009, which makes it possible to test for conditional independence between complementary cartel bids before and after 2001. Our estimates show a significant positive correlation between complementary cartel bids during the cartel period, whereas a non-significant correlation is shown during the later period. The variance of the parameter estimate of interest also differs between the periods, which suggests a structural change in bidding behavior among cartel members between the two periods.

  • 110.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå university.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå university.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Using spatial econometrics to test for collusive behavior in procurement auction dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University.
    Tender evaluation and supplier selection methods in public procurement2013In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU procurement directives stipulate that public contracts be awarded to the lowest bidder or to the bidder with the economically most advantageous tender; the latter requiring that a scoring rule be specified. We provide a simple theoretical framework, based on standard microeconomic theory, for tender evaluation (scoring and weighing) and discuss the pros and cons of methods such as highest quality (beauty contest), lowest price and price-and-quality-based evaluations. We argue that the most common method, price-to-quality scoring, is inappropriate for several reasons. It is non-transparent, making accurate representation of the procurer's preferences difficult. It is often open to strategic manipulation, due to dependence on irrelevant alternatives, and it tends to impose particular and unjustified non-linearity in bid prices. The alternative quality-to-price scoring method, where money values are assigned to different quality levels, is a better alternative. However, when the cost of quality is relatively well-known and several providers can offer optimal quality, lowest price is the preferable supplier selection method, while beauty contests may be preferred when purchasing budgets are inflexible.

  • 112.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Mai, Anh
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Accountable Regulators - To Whom?: A Survey-Based Analysis of National Regulatory Authorities' GovernanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Mai, Anh
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Regulatory accountability, power sharing and corruptionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Bid distribution and transaction costsIn: Journal of Applied Economics, ISSN 1514-0326, E-ISSN 1667-6726Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 115. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    Josephson, Jens
    Sandström, Mikael
    Prisskillnader - finns de och varför?2002Report (Other academic)
  • 116. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Carlsson, Kenny
    Holgersson, Jörgen
    EU-kommissionens förslag till "Horizontal Merger Guidelines": en kommentar2003In: Konkurrensnytt, ISSN 1404-7217, no 2, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 117.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Coate, Malcolm B.
    Jakobsson, Maria
    Ulrick, Shawn W.
    Merger Control in the European Union and The United States: Just the Facts2011In: European Competition Journal, ISSN 1744-1056, E-ISSN 1757-8396, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 89-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of public and internal information, this paper compares and contrasts European Union (EU) and United States (US) merger policies. Common economic analysis leads both authorities to subject remarkably comparable portfolios of mergers to close scrutiny. Vertical mergers account for less than 10%, and potential competition matters for around 5%, of in-depth merger investigations in both jurisdictions, while purely conglomerate mergers are extremely rare or non-existent. The share of collusion investigations falls over time in both jurisdictions. However, the US relies on collusion theory more than three times as often as the EU, where over 80% of the horizontal cases address dominance. Across both regimes, roughly one eighth of all recent horizontal investigations have been analysed as non-dominance unilateral-effects cases. Only minor differences in the average probability of a merger being challenged are observed when controlling for market share. The 2004 EU reforms seem to be leading towards at least some convergence of enforcement policy.

  • 118.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Coate, Malcolm
    Jakobsson, Maria
    Ulrick, Shawn
    Comparing Merger Policies in the European Union and the United States2010In: Review of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0889-938X, E-ISSN 1573-7160, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 305-331Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. HUI Research.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå universitet / HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna / HUI Research.
    Apoteksmarknadens omreglering: Effekter på följsamhet, priser och kostnader per dygnsdos2012Report (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Guibourg, Gabriela
    Segendorf, Björn
    Card and cash payments from a social perspective2008In: Economic review, ISSN 2001-029X, no 2, p. 42-59Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Guibourg, Gabriela
    Segendorf, Björn
    Card and cash payments from a social perspective in Sweden2009In: Evolving payment habits: proceedings of the Bank of Finland Payment Habits Seminar 2008 / [ed] Harry Leinonen, Helsinki: Suomen Pankk , 2009, p. 21-42Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Guibourg, Gabriela
    Segendorf, Björn
    The costs of paying: private and social costs of cash and card payments2007Report (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Idén, Tobias
    Lundgren, Sofia
    Madell, Tom
    Offentlig upphandling: på rätt sätt och rätt pris2011Book (Other academic)
  • 124. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Maria
    Razo, Carlos
    An econometric analysis of the European Commission’s merger decisions2003Report (Other academic)
  • 125. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Maria
    Razo, Carlos
    An econometric analysis of the European Commission’s Merger Decisions2005In: International Journal of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0167-7187, E-ISSN 1873-7986, Vol. 23, no 9/10, p. 717-737Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 126. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Large Investments in the Pulp and Paper Industry: A Count-Data Regression Analysis2002In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 29-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 127. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Strategic investments in the pulp and paper industry: a count data regression analysis2000Report (Other academic)
  • 128.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för näringslivsforskning.
    Goda år på ålderns höst?: En ESO-rapport om konkurrens i äldreomsorgen2014Report (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Att utvärdera anbud: utvärderingsmodeller i teori och praktik2009Report (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Umeå University.
    Sourcing for government goods and services: Theory and evidence from Swedish Cities and Municipalities2013In: Charting a Course in Public Procurement Innovation and Knowledge Sharing / [ed] Gian Luigi Albano, Keith F. Snider and Khi V. Thai, Boca Raton, Florida: PrAcademics Press , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a simple normative theory for the choice between lowest price, highest quality (beauty contest) and more complex scoring rules, we empirically investigate the behavior of cities and authorities. We survey a gross sample of 40 procuring entities about perceived key characteristics of products bought in 650 public procurements and collect data on award methods for these procurements. We compare actual scoring rules against the theoretical norms and analyze what product characteristics make deviation from the norm more or less likely. In addition, a control group of 100 authorities was surveyed about similar but hypothetical procurements. We find that more complex scoring rules are used more often when framework agreements are procured and less so when the procuring authority reports that they experience significant uncertainty about the delivered quality. Low weight given to price in the bid award process is associated with low perceived uncertainty concerning delivered quality.

  • 131.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Tender Evaluation and Award Methodologies in Public Procurement2011Report (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet.
    Tendering Design when Price and Quality Is Uncertain: Theory and Evidence from Public Procurement2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a simple normative theory for the choice between lowest price, highest quality (beauty contest) and more complex scoring rules, we empirically investigate the behavior of local and central authorities. We survey a gross sample of 40 contracting entities about perceived key characteristics of products bought in 651 public procurements and collect data on supplier selection methods for these procurements. We compare actual scoring rules with theoretical norms and analyze what product characteristics make deviation from the norm more or less likely. In addition, a control group of 275 authorities was surveyed about similar but hypothetical procurements. We find that more complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality, in accordance with our hypotheses. However, authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partially driven by local habits or institutional inertia.

  • 133.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet.
    Giancarlo, Spagnolo
    Handelshögskolan.
    Public Procurement and Non-contractible Quality: Evidence from Elderly Care2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many quality dimensions are hard to contract upon and are at risk of degradation when the service is procured rather than produced in-house. On the other hand, procurement may foster performance-improving innovation. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden for the 1990-2009 period, including survival rates, our measure of non-contractible quality, and indicators of subjectively perceived quality of service. We estimate the effects of municipalities’ decision to procure rather than produce in-house on non-contractible quality using a difference-in-difference approach and controlling for a number of other potential determinants. The results indicate that procurement significantly increases non-contractible quality as measured by survival rate, reduces the cost per resident but does not affect subjectively perceived quality.

  • 134.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    VTI.
    Hur genomförs upphandlingar i Sverige?: Resultat från en stickprovsundersökning2011In: På jakt efter den goda affären: Analys och erfarenhetar av den offentliga upphandlingen, Stockholm: Regeringskansliet , 2011, p. 367-375Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna / HUI Research.
    Apoteksmarknadens omreglering: Effekter på följsamhet och priser2011Report (Other academic)
  • 136. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    The Relative Importance of Actual and Potential Competition: Empirical Evidence From the Pharmaceuticals Market2003In: Journal of Industrial Economics, ISSN 0022-1821, E-ISSN 1467-6451, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 455-467Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 137.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå universitet.
    Reforming the Swedish pharmaceuticals market: Consequences for costs per defineddaily dose2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policygoals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden.

    Prices and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals have beencollected, and a log-linear regression model was used to estimate how the policy changes affected thecost per defined daily dose.

    The estimated effect is a 19 percent cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail leveland a 35 percent reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies' purchase prices). Theempirical results suggest that half of the retail-level price reduction is due to the introduction of a pricecap for products going off patent and half is due to other components of the reform. Measured at thewholesale level the latter effect is larger than the former.

    The reforms reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while beingadvantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase due to the reform.However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction inthe price received for their products.

  • 138.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The anatomy of public procurement in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Sundelin, Hans Christian
    Samordnade ramavtal: en empirisk undersökning2010Report (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Stennek, Johan
    Bättre spelregler på apoteksmarknaden2010In: Förberedelsearbetet i apoteksreformen, Stockholm: Riksrevisionen , 2010, , p. 126p. -126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Stennek, Johan
    TV-Distribution in Sweden: Is It Competitive?2007Report (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Bernergård, Axel
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Mohlin, E.
    Lund University.
    Evolutionary selection against iteratively weakly dominated strategies2019In: Games and Economic Behavior, ISSN 0899-8256, E-ISSN 1090-2473, Vol. 117, p. 82-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides sufficient conditions under which regular payoff monotonic evolutionary dynamics (a class of imitative dynamics that includes the replicator dynamic) select against strategies that do not survive a sequence of iterated elimination of weakly dominated strategies. We apply these conditions to Bertrand duopolies and first-price auctions. Our conditions also imply evolutionary selection against iteratively strictly dominated strategies.

  • 143.
    Björnerstedt, Jonas
    et al.
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Verboven, F.
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Does merger simulation work?: Evidence from the swedish analgesics market2016In: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, ISSN 1945-7782, E-ISSN 1945-7790, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 125-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze a large merger in the Swedish market for analgesics (painkillers). The merging firms raised prices by 40 percent, and some outsiders raised prices by more than 10 percent. We confront these changes with predictions from a merger simulation model. With basic supply side assumptions, the models correctly or moderately underpredict the merging firms' price increase. However, they predict a larger price increase for the smaller firm, which was not the case in practice, and they underpredict the outsiders' responses. We consider several supply side explanations: a plausible cost increase after the merger and the possibility of partial collusion.

  • 144.
    Bladh, Sandra
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Firm innovation and productivity: A regional analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the effect of innovation activities and productivity by using the CDM-model and extend the existing knowledge by using the CIS-dataset in combination with official statistics performing a such detailed regional analysis that have not been done before. By using the different labour market codes interacted with the industry codes I can capture informative deviations between different industries in different regions. The results show a significant variation between the different regions and industries, and that the urban and metropolitan areas are more innovative and more productive than the rural areas. However, the financial sector and health sectors showed a steady innovation input activity across most regions while the metropolitan areas showed to invest less in innovation inputs in the real estate sector compered to rural and urban areas.

  • 145.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    A formal analysis of a conventional job evaluation system2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze the use of numerical information in the context of job evaluation. The analysis is based on the job evaluation system Steps to Pay Equity, which is recommended by the European Project on Equal Pay supported by the European commission. The main findings can be summarized as follows. Firstly, in Steps to Pay Equity no method is suggested that can be used in order to construct stronger scales than ordinal scales. This implies that rankings of jobs are based on the addition of ordinal scales, which means that the rankings are very unstable for admissible transformations. Secondly, there is no explicit definition or explanation how the weights should be interpreted, something that hampers an assessment about the reasonability of the assigned weights. Thirdly, the convention to classify jobs on predefined levels can give rise to heavy deformations of relevant differences between jobs, which means that received rankings of jobs are unjustified guidance for impartial pay setting. We suggest a possible remedy by illustrating the use of a specific multi-attribute evaluation model.

  • 146.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    An Analysis of Permission Processes for Wind Power in Sweden2017In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 173-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    An analysis of the principle ”Equal Pay for Jobs of Equal Value”2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze a number of assumptions and conceptual issues that arise in applications of conventional job evaluations, which are used in order to implement the principle “Equal Pay for Jobs of Equal Value” according to the Equal Pay Acts.

    The main findings of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1) A lack of a distinction between subjective and objective criteria as well as between descriptive and evaluative criteria, 2) A defective interpretation of independency conditions that are necessary in order to represent evaluation of jobs by weighted sums of scores, 3) An incorrect diagnosis and subsequently incorrect remedies of defects in job evaluation methods, 4) An incorrect interpretation of the meaning of key concepts such as “Jobs of Equal Value”, 5) Unwarranted assumptions about formal features of relations defined by the concept “Jobs of Equal Value”.

  • 148.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    An Evaluation of Employee Performance Based on Imprecise Value Judgments: Two Experiments2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we test the usefulness of imprecise value judgments in evaluating employee performance. The test is based on two experiments which evaluate the performance of college lecturers. The experiments are carried out by applying the PRIME model (Preference Ratios in Multi-attribute Evaluation), a specific multi-attribute value model that supports the use of imprecise value judgments. The test shows that the use of imprecise value judgments, as synthesized by the PRIME model, can remedy a number of defects that are identified in conventional evaluation models in regard to job requirements and employee performance.

  • 149.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    An evaluation of the weighting method in a gender-neutral job evaluation tool recommended by the International Labor Office (ILO)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender-neutral job evaluation has become a key method for confirming the presence of value discrimination when accounting for job-related factors such as required skills, responsibility levels, effort and working conditions, and for correcting for a gender-biased pay setting. However, this extensive use of gender-neutral job evaluation tools makes it important to examine the validity of these tools.

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the validity of a weighting method stated in a gender-neutral job evaluation tool that is recommended by the International Labor Office (ILO). The purpose of the ILO tool is to function as a general and worldwide guideline for gender-neutral job evaluations. The evaluation starts from the basic validity requirement that a weighting method has to be based on a correct interpretation of the weights in additive value models, which are used as “measures” of the value of jobs. The conclusion of the evaluation is that the ILO weighting method does not fulfill this basic validity requirement. The conclusion is reached in the following way:

    First, I show that the meaning of the weights in additive value models is to determine so-called compensatory relations between job-related factors, which have an important impact on the results of job evaluations.

    Second, by analyzing the weighting instructions in the ILO tool, I find that this weighting method is based on so-called direct rating of the relative importance of the job-related factors.

    Third, I show that direct rating is based on an incorrect interpretation of the weights. Thus, users of the ILO tool will probably misinterpret the consequences of their weighting decisions. This, in turn, might give rise to a biased weighting, i.e. a weighting that the users would reject when they come to know the correct meaning of the weights.

  • 150.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Lönediskriminering och jämförbarhet av olika arbeten: en diskussion av fem argument för icke-jämförbarhet2006In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 19-44Article in journal (Other academic)
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