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  • 101.
    Tasmin, Saira
    et al.
    University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Md, Nasiruddin
    Ministry of Environment and Forest, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Saroar, Golam
    Ministry of Environment and Forest, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Yasumoto, Shinya
    Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Effects of Short-term Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter on the Lung Function of School Children in Dhaka, Bangladesh2019In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 30, no Suppl 1, p. S15-S23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate pollution may adversely affect children's lung function. However, evidence on this association remains scarce in Asia despite this region having the greatest burden of disease due to air pollution.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) on the lung function of school children in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The possible seasonal modification of this association was also examined.

    METHODS: A panel of 315 school children who were 9-16 years of age were recruited from three schools in and around Dhaka. Lung function was assessed using a spirometry test during the cool and warm seasons in 2013, yielding six measurements per child. Daily PM data were retrieved from nearby air monitoring stations. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine associations. Seasonal modification was examined by stratification.

    RESULTS: An inverse association was observed for the lung function parameters with PM2.5; peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume within 1 second (FEV1) decreased with increasing PM2.5. The percent deviation from the personal median was -4.19% [95% confidence interval (CI): -5.72, -2.66] for PEF and -2.05% (95% CI: -2.92, -1.18) for FEV1 for a 20 µg/m increase in PM2.5 on the previous day. Results for PM10 were less consistent. The estimated effects of PM on lung functions were generally greater in the warm season.

    CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to PM is associated with worse lung function in children living in highly polluted settings, with the strength of these adverse PM effects varying by season.

  • 102. Tiikkaja, Sanna
    et al.
    Hemström, Örjan
    Vågerö, Denny
    Intergenerational class mobility and cardiovascular mortality among Swedish women: a population-based register study2009In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 68, p. 733-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Class inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality are well documented, but the impact of intergenerational class mobility on CVD mortality among women has not been studied thoroughly. We examined whether women's mobility trajectories might contribute to CVD mortality beyond what could be expected from their childhood and adult social class position. The Swedish Work and Mortality Data Base provided childhood (1960) and adulthood (1990) social indicators. Women born 1945–59 (N = 791 846) were followed up for CVD mortality 1990–2002 (2019 deaths) by means of logistic regression analysis. CVD mortality risks were estimated for 16 mobility trajectories. Gross and net impact of four childhood and four adult classes, based on occupation, were analysed for mortality in ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, other CVD, – and all CVD. Differences between the two most extreme trajectories were 10-fold, but the common trajectory of moving from manual to non-manual position was linked to only a slight excess mortality (OR = 1.26) compared to the equally common trajectory of maintaining a stable non-manual position (reference category). Moving into adult manual class resulted in an elevated CVD mortality whatever the childhood position (ORs varied between 1.42 and 2.24). After adjustment for adult class, childhood class had some effect, in particular there was a low risk of coming from a self-employed childhood class on all outcomes (all ORs around = 0.80). A woman's own education had a stronger influence on the mortality estimates than did household income. Social mobility trajectories among Swedish women are linked to their CVD mortality risk. Educational achievement seems to be a key factor for intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in class-related risk of CVD mortality among Swedish women. However, on mutual adjustment, adult class was much more closely related to CVD mortality than was class in childhood.

  • 103.
    Vals, Kaire
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia / National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Kiivet, Raul-Allan
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Alcohol consumption, smoking and overweight as a burden for health care services utilization: a cross-sectional study in Estonia2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, article id 772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol consumption, smoking and weight problems are common risk factors for different health problems. We examine how these risk factors are associated with the use of health care services.

    Methods: Data for 6500 individuals in the 25-64 age group came from three cross-sectional postal surveys conducted in 2004, 2006, and 2008 in Estonia. The effect of alcohol consumption, smoking and weight problems on the use of primary and specialist care services, hospitalizations and ambulance calls was analysed separately for men and women by using binary logistic regression.

    Results: Overweight and/or obesity were strongly related to the use of primary care and out-patient specialist services for both genders, and to hospitalizations and ambulance calls for women. Current smoking was related to ambulance calls for both genders, whereas smoking in the past was related to the use of primary care and specialist services among men and to hospitalizations among women. Beer drinking was negatively associated with all types of health care services and similar   association was found between wine drinking and hospitalizations. Wine drinking was positively related to specialist visits. The frequent drinking of strong alcohol led to an increased risk for ambulance calls. Drinking light alcoholic drinks was positively associated with all types of health care services (except ambulance calls) among men and with the use of specialist services among women.

    Conclusions: Overweight and smoking had the largest impact on health care utilization in Estonia. Considering the high prevalence of these behavioural risk factors, health policies should prioritize preventive programs that promote healthy lifestyles in order to decrease the disease burden and to reduce health care costs.

  • 104. Van der Heyden, J H A
    et al.
    Schaap, Maartje M.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Esnaola, Santiago
    Borrell, Carme
    Cox, B
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stirbu, Irina
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Deboosere, Patrik
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Van Oyen, H
    Socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in 16 European populations.2009In: Lung Cancer, ISSN 0169-5002, E-ISSN 1872-8332, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 322-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Important socioeconomic inequalities exist in lung cancer mortality in Europe. They are consistent with the geographical spread of the smoking epidemic. In the next decades socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality are likely to persist and even increase among women. In Southern European countries we may expect a reversal from a positive to a negative association between socioeconomic status and lung cancer mortality. Continuous efforts are necessary to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in all European countries.

  • 105. Van Raalte, AA
    et al.
    Kunst, AE
    Deboosere, P
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). The National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Lundberg, O
    Martikainen, P
    Strand, BH
    Artnik, B
    Wojtyniak, B
    Mackenbach, JP
    More variation in lifespan in lower educated groups: evidence from 10 European countries2011In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 1703-1714Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 106. van Raalte, Alyson A.
    et al.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Artnik, Barbara
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Stirbu, Irina
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    The contribution of educational inequalities to lifespan variation2012In: Population Health Metrics, ISSN 1478-7954, E-ISSN 1478-7954, Vol. 10, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality consistently point to higher death rates in lower socioeconomic groups. Yet how these between-group differences relate to the total variation in mortality risk between individuals is unknown. Methods: We used data assembled and harmonized as part of the Eurothine project, which includes census-based mortality data from 11 European countries. We matched this to national data from the Human Mortality Database and constructed life tables by gender and educational level. We measured variation in age at death using Theil's entropy index, and decomposed this measure into its between-and within-group components. Results: The least-educated groups lived between three and 15 years fewer than the highest-educated groups, the latter having a more similar age at death in all countries. Differences between educational groups contributed between 0.6% and 2.7% to total variation in age at death between individuals in Western European countries and between 1.2% and 10.9% in Central and Eastern European countries. Variation in age at death is larger and differs more between countries among the least-educated groups. Conclusions: At the individual level, many known and unknown factors are causing enormous variation in age at death, socioeconomic position being only one of them. Reducing variations in age at death among less-educated people by providing protection to the vulnerable may help to reduce inequalities in mortality between socioeconomic groups.

  • 107. Vågerö, Denny
    Commentary: The role of alcohol in mortality differences between European countries2007In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 468-469Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Do health inequalities persist in the new global order?: A European perspective2006In: Inequalities of the world: [new theoretical frameworks, multiple empirical approaches] / [ed] Göran Therborn, London: Verso Publications , 2006, p. 61-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 109. Vågerö, Denny
    Health inequalities in women and men: Studies of specific causes of death should use household criteria2000In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 320, p. 1286-1287Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110. Vågerö, Denny
    Material and cultural factors2004In: Key concepts in medical sociology / [ed] Jonathan Gabe, Michael Bury and Mary Ann Elston, London: Sage Publications , 2004, p. 32-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholm University.
    Where does new theory come from?2006In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 60, p. 573-574Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Self-reported heart symptoms are strongly linked to past and present poverty in Russia: evidence from the 1998 Taganrog interview survey2005In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 15, p. 418-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this Russian-Swedish collaborative study the question of how symptoms of heart disease are linked to poverty in Russia was addressed. Method: A random sample household survey was conducted in Taganrog, southern Russia. It covered questions about living circumstances, poverty and health. Health questions included both symptoms of heart problems, such as chest pain and high blood pressure, psychological problems such as depression and anxiety, as well as health-related behaviours such as alcohol drinking. Answers from 1972 women and men aged 18-70 are analysed here. Results: The poorest fifth of the population were more than twice as likely as others to report heart symptoms. Problems in affording vegetables, meat or fish, clothes and footwear were linked to heart symptoms more closely than other economic indicators, such as car ownership or ownership of consumer durables. Psychological symptoms, sleeping problems and alcohol drinking were all related to self-reported heart symptoms, but explained little of the excess risks attributable to present poverty. Childhood poverty was also linked to present heart symptoms. Conclusion: Life-time accumulated experience of economic hardship contributes to present levels of heart disease symptomology in Russia.

  • 113. Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Koupilová, Ilona
    Leon, David A
    Lithell, Ulla-Britt
    Social determinants of birthweight, ponderal index and gestational age in Sweden in the 1920s and the 1980s1999In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 88, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    This study compared the effect of social class and marital status on birth outcomes in Sweden, using (i) data on all births at the Akademiska Hospital in Uppsala from 1920 to 1924 with socioeconomic information from records at birth; and (ii) a linkage of the Medical Births Registry for all births in Sweden in November/December 1985 to the 1985 Census. Preterm births (<37 weeks) have become less common during the 20th century. Between 1920–24 and 1985, mean and median birthweight increased, as did mean ponderal index, indicating a shift to the right of the birthweight and ponderal index distributions. In 1920–24, birthweight and ponderal index were associated with the social class of the household and with the marital status of the mother. Babies of single mothers were lighter and thinner, and had a much greater probability of being born preterm. In contrast, in 1985, maternal marital status (and cohabitation status) had a weaker effect on birthweight and ponderal index. The importance of household social class for ponderal index and preterm birth changed similarly, but its importance for birthweight remained. The mediating mechanism may have changed. Mothers from farming households now gave birth to the heaviest babies (nearly 200 g heavier than those of unskilled workers). Adjustment for a number of factors, including smoking, had a limited effect on these social class differences. In conclusion, biological processes during the foetal period are systematically linked to the social circumstances of the mother, but in a different way in the 1920s and in 1985.
  • 114.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Commentary: Health inequalities and social dynamics in Europe2005In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 331, no 7510, p. 186-187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 115. Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    Prenatal growth, subsequent marital status, and mortality: longitudinal study2002In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 324, p. 398-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116. Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    The associations between height, cognition and education and their relevance for health studies: [a comment to Magnusson et al. : International Journal of Epidemiology]2006In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 35, p. 663-664Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 117. Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    Koupil, Ilona
    Reproductive history and cardiovascular mortality among women: Evidence from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigeneration Study [abstract]2005In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 1077-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Shestov, Dmitri B.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Sparén, Pär
    Long term mortality after severe starvation during the siege of Leningrad: authors' reply2004In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 328, no 7435, p. 346-347Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Åhlin, Erik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Tuberculosis care in Stockholm: An organizational analysis based on staff perception2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasingly more interconnected world, the importance of epidemiology in public and international health is rapidly increasing. Tuberculosis is one of the diseases that contributes to this, as its lengthy incubation time and annual high mortality count makes it one of the toughest bacteria for the medical community to combat. Sweden is today a low-endemic region but still suffers a number of cases each year. The majority of these infections have occurred abroad.

    This qualitative study aims evaluate the Swedish healthcare systems organizational structure in relation to the treating and tracking of tuberculosis. Key personnel from several different units working with diagnosing, treating and tracking of tuberculosis have been interviewed about their perception regarding the organizational structure. The data have been analyzed through H. Mintzbergs theoretical framework regarding organizational structure. The analysis shows that the current system can be described as an Adhocracy. The organization is highly capable of handling adjustment and producing unique and complex outputs in the form of individualized treatment plans and disease tracking efforts. However, the system is highly dependent on internal communication and has great difficulty in up-scaling and expanding. The study shows that the current system would be challenged by a sharp increase in tuberculosis-cases in Stockholm.

123 101 - 119 of 119
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