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  • 101.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Lundberg, Cecilia
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Lemke, Paulina
    Gdansk University, Poland.
    Interactions between risk assessment and risk management for environmental risks in the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 92011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been produced within the interdisciplinary RISKGOV project with the overall aim of comparing risk assessment – risk management interactions connected with five severe Baltic Sea environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges linked to marine transports).

    Specifically, we compare three major aspects connected with assessment  – management interactions and, based on this analysis, suggest possible routes for improving interaction between science-based advice and environmental (risk) management:

    1. Organisational structure of the risk assessment activities and the generation, selection and implementation of management options.
    2. The management of scientific uncertainties and disagreements.
    3. Implementation of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) and modes of ‘good governance’.

    In order to understand these aspects we started by describing and analysing the characteristics of the five risk cases. This revealed substantial differences in terms of sources, effects and complexities (in terms of scientific uncertainty and socio-political ambiguity). For example, chemical risks are associated with great uncertainty and oil spill with much lower; fisheries relate to very high socio-political ambiguity, whereas invasive species show the opposite nature and oil spill fit with more traditional risk parameters. Our analysis also revealed a great variation in the societal risk responses, which far from always seems rational in relation to the risk characteristics.

    When it comes to the organisational structures, we can conclude that different forms of institutions and institutional arrangements and relations have evolved over time in the various cases, for instance relatively well-formalised in the overfishing case, and rather informal for combating eutrophication. Similarly, we see different forms of expert dependencies. In the overfishing case there are institutionalised formal links between e.g. ICES and the EU Commission and the historic path-dependency is quite strong, thereby causing institutional inertia, even though the development of Regional Advisory Councils (RACs) such as the Baltic RAC are gradually changing the picture. In relation to many other environmental risk cases (e.g. eutrophication and chemicals) HELCOM provides a regional basis for assessment and management (although implementation of management recommendations have often proved complex). Still, assessment-management interactions seem more developed and better organised in the overfishing case, even though it is obvious that the last link, the political decision-making on quotas, has deviated substantially from the science-based advice, thereby opening for continued overfishing. Similarly, well-developed institutions seem to allow for improved deliberative processes for fisheries, including improved analysis of socio-economic dimensions, which we cannot find to the same extent for e.g. chemicals, eutrophication and invasive species.

    The assessment and management responses we see to the studied risks do not seem to be based on any thorough analysis of the specific risk characteristics, or on the suitability of different overall strategies (e.g. traditional science-based assessment, precautionary, deliberative). Instead, all studied assessment-management interactions can be classified as being built primarily on traditional science-based assessment of risks. Of course, we see elements of for example precaution in e.g. the chemicals case, and deliberation in the fish case, and the inclusion of the EAM as a starting point for assessment exercises and management decisions is becoming more common, but overall this happens only partially and infrequently.

    Thus, to summarise, we conclude that there are substantial differences among environmental risks in relation to, for example, complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity, and we argue that it is important to maintain a balance between ideals of holistic approaches such as EAM and context dependent requirements of various management objectives, environmental risks and sectors. For example, high levels of uncertainty (e.g. chemical pollution) and ambiguity (e.g. overfishing) can be assumed to require assessment-management approaches focussed on precaution and participatory deliberation, respectively.

    Furthermore, our analysis identifies six key issues and challenges that, if adequately addressed, may improve assessment-management interactions and facilitate the implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

    1. We see a need to further develop the regional and ecosystem basis of assessment-management interactions in terms of addressing prioritised knowledge gaps, as well as developing regional knowledge management and monitoring to strengthen regionally-based scientific advice.

    2. Integration of various forms of scientific knowledge is currently rather undeveloped in assessment and scientific advice, which reduces possibilities of addressing also the social dimension of sustainable development as well as possibilities of identifying and reducing ‘blind spots’.

    3. Stakeholder participation requires more consideration since incorporation of practitioner and local knowledge in risk assessments as well as stakeholder deliberation in risk management often are vital for the successful implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

    4. We identify substantial room for improvements linked to coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement in both risk assessment and risk management. We conclude that there in fact are examples of science-based precautionary approaches and methods, but that a comprehensive and coherent strategy for addressing uncertainty is often lacking.

    5. Interdependencies among environmental risk issues need to be more specifically addressed than today. Climate change will, for example, influence both the outcome of risk assessments as well as the possibilities for successful management in all the studied environmental risk cases.

    6. Despite a commonly expressed idea of a clear separation between assessment and management, the studied science-policy interactions are in general rather diffuse and politicised. This lack of transparency about how these interactions evolve and are constructed may mislead political decision makers and the public and thus potentially hamper management progress.

  • 102.
    Girard, Chloé
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Producing and consuming artisan food: a way of preserving our biological heritage?: A phenomenographic study on how biological heritage is understood, described and communicated in the context of artisan food production and consumption2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the environmental quality goal 13 for A Varied Agricultural Landscape, that combines environment, food production and rurality and aims at keeping the agricultural landscape open, was considered as not achieved in 2016. One of the reasons for this non-achievementis the agricultural intensification and specialisation and in turn the decrease in number of pastures during the 20th century, threating thus habitats, diversity and values resulting from a continuous, traditional use of the land commonly called ‘biological heritage’. This study focuses on the traditional and sustainable animal husbandry using pastures, contributing to both the preservation of biological heritage and the production of high-quality food. It relies upon the assumption that the link between artisan food production and biological heritage is not well understood nor highlighted by the different actors taking part into the process of producing, selling, buying and consuming artisan food products in the rural areas of mid-northern Scandinavia, and therefore the study attempts to contribute with knowledge about how biological heritage is understood, described and communicated within this context. For such purposes the study takes a phenomenographic approach with biological heritage, pastures and artisan food products as the conceptions to be tested, and consists of semi-structured interviews of three agencies and surveys of artisan food producers and consumers. It adopts an environmental communication theoretical framework where a model is suggested for investigating actors’ learning process of biological heritage, from agencies to producers to consumers. The results reveal three phenomenographic categories showing that agencies and producers understand biological heritage in terms of (1) cared habitat and cared species, (2) historical and cultural know-how and (3) animals and their tasteful diet, and it is showed that the necessity of a continuous, traditional human use was less put forward than the cultural dimension of biological heritage. Also producers communicate about biological heritage to consumers through both their products and their actions. Furthermore the results show that consumers’ understandings of biological heritage are similar to the agencies’ and producers’ phenomenographic categories and that they could make a link between artisan food production and biological heritage, but only to some extent. Finally, in order to create an economic value for such products, a sense of place for pastures is argued to be a basis for people’s willingness to take care of and safeguard pastures. This study can be the starting point for further research, especially for investigating how producers actually interact with consumers about biological heritage when selling their products.

  • 103.
    Granstedt, Artur
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Coastal Management Research Center (COMREC). Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Farming for the Future: with a focus on the Baltic Sea Region2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book Artur Granstedt - Ph.D. in Agronomics and Associate Professor at Södertörn University, and Coordinator of the BERAS project (Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society) - describes how ecologically adapted farming based on local recycling and renewable energy sources can reduce the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea and even help to reduce global warming. Widespread conversion to organic farming methods would furthermore stop the spread of toxic chemicals on farmland, benefit biodiversity and stimulate social and economic development in rural areas in the Baltic Sea region.

    The book starts with a description of the ecosystems that support the health of the biosphere - terrestrial and marine, the climate, and global food production. Granstedt also gives a historical overview of agricultural practices, noting the various ways in which human activity alters the natural order of things and, if we are not mindful, can deplete the resources that support our existence. But he also gives examples of how we can turn negative trends to the better, how we can restore fertility to the soil and bring depleted land to bloom once again and produce nourishing food that can feed the world.

    Artur Granstedt writes on the basis of decades of experience as an organic farmer, researcher, adviser and teacher of ecologically sustainable agriculture. The book reports the results of field trials and evaluation on farms in eight countries around the Baltic Sea that were conducted in the BERAS project. This comprehensive project, which was supported in part by funding from the European Union, is now continuing in an implementation phase, focusing on how agriculture throughout the region can be converted to profitable and ecologically sustainable methods of production.

    The publication of this book has been made possible through a grant from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) to the BERAS project at Södertörn University and the Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna, and funding from the Swedish Government and the Swedish Research Council, Formas.

     

  • 104.
    Granstedt, Artur
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Coastal Management Research Center (COMREC). Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Morgondagens jordbruk: med fokus på Östersjön2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artur Granstedt, agronomie doktor, docent vid Södertörns högskola och koordinator för Östersjöprojektet BERAS beskriver här hur ett ekologiskt jordbruk, baserat på lokala kretslopp och förnyelsebar energi, kan minska övergödningen av Östersjön och även bidra till att minska den globala uppvärmningen. Det kan dessutom förhindra spridningen av kemiska bekämpningsmedel, gynna den biologiska mångfalden och stimulera social och ekonomisk landsbygdsutveckling i Östersjöområdet.

    Boken inleds med en beskrivning av de livsuppehållande ekosystemen och deras betydelse för jorden, havet, klimatet och vår mat. Författaren ger också en överblick över odlandets historia: hur vi människor griper in och förändrar det naturgivna och hur vi på kort tid kan förbruka det som naturen byggt upp. Han visar också på hur vi kan odla jord, skapa ökad bördighet, få jorden att blomstra och ge närande mat åt alla.

    Till grund för boken ligger Artur Granstedts mångåriga arbete med odling, forskning, rådgivning och undervisning i ekologiskt jordbruk. Här redovisas också resultat från studier av det rent praktiska arbetet på ett antal gårdar, dokumenterade och utvärderade i åtta länder i det av EU delfinansierade Östersjöprojektet BERAS (Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society). Detta arbete drivs nu vidare med fokus på hur en omläggning av jordbruket kan ske i hela Östersjöregionen i fortsättningsprojektet BERAS Implementation.

    Bokens utgivning har finansierats av Europeiska regionala utvecklingsfonden (ERUF) inom ramen för Östersjöprojektet BERAS vid Södertörns högskola samt Biodynamiska Forskningsinstitutet i Järna med bidrag från den svenska regeringen via det statiliga forskningsrådet Formas.

     

  • 105.
    Grant Axén, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Fuel-efficiency and Efficient Aid: An analysis of factors affecting the spread of fuel-efficient cooking stoves in Northern Tanzania2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is the result of nine weeks fieldwork in Babati and Bukoba districts in Northern Tanzania during spring 2012. The purpose of this thesis is to study why development projects on fuel-efficient stoves have had a limited adoption in these two regions and what obstacles and opportunities there are for further spread of fuel-efficient cooking stoves. Semi-structured interviews were the main method used for collecting the empirical data, which was then analysed from a socio-economic perspective with help from the framework of Sustainable Rural Livelihoods.

    The Results showed that people’s perceptions of fuel-efficient stoves are positive but that projects face many obstacles connected to socio-economic conditions. Knowledge on how to get stoves and access to financial capital is main obstacles for further spreading. Social networks and organisations are channels for information, but to spread outside these networks will need complementing strategies from organisations promoting fuel-efficient stoves. Important are also finding ways of making the financial aspect of adopting stoves less, like using materials with lower costs, using stove-models with low costs and training people in building stoves so re-investments are unnecessary and dependency of funding from organisations less. Gender is a factor affecting the adoption of fuel-efficient stoves, regarding access to assets and generated benefits. There is therefore an importance of involving gender throughout the different stages of the projects. 

  • 106.
    Grönros, Amanda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Holmström Petterson, Sofia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Vargen och vetenskapen: En fallstudie om vetenskapens roll inom vargförvaltningens beslutsfattning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has through its membership of the EU, an obligation to strive that the wolf population should be both long and short time viability. The signed Convention on Biological Diversity means that the wolf population must meet a favorable conservation status, which has required a great need for scientific facts about what a sustainable status is. The relationship between science and decision making can be difficult, especially in complex environmental problems with many uncertainties. The purpose of this study is to examine the various scientific uncertainties and find out how they influence decision-making within the Swedish wolf policy. The focus is on the impact of the scientific advice for decision-makers.

    The study is a case study in which the results are based on five interviews with experts in the field as well as a deeper text analysis of the reports and regulations used in the decision-making process. In conclusion, the study indicates that research and scientific findings have had a major role in the decision-makers in wolf management. To some extent, it has also complicated the issue because of the lack of consensus among researchers. The attitude around Sweden's wolves extends far back in time and the conflict today is a contentious question that seems to act much about values ​​and not just scientific contradictions.

  • 107. Gustafsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Björk, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Burreau, Sven
    Gilek, Michael
    Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)1999In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1218-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, IUPAC congeners 47, 99, and 153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners 31, 52, 77, 118, and 153) in a flow-through experimental setup for 44 d. After the exposure phase, the mussels were allowed to depurate in natural brackish water for 26 d. After analyses, uptake clearance rate coefficients (k(u)), depuration rate coefficients (k(d)), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated. A rapid uptake of all PBDEs and PCBs was observed, especially for PBDE congeners 47 and 99 (k(a) 120 and 170 L/day/g dry weight, respectively). The depuration rare decreased with increasing hydrophobicity as expected for the PCBs, bur for the PBDEs, depuration rate coefficients appeared to be of the same magnitude for all three congeners independently of log K-ow. The BAFs obtained for PBDE 47 and PBDE 99 (1.3 x 10(6) and 1.4 x 10(6) ml/g dry weight, respectively) were higher than for all other substances in the study, severalfold higher than for PCBs of similar hydrophobicity. The presented data indicate that the bioaccumulation potential of PBDEs, extensively used as flame retardants, is similar or higher than that of PCBs for filter feeding organisms such as blue mussels.

  • 108.
    Gustafsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Blidberg, Eva
    Elfgren, Irene Karlsson
    Hellström, Anna
    Kylin, Henrik
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Direct and indirect effects of the fungicide azoxystrobin in outdoor rackish water microcosms2010In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 431-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin were studied in rackish water microcosms, with natural plankton communities and ediment. Two experiments were conducted: Experiment 1 (nominal conc. 0, 5 and 60 mu g/L, 24-L outdoor microcosms for 21 days) and a second, ollow-up, Experiment 2 (nominal conc. 0, 3, 7.5, 15 mu g/L, 4-L indoor icrocosms for 12 days). The microcosms represent a simplified brackish ater community found in shallow semi-enclosed coastal areas in gricultural districts in the Baltic Sea region. Measured water oncentrations of the fungicide (Experiment 1) were, on average, 83 and 2% of nominal concentrations directly after application, and 25 and 30% fter 21 days, for the low and high dose treatments, respectively, orresponding to mean DT50-values of 15.1 and 25.8 days, for low and igh dose treatments, respectively. In Experiment 1, direct toxic ffects on calanoid copepods at both test concentrations were observed. imilarly, in Experiment 2, the copepod abundance was significantly educed at all tested concentrations. There were also significant econdary effects on zooplankton and phytoplankton community structure, tanding stocks and primary production. Very few ecotoxicological tudies have investigated effects of plant protection products on Baltic rganisms in general and effects on community structure and function pecifically. Our results show that azoxystrobin is toxic to brackish ater copepods at considerably lower concentrations than previously eported from single species tests on freshwater crustaceans, and that irect toxic effects on this ecologically important group may lead to ascade effects altering lower food webs and ecosystem functioning.

  • 109.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Effects on Guppy Brain Aromatase Activity Following Short-Term Steroid and 4-Nonylphenol Exposures2010In: Environmental Toxicology, ISSN 1520-4081, E-ISSN 1522-7278, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 261-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain estrogen production, performed by the enzyme aromatase, can be disrupted/affected in teleost fish exposed to endocrine disruptors found in polluted aquatic environments. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) was previously studied and confirmed to suffer negative effects on reproductive behaviors following inhibition of the brain aromatase reaction. Here adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata) of both genders were subjected to known endocrine disruptors: the androgen androstenedione (A), the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and the estrogenic surfactant 4-nonylphenol (NP), at high (50 mu g/L) and at environmentally relevant concentrations (10 ng/L EE2, 5 mu g/L NP, and 0.7 mu g/L A) for 2 weeks followed by measurements of brain aromatase activity (bAA). In the adult males, bAA was stimulated by A and EE2 at 50 mu g/L. Female activity was also stimulated by the higher estrogenic treatment. At environmentally relevant concentrations only the EE2 treatment affected bAA, and only in males. The alkylphenolic substance NP produced no effect in either of the experiments, not on males nor females. The results indicate that short-term steroid treatments have stimulatory effects on guppy brain aromatase even at concentrations that can be found in the environment. We thus suggest bAA of adult guppies to be a suitable bioindicator of endocrine disruptors.

  • 110.
    Hamilton, P. B.
    et al.
    University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Cowx, I. G.
    University of Hull, Hull, UK.
    Oleksiak, M. F.
    University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
    Griffiths, A. M.
    University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Stevens, J. R.
    University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Carvalho, G. R.
    Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.
    Nicol, E.
    Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.
    Tyler, C. R.
    University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Population-level consequences for wild fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of chemicals: a critical review2016In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 545-566Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrated chemical spills have been shown to impact adversely on fish populations and even cause localized population extinctions. Evaluating population-level impacts of sublethal exposure concentrations is, however, complex and confounded by other environmental pressures. Applying effect measures derived from laboratory-based chemical exposures to impacts in wild fish populations is constrained by uncertainty on how biochemical response measures (biomarkers) translate into health outcomes, lack of available data for chronic exposures and the many uncertainties in available fish population models. Furthermore, wild fish show phenotypic plasticity and local adaptations can occur that adds geographic and temporal variance on responses. Such population-level factors are rarely considered in the chemical risk assessment process and can probably be derived only from studies on wild fish. Molecular technologies, including microsatellite and SNP genotyping, and RNASeq for gene expression studies, are advancing our understanding of mechanisms of eco-toxicological response, tolerance, adaptation and selection in wild populations. We examine critically the application of such approaches with examples including using microsatellites that has identified roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations living in rivers contaminated with sewage effluents that are self-sustaining, and studies of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) that have identified genomic regions under selection putatively related to pollution tolerance. Integrating data on biological effects between laboratory-based studies and wild populations, and building understanding on adaptive responses to sublethal exposure are some of the priority research areas for more effective evaluation of population risks and resilience to contaminant exposure.

  • 111.
    Hammarlund, D.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Klimaschewski, A.
    Queen's University, Belfast, UK.
    St. Amour, N. A.
    University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Self, A. E.
    The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, UK .
    Solovieva, N.
    University College London, UK / Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia .
    Andreev, A. A.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia / University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany .
    Barnekow, L.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Edwards, T. W. D.
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada / University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada .
    Late Holocene expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in Kamchatka in response to increased snow cover as inferred from lacustrine oxygen-isotope records2015In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, no SI, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Holocene records of cellulose-inferred lake-water δ18O were produced from two lake-sediment sequences obtained in central and northern Kamchatka, Russian Far East. The sediment records share similar fluctuations in δ18O during the interval of ca. 5000-800calyr BP that correspond (inversely) with changes in K+ content of the GISP2 ice-core record from Greenland, a proxy for the relative strength of the Siberian High, suggesting control by climate-related variability in δ18O of regional precipitation. The dramatic expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in northern and central Kamchatka between ca. 5000 and 4000calyr BP, as inferred from pollen records from the same and neighbouring sites, appears to have occurred at a time of progressively declining δ18O of precipitation. This development is interpreted as reflecting a regional cooling trend accompanied by increasing winter snowfall related to gradual intensification of the Siberian High from ca. 5000 to ca. 3000calyr BP. A thicker and more long-lasting snow cover can be assumed to have favoured P. pumila by providing a competitive advantage over other boreal and subalpine tree and shrub species in the region during the later part of the Holocene. These results, which are the first of their kind from Kamchatka, provide novel insight into the Holocene vegetational and climatic development in easternmost Asia, as well as long-term atmospheric circulation dynamics in Beringia.

  • 112.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Ecosystem Management Approach: Implications for Marine Governance2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, p. 75-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Balfors, Berit
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Quin, Andrew
    Governance of Water Resources in the Phase of Change: A Case Study of the Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 210-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, focusing on the ongoing implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, we analyze some of the opportunities and challenges for a sustainable governance of water resources from an ecosystem management perspective. In the face of uncertainty and change, the ecosystem approach as a holistic and integrated management framework is increasingly recognized. The ongoing implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) could be viewed as a reorganization phase in the process of change in institutional arrangements and ecosystems. In this case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District, Sweden, we focus in particular on data and information management from a multi-level governance perspective from the local stakeholder to the River Basin level. We apply a document analysis, hydrological mapping, and GIS models to analyze some of the institutional framework created for the implementation of the WFD. The study underlines the importance of institutional arrangements that can handle variability of local situations and trade-offs between solutions and priorities on different hierarchical levels.

  • 114.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The role of horse keeping in transforming peri-urban landscapes: A case study from metropolitan Stockholm, Sweden2017In: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1951, E-ISSN 1502-5292, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 146-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors analyze sustainable cultural landscapes through the lens of ecosystem services. Their case study focuses on transformation of the peri-urban landscape of the Stockholm region, Sweden. Peri-urban landscapes are characterized by diversified and fragmented land uses that are strongly related to urban lifestyles. The rapidly increasing trend for recreational horse keeping is replacing traditional agriculture. Horse keepers’ and local government perspectives on horse keeping are examined, as well as the related demand for ecosystem services, which affects the landscape. The article is based on government documents, interviews with local government officials, and field visits to 16 horse-keeping facilities in two municipalities. Horse keeping was found important for sustaining cultural ecosystem services related to a rural cultural landscape and for maintaining traditional agriculture that provides provisioning ecosystem services. However, several differences between traditional agriculture and horse keeping that affect the demand for ecosystem services related to land use were found to shift the focus from provisioning services to recreational services. The authors conclude that horse keeping, as an emerging crosscutting issue in peri-urban landscapes, needs new more integrative planning processes that account for the full range of ecosystem services and links between cultural services and ecosystem functioning.

  • 115.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Towards improved environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 112012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving towards sustainable ecosystem governance practices is potentially a complex and time consuming endeavour. The RISKGOV project identified three main governance challenges linked to implementing an ecosystem approach to management in the medium to long term time span (i.e. years to decades), that, if adequately addressed by actors and stakeholders, could help improve the governance of environmental problems and risks in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Firstly, fostering a move towards reflexive and adaptive governance structures and processes by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration and forming spaces for interaction and dialogue. Secondly, strengthening the regional and ecosystem basis of knowledge generation and management is needed, including integration of various forms of scientific knowledge, stakeholder input, and increased attention to interdependencies among environmental problems and risks to better address uncertainties and disagreements. Thirdly, to develop a more integrated system of stakeholder input and communication, e.g. in the form of a “regional marine advisory council”, to face issues of inclusiveness, create a common concern for the Baltic ecosystem, improve the motivation and capacity, and improve coordination across scales and sectors.

  • 116.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Andersson, Ingela
    Cross-scale linkages and trade-offs in multilevel water governance: A case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District2011In: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Annual Conference, Copenhagen: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea , 2011, p. ICES CM2011/R:21-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Hansén, Hanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Odlingsfria skyddszoner i jordbrukslandskapet: En studie av Dyåprojektet i Nynäshamns kommun2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of the most substantial environmental problems in the Baltic sea and is caused by elevated nutrient concentrations in the water. A large part of these nutrients comes from losses in agricultural land (Bernes, 2005, s. 83). A number of measures can be taken to reduce agricultural nutrient loss to water, for example by introducing vegetative buffer zones adjacent to watercourses (Jordbruksverket, 2008). This paper examine such buffer zones and uses a 16 year long project in Nynäshamn municipality as a field study, the Dyå project. The local participation in the project was analyzed to see how this have influenced the nutrient content in the water table of Dyån. The result shows that nutrient content in the Dyå river surface water is still high regarding both total phosphorus and total nitrogen and the nutrient losses from the drainage area is extremely high. The method for analyzing the water samples differ from predominant research on buffer zones, which shall be kept in mind when analyzing the result. The local participation has worked well despite poor contact with the municipal authorities who initiated the project in 1995. The paper discusses other possible reasons for Dyåns high nutrient content, for example the soil quality, drainage tubes and changed land use in the drainage area.

  • 118.
    Hardisty, Dalton S.
    et al.
    University of California-Riverside, Riverside California, USA .
    Riedinger, Natascha
    Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA .
    Planavsky, Noah J.
    Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Asael, Dan
    Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jorgensen, Bo B.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark .
    Lyons, Timothy W.
    University of California-Riverside, Riverside California, USA .
    A Holocene History Of Dynamic Water Column Redox Conditions In The Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea2016In: American Journal of Science, ISSN 0002-9599, E-ISSN 1945-452X, Vol. 316, no 8, p. 713-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern Baltic Sea is the world's largest anthropogenically forced anoxic basin. Using integrated geochemical records collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347 from the deepest and one of the most reducing sub-basins in the Baltic Sea, Landsort Deep, we explore the degree and frequency of natural anoxia through the Baltic Holocene. A marked decrease in carbon-to-sulfur ratios (C/S) from the cores indicate the transition from the Baltic Ice Lake to the current brackish sea, which occurred about 8.5 kyrs B.P. Following this, laminations throughout sediments recording brackish deposition suggest sustained anoxia or extreme low oxygen, while high molybdenum (Mo) concentrations of >100 ppm and iron (Fe) geochemistry suggest water column sulfide accumulation, or euxinia, that persisted beyond seasonal timescales during deposition of two distinct sapropel units. Sedimentary Mo isotope values range from +1.11 to -0.50 permil, which are distinctly fractionated from modern Baltic seawater (+2.26 to -2.67 parts per thousand) and thus indicate that each of the sapropels experienced only weak and/or oscillatory euxinia-in contrast to the more stable euxinic conditions of more restricted basins. A shift in delta Mo-98 starting above the lower sapropel to a distinctly more negative range suggests particularly weak and oscillatory euxinia, with an enhanced contribution of manganese (Mn) redox cycling to Mo deposition relative to the lower portion of the profile. This conclusion is supported by extreme sedimentary Mn enrichments of up to 15 weight percent. We interpret the combined data to indicate episodic but major Baltic inflow events of saline and oxygenated North Sea water into the anoxic Landsort Deep that limited the concentrations and residence time of water column sulfide and caused episodic oxide deposition. Considering the temporal overlap between the most reducing conditions and periods of redox instability, we hypothesize that major Baltic inflows, as is observed today, lead to short-term instability while simultaneously supporting longer-term Baltic anoxia by strengthening the halocline. Ultimately, our results indicate that periods more reducing than the modern Baltic Sea have occurred naturally over the Holocene, but the characteristic dynamic saline inputs have historically prevented the relatively more widespread and stable anoxia observed in other classic restricted basins and will likely continue to do so.

  • 119.
    Hareland Tjernström, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Edhlund, Veronica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Artrikedom i stadsnära hästhagar i Stockholms län2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pastures are important due to their high biodiversity. A constant change has taken place in pastures in Sweden where fewer pasture lands are being grazed and more are abandoned. Many cattle farms are converted to horse farms in suburban and urban areas. Furthermore, research has indicated that increased urbanisation can have an negative impact on biodiversity. When pastures are abandoned the land reverts to forest within which the diversity of plant species is reduced. In order to obtain a greater diversity of plant species the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis suggests moderate disturbance is required.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of three anthropocentric factors on plant species richness at ten different horse farm paddocks in the municipalities Ekerö, Huddinge and Vallentuna, in Stockholm County. Twelve plots of 0.5 meters x 0.5 meters were investigated at each farm. Three factors are tested against plant species richness; The length of time pastures have been claimed by horses, the degree of disruption, the degree of urbanisation. We found that only certain plant species were affected by urbanisation and not all plant species, especially species that thrive in more overgrown habitats. An inverse correlation was found between the number of years of horse grazing and plant species richness. There was no difference in the plant species richness inside and outside the paddock. In these outcomes it appears that horse grazing has a significant impact on plant species. Pasture development and maintenance are important factors that influence the composition of species.

  • 120.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Risk Governance and Management Strategies2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 170-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors’ incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  • 121.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Coping and adaptation in socio-ecological problem structures: Towards an integrated framework for analyzing trans-boundary environmental problems in marine settings2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on governance of socio-ecological systems has been growing fast during the last one or two decades. However, sound theoretical underpinnings to these systems have not been sufficiently articulated and tied to existing theory, it is argued in this working paper. To address this shortcoming, this paper aims to elaborate on how the theoretical constructs  problem structure, collective choice theory and adaptive governance can be brought together to form a coherent analytical framework for analyzing trans-boundary environmental problems in marine settings. The argument that collective action problematiques may inhibit successful adaptation to environmental change among sovereign states is fundamental to this model. Given that governments tend to prefer national coping strategies where expected national rather than joint benefits are maximized, mutually beneficial cooperation often does not evolve and regional adaptation turn out piecemeal. It is concluded that in order to improve trans-national environmental governance, a better understanding of underlying drivers and countries’ incentives to take action is a necessary prerequisite.

  • 122.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Oil Spills from Shipping: a case study of the governance of accidental hazards and intentional pollution in the Baltic Sea2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea: / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, p. 125-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Blažauskas, N.
    Klaipėda University Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Lithuania.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Janßen, H.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, H.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE D2:2: Ambitions and Realities in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning and the Ecosystem Approach: Policy and Sector Coordination in Promotion of Regional Integration2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the BONUS BALTSPACE project and is focused on challenges for policy and sector integration in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning (MSP). The main objectives have been to identify concrete coordination problems, to analyse why they have emerged and to discuss possible remedies. It is based on selected aspects extracted from case studies carried out in this project related to the development of regional MSP approaches in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden and on an additional case study on the HELCOM-VASAB Working Group on MSP. To facilitate the analysis of vertical policy interactions between institutions at different levels as well as of horizontal interactions over sector and country borders, an analytical framework was constructed. This framework consists of two main components; (a) institution-driven coordination where institutions such as global treaties, the EU, regional organisations, and state authorities provide boundaries for decisions taken at lower levels and (b) benefit-driven coordination capturing horizontal coordination across sector and country borders.

  • 124.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi, Turku, Finland.
    Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Management in Regional Marine Governance?: The Baltic Sea Context2013In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 225-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, European marine governance seems to be undergoing significantchanges. From having been based largely on scientific expert knowledge, restricted riskassessments and governmental regulation, we are now witnessing a management turntowards holistic perspectives, the inclusion of stakeholders, adaptive governance, and coproductionof knowledge—the so-called ecosystem approach to management (EAM). Byusing the Baltic Sea as an example of these changes, we have taken a closer look at the2007 Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) of the Helsinki Commission and the recent organizationalchanges within the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).Informed by a Reflexive Governance perspective, the primary objective has been toanalyse the extent to which institutional preconditions for using an EAM exist in thesetwo cases. Our results show that even though the BSAP has been designed with anEAM approach as its core philosophy, existing implementation, financing, monitoring,and enforcement structures make it unlikely that actual management modes will changesignificantly in the near feature. Changes in the ICES have occurred as a result of aninternal restructuring process characterized by integrative and learning elements. It hasbeen shown that adopting a broad social science perspective and a reflexive governanceviewpoint can elucidate how factors such as inadequate institutional change, limitedcooperation over sector borders, and adjustment problems caused by path dependencycan threaten the successful turn towards the EAM in marine governance.

  • 125.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Åbo University.
    Kern, Kristine
    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea - A comparison between five key areas: Deliverable number 82011Report (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning: Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherence2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 92, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.

  • 127.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Problems and potential solutions to effective communication among stakeholders in the Baltic Sea shipping for reduced air pollution: Outcomes from a survey2013In: Clean Shipping Currents, ISSN 2242-9794, Vol. 2, no 5, p. -33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a web survey distributed to stakeholders in the Baltic Sea marine sector regarding environmental communication on air pollution from shipping. The survey was carried out in the spring and summer of 2012. Drawing on the literature on risk communication and environmental governance, the main focus was placed on so-called communication barriers, that is, possible hindrances to effective communication among stakeholders on how to reduce air pollution without threatening sector competitiveness. The results show that although there is a dense networking among stakeholders in this sector, there is a demand for improvements in communication in (a) exploratory phases among broad groups of stakeholders and (b) operational phases among selected groups of e.g. business and research teams. To facilitate the emergence of such improved communication, regional organizations such as HELCOM and EU could play important roles. Furthermore, it is shown that there is a perceived need among many stakehold­ers to step up the involvement of certain stakeholders, for example fuel companies, in collabora­tion on how to reduce pollution from shipping in cost-efficient ways. Finally, the results show that although continuous improvements of international regulation is a vital part of the governance of the marine sector, compliance will suffer if operators’ incentives are too strong in favor of not con­tributing to reduced pollution levels. Therefore, there is a strong need for innovative thinking on how to design such incentive schemes, not the least in relation to the continued implementation of Baltic Sea SECA and NECA as well as of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  • 128.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Cooperating for sustainable regional marine governance: The case of fisheries and nutrient runoff from agriculture to the Baltic Sea, Synthesis report2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over-fishing and eutrophication (too much nutrients) are among the most severe threats to the ecosystems of the Baltic Sea and the ecosystem services they provide. Despite the well-known fact that effective and sustainable management requires cooperation – among as well as within states – appropriate frameworks that work have not yet been constructed and successfully applied. This report summarises findings from a research project on cooperation for sustainable marine governance of the Baltic Sea carried out between 2013 and 2018. Three aspects of central relevance for the understanding of regional cooperation in environmental governance are distinguished: interests, knowledge and management. It is shown that it is not enough to design cooperative arrangements that make the group of users, stakeholders or states better off than without such an arrangement. It is furthermore required that all actors have individual interests to participate, and that free-riding on others’ contributions can be controlled. When this is not the case, effective abatement of eutrophication is not likely to be forthcoming, even though aggregated benefits from such measures are larger than expected costs.

    Knowledge often play important roles in marine environmental governance, not least in relation to so-called epistemic communities, that is, groups of experts that share a common understanding of the environmental problem at hand, and how to address it. It is shown that the coherence of the epistemic group can be a crucial factor influencing its impact. In both abatement of eutrophication and management of fish stocks, these expert groups have been somewhat divided, which has limited their impact.

    Modes of management can influence cooperation and outcomes in ways that can be difficult to predict. Although environmental taxes and subsidies are powerful policy instruments in contemporary governance, they must be carefully crafted to fit into exiting norms and contexts to be effective. It is shown that monetary incentives targeting farmers’ use of fertilisers tend not to be effective when they are at odds with deeply held norms on what constitute a “good farmer”. 

  • 129.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Communication among maritime stakeholders: Problems and solutions in the field of ship’s air emissions2013In: Pan-Baltic Manual of Best Practices on Clean Shipping and Port Operations / [ed] Breitzmann, K-H and M. Hytti, Turku: Union of the Baltic Cities , 2013, p. 98-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Leposa, Neva
    Marine oil transportations in the Baltic Sea area: Deliverable number 62010Report (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Hedenström, Eva
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Offentlig upphandling av textila produkter – faktorer som kan inverka på en kommun när det gäller att ställa krav på miljö- och social hänsyn: En fallstudie av Örebro kommun2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector is a major purchaser of goods and services. By setting requirements for environmental and social considerations in public procurement, an authority has the possibility to use consumer power to influence the actors in a market. The purpose of this paper is to investigate public procurement of textile products in a municipality, in order to gain knowledge about factors that may be important for the use of environmental and social criteria. Håkan Hydén´s (professor in sociology of law) norm model was used as the basis of the analysis, where the conduct was investigated along three dimensions of the norm – willingness, knowledge and system conditions – in order to identify underlying factors that can influence the process.

    The results – analyzed by using interviews and documents – show that the procurer's willingness, motivation and knowledge are important factors in this context, as well as the political priority of the municipality. Procurers gain knowledge in this area to a large extent through networking with other actors. The possibilities to be able to verify the criteria are important. Verification of requirements is problematic because the municipality, as a public actor, is far from the production in the textile production chain. Lack of knowledge, in the form of mapping the textile production, prevents the development of criteria for best available technique. However, demands on manufacturing can be set indirectly by asking for some eco-labels (or equivalent) as verification. Furthermore, system conditions in terms of rules in the public procurement legislation set the framework for the procurement process.

  • 132. Hedman, Jenny E.
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Thorsson, Maria H.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Fate of contaminants in Baltic Sea sediments: role of bioturbation and settling organic matter2008In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 356, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study examined the interactive effects of bioturbation and settling organic matter (OM) on the fate (burial and remobilisation) of 2 surface-deposited contaminants in Baltic Sea sediment: the metal Cd and a hydrophobic organic pollutant, the flame retardant BDE-99. Three macrofaunal species with diverse feeding and bioturbation strategies were used: the amphipod Monoporeia affinis, the clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. Radiolabelled contaminants were added to the sediment surface in association with 3 different OM types: (1) phytoplankton, (2) terrestrial lignin and (3) Baltic sediment. Bioturbation by all species increased the retention of both contaminants in the sediment, most effectively M affinis and M balthica. A decoupled transport of Cd and BDE-99 by Marenzelleria was observed. Generally, Marenzelleria buried the highest amount of Cd into the sediment but also caused the highest remobilisation to the water, indicating an effective transport of (soluble) Cd over the sediment-water interface via bioirrigation. Lack of the highly hydrophobic and mainly particle-associated BDE-99 below the sediment surface suggests that Marenzelleria caused no significant particle mixing. The addition of various OM types significantly affected the distribution of Cd, but not of BDE-99. There was an interactive effect between bioturbation (species) and OM type, generally showing an increased burial and release of Cd when associated with phytoplankton in the presence of Marenzelleria. Our results emphasise the importance of understanding the complex interactions between ecological (e.g. infaunal feeding and bioturbation activities) and physiochemical processes (contaminant speciation and sorption kinetics) when assessing the fate of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  • 133.
    Helldorff, Hedvig
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Social acceptance of antimalarial strategies in Uganda2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the World Health Organization(WHO) the most efficient and cost-effective strategies in the global fight of malaria are the Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and the Insecticide Treated Nets ITNs). However, since the strategies include the use of synthetic insecticides, WHO reports that they sometimes meet opposition in the society. In a Global Malaria Programme report from 20061, WHO describes that concerns in the community regarding the safety of the IRS hinder its effective implementation. WHO states that the social acceptability of ITNs2 has to increase. This study aims at investigating if and where in the Ugandan society the antimalarial strategies meet opposition. The study analyzes whether authorities, non-governmental organizations and caretakers in one region in Uganda reject the antimalarial strategies recommended by WHO. The aim is further to investigate where focus should be put in order to meet the

    opposition (if any) to current strategies and thus facilitate the implementation of the strategies. The methodology used is an empirical approach based on interviews with officials at authorities, representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and caretakers in the slum areas in Kawempe Division, which is an area highly exposed to malaria, in Uganda. The results show that the authorities and the NGOs in this study accept the current strategies but believe that they are not fully accepted by caretakers. Further, the authorities and the NGOs point out that current strategies, mainly IRS, meet great resistance among politicians and within the agricultural and environmental sector. Nevertheless, the majority of the caretakers in the interviews does accept the strategies and give other reasons for not having them implemented in their houses. Many of the households do not have the money neither to buy the ITNs nor to have the IRS implemented in their houses. Thus, this study implies that the opposition to the current strategies is not among authorities, NGOs or caretakers but in the political, environmental and agricultural

    sphere. In order to fight malaria in the study area, WHO and stakeholders have to work with the change of attitudes among politicians and stakeholders within the environmental and agricultural sector in Uganda. They also have to provide poor households with ITNs or IRS for free, since lack of money is the reason for the studied group of caretakers not having the recommended strategies implemented in their houses.

  • 134.
    Hillbur, Siri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Farmer's perceptions of agroforestry: A case study about the obstacles and opportunities for agroforestry adoption in Babati, Tanzania2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the perceptions of agroforestry among farmers in Babati, north- central Tanzania. The focus is on which resources farmers perceive that they need to adopt agroforestry and which risks that are connected with agroforestry adoption. It is also to see how farmers perceive that the access to resources changes after agroforestry adoption and how their livelihoods change. The data has been collected through qualitative interviews with agroforestry farmers, conventional farmers and extension officers. After that the data has been analyzed through the sustainable livelihood approach and a risk perception theory. The results show that some of the obstacles or risks that farmers perceive with agroforestry adoption are high input costs, dependency on short-term benefits, competition between trees and crops and lack of education from extension services. Without financial capital and human capital in terms of knowledge there might be too many risks connected with adoption. If agroforestry however is adopted the farmers perceive that the access to firewood, timber and fruits increase which increase their incomes and therefore financial capital. They also perceive that the fruits improve food security and that the timber improves the housing. The firewood is also perceived to improve the situation for women as they do not have to walk as far to collect the firewood. Agroforestry is also perceived to provide environmental services like erosion prevention and increased soil fertility, therefore it increases natural capital. Some trees can also be used as natural pesticides. The increased soil fertility or the access to natural pesticides, however does not seem to affect the use of industrial fertilizers or pesticides. Agroforestry is also not perceived to have any effects on biodiversity or water quality. Even if agroforestry may not be a good choice for all farmers, it can for some farmers increase their ability to cope with stress and shocks like future climate change. This is because the agroforestry system can work as a buffer against increased climatic variability.

  • 135.
    Hjort, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Uppsala University.
    Presti, Ilaria
    University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Elväng, Annelie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Marinelli, Flavia
    University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Bacterial chitinase with phytopathogen control capacity from suppressive soil revealed by functional metagenomics2014In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 98, no 6, p. 2819-2828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant disease caused by fungal pathogens results in vast crop damage globally. Microbial communities of soil that is suppressive to fungal crop disease provide a source for the identification of novel enzymes functioning as bioshields against plant pathogens. In this study, we targeted chitin-degrading enzymes of the uncultured bacterial community through a functional metagenomics approach, using a fosmid library of a suppressive soil metagenome. We identified a novel bacterial chitinase, Chi18H8, with antifungal activity against several important crop pathogens. Sequence analyses show that the chi18H8 gene encodes a 425-amino acid protein of 46 kDa with an N-terminal signal peptide, a catalytic domain with the conserved active site F175DGIDIDWE183, and a chitinase insertion domain. Chi18H8 was expressed (pGEX-6P-3 vector) in Escherichia coli and purified. Enzyme characterization shows that Chi18H8 has a prevalent chitobiosidase activity with a maximum activity at 35 °C at pH lower than 6, suggesting a role as exochitinase on native chitin. To our knowledge, Chi18H8 is the first chitinase isolated from a metagenome library obtained in pure form and which has the potential to be used as a candidate agent for controlling fungal crop diseases. Furthermore, Chi18H8 may also answer to the demand for novel chitin-degrading enzymes for a broad range of other industrial processes and medical purposes.

  • 136.
    Hoflin, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Övergödning i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde: En utvärdering av genomförda insatser för minskad näringsbelastning från enskilda avlopp och jordbruk2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and examine the first period of the unique project Enskilda avlopp i kretslopp and actions implemented in the agriculture sector to reduce nutrient loading in Stavbofjärden. The idea was to provide an overall assessment of the current situation and discuss the possible future effects of the work. Challenges of the project are also discussed to examine the possibility for other communities to follow the initiative. To achieve the purpose, a study of literature and semi-structured interviews were conducted. The work is a case study of the evaluative nature and has been implemented in Stavbofjärdens catchment area. 

    Today several actors in Södertälje kommun are working actively to reduce nutrient loading in Stavbofjärdens catchment area. For the past three years, the project has been carried out in order to reduce eutrophication and enable recycling of nutrients to cropland. Within the project framework toilet water is collected in a closed tank separate from the bath, sink and wash water, the fraction is then processed in a facility and spread on farmland. In connection with this, the agriculture sector tries to close the cycle and reduce nutrient discharges to Stavbofjärden. Several measures have been implemented during the project's first phase, a recycling policy has been adopted, a local treatment facility has been built and nutrients have begun return to arable land. Distinct structural changes have occurred in the first years of the project, in particular, cooperation between different actors in the catchment area strengthened. The prospects for achieving improved water quality in Stavbofjärden increasing with the implemented and planned measures. The project also raises a number of challenges. Interviews and literature studies have shown that the use of sludge on farmland is not an entirely uncontroversial issue, mostly because of a concern about the possible effects of hormones and medicine which may occur in factions. Other challenges are that the replacement of sewer means a high investment cost and that people feel insecure when major changes happens. All actors involved in the project refers to the fact that human waste has to end up somewhere, and that it is much better to put the waste on soil than it leaks out in the water because there are far more degrading bacteria in the soil than in water.

  • 137.
    Holmström, Lisen
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    En rättvisa eller flera?: En studie av rättvisepluralism i samrådet inför bildandet av naturreservatet Gräsö östra skärgård2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our perceptions of what is just and unjust varies depending on our experiences or ideological affiliation. The formation of the nature reserve Gräsö eastern archipelago was preceded by a debate highlighted in the media, where several of the people on Gräsö positioned themselves for and against the marine reserve. The claims of justice in the debate show variations in perceptions of environmental justice aspects of distribution, recognition and participation. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the pluralism in perceptions of justice may have contributed to the conflict by conducting interviews with advocates and opponents who participated in the deliberation that preceded the decision of the reserve. These are compared with the opinions of environmental justice expressed in interviews with employees of the provincial government who handled the deliberation. The results show a variation in ideas of justice in most aspects and many times the opinions of the advocates better with county government persons than the opponents. That the local population must be recognized as one of the parties to take the decision on reserve formation, if the reserve means a restriction of rights and whether compensation should be paid for these losses are aspects which perceptions of justice varies. In order to address conflicts that are rooted in the variations of justice perception attention must be paid to pluralism in interpretations of environmental justice and the rights that should be taken into account.

  • 138.
    Håkansson, John
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Att indexera hållbarhet: En metautvärdering av Miljöaktuellts rankning av svenska kommuners hållbarhetsarbete2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor's thesis in Environmental Science studies the quality of an index of performance measurement of Swedish municipalities' sustainability governance offered by the environmental magazine Miljöaktuellt. Executed for six consecutive years, this evaluation is arguably the most comprehensive and widely spread local sustainability assessment in Sweden. Contextualizing this quantitative measurement tool in the paradigm of New Public Management, the research questions posed are: 'to what extent does the index employed by Miljöaktuellt correspond to the requirements of a set of quality criteria for sustainability assessment?' and 'is the index appropriate as a measure of, or a goal for, Swedish municipalities' internal sustainability efforts?' Through the perspective of evaluation theory, Miljöaktuellt's index is seen as a performance evaluation, thus categorizing this study as a meta-evaluation. Through a qualitative thematic approach, the index is analyzed using the 8 BellagioSTAMP-principles that were developed as tools for assessing quality of sustainability assessments as themes for the analysis. The results found by Miljöaktuellt are clearly and effectively communicated, but the index in itself is shown to be inadequate in methodological rigour in its handling of indicator data, lacking analytical power as ecological indicators are given disproportionate attention compared to economic and social indicators, and insufficient in transparency due to unexplained theoretical considerations, rendering the index inappropriate as a basis for policy guidance in Swedish municipalities.

  • 139.
    Högström, J.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Balfors, B.
    KTH.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Planning for sustainability in expansive metropolitan regions: exploring practices and planners’ expectations in Stockholm, Sweden2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 439-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, local and regional planning practices are faced with the challenge of managing rapid growth in expansive urban regions. However, spatial planning should also contribute to the fulfilment of formalized sustainability objectives and support sustainable development. This includes addressing cross-cutting sustainability issues that transcend established administrative and territorial boundaries. Thus, the management of sustainability issues requires attention from actors at different levels, and challenges how contemporary planning practices plan for development. Based in the expansive Stockholm region, this study explores the cross-level interaction in spatial planning and decision-making and planning practitioners’ experiences and apprehensions of contemporary municipal planning practices with a focus on statutory plans to achieve sustainability targets and objectives. The results show that municipal planning organizations are under pressure because of rapid urban expansion. It is concluded that the role, format and content of statutory as well as informal planning instruments are decisive for the cross-level interaction between planning levels. Moreover, planning instruments find new trajectories resulting in mismatches in expectations from planners at adjacent planning levels. This influences the interplay and preconditions for achieving national and regional sustainability targets and objectives. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 140.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Peckmann, Jörn
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Tehler, Anders
    wedish Museum of Natural History.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University.
    Bach, Wolfgang
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Behrens, Katharina
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Reitner, Joachim
    Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany.
    Böttcher, Michael E.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Warnemünde, Germany.
    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zygomycetes in Vesicular Basanites from Vesteris Seamount, Greenland Basin - A New Type of Cryptoendolithic Fungi2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0133368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungi have been recognized as a frequent colonizer of subseafloor basalt but a substantial understanding of their abundance, diversity and ecological role in this environment is still lacking. Here we report fossilized cryptoendolithic fungal communities represented by mainly Zygomycetes and minor Ascomycetes in vesicles of dredged volcanic rocks (basanites) from the Vesteris Seamount in the Greenland Basin. Zygomycetes had not been reported from subseafloor basalt previously. Different stages in zygospore formation are documented in the studied samples, representing a reproduction cycle. Spore structures of both Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes are mineralized by romanechite-like Mn oxide phases, indicating an involvement in Mn(II) oxidation to form Mn(III, VI) oxides. Zygospores still exhibit a core of carbonaceous matter due to their resistance to degradation. The fungi are closely associated with fossiliferous marine sediments that have been introduced into the vesicles. At the contact to sediment infillings, fungi produced haustoria that penetrated and scavenged on the remains of fragmented marine organisms. It is most likely that such marine debris is the main carbon source for fungi in shallow volcanic rocks, which favored the establishment of vital colonies.

  • 141.
    Jandovský, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Inga miljövinster med ekologisk produktion?: Lägesrapport över den svenska jordbruksdebatten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organic agriculture is financially promoted in Sweden by special environmental support and as consumers we are all encouraged to buy organic food. At the same time scholars at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences claim that organic farming does not provide any environmental benefits. The main criticism is that organic farming has lower yields than conventional, which means that more land is needed to produce the same amount of food as in conventional farming, leading to deforestation and loss of biodiversity. As for climate change, the critics claim that the significantly higher productivity in conventional crop production compared to organic, releases surplus land, which could be used for bio-fuel production and thereby replace the fossil fuels. The critics also claim that organic farming causes higher nutrient leaching than conventional. Scholars who advocate organic farming fight back against the criticisms and claim; that organic farming benefits biodiversity, as organic farms have on average 30% higher species richness than conventional farms, that conventional farming due to fertilizer use causes higher green house gas emissions than organic, and that the conventional farming causes higher nutrient losses than the organic one from a system perspective. The purpose of this essay is to present and analyze arguments of both sides of the Swedish agricultural debate and try to find answers to how scholars can have such widely differing views about which farming-system is preferable. At first glance, it may seem as if scholars totally disagree on the issues regarding scientific facts. This essay however, suggests that this is not the case at all. On the contrary, scholars agree on quite a lot when it comes to facts. The reasons for disagreement appear to be about much more than just a scientific controversy. My explanation to how they can have such different views is that agriculture, to a large extent, is a social and political issue, which means that scholars' values and view of nature also play a crucial role in their overall perception.

  • 142.
    Jansson, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    An atomic adventure: A case study of the history of the Swedish nuclear policy using the theories of historical institutionalism and advocacy coalition framework2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of the first 35 years, 1945 to 1980, of the Swedish nuclear institution. The purpose is to discover which actors that have shaped the Swedish nuclear institution. By using the theories of historical institutionalism and advocacy coalition framework I have analyzed these 35 years in three separate parts. Historical institutionalism puts emphasis on the creation of an institution, and so have I. The creation phase goes from 1945 to 1972. The following two parts are critical junctures that spans the years 1973-1978 and 1978-1980. The first critical juncture deals with the Centre Party's reversal in their opinion on nuclear power, the 1976 election and the outcome of that election. The third juncture starts with the Harrisburg accident and ends after the 1980 referendum. Using the advocacy coalition framework to analyze the actions or actors and coalitions during these three phases, I have come to the conclusion that the industry actors, those that have built the reactors, have been the most successful in pushing their coalition's agendas, over the years. Their influence was considerable during the years of institutional creation, while the coalitions that opposed nuclear power were quite weak during this time frame, which is consistent with historical institutionalism's focus on the creation, and path dependence.

  • 143.
    Jansson, Matilda
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Miljömärkning av hotell: En studie av miljömässiga och ekonomiska effekter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är turismen en av världens största näringar och den förväntas växa ytterligare framöver. Turismen bidrar på många sätt till den ekonomiska utvecklingen världen över men effekterna av tillväxten kan även få förödande konsekvenser för miljön. En ökad miljömedvetenhet inom turismbranschen har på senare tid resulterat i olika miljöledningssystem och miljömärkningar. En miljömärkning är Svanen som bildades som ett svar på den ökade miljömedvetenheten i samhället. År 1988 beslöt sig det Nordiska Ministerrådet att utreda möjligheterna att införa en frivillig nordisk miljömärkning. Svanens kriterier för miljömärkning av hotell blev klara år 1999 och det första Svanenmärkta hotellet öppnades i Sverige. Idag finns det över 250 Svanenmärkta hotell i Sverige.

    I uppsatsen undersöks huruvida en Svanenmärkning av ett hotell resulterar i positiva miljömässiga och ekonomiska effekter. Uppsatsen undersöker även varför hotellen har valt att miljömärka sig, vad de anser sig fått ut av miljömärkningen och vilka möjligheter och svårigheter miljömärkningen har bidragit med. Studien är avgränsad till Stockholmsområdet och behandlar tio hotell med Svanenmärkningen.

    Det finns flera anledningar varför ett hotell väljer att miljömärka sig men de flesta grundar sig i den ökande efterfrågan från samhället som avser att företag måste ta mer ansvar för miljön. Miljöarbete på ett hotell handlar ofta om att minska vatten-, energi-, och materialförbrukningen. I studien visar sig dessa vara en stor drivkraft bakom en miljömärkning då minskningen ofta leder till ekonomiska besparingar. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) är ett begrepp som fått genomslag de senaste åren och innebär att företag på en frivillig grund integrerar social och miljömässig hänsyn i sin verksamhet, utöver vad lagen kräver. I studien visar det sig att hotell som aktivt arbetar med CSR-frågor och integrerar dessa i sin verksamhet stärker relationen mellan anställda och ägare, och inte minst kunder, vilket i sin tur kan leda till en ökad lönsamhet och tillväxt.

  • 144.
    Janzén, Therese
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Aspán, Anna
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA).
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in Southern Sweden: Associations with coniferous forest, water bodies and landscape heterogeneity2019In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 285, article id 106626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscape characteristics influence both vector and host habitats affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of vector-borne diseases. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is one of the most widespread tick-borne diseases in Europe causing tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants, and granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and companion animals. The aim of this study was to identify landscape factors associated with Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (EGA) cases in a refined temporal and spatial analysis by combining land cover data and presence/absence disease data, using a geographical information system (GIS). This study is a retrospective analysis utilizing 1030 EGA diagnostic test results extracted from the National Veterinary Institute (SVA, Sweden). The association between EGA and different land cover types was analyzed with generalized linear models. To analyze the relation between landscape heterogeneity and EGA, we calculated the Gini-Simpson index. Our results showed a significant increase in the proportion positive EGA cases from 2002 to 2015 and marked differences in the seasonal within year distribution of EGA cases. The association with landscape configuration is shown by the positive relationship between A. phagocytophilum and coniferous forest, water bodies, and landscape heterogeneity, respectively. The information on the eco-epidemiological drivers for EGA can be central for disease control and prevention. Our method of linking land cover to disease risk may be applied to other vector-borne diseases and to other study regions.

  • 145.
    Jernberg, Kersti
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Träd och buskar i kantzoner: en undersökning av kanteffekter i några av östersjöregionens skogar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Around the world, forests are generally being fragmented and as plant populations decline in both sizeand number of individuals, the genetic variation will also decrease whitch in the end leads to totalextinction of the plant. In this paper, I wanted to investigate what specific species of trees and shrubsyou usually find in the edge and core habitats in some of the forests in the Baltic Sea region. I alsowanted to identify the edge effects and their sources and finally compare the results between thedifferent regions.The data sources used are derived from the ongoining research project Landscape structures, patterns ofbiodiversity and conservation strategies in the Baltic Sea region by Kari Lehtilä, Patrik Dinnétz ochTiina Vinter who have made a record of all herbaceous plant species in four randomly chosen forestregions situated around the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Skåne, Södermanland and Germany. I made statisticalanalyses, using the computer program R, concerning the distribution of species in the edge habitats ofthe forests as well as in the core habitats. I performed generalized linear models and then variationanalyses with the factors light and biomass in order to investigate wether edge effects might appear dueto these factors. I also used the ecological characteristics – Ellenberg indicators – light, soil pH andnitrogen performing linear regression models. I then compared the results – within the regions but alsobetween them.As the results showed great variancy both within the regions and between them no general explanationto the edge effects could be affirmed. The Ellenberg analyses showed no difference between the species,i. e. the ecological characteristics could not explain why some species were associated to edge habitatsand some were not. All four regions had in common that the greatest biodiversity were to be found inthe edge habitats, which is characteristical for a habitat in an early successional state. Due to the thefeatures of the forests, the specific species that received the label ”edge species” or ”core species” werenot always mutual in all regions. For example Quercus robur turned out to be a typical forest species inGermany while in Estonia it was strongly associated to edge habitats and in this investigation one mightdiscuss later states of successions in Germany rather than stronger edge effects in Estonia.

  • 146.
    Joas, Marko
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Jahn, DetlefUniversity of Greifswald, Germany.Kern, KristineSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Governing a common sea: environmental policies in the Baltic Sea Region2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Johansson, Jerker
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Proactivity and sustainable transition at the fish counter?: A study about ecological sustainability regarding fish at four ICA Kvantum supermarkets within the Stockholm region2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fish and shellfish are important sources of protein for the world population. Nearly 50 percent of fish and shellfish products originate from aquaculture, and the rest comes from traditional fishing. The marine stocks are under threat from unsustainable fishing practices. Together with fishing, aquaculture constitutes extra stress on the marine stocks and ecosystems. Aquaculture also causes other environmental side effects. International trade rules do not sufficiently take care of the ecological problems. Voluntary initiatives, like ecolabels, are one way of dealing with the problems. This thesis does an attempt to, from an environmental science perspective, analyze how the fish counters at four ICA Kvantum stores in the Stockholm region work with ecological sustainability issues with regards to fish and shellfish. The overall purpose is to examine the shops’ historical, current and potential future work and to analyze if the work is conducted in a proactive, reactive or in a passive way. The main findings include that the knowledge, sustainability statuses, responsiveness, and changes in time, and the intentions or plans for the future differed a lot between the different shops. Furthermore, many of the investigated potential problem areas seemed to constitute problems in practice. Additionally, it seemed like additional pressure may be needed if the aggregated ecological status should be raised. The research method consisted of case studies with semistructured qualitative interviews and analysis of corporate documents, and a minor quantitative investigation of the frozen assortment at the stores.

  • 148.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Collaborative governance for sustainable forestry in the emerging bio-based economy in Europe2018In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 32, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a common theme in social science research, natural resource policies and practical management has been the increasing emphasis on partnerships and other forms of collaborative efforts as effective means to reach tangible and sustainable outcomes. Another significant trend is the increasing focus on the role of the forestry sector in managing the challenges of climate change, and the push towards a bio-based, low-carbon economy is at the epicenter of the public debate in several EU countries. Drawing on research on collaborative processes as well as research on policy design, this paper reviews the current trend to rely increasingly on collaborative efforts to improve sustainability, using forest governance in northern Europe as an illustrative case. It pays particular attention to efforts to balance concerned stakeholders through National Forest Programmes (NFPs), and considers these efforts in an international context. It concludes by elaborating on future research directions and policy recommendations that are critical to achieve intended outcomes in forest governance systems characterized by state-initiated collaborative processes as well as various forms of voluntary initiatives.

  • 149.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Participation and deliberation in Swedish forest governance: The process of initiating a National Forest Program2016In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 70, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades intergovernmental organizations have supported the initiation of National Forest Programs (NFPs): forums for joint deliberation by the state, private companies and NGOs that are intended to resolve conflicts over forestry and enhance sustainability. However, NFPs do not always reconcile conflicting perspectives or produce legitimate strategies for sustainable forestry. Thus, further analysis of NFPs' organization and processes is required, including exploration of effective means to address such challenges in early stages. These are key concerns of this paper, focusing on the first process to establish a Swedish NFP. Possibilities for an NFP to constitute a new arena for deliberation and consensus-building, producing forest policy statements and action plans considered legitimate by various stakeholders, are discussed. A number of key challenges are identified through a theoretical framework based on notions regarding the input and output legitimacy of collaborative governance. Analysis of official documentation, records of public hearings and stakeholder comments from the establishment phase in 2013–2015 suggests that the process will continually face a number of challenges, including balancing production and conservation values in the new bio-economy and securing equal stakeholder participation. The paper concludes with some remarks on the future of the NFP process.

  • 150.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences).
    Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 2000s, consensus-oriented decision making has become increasingly common in the management of natural resources because of the recognition that collaborative processes may enhance the legitimacy of decision making and facilitate effective implementation. Previous research has identified a number of problems with the design and practical facilitation of collaborative processes. Structured decision making (SDM) has been developed as an alternative suitable for decision making characterized by complexity, stakeholder controversy, and scientific uncertainty. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility and practical relevance of collaboration and dialogue inspired by SDM in the sphere of forest management. The methods used included analyses of meetings records and semistructured interviews with participating stakeholders and organizers of a collaborative process focused on improving the management of Swedish forests in the young forest phase. The results show that the SDM rationale of step-by-step teamwork, the involvement of experts, and guidance by an independent facilitator has a number of merits. These merits included the creation of genuine discussion with careful consideration of different interests and values, thus building trust among stakeholders and the Swedish Forest Agency. However, at the end of the process, some issues still remained unclear, including how the decision options would be made practically useful and accessible to forest owners. Furthermore, concerns were raised about the lack of novelty of the options. As a result, there was uncertainty about the extent to which the options would contribute to a more varied forest landscape given the multiple values involved. We conclude with some remarks on the potential future of engaging SDM in the forestry sector.

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