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  • 101.
    Mai, Anh
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Örebro universitet.
    Organizing for Efficiency: Essays on merger policies, independence of authorities, and technology diffusion2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Mai, Anh
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The impact of regulation on broadband diffusion in EuropeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Mai Thi Van, Anh
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Is EU Merger Policy Less Stringent After Its 2004 Reform?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies how the 2004 merger policy reform affected the probability of a merger being challenged by the European Commission. I use a probit model to assess how economic factors drive decisions and to isolate differences between policies before and after the reform. The net sample consists of 341 horizontal mergers from 1990 to 2012. Overall, I find robust evidence of policy shifts due to the reform. By some measures, the policy appears to have slightly softened. There is also an indication that mergers reviewed under the unilateral-effects theory are more likely to be challenged than are those reviewed under the coordinated-effects theory. Market shares and entry barriers are found to influence decisions before and after the reform. However, market shares appear to play a somewhat smaller role after the reform.

  • 104.
    Malmberg, Charles
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Nyberg, John
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Taylorregeln och negativa styrräntor: En empirisk analys av Taylorregelns relevans i Danmark, Schweiz och Sverige åren 2000-20182018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of inflation has been low in many countries since the financial crisis in 2008. In attempts to increase the inflation rate, central banks have lowered their interest rates to historically low levels. In Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden, the central banks key interest rates have been negative. In 1993, John B Taylor proposed a macroeconomic rule with the aim of providing a forecast for the key interest rate. According to the Taylor rule, the policy rate can be explained by the inflation rate and gross domestic product of previous periods.

    This paper aims to investigate the empirical relevance of the Taylor rule in Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden during the period 2000 to 2018. To do this, two tests are performed. The first is that, with a linear regression model, investigate the relationship between the key interest rate, the inflation gap and the GDP gap. The second is a Granger causality test to see if the implicit causality of the Taylor rule is correct. The Granger test is based on the results of a vector autoregression. The results of this paper show that there is a correlation between the rate of inflation and the key interest rate, but not between the GDP gap and the key interest rate in the selected countries during the investigation period. Furthermore, the results show that causality goes from the inflation gap and the GDP gap towards the key interest rate, as the Taylor rule suggests. The result does not suggest that negative key interest rates would affect the relevance of the Taylor rule.

  • 105.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    A Sequence Analysis of Money, Savings, and Investments under Negative Interest Rates2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Emergence of the Gold Standard and the Unification of Monetary Functions: What Happened to the Functioning of the Cashless Payments Systems Using Bills of Exchange?2015In: EAEPE 2015 Online proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Hanseatic Monetary Arrangements and the Functional Separation of Money2013In: The 25th EAEPE annual Conference Website [online], 2013, p. -27Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to theoretically analyze, from the perspective of new monetary economics andsociallearning,theevolution of monetary arrangementswith functional separation of money,thispaperanalyzes the history of Hanseatic monetary arrangements and the functional separationof money in the Baltic and North Seas region, that is, the evolution of units of account andmedia of exchangealong the East-West trade routes of the Hanseatic League. Focusing on thecognitive aspect of money as social institution, the evolution of units of account and media ofexchange are studied as adaptive responses by human minds. The emphasis will be on theheuristics of long-distance traders in the Baltic and North Seas region, considering theexchange of commodities and of monies.Going beyond the emergence of money as mediumof exchange, this paper studies the emergence of unitsof account and of media of exchange,that is, the emergence of monetary arrangements as co-evolution of units of account, in theMiddle Ages called monies of account, and media of exchange, in which the value of moneyis given by its purchasing power, be it money of account or money as medium of exchange.This paper views institutions as having both a cognitive and a behavioral component. Associal institution, money has a cognitive dimension, which represents the way traders thinkabout money as unit of account and medium of exchange, respectively, in the form ofmonetary heuristics, translating the unit of account to a particular worth, using a social scriptto which market agents attribute a specific worth.When the value of the underlyingcommodity bundle changes from the original worth, market agents observe a script deviationof that bundle, attributing that to changes in the commodity space, and adjust the bundleaccordingly. As social institution, money also has a behavioral dimension, which is expressedin the purchasing power of money; what commodity bundle could be bought for a certainamount of one currency, a medium of account with its associated media of exchange, foranother currency, thus establishing exchange rates. Exchange rates between currencies wereestablished according to relative perceived purchasing power, some kind of classifier system.Along the cognitive dimension, long-distance tradersformed beliefs about the relativepurchasing power of their currencycompared with the foreign one; along the behavioral onethey exchanged money at the rates so specified.The Hanseatictrade was organized along theline Novgorod-Reval-Lübeck-Hamburg-Bruges-London, whereBruges is of particularinterest as meeting place between Italian and Hanseaticmerchants, an interface ofMediterranean and Baltic commerce.In Bruges,Italianmerchant-bankers operated, usingbillsof exchange to meet the requirements of trade by correspondence, while Hanseatic traderelied on the exchange contract adopted to traveling trade. Hanseatic merchants openedtransitory accounts with Flemish money-changers to be used as means of settlement.Amonetary market orderevolved through the exchange of money and of commodities.

  • 108.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Heuristics in the Evolution of Units of Account and Media of Exchange2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 109.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Interwar Monetary Fragmentation and the Gold Standard Restored: The Crisis of 1929 Compared with the Crisis of 20082015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Money and Capital2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    On the Pathology of Money and Credit: Policy Responses to the Large-Scale Crises of 1929 and of 20082018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Seventeenth Century Banking: Amsterdamsche Wisselbank, Stockholms Banco, and Their Consequences for Monetary Evolution2015In: On conference website, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Social Dynamics, Evolution, and the Unity of Social Sciences: Kenneth Boulding in the Light of Friedrich von Hayek and John Searle2013In: Interdisciplinary Economics: Kenneth E. Boulding's Engagement in the Sciences / [ed] Wilfred Dolfsma & Stefan Kesting, London & New York: Routledge, 2013, p. 88-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    The History of Money and Monetary Arrangements: Insights from the Baltic and North Seas Region2018Book (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Mekidiche, Lina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Löneskillnader mellan män och kvinnor -objektiv eller diskriminerande?: En empirisk studie av löneskillnader mellan kvinnor och män i kvinno- och mansdominerad verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many researchers have empirically and theoretically tried to model and explain the difference in wages that exists between males and female. Recurring justifications for wage differences between males and female is an obsolete view of females, discrimination and female’s choice of occupation. Females have begun to enter previous male-dominated businesses and female have entered previous male-dominated educations. Previous research has focused on wage differences between males and female as a whole in the labor market, hence it is of interest in this thesis to study how the wage difference looks in different labor market segments. The segments chosen for this study are female- and male-dominated activities.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute with an increased understanding of the wage distribution between males and females in female and male-dominated activities and to investigate how large a proportion of the pay gap that can be viewed as objective. Below, the study's questions are presented:

    ●How large is the wage difference on average between females and males in female- and male-dominated activities?

    ●How much of the pay gap between men and women in female- and male-dominated activities can be explained by the variables included in this study?

    The method used in this study was a regression between the dependent variable “wage differences between men and women” and "male-dominated activity", "education level", "average salary" and "estimated work experience (age)". The study consisted of 330 observations.

    The result of the study is that male on average have 11.3 % higher pay than females, and in male-dominated businesses males have an average salary of 5.18 % higher than females and finally in female-dominated activities males have 1.16 % higher pay than females. Furthermore, the control variables indicated that approximately 26 % of the pay gap between male and female in female and male-dominated activities is objective with a level of significance of at least 5 %.

  • 116.
    Mekidiche, Youssef
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Foreign direct investments: An antidote for hydrocarbon dependency in the Gulf Cooperation Council?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The most essential questions in economics is what determines economic growth? In theory FDI led to economic growth (Mello 1997), but empirical evidences indicate that the relationship is ambiguous (Masahiro & Iwasaki 2014). This thesis uses contemporary growth theories and econometric methods to empirically test for the association between foreign direct investment and economic growth in the six countries that form the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The analysis indicates a positive relationship concerning FDI and GDP growth in the panel of GCC. The result furthermore supports the endogenous growth theory and provide insights on the regions progress towards income diversification whit respect to hydrocarbons.

  • 117.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Effects of Carnivore Presence on Hunting Lease Pricing in South Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters’ harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We divide the impact of carnivores into two effects: one effect affects game harvests, and the other effect affects the hunters’ direct preferences for the presence of carnivores on hunting land. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

  • 118.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of carnivore presence on hunting lease pricing in South Sweden2019In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 106, article id 101942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters' harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We disentangle the impact of carnivores through their effect on game harvest from their effect on hunters' preferences. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

  • 119.
    Nahtman, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Possible effects of introducing market rents on rental housing in Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Housing shortage and its impact on the society has been one of the most discussed topics during the past decade. The aim of this thesis was to explore the possible effects the introduction of market rents could have on rental housing. We observe an existing free market which can be seen as a close substitute to the rental market today, namely the market of tenant owned apartments and estimate the possible market rents based on that. Three Swedish cities have been studied. The results showed that there are possible increases and decreases in rents, variation between and within cities as well as variation between the time periods.

  • 120.
    Nsabimana, Aimable
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Surry, Yves
    Ngabitsinze, Jean
    Income and food Engel curves in Rwanda: A household microdata analysis2019In: Agricultural and Food Economics, ISSN 2193-7532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are still major challenges for large proportions of households in Sab-Saharan Africa. The empirical literature on food demand, however, suggest mixed evidence on the roles of income and other socio-economic attributes on food demand. This study analyses the food demand amongst households in Rwanda, based on nationally representative household expenditure and demographic (EICV4, 2013/14) survey data. The results show that poor households consume food containing higher carbohydrates and starches. Further, the study finds that majority of rural households spend sparingly on micronutrients from animal products, suggesting that effective targeted food policy interventions for poor and rural households may play important role in reducing incidence of malnutrition through improving food diets.… Read more

  • 121.
    Ominijei, Esther
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The Role Of Institutions In Promoting Entrepreneurship In The Nigerian Fashion Industry2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the oil sources continue to become depleted and global oil prices continue to drop, there are concerns that the current pattern of growth and development in Nigeria, a country that is heavily dependent on natural resources such as oil as drivers of economic growth, is neither inclusive nor sustainable. In order to shift its focus from the natural resource dependency dynamic, create employment and most importantly, stimulate sustainable economic growth; there is an urgent need for the Nigerian economy to begin harnessing and cultivate their underutilized resources and industries such as the fashion industry. In economics, entrepreneurship is considered as one of the key drivers of economic growth and development. However, the existing empirical and theoretical evidence show the institutional asymmetry and lack of alignment between formal and the informal institutions hinders the social and economic development of productive entrepreneurship. This study aims at exploring the role of institutions in promoting entrepreneurship in the Nigerian fashion industry by identifying the uncertainties and obstacles that existing and emerging entrepreneurs face while trying to start or run a viable business within the Nigerian fashion industry and then analysing how the existing institutions can be used to foster entrepreneurship in the industry. The findings show that there is high potential and diversity in the entrepreneurs’ experiences within the Nigerian fashion industry, which is in line with neoclassical economists that argue that the main challenge in developing countries is not the lack of skills, technology or knowledge, but rather, the lack of proper institutions. The overview of the current status of institutions within the Nigerian fashion industry identifies various regulatory, financial, social, cultural and educational institutions which are both encouraging and discouraging entrepreneurship in the industry, which is in line with the institutional theory. Thus, this study recommends an alignment in the formal and informal institutions in the economy as a way of solving the existing institutional asymmetries that are causing the poor performance of entrepreneurship in the country.

  • 122.
    Pädam, Sirje
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Attitudes Towards Paying for Environmental Protection in the Baltic Sea Region2017In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 1, p. 201-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter compares public attitudes to environmental protection in Estonia with those in neighbouring Baltic states. Data from the Estonian Environmental Survey (The Chair of Environmental Economics. Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, 2010) and ISSP Environment III are compared and analysed using an ordered logit. Support for environmental protection is measured in the form of willingness of individuals to make financial sacrifices through higher prices and higher taxes or accepting a cut in their standard of living, in order to protect the environment. Results show that the demand for the protection of the environment tends to increase with income. There are some differences between public attitudes in terms of willingness to accept cuts in the standard of living and willingness to pay higher taxes and prices. Higher education is another determinant of support for environmental protection, particularly in Estonia.

  • 123.
    Pärsdotter, Julia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Backteman, Carl-Otto
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Korruption och tillväxt: Ett globalt perspektiv på samband mellan korruption och ekonomisk tillväxt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Countries are different from one another. Both in size, culture, religion, living standards, and that may be one of the explanation to why countries have different economic conditions. This study deepens in economic growth, which is a measure of the country's productivity. Countries capital, population growth, educational level and the effectiveness of the institutions are analyzed in order to be able to control the country’s economic growths. Corruption is the central, independent variable expressed by using a corruption index. Lately, it has been large discussions in the media regarding Sweden's corruption, mainly in public sector, which has aroused interest in a study on the topic of corruption. 

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how corruption affects a country's economic growth. 

    The purpose is studied by an econometric multiple regression analysis using panel data. The study covers 121 countries in the world, which account for 88% of the world's population. 70% of the selected countries are characterized as poor and the remaining as wealthy. The null hypothesis is that there is not an association between corruption and economic growth and the alternative hypothesis is that there is an association. During a closer analysis of the results, the study can show that the economic growth of wealthy countries is negatively affected by an increased corruption level, while the economic growth of poor countries is positively affected by an increased level of corruption. The result of this study confirms previous studies in the near past. However, the fact that this study can show differences between rich and poor countries, is assessed to make this study unique. 

  • 124.
    Rampal, Priya
    et al.
    M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, India.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics / Uppsala University.
    Food Security, agriculture and malnutrition in India2019In: Hunger and Malnutrition as major challenges of the 21st Century / [ed] R. Jha, Singapore: World Scientific, 2019, p. 241-265Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that combating malnutrition for women is central not only for their own health but also for the attainment of nutritional adequacy for future generations, including infants, children and adolescents. Attaining adequate nutrition for women is necessary throughout their life, but particularly so before, during and after pregnancy, if intergenerational nutritional adequacy is to be attained. Adequacy of nutrition also helps an individual become more productive and saves medical treatment costs that may otherwise have occurred. However, India’s less than satisfactory record of female, infant and child nutrition underscores the need to take urgent steps, particularly if the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are to be attained. With this as the background the present chapter focuses on the role of agriculture in providing adequate nutrition for women and the methods through which women in the rural sector can leverage existing institutions and programs to ameliorate nutritional inadequacy. This would require the design of informative indices of nutritional attainment and close cooperation in policy between governments, civil society organizations and international advisory groups. The chapter reviews some ways in which these can be attained.

  • 125.
    Ranganathan, S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, D. J. T.
    Uppsala University.
    The demographic transition and economic growth: Implications for development policy2015In: Palgrave Communications, ISSN 2055-1045, Vol. 1, article id 15033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important transition in the economic history of countries occurs when they move from a regime of low prosperity, high child mortality and high fertility to a state of high prosperity, low child mortality and low fertility. Researchers have proposed various theories to explain this demographic transition and its relation to economic growth. In this article, we test the validity of some of these theories by fitting a non-linear dynamic model for the available cross-country data. Our approach fills the gap between the micro-level models that discuss causative mechanisms but do not consider if alternative models may fit the data well, and models from growth econometrics that show the impact of different factors on economic growth but do not include non-linearities and complex interactions. In our model, mortality and fertility decline and economic growth are endogenized by considering a simultaneous system of equations in the change variables. The model shows that the transition is best described in terms of a development cycle involving child mortality, fertility and GDP per capita. Fertility rate decreases when child mortality is low, and is weakly dependent on GDP. As fertility rates fall, GDP increases, and as GDP increases, child mortality falls. We further test the hypothesis that female education drives down fertility rates rather than child mortality, but find only weak evidence for it. The Bayesian methodology we use ensures robust models and we identify non-linear interactions between indicators to capture real-world non-linearities. Hence, our models can be used in policymaking to predict short-term evolutions in the indicator variables. We also discuss how our approach can be used to evaluate policy initiatives such as the Millennium Development Goals or the Sustainable Development Goals and set more accurate, country-specific development targets. 

  • 126.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, USA.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sustainable Development and global emission targets: A dynamical systems approach to aid evidence-based policy making2018In: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 812-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is broad scientific consensus that increasing global emissions at current rates will result irreversible climate change. The global commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris agreement tries to address this concern with policy changes. But top-down approaches including voluntary emission cuts do not seem politically feasible in all countries. In this paper, we show that moderate voluntary emission cuts (policy) supplemented by technological developments and changes in consumption tastes and preferences induced by educating individuals (stakeholder engagement) could help achieve emission targets. We use a novel dynamical systems modeling approach based on economic theory to show the quantitative tradeoffs between these different approaches. Using this model, we also show how economic development may be balanced by global emissions reductions so that, initially, developing economies can continue along their current growth trajectories and eliminate poverty, and eventually bear more of the emissions reduction burden.

  • 127.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA .
    Nicolis, Stamatios C
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, David J T
    Uppsala University.
    Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0171560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers.

  • 128.
    Rojas, Carlos
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The Impact of Migration on Natives’ Unemployment Rates: A study on the municipal level in Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following is a study of the impact of migration on unemployment rates for natives in Sweden, on municipal level. A cross sectional data set has been analyzed using multiple linear regressions. The regression analysis has searched for the impact on the unemployment rates among natives of the size of the share of migrants in the municipalities as well as of the change in the size of the share of migrants during a time span of 13 years.

    The results show that migration has small or non-existent impact on the unemployment rates of natives. The results vary depending on the period being investigated and also depending on the characteristics of the municipality that is investigated.

    When dividing the municipalities into three categories (city, urban and rural municipalities) significant impact of migration on native’s unemployment rates is to be found in city and urban municipalities, but not in rural. The results also indicate that the most significant impact is to be found in the present period of time, while in the long term the impact diminishes to become less significant or not significant at all. 10% migrants in a city municipality in 2015 increased natives’ unemployment level that same year by 0.4 percentage units. More rapid increases of the share of migrants in the labor force have more impact as well. A municipality were the share of migrants grew with 1 percentage unit between 2003 and 2015, had 0.1 percentage unit higher unemployment rate for natives in 2015.

    This study’s results follow the pattern from earlier studies in the field, that since the 1990’s have shown similar effects when measuring different countries on different continents – sometimes the effect has been significant, sometimes not, and when significant the impact has been rather small, often clustering around zero.

  • 129.
    Salame, David
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Klerck, Harley
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The Impact of House Price Changes on Household Savings: A panel data study of the impact of the changes in house prices and interest rates on household savings in Europe2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real estate remains to be a major component of wealth for households as the market value of houses continues to rise noticeably again, as before the global recession 2007. Understanding households’ responses to changes of house prices and interest rates is important as fluctuations of these kind affect their preferences of saving. This thesis examines the impact of house price- and interest rate changes on household savings with the usage of secondary panel data from seven European countries. Providing a definite estimation of the interest elasticity of saving for households is not conceivable with any confidence considering the difficulties in estimating differential behavior. In accordance to previous studies the result of house prices is significant negative regarding household savings. However, the repo rate contradicts earlier results with a significant negative correlation toward household savings indicating an increased confidence due to a behavioral shift. In conclusion, this study shows that internal effects are of great importance as several factors suffer from high internal impact.

  • 130.
    Santana, Diana
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Is the Economic Growth in Developing Countries affected by Free Trade?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines the relationship between free trade and the economic growth in developing countries. The developments of a more integrated and globalized world challenges countries in new ways by easier access to information and technology, intensified competition and larger requirements on economic efficiency and increased productivity. It is important to examine if trade can induce economic growth, since long-run economic growth determine how living standards change, and provides an opportunity to improve the welfare and reduce the worlds poverty rates. Trade affects countries in different ways and developing countries have diverse growth experiences, where some countries have managed to increase their economic growth compared to others. The thesis presents trade policies and theories, and a brief overview of the controversies regarding trade. The relationship between economic growth and trade is dynamic and complex and trade can be used as a mean to benefit from technological transfers and knowledge spillovers, factors that have a substantial influence on economic growth, along with investments. A cross-section regression analysis is conducted to examine the relationship between trade openness and economic growth. The empirical results show a positive correlation between trade openness and economic growth in developing countries. High initial GDP and population growth are negatively correlated with GDP per Capita growth, while Rule of Law has a positive impact on GDP per Capita growth.

  • 131.
    Sjölin, Carin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The impact of governance on inequality: An empirical study2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of governance on inequality, specifically if improvements in the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators affect inequality as measured by two Gini coefficients: Market Gini, before taxes and redistribution, and Net Gini, after taxes and redistribution.

    The data for the Gini measurements was taken from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database (SWIID) and the data for the Worldwide Governance Indicators was taken from the World Bank. Data for fifteen (15) years, from the start of the Worldwide Governance Indicators until 2013, was combined with data from SWIID for the same years. In all, data from one hundred fifty-six (156) countries with a full set of six (6) indicators for the years that had at least one corresponding Gini measurements were used in this study: in total one thousand seven hundred and forty-seven (1747) observations.

    In a pooled OLS regression, controlling for growth with the variable GDP per Capita expressed as a per cent (%) change on an annual basis, the individual indicators gave the following results, where a positive sign indicates increased inequality and vice versa: Control of Corruption and Regulatory Quality showed a positive sign for both Gini measurements. Rule of Law, Government Effectiveness, Political Stability and the Absence of Violence/Terrorism, gave a negative sign for both Gini measurements. Voice and Accountability showed a positive sign for Market Gini and a negative sign for Net Gini.

    The fact that an improvement in Control of Corruption increased inequality both before and after taxes and redistribution was unexpected and should be further researched.

  • 132.
    Skjäl, Henric
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Yaman, Erim
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Innovationer och dess inverkan av Humankapital, Handel och FoU: Till vilken grad påverkas innovationer i EU av Humankapital, Handel med IKT och FoU?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyzes what effects human capital, R&D and ICT-goods trade have on innovation. Positive outcomes from innovation are an increased level of productivity, which increases incentives for greater innovative activity. Throughout this thesis patent-applications will be used as a proxy for innovation, which is in accordance with previous literature. The main scope of this paper will focus on econometric panel-data to determine which indicators have a significant effect on national-wide patent-applications and basic policy making in accordance with the findings. The scope of the study will include 27 European Union countries. The methodology used concerning panel-data is fixed effects. However, due to the amount of missing data the econometric estimation, we will focus on imputation of the missing values. According to various tests that determine what kind of model fits the underlying dataset, we can conclude that this study requires the use of a Multiple Imputation technique. Our result shows that investments towards R&D have the biggest impact on innovations.

  • 133.
    Skogqvist, Jackline Mwende
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The effect of mobile money on savings behaviors of the financially excluded2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether the use of mobile money affects the savings patterns of individuals that are vulnerable to financial exclusion, that is, the low-income earners, low-educated, women and rural habitants. Studying the case of Kenya, this study uses data from the 2016 FinAccess Household Survey (N=8,665) that was designed to track and measure the drivers, growth and impact of mobile money use in Kenya. Logistic model and the 2SLS IV regression are used as the empirical estimation method for testing the statistical significance of the correlation between mobile money usage and the savings behaviors of the individuals. The results show that users of mobile money are 1.96 more likely to have a savings product than those that do not use mobile money, and that the propensity for users of mobile money to save for emergencies and for future events is 1.44 and 1.27 times higher, respectively, as compared to the non-users. These findings suggest that individuals that use mobile money perceive it as a trustworthy, efficient and reliable store of value especially making savings for future use. This analysis also finds statistically significant evidence suggesting that mobile money use significantly increases the propensity to save for individuals in demographic groups that are more susceptible to the unique challenges that lower accessibility to formal financial services. Therefore, by increasing the probability of individuals in the female, low income, low education and rural groups to save, mobile money fosters financial inclusion which is essential in the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals such as reducing poverty, increasing equality and sustained economic growth among others. In general, this study has specific policy implications for using mobile money as a device for increasing financial inclusion among the ‘unbanked’ population.

  • 134.
    Spaiser, V.
    et al.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Ranganathan, S.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, D. J. T.
    Uppsala University.
    The sustainable development oxymoron: quantifying and modelling the incompatibility of sustainable development goals2017In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 457-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, the UN adopted a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to eradicate poverty, establish socioeconomic inclusion and protect the environment. Critical voices such as the International Council for Science (ICSU), however, have expressed concerns about the potential incompatibility of the SDGs, specifically the incompatibility of socio-economic development and environmental sustainability. In this paper, we test, quantify and model the alleged inconsistency of SDGs. Our analyses show which SDGs are consistent and which are conflicting. We measure the extent of inconsistency and conclude that the SDG agenda will fail as a whole if we continue with business as usual. We further explore the nature of the inconsistencies using dynamical systems models, which reveal that the focus on economic growth and consumption as a means for development underlies the inconsistency. Our models also show that there are factors which can contribute to development (health programmes, government investment) on the one hand and ecological sustainability (renewable energy) on the other, without triggering the conflict between incompatible SDGs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  • 135.
    Spinova, Hanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    R&D tax incentives: Do R&D tax incentives stimulate innovations and economic growth? Evidence of OECD countries2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact of tax incentives on the firms’ innovative activity and economic growth by using sample of 28 OECD countries. The study using panel data analysis and applies fixed effect OLS models. The results of the econometric investigation indicate that tax incentives have significant and positive effect on the R&D expenditure. Regression analysis also shows a positive significant impact of R&D tax incentives in combination with direct funding for business R&D. The paper finds no evidence of significant relationship between tax incentives and economic growth. The research also finds a positive significant impact of direct R&D support, R&D expenditure and tax incentives on registered patents. We suggest to apply public support policy including both types of support since previous studies showed that tax incentives and direct funding are not perfect substitutes.

  • 136.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Causes of litigation in public procurementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Essays on quality evaluation and bidding behavior in public procurement auctions2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, I investigate how different aspects of the procurement process and evaluation affect bidding behavior.

    In essay 1, we attempt to map public procurements in Sweden by gathering a representative sample of procurements. We find that framework agreements and multiple-contract procurements represent a very large share of total government spending. The total value procured by government authorities, municipalities and counties accounts to 215 BSEK yearly, which we believe is an underestimate due to data issues.

    Essay 2 suggests a simple method for of estimating bidding costs in public procurement, and are empirically estimated to be approximately 2 percent of the procurement value using a comprehensive dataset and approximately 0.5 percent for a more homogeneous road re-pavement dataset. Our method provides reasonable estimates with, compared to other methods, relatively low data requirements.

    Essay 3 investigates the effect of quality evaluation on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Contrary to common belief, SMEs’ participation does not increase when evaluating quality, and their probability to win procurements decreases compared with that of large firms.

    In essay 4, the bidders’ decision to apply for a procurement review “appeal” is investigated. Contrary to procurers’ beliefs, evaluating quality is found not to have any statistically significant effect on the probability of appeals. Instead, I empirically confirm theoretical prediction of the 1st runner-up’s decision to claim the evaluation to be redone, as well as free-riding in appealing.

    In essay 5, we test whether spatial econometrics can be used to test for collusion in procurement data. We apply this method on a known cartel and test during and after the period the cartel was active. Our estimates support the proposition that spatial econometrics can be used to test for collusive behavior.

  • 138.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Evaluating quality or lowest price: Consequences for small and medium-sized enterprises in public procurement2017In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1143-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of evaluating the most economically advantageous tender (MEAT) in public procurement rather than lowest price. According to the European Union (EU), evaluations based on MEAT, rather than lowest price, give an advantage to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in winning public procurement contracts because such firms are viewed as sources of innovation. Thus, MEAT as an evaluation criterion is recommended throughout the EU. Using procurement data from Sweden, I find no significant effect on SME participation in procurement calls for tender as a result of the use of MEAT in firm evaluations. However, large firms significantly increase their participation when MEAT is evaluated. Even more importantly, micro, small and medium-sized firms' probability of winning procurement contracts significantly decreases when MEAT rather than lowest price is used as an evaluative criterion. Thus, evaluation in terms of MEAT increases large firms' bids and success rates; hence, this policy is counterproductive. The reasons SMEs are disadvantaged as a result of evaluations based on MEAT are, however, not examined in this paper and require further research.

  • 139.
    Sternehäll, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Donor Motives: An Empirical Study of the Motives Behind Foreign Aid Allocation for Ten OECD Countries2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The foreign aid sector is expanding each year, distributing hundreds of billions of USD per year to the least developed countries of the world. Meanwhile, extensive research has found that aid is not an efficient way to stimulate economic growth in the recipients. Neither is it an effective way to increase long-term sustainable development. While a major debate is going on regarding what actions can be taken to increase the efficiency of foreign aid, a parallel discussion is going on regarding whether the motives of the donor countries are complicit in making the aid inefficient. This thesis examines the contemporary discourse on motives behind foreign aid allocation and puts together an analytical framework for distinguishing between humanitarian, developmental and strategical motives. This framework is used to interpret the results of an empirical study covering two groups of donors; five donors that have previously been found to prioritize their own interests over those of the recipients, and five donors with a more altruistic profile within the literature on the topic. The results of this study corroborate those findings, while emphasizing the impact of colonial- and regional ties for both groups of donors.

  • 140.
    Stringberg, Frida
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Does financial sector development have an effect on economic growth?: A study of sub-saharan africa2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the financial sector in helping an economy grow has been the subject of debate for a long time. Recently, however, consensus has been reached, through empirical evidence, showing the importance of financial sector development in achieving economic growth (ADB, 2009). Using the Global Financial Development Database (GFDD) model, the study done here will provide an analysis of financial sector development in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effect on economic growth, using data for 40 countries, in the years from 2000-2014. This analysis was done using a cross-sectional regression analysis of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with data provided from the World Bank. The regression shows significantly positive results between economic growth and firms using banks to finance investments, bank cost to income ratio and bank credit to bank deposits, while significantly negative results are shown in financial system deposits and stock market total value traded. However, seeing as financial sector development is diverse and dynamic, these measurements and the regression done here will not provide a comprehensive picture of the state of financial sector development in SSA.

  • 141.
    Söderlund, B.
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Ratio.
    Capital Freedom, Financial Development and Provincial Economic Growth in China2017In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 764-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For more than three decades, China has managed to combine rapid economic growth with a strictly regulated financial sector. The discrepancy between economic and financial development has raised the question of whether China might be an exception to the so-called finance-growth nexus. This study examines the relationship between finance and growth at the provincial level in China using a new set of measures of capital freedom and financial development. The results indicate that capital freedom and financial development are associated with both higher income and growth rates. In particular, we find that the marketisation of financial institutions and strengthening of legal and government institutions have a particularly strong impact on income and growth in low-income provinces.

  • 142.
    Uzel, Tuba
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Clark, Emelie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Utbildning och Ekonomisk tillväxt: - En empirisk tvärsnittsanalys av sambandet mellan utbildning och ekonomisk tillväxt inom OECD2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet kapital har under det senaste årtiondet kommit att syfta till mer än bara fast kapital i form av rena pengar. Idag inrymmer detta begrepp även humankapitalet som är något individer kan bygga upp genom att utbilda sig. Detta humankapital har visat sig vara lukrativt att investera i. En investering i utbildning leder alltså till ett ökat humankapital vilket i sin tur leder till ekonomisk tillväxt. Denna studie ämnar att empiriskt bevisa om detta stämmer med hjälp av data från 2010-2015 för OECD- länderna. En tvärsnittsstudie genomförs med hjälp av en regressionsmodell som kontrollerar för variablerna utbildning, hälsa, investering i teknologi, populationstillväxt, initial BNP, handel. Teorierna om det positiva sambandet mellan utbildning och tillväxt konfirmeras iochmed denna studie, vilken bygger på de allra senaste siffrorna gällande OECD-länderna. Studien visar att det finns ett samband mellan antalet utbildningsår ekonomisk tillväxt per capita. 

  • 143.
    Vaghult, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The Bonus-Malus system: Will it be a cost-effective and fair policy for emission reductions from road traffic in Sweden?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As emissions of greenhouse gases has become one of our times most urgent issues, the policies implemented by governments in effort to reduce them are many and varied. In Sweden, a feebate system for vehicles was implemented in mid 2018. This paper attempts to answer the question whether or not the bonus-side (a subsidy for electric vehicles) of the policy will reduce emissions in a cost-efficient and fair way. The questions in answered by using material available to those who made the decision, and by looking at previous research and data. Mathematical examples of the cost, through the cost of the policy, of reduction is compared to EU ETS to evaluate cost-efficiency. The fairness aspect is reviewed by studying regional data. The conclusions are that the policy is neither cost-efficient nor is it free from interregional equity concerns.

  • 144.
    Valenzuela Morales, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Kamara, Rosevelt
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    How does Foreign direct investment affect economic growth in the OECD countries?: A panel data analysis for the period 1996 and 2010 on FDI and economic growth2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) has since Dunning in the academic literature, by international organisations and countries been viewed as an important precursor to determine the level of economic growth. FDI is suggested to have a positive effect on long-run economic growth in the host country. Previous studies show evidence that the positive effect of FDI on economic growth should not be taken for granted. The extent to which FDI promotes economic growth is largely based on complementary factors which include among others human capital, education, infrastructure, health, population and a technology gap. This essay investigates and estimates the effect of FDI and human capital on economic growth in 28 OECD countries over the period of 1996 to 2010. Three regression were conducted. Our results show over the period studied a positive effect of FDI on economic growth, the result are not statistically significant in all regressions. Population is significant in all regressions but has a mixed effect on economic growth. Human capital proxied as secondary education attainment shows a mixed effect on economic growth and is not significant in all regressions. For the remaining independent variables (see table 7), the results show that Life expectancy and Government expenditure have a significant effect on economic growth. However, Trade is not statistically significant in the regressions. 

  • 145.
    Wallström, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Värdering av god vattenkvalitet i Brunnsviken: Effekten av närhet till vattnet på betalningsviljan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För höga halter av näringsämnen och miljögifter i sjöar och vattendrag kan orsaka algblomningar, försämrat siktdjup, förändrade ekosystem, svårigheter att bada och oätlig fisk. Brunnsviken är en av de vattenförekomster som i dagsläget inte uppnår Vattenmyndighetens kriterier för god ekologisk status. För att uppnå målet krävs att åtgärder genomförs och därmed att det finns uppgifter om de kostnader och nyttor som åtgärderna leder till. I den här uppsatsen redovisas resultatet från en enkätstudie som undersöker betalningsviljan bland boende i Stockholms kommun för att genomföra åtgärder som leder till att Brunnsvikens ekologiska status går från otillfredsställande till god innan år 2027. Därutöver genomförs en regressionsanalys för att undersöka huruvida betalningsviljan är högre bland de invånarnare som bor i Brunnsvikens närområde än i övriga Stockholm. Resultatet visar att hushållen i genomsnitt är beredda att betala 465 - 552 kr årligen (i tio år) för en förbättring av vattenkvaliteten i Brunnsviken. Nuvärdet av nyttan skattas till ca 1,7 – 2 miljarder kronor, vilket kan jämföras med åtgärdskostnaderna som skattas till ca 90 miljoner kronor. Detta indikerar att åtgärderna är samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma att genomföra. Resultatet från regressionsanalysen visar att det finns ett positivt samband mellan att bo nära vattenförekomsten och viljan att betala. Däremot påverkar avståndet inte hur stort belopp respondenten är beredd att betala. Personer som anser att det är viktigt med bra fiske i Stockholms sjöar och vattendrag har både signifikant högre sannolikhet att vilja betala och är beredda att betala mer än andra.

  • 146.
    Westin, Fanny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Teah, Grant
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Hur kvalitetsaspekter påverkar betalningsviljan av bostadsrätter: En tvärsnittsstudie om hedonisk prissättning av bostadsrätter i Stockholms innerstad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    C-uppsatsens ändamål inriktar sig på att förstå hur olika faktorer influerar bostadspriserna och hur konsumenters betalningsvilja styrs av olika kvalitetsaspekter rörande bostadsrätter. Studien bygger på en empirisk analys som har som utgångspunkt att från teorier härleda hypoteser som hjälper oss förstå hur olika kvalitetsaspekter påverkar priset av en bostadsrätt. Genom hedoniska modellen undersöker vi de underliggande omständigheterna till varför en viss bostad kostar mer än en annan. Balkong, läge och vacker utsikt är några av de attribut som gör bostaden mer eller mindre attraktiv på marknaden och dessa kan vara faktorer som genererar ett ökat värde på bostaden.

    När vi studerat resultatet av individers preferenser kan vi anta ett förväntat värde på bostadsrätten med den hedoniska prissättningen. Studien pekar på det faktum att priset för samma bostad kan variera beroende på konsument och hur konsumenten värdesätter olika kvalitetsaspekter. Eftersom konsumenter har olika preferenser genererar dessa kvalitetsaspekter och egenskaper ett unikt värde för köparen (bostadspriset). I regressionsanalysen kan man se att kvalitetsaspekterna som boyta, antal rum, avgift, våning, stadsdelar samt byggnadsår (bostadskvalitet) är faktorer som påverkar individers betalningsvilja. 

  • 147.
    Widman, Marit
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Steen, Margareta
    Swedish Centre for Animal Welfare, SCAW; wedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Indirect Costs of Sheep Depredation by Large Carnivores in Sweden2019In: Wildlife Society bulletin, ISSN 0091-7648, E-ISSN 1938-5463, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore depredation gives rise to direct costs for killed and injured animals as well as indirectcosts due to productivity losses and additional labor requirements. Our aim was to investigate indirect costs to sheep farmers in Sweden due to carnivore depredation and presence. We estimated these costs using surveydata describing conditions in 2013. Reproduction and time spent on fence maintenance and taking care of animals were analyzed to isolate effects of carnivore exposure from other factors that affect these variables. Results indicate that both high carnivore densities and attacks are associated with comparatively lower sheep reproduction. Farmers who experienced an attack spent much more on labor for maintaining fences, searching for lost animals, and bringing the animals in for the night. Results suggest that the indirect cost per adult female sheep is EUR23 for nonattacked herds in areas with high carnivore densities; EUR71 in herds that were attacked and where sheep are kept on fenced grazing land; and EUR100 on attacked summer-pasture farms, where free-range grazing is applied. A flat rate compensation per adult female sheep, differentiated between herds in areas with high carnivore density that have not been attacked and herds that have been attacked could be used to compensate sheep farmers for these costs.

  • 148.
    Åfors, Signe
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Unethical Conduct & Stock Prices: A case study on the wealth effects of unethical corporate behavior2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important and multiple corporations that have been exposed for unethical behavior have been harshly penalized by the market. This study aims at evaluating wealth effects of unethical corporate behavior by doing a case study, in which an in-depth analysis is conducted on four infamous corporate scandals; Wells Fargo, HSBC, Danske Bank, and Volkswagen. Share prices are compared to an approximation of what the prices could have been, had the scandals not been revealed, to give an indication on abnormal returns around the announcement of the corporate scandals. The approximation is based on the share’s previous correlation with market returns. Results of the study are then contrasted to and analyzed with regard to findings of previously conducted event studies on the wealth loss suffered due to exposed unethical behavior. It is found that the corporate scandals resulted in substantial direct wealth losses in terms of market cap value and shareholder wealth for two of our cases, Wells Fargo and Volkswagen. The value decrease that Danske Bank suffered was also substantial, but had a lag in discernible market reactions in comparison to Wells Fargo and Volkswagen. HSBC has in recent years been lagging behind our price approximation, but any direct negative effect from the scandal announcement cannot be observed.

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