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  • 1. Isaac, Sara
    et al.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institute.
    Zohar, Tal
    Lazar, David
    Kahan, Tamar
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institute.
    Cohen, Amikam
    Interaction of Epe1 with the heterochromatin assembly pathway in Schizosaccharomyces pombe2007Ingår i: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 175, nr 4, s. 1549-1560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epe1 is a JmjC domain protein that antagonizes heterochromatization in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Related JmjC domain proteins catalyze a histone demethylation reaction that depends on Fe(II) and alpha-ketoglutarate. However, no detectable demethylase activity is associated with Epe1, and its JmjC domain lacks conservation of Fe(II)-binding residues. We report that Swi6 recruits Epe1 to heterochromatin and that overexpression of epe1(+), like mutations in silencing genes or overexpression of swi6(+), upregulates expression of certain genes. A significant overlap was observed between the lists of genes that are upregulated by overexpression of epe1(+) and those that are upregulated by mutations in histone deacetylase genes. However, most of the common genes are not regulated by Clr4 histone methyltransferase. This suggests that Epe1 interacts with the heterochromatin assembly pathway at the stage of histone deacetylation. Mutational inactivation of Epe1 downregulates similar to 12% of S. pombe genes, and the list of these genes overlaps significantly with the lists of genes that are upregulated by mutations in silencing genes and genes that are hyperacetylated at their promoter regions in clr6-1 mutants. We propose that an interplay between the repressive HDACs activity and Epe1 helps to regulate gene expression in S. pombe.

  • 2. Khorosjutina, Olga
    et al.
    Wanrooij, Paulina H.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Szilagyi, Zsolt
    Zhu, Xuefeng
    Baraznenok, Vera
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Gustafsson, Claes M.
    A Chromatin-remodeling Protein Is a Component of Fission Yeast Mediator2010Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 285, nr 39, s. 29729-29737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The multiprotein Mediator complex is an important regulator of RNA polymerase II-dependent genes in eukaryotic cells. In contrast to the situation in many other eukaryotes, the conserved Med15 protein is not a stable component of Mediator isolated from fission yeast. We here demonstrate that Med15 exists in a protein complex together with Hrp1, a CHD1 ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling protein. The Med15-Hrp1 subcomplex is not a component of the core Mediator complex but can interact with the L-Mediator conformation. Deletion of med15(+) and hrp1(+) causes very similar effects on global steady-state levels of mRNA, and genome-wide analyses demonstrate that Med15 associates with a distinct subset of Hrp1-bound gene promoters. Our findings therefore indicate that Mediator may directly influence histone density at regulated promoters.

  • 3.
    Opel, Michael
    et al.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Lando, David
    Gurdon Institute and Department of Pathology, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Bonilla, Carolina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Trewick, Sarah C.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Boukaba, Abdelhalim
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Cauwood, James
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Werler, Petra J. H.
    University of Sussex, Falmer, Sussex, United Kingdom.
    Carr, Antony M.
    University of Sussex, Falmer, Sussex, United Kingdom.
    Kouzarides, Tony
    Gurdon Institute and Department of Pathology, Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Murzina, Natalia V.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Allshire, Robin C.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Laue, Ernest D.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Genome-Wide Studies of Histone Demethylation Catalysed by the Fission Yeast Homologues of Mammalian LSD12007Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, nr 4, artikel-id e386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to gain a more global view of the activity of histone demethylases, we report here genome-wide studies of the fission yeast SWIRM and polyamine oxidase (PAO) domain homologues of mammalian LSD1. Consistent with previous work we find that the two S. pombe proteins, which we name Swm1 and Swm2 (after SWIRM1 and SWIRM2), associate together in a complex. However, we find that this complex specifically demethylates lysine 9 in histone H3 (H3K9) and both up-and down-regulates expression of different groups of genes. Using chromatin-immunoprecipitation, to isolate fragments of chromatin containing either H3K4me2 or H3K9me2, and DNA microarray analysis (ChIP-chip), we have studied genome-wide changes in patterns of histone methylation, and their correlation with gene expression, upon deletion of the swm1(+) gene. Using hyper-geometric probability comparisons we uncover genetic links between lysine-specific demethylases, the histone deacetylase Clr6, and the chromatin remodeller Hrp1. The data presented here demonstrate that in fission yeast the SWIRM/PAO domain proteins Swm1 and Swm2 are associated in complexes that can remove methyl groups from lysine 9 methylated histone H3. In vitro, we show that bacterially expressed Swm1 also possesses lysine 9 demethylase activity. In vivo, loss of Swm1 increases the global levels of both H3K9me2 and H3K4me2. A significant accumulation of H3K4me2 is observed at genes that are up-regulated in a swm1 deletion strain. In addition, H3K9me2 accumulates at some genes known to be direct Swm1/2 targets that are down-regulated in the swm1 Delta strain. The in vivo data indicate that Swm1 acts in concert with the HDAC Clr6 and the chromatin remodeller Hrp1 to repress gene expression. In addition, our in vitro analyses suggest that the H3K9 demethylase activity requires an unidentified post-translational modification to allow it to act. Thus, our results highlight complex interactions between histone demethylase, deacetylase and chromatin remodelling activities in the regulation of gene expression.

  • 4.
    Provost, P
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Silverstein, Rebecca A
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Dishart, D
    Karolinska Institute.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Djupedal, Ingela
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Kniola, Barbara
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Wright, Anthony P H
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Samuelsson, B
    Karolinska Institute.
    Radmark, O
    Karolinska Institute.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Dicer is required for chromosome segregation and gene silencing in fission yeast cells2002Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 99, nr 26, s. 16648-16653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA interference is a form of gene silencing in which the nuclease Dicer cleaves double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNAs. Here we report a role for Dicer in chromosome segregation of fission yeast. Deletion of the Dicer (dcr1(+)) gene caused slow growth, sensitivity to thiabendazole, lagging chromosomes during anaphase, and abrogated silencing of centromeric repeats. As Dicer in other species, Dcr1p degraded double-stranded RNA into approximate to23 nucleotide fragments in vitro, and dcr1Delta cells were partially rescued by expression of human Dicer, indicating evolutionarily conserved functions. Expression profiling demonstrated that dcr1(+) was required for silencing of two genes containing a conserved motif.

  • 5. Strålfors, Annelie
    et al.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Bhuiyan, Hasanuzzaman
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    The FUN30 Chromatin Remodeler, Fft3, Protects Centromeric and Subtelomeric Domains from Euchromatin Formation2011Ingår i: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 7, nr 3, artikel-id e1001334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chromosomes of eukaryotes are organized into structurally and functionally discrete domains. This implies the presence of insulator elements that separate adjacent domains, allowing them to maintain different chromatin structures. We show that the Fun30 chromatin remodeler, Fft3, is essential for maintaining a proper chromatin structure at centromeres and subtelomeres. Fft3 is localized to insulator elements and inhibits euchromatin assembly in silent chromatin domains. In its absence, euchromatic histone modifications and histone variants invade centromeres and subtelomeres, causing a mis-regulation of gene expression and severe chromosome segregation defects. Our data strongly suggest that Fft3 controls the identity of chromatin domains by protecting these regions from euchromatin assembly.

  • 6.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    The CHD chromatin remodeling factors in schizosaccharomyces pombe2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of chromatin structure is essential in a wide variety of processes including transcriptional regulation, recombination, replication, chromosome segregation, development and differentiation. The enzymes that are central in regulating chromatin structure can be classified into two major groups. The first group of proteins consists of the histone modifying enzymes that catalyse the addition or removal of posttranslational modifications of histones. The second group of proteins is the highly conserved ATP-dependent remodeling factors that modify the nucleosome structure. Evidence is emerging that these two groups of proteins are intimately linked in chromatin function. This thesis describes the roles of the S. pombe Hrp1 and Hrp3 CHD remodeling factors in chromatin regulation, which have been shown to be important in centromere function and transcriptional regulation. The Hrp remodeling factors are functionally linked to the histone chaperone Nap1 as well as acetylation and methylation activities. We have demonstrated that Hrp1 has both independent and overlapping roles with Hrp3 in regulating centromere assembly and function. Both hrp1 and hrp3 deficient cells are disrupted in centromere silencing and display various chromosome segregation defects indicative of functions at both the outer repeats and the central core of the centromere. These phenotypes are likely to originate from the requirement of Hrp1 in keeping the centromeres hypoacetylated and for maintaining the histone H3 variant CENP-A at the central core of the centromere. Genetic interactions combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation indicate that Hrp1 stimulates CENP-A assembly during DNA replication. In addition to their centromere functions, the Hrp remodeling factors contribute to transcriptional regulation by promoting histone removal. Biochemical purifications identified a physical interaction between Hrp1 and Hrp3 and with the histone chaperone Nap1. Consistent with the physical interaction data, genome wide analysis showed that the CHD remodeling factors together with Nap1 have a common function in removing histones particularly at promoter regions. Interestingly, we found that histone disassembly in coding regions by both Hrp1 and Hrp3 promote transcriptional activation. Cell synchronisation studies revealed that the Hrp1 dependent histone disassembly occurs in a DNA replication independent manner. A functional interaction between acetylation and remodeling activity was established based on the high degree of overlap between the Hrp ATPases, regions affected by Nap1 histone density, and corresponding histone deacetylase and histone acetylase targets. Finally, we discovered that regions with upregulated genes and altered levels of histone modifications in the HDAC clr6-1 mutant were significantly similar to equivalent lists for the histone demethyl transferase swm1 mutant. In addition, the same regions with upregulated genes and effects on histone modification levels in the swm1 and clr6 mutant overlapped with Hrp1 and Hrp3 binding targets. Thus, it is likely that Swm1 act in concert with Clr6 and Hrp1 to mediate transcriptional silencing. Thus, HDACs, HATs, and HMTs are intimately linked in vivo to CHD nucleosome remodeling factors as well as histone chaperones in centromere assembly and transcriptional regulation.

  • 7.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institute.
    Bjerling, Pernilla
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institute.
    Thalen, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institute.
    Yoo, Eung-Jae
    Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
    Park, Sang Dai
    Seoul national University, Seoul, Korea.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institute.
    The CHD remodeling factor Hrp1 stimulates CENP-A loading to centromeres2005Ingår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 33, nr 9, s. 2868-2879Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Centromeres of fission yeast are arranged with a central core DNA sequence flanked by repeated sequences. The centromere-associated histone H3 variant Cnp1 ( SpCENP-A) binds exclusively to central core DNA, while the heterochromatin proteins and cohesins bind the surrounding outer repeats. CHD (chromo-helicase/ ATPase DNA binding) chromatin remodeling factors were recently shown to affect chromatin assembly in vitro. Here, we report that the CHD protein Hrp1 plays a key role at fission yeast centromeres. The hrp1&UDelta; mutant disrupts silencing of the outer repeats and central core regions of the centromere and displays chromosome segregation defects characteristic for dysfunction of both regions. Importantly, Hrp1 is required to maintain high levels of Cnp1 and low levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation at the central core region. Hrp1 interacts directly with the centromere in early S-phase when centromeres are replicated, suggesting that Hrp1 plays a direct role in chromatin assembly during DNA replication.

  • 8.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Khorosjutina, Olga
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Gustafsson, Claes M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    A genome wide role for CHD remodelling factors and Nap1 in nucleosome disassemblyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Khorosjutina, Olga
    Matikainen, Paulina
    Gustafsson, Claes M.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    A genome-wide role for CHD remodelling factors and Nap1 in nucleosome disassembly2007Ingår i: EMBO Journal, ISSN 0261-4189, E-ISSN 1460-2075, Vol. 26, nr 12, s. 2868-2879Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromatin remodelling factors and histone chaperones were previously shown to cooperatively affect nucleosome assembly and disassembly processes in vitro. Here, we show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe CHD remodellers, the Hrp1 and Hrp3 paralogs physically interact with the histone chaperone Nap1. Genome- wide analysis of Hrp1, Hrp3 and Nap1 occupancy, combined with nucleosome density measurements revealed that the CHD factors and Nap1 colocalized in particular to promoter regions where they remove nucleosomes near the transcriptional start site. Hrp1 and Hrp3 also regulate nucleosome density in coding regions, where they have redundant roles to stimulate transcription. Previously, DNA replication-dependent and -independent nucleosome disassembly processes have been described. We found that nucleosome density increased in the hrp1 mutant in the absence of DNA replication. Finally, regions where nucleosome density increased in hrp1, hrp3 and nap1 mutants also showed nucleosome density and histone modification changes in HDAC and HAT mutants. Thus, this study revealed an important in vivo role for CHD remodellers and Nap1 in nucleosome disassembly at promoters and coding regions, which are linked to changes in histone acetylation.

  • 10.
    Wiren, Marianna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Silverstein, Rebecca A
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Sinha, Indranil
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Lee, Hang-mao
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Laurenson, P
    University of California, San Diego, USA.
    Pillus, L
    University of California, San Diego, USA.
    Robyr, D
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Grunstein, M
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Genomewide analysis of nucleosome density histone acetylation and HDAC function in fission yeast2005Ingår i: EMBO Journal, ISSN 0261-4189, E-ISSN 1460-2075, Vol. 24, nr 16, s. 2906-2918Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have conducted a genomewide investigation into the enzymatic specificity, expression profiles, and binding locations of four histone deacetylases (HDACs), representing the three different phylogenetic classes in fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe). By directly comparing nucleosome density, histone acetylation patterns and HDAC binding in both intergenic and coding regions with gene expression profiles, we found that Sir2 ( class III) and Hos2 ( class I) have a role in preventing histone loss; Clr6 ( class I) is the principal enzyme in promoter-localized repression. Hos2 has an unexpected role in promoting high expression of growth-related genes by deacetylating H4K16Ac in their open reading frames. Clr3 ( class II) acts cooperatively with Sir2 throughout the genome, including the silent regions: rDNA, centromeres, mat2/3 and telomeres. The most significant acetylation sites are H3K14Ac for Clr3 and H3K9Ac for Sir2 at their genomic targets. Clr3 also affects subtelomeric regions which contain clustered stress- and meiosis-induced genes. Thus, this combined genomic approach has uncovered different roles for fission yeast HDACs at the silent regions in repression and activation of gene expression.

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