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  • 251.
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Book Review: Russia's Arctic Strategies and the Future of the Far North2014In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 66, no 10, 1737-1738 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Comparing social movements in democratic and hybrid regimes: the methodological contribution of discursive opportunities2014In: On conference website, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Current state and future prospects of nuclear energy in the Baltic Sea Region countries2014Report (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Energy projects from the perspective of society: Analyzing responses and actions of environmental organizations2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [Review of:] Russian Energy and Security up to 20302015In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 67, no 6, 995-996 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Edberg, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Large-scale energy projects: Geopolitics, legitimization and emotions2014In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. online, no June 27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 257.
    Tessmann, Anna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Study of religions.
    On the Good Faith: A Fourfold Discursive Construction of Zoroastrianism in Contemporary Russia2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Zoroastrianism is ascribed to the teachings of the legendary prophet Zarathustra and originated in ancient times. It was developed within the area populated by the Iranian peoples, and following the Arab conquest, it formed into a diaspora. In modern Russia it has evolved since the endof the Soviet era. It has become an attractive object of cultural productiondue to its association with Oriental philosophies and religions and its rearticulation since the modern era in Europe.

    The lasting appeal of Zoroastrianism evidenced by centuries of book publishingin Russia was enlivened in the 1990s. A new, religious, and even occult dimension was introduced with the appearance of neo-Zoroastrian groups with their own publications and online websites (dedicated to Zoroastrianism). This study focuses on the intersectional relationships and topical analysis of different Zoroastrian themes in modern Russia.

  • 258.
    Tikkala, Terhi
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Who Framed Kaliningrad?: How the Region Became ”Russia’s Hell-Hole Enclave2006In: Contemporary Change in Kaliningrad: A Window to Europe? / [ed] Rindzeviciute, Egle, Huddinge: Center for Baltic & East European Studies , 2006, 55-65 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Turunen, Jaakko
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Semiotics of Politics: Dialogicality of Parliamentary Talk2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parliamentary talk, despite its central place in politics, has not been the focus of many qualitative studies. The present study investigates how parliamentary talk emerges in a dialogue between different arguments in the parliament. At the same time, this is a study of politics, of how human interaction gives birth to laws that regulate life in two contemporary democracies, Slovakia and Poland. It provides a close-reading of two political debates: on the state language in Slovakia and on gender parity in Poland.

    This study draws on hermeneutic and semiotic thinkers such as Gadamer, Bakhtin and Lotman to elaborate a dialogical understanding of language that can provide the basis for a method of textual analysis. The dialogical understanding of language emphasises that text and talk must be studied in the context of an interaction. The unit of analysis is a pair of utterances, a question and an answer. Until an utterance has been interpreted, it carries only the potential of meaning; its meaning is materialised by the responses it receives.

    The study further argues that conversation analysis and its tools can usefully be applied to the study of political debate. The method provides for the analysis of the dynamics between micro-scale interaction in the parliament and the macro-scale dynamics of culture. These dynamics assume two different forms that Lotman termed as “translation” and “explosion”.

    The study shows that parliamentary debate is characterised by a constantly evolving topic of discussion, namely that the meaning of the bill at the start of the debate and at the end of the debate are really two different bills. This is not because the content of the bill has undergone changes, but because in the course of the debate, the bill has generated new cultural connections. Casting a vote in support of the bill does not approve just the bill itself but a whole set of interconnected political, social and cultural values—what Lotman approached as the semiosphere. This study suggests Lotman’s cultural semiotics can provide for “imperfect hermeneutics” that is sensitive to the dynamic and contested nature of tradition in politics whilst acknowledging the inevitability of culture in mediating political talk. 

  • 260.
    Törnqvist, Oscar
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Maritime Archaeological Research Institute.
    Fler fyrkantiga fartyg2010In: Marinarkeologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-9632, no 1, 17-18 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 261.
    Törnqvist, Oscar
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Maritime Archaeological Research Institute.
    I väntan på invasionen: stämmer larmrapporterna som anger att skeppsmasken håller på att erövra Östersjön?2010In: Marinarkeologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-9632, no 2, 13-18 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Törnqvist, Oscar
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Maritime Archaeological Research Institute.
    Kullbådaviken – från centralpunkt till fridfull naturhamn2010In: Marinarkeologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-9632, no 4, 10-13 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Velkova, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Media Technologies in the Making: User-driven Software and Infrastructures for Computer Graphics Production2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades there have emerged greater possibilities for users and consumers of media to create or engage in the creation of digital media technologies. This PhD dissertation explores the ways in which the broadening of possibilities for making technologies, specifically software, has been taken advantage of by new producers of digital culture – freelancers, aspiring digital media creators and small studios – in the production of digital visual media. It is based on two empirical case studies that concern the making of free software for computer graphics animation production in two contexts: by a loose collective of anime fans in Siberia, Russia, and by a small animation studio in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The case studies are presented and analysed in the scope of four journal articles and one book chapter which form the core of the dissertation.

    The dissertation draws on a media practice perspective and an understanding of software as an artefact that concentrates and mediates specific infrastructural arrangements that entangle politics of technological production, economic interests and practice-related concerns. The analytical focus of the research problematises in particular practices of software decommodification and its further repair and development by non-programmers; the anchoring of software development and repair in actual production practices of computer graphics animations; and a commitment to sharing software, animations and other artefacts online as commons. The thesis combines several concepts from anthropology and science and technology studies to theorise these practices: – politics and regimes of value (Appadurai, 1986); repair and artful integrations (Jackson, 2014; Suchman, 2000); gifting (Baudrillard, 1981; Mauss, 1925/2002) and autonomy (cf Bourdieu, 1993). Bringing together these concepts, the dissertation regards them as constitutive and indicative of what I refer to as ‘media-related infrastructuring practices’, or practices in which non-programmers generate infrastructures through creating and mediating arrangements around technical artefacts like software.

    The results of the dissertation indicate how making free software for computer graphics media is entangled in diverse conditions of technological unevenness that may enable, but also limit, the possibilities of aspiring media creators to improve their status or work positions in the broader field of digital media.

  • 264.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Between Two Democratic Ideals: Gendering in the Russian Culture of Political Journalism2014In: Women in Politics and Media: Perspectives from Nations in Transition / [ed] Maria Raicheva-Stover & Elza Ibroscheva, New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014, 115-130 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the attitudes of Russian journalists toward media representations of women politicians. It seeks to answer the following questions: How does the culture of political journalism influence gendering of women politicians? And what makes the Russian culture of political journalism unique when it comes to the coverage women politicians get? The chapter addresses the journalists’ interpretations of the low number of women politicians in media content, and turns to the journalists’ reasoning behind gender spotlighting and stereotyping. Highlighting the contradictions between the ideas, practices, and ideals present in the culture of the ‘quality’ political journalism in Russia, the chapter discusses how journalists envision the future of media representations of women politicians and how this relates to the problem of gender inequality in the political realm.

  • 265.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gender balance in the media content: Swedish experience of self-regulation2010In: Gender and Media, Moscow: Moscow State University Press, 2010, 105-133 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gender v politicheskoj zhurnalistike Rossii i Shvetsii: sravnitelnyj analiz transformiruyuschikhsya media-kul’tur dvukh stran Baltijskogo regiona (Gender in political journalism in Russia and Sweden: a comparative analysis of transforming media cultures of the two countries in Baltic region)2012In: Mass Media after Post-Socialism: Trends of 2000s: Extended abstracts’ collection / [ed] Vartanova, Elena, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, MSU , 2012, 110-114 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Gendering in political journalism: a comparative study of Russia and Sweden2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The news media are expected to provide equal space to female and male political actors, promoting the idea of equal access to political power, since they are recognized as a holder of power with a social responsibility to respect gender equality. However, as previous research shows, political news coverage is characterized by so-called “gendered mediation” (Gidengil and Everitt 1999), i.e., gender imbalance, stereotypes, and a lack of discussions about gender inequality. Scholars point to media logic, organization, and individual characteristics of journalists as the main reasons for this pattern, but still very little is known about how and why gendered mediation is practiced and processed in political news.

    This dissertation focuses on gendering understood as the perceived imprint of gender on the media portrayal of politics and politicians, as well as the processes by which gendered representations materialize. By applying a perspective of comparative journalism culture studies (Hanitzsch 2007; Hanitzsch and Donsbach 2012), it examines the processes and modes of origin of gendering as they are perceived and experienced by journalists. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with 40 journalists working for the quality press in Russia and Sweden.

    The results show that the national culture of political journalism, and the context it is located within, are of crucial importance for understanding gendering and its modes of origin. Gendering may cause problems to the democratic development of society and the position of the quality press in it; however, it also offers a potential for promoting gender equality. The choice of the form of gendering does not fully depend on journalists. It depends on the contextual possibilities for journalists to fulfill the gender-ethical ideal of the quality outlet as long as they need to meet the demands of society and market, and to face the challenges of political communication.

  • 268.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    To joke off-the-cuff is men’s job?: A multilayered analysis of Russian infotainment TV programs Projectorparishilton and Devchata2012In: Acting-Up: Gender and Television Comedy : A Day Symposium at Northumbria University, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a time when neo-conservative tendencies in gender representations are acquiring more and more popularity in the media worldwide – and the domain of humour is certainly no exception (e.g. the US show The Talk) – are there parallel trends to be detected in countries where feminism never has received widespread recognition, as in the case of Russia? What can we learn about gender stereotypes from contemporary Russian infotainment TV shows? This paper will explore these questions by studying two popular shows, Projectorparishilton (“The Paris Hilton’ Projector”) and Devchata (“The Girls”). These weekly ironic-analytical programmes are broadcast prime time on the national channels Channel One and Rossiya-1 and somewhat resembling the format of programmes like Loose Women and The View. With its four male anchors, Projectorparishilton aimed to attract a younger and more progressive audience of both genders and from the beginning ignored any specific gender orientation. By contrast, Devchata – with its female anchors – was explicitly launched with a female audience as their target group, producing a type of humour recognized by essentialists as “female”.Applying a critical perspective, we study verbal and non-verbal constituents of the programmes (including music, gestures, etc.), the interior of the studio, the appearance, behaviour (and jokes!) of the anchors, in order to study how gender, age, culture and nationality are encoded/signified. Based on Laura Mulvey’s term “male gaze”, we introduce the notion of “male humour”, which is implicit not only in the way the anchors appear as subjects and objects of jokes; but also in the position taken by the viewer, regardless of gender. At heart, we question the gendered nature of humour in general and the creation of “women’s space” in the media, which in fact is a reinforcement of traditional gender (and other) stereotypes.

  • 269.
    Wawrzeniuk, Piotr
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Confessional Civilising in Ukraine: The Bishop Iosyf Shumliansky and the Introduction of Reforms in the Diocese of Lviv 1668-17082005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This work examines and analyses the reform attempts undertaken by the Greek Orthodox and Uniate Bishop of Lviv, Iosyf Shumliansky, during his episcopacy (1668-1708). These reforms are seen as a means of facing the intensified confessionalising pressures at state and regional levels in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The analysis focuses on the Bishop’s model priest as illustrated in his handbook for the clergy; the influence the Bishop and the Consistorial Court had over the parish clergy; the types of litigation and the categories of plaintiff in the cases concerning the parish clergy; and the clergy’s behaviour. Iosyf Shumliansky required the clergy to adjust its behaviour and educational standards to be similar to those of the nobility and Roman Catholic clergy. The parish clergy should refrain from dressing like peasants, becoming too close to the villagers and from participating too enthusiastically in village festivities. They should learn Polish and Latin. The Bishop expected the clergy to adopt a style of dress and behaviour that would distinguish and elevate it as a group above the mass of the peasantry. Included in the analysis, are cases from the Lviv and Halych main deaneries but not the main deanery of Kamianets Podilsky. The Bishop and the Consistorial Court had good control over most of the western and central regions of the Diocese. The Court could not control the situation in the eastern territories, as it was unsafe because of wars, Tatar raids and occupation by Ottoman forces. The possibility for Shumliansky to influence the parish clergy through the Court in these regions was limited. Their participation in court proceedings was negligible. The most common type of litigation was official misconduct by the priests. After that came violence, finance and defamation. The most common category of plaintiff was parish priests, followed by nobles and honest/reputable/townsmen. In the study, violence has been treated as a means of interaction and communication. It would appear that the status of the parish clergy was often frail and had to be publicly, vigorously and violently defended. Many of the clergy could not live up to the demands of the Bishop because they lived as and among peasants.

  • 270.
    Wawrzeniuk, Piotr
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Malitska, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Approaching the "Lost Swedish Tribe" in Ukraine2014In: The Lost Swedish Tribe: Reapproaching the history of Gammalsvenskby in Ukraine / [ed] Piotr Wawrzeniuk & Julia Malitska, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, 1, , 151 p.13-35 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Wawrzeniuk, Piotr
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Malitska, JuliaSödertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The Lost Swedish Tribe: Reapproaching the history of Gammalsvenskby in Ukraine2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the spring of 1782 a group of peasants of Swedish origin reached their destination on the right bank of Dnipro River in Ukraine. The village they founded became known as “Gammalsvenskby” (Russian “Staroshvedskoe,” English “Old Swedish Village”). In the 1880s links were established with Sweden and Swedophone Finland where the villagers were seen through a nationalistic-romantic prism and in broad circles became known as a brave group of people who had preserved their Swedish culture in hostile surroundings; in the terminology of this volume, a “lost Swedish tribe”. The village remained largely intact until 1929, when in the aftermath of the Russian revolution a majority of the villagers decided to leave for Sweden. When they arrived, there was disappointment. Neither Sweden nor the lost tribe lived up to expectations. Some of the villagers returned to Ukraine and the USSR.

    This book offers an alternative perspective on Gammalsvenskby. The changing fortunes of the villagers are largely seen in the light of two grand top-down modernization projects – Russia’s imperial, originating in the latter half of the eighteenth century, and the Soviet, carried out in the early 1920s – but also of the modernization projects in Sweden and Finland. The story the book has to tell of Gammalsvenskby is a new one, and moreover, it is a story of relevance also for the history of Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and Finland.

  • 272.
    Werther, Steffen
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History.
    Die Auswirkungen des „Unternehmen Barbarossa" auf die Werbung „germanischer" Freiwilliger durch die Waffen-SS in Dänemark2004In: Barbarossa / [ed] Benz, Wigbert, 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Werther, Steffen
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History.
    Dänische Freiwillige in der Waffen-SS2004Book (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Werther, Steffen
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History.
    ,Großgermanische’ Träume und nationalistische Realitäten: Eine Fallstudie zur Entwicklung im dänischen Sønderjylland2010In: Norden und Nördlichkeit: Darstellungen vom Eigenen und Fremden / [ed] Hormuth, Dennis & Maike Schmidt, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang , 2010, 139-159 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Werther, Steffen
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History.
    Nazi, German and Danish Identities in Danish North Schleswig, 1932-382010In: Bordering the Baltic: Scandinavian boundary-drawing processes, 1900-2000 / [ed] Hurd, Madeleine, Münster: Lit , 2010, 69-104 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Werther, Steffen
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History.
    [Recension av] Daniel B. Roth, Hitlers Brückenkopf in Schweden. Die deutsche Gesandtschaft in Stockholm 1933-1945. Berlin 20092010In: H-Soz-u-Kult, no 14.04Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Werther, Steffen
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, History.
    [Recension av] Oula Silvennoinen, Geheime Waffenbrüderschaft. Die sicherheitspolizeiliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen Finnland und Deutschland 1933-1944. Darmstadt 20102011In: H-Soz-u-Kult, no 12.04Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Werther, Steffen
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, History.
    SS-Vision und Grenzland-Realität: Vom Umgang dänischer und „volksdeutscher” Nationalsozialisten in Sønderjylland mit der „großgermanischen“ Ideologie der SS2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines the implementation of the SS’s Greater Germanic idea in the Danish border region of South Jutland. Its focus is on how Danish and ethnic German (volksdeutsche) national socialists, organised in their respective Nazi parties, dealt with the SS’s crusade on behalf of a supranational racial vision. The study traces why the two groups reacted so negatively to the SS’s ideology - despite the SS’s power, despite the Greater Germanic promise of high racial prestige, and despite shared service in “Germanic” units of the Waffen-SS.

    The SS’s attempts to use a race-based ideology to overcome the disputes that divided South Jutland’s two Nazi parties ran aground on fundamentally nationalist identities. For most members of the German minority, the Greater Germanic ideology was a threat. The German minority hoped for border revision; to acknowledge Danes as racial equals would endanger their political goals. Nor were Danish Nazis more enthusiastic. To be sure, the SS’s vision did provide an ideological weapon in the fight against demands for border vision. But the potential imperialism of the Greater Germanic idea worried those who prized continued Danish sovereignty. After all, the first hope of the Danish Nazis was to rule an independent national-socialist Danish state.

    The study makes it clear, however, that the fate of the Greater Germanic idea cannot be understood simply in terms of Realpolitik. Rather, the conflicts between the SS and its collaboration partners must also be understood as a clash between racial and völkisch concepts of community. The SS's vision of a Greater Germanic Reich based on ideologies of race clashed with the German-minority and Danish national-socialist commitment to Volk-based nationalism. Despite their strong commitment to Nazi ideologies, both collaboration partners found the SS’s racial community “unimaginable”.

  • 279.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Maybe Baby?: Reproductive Behaviour, Fertility Intentions, and Family Policies in Post-communist Countries, with a Special Focus on Ukraine2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies different aspects of reproductive behaviour on the international, national, and local levels in post-communist countries. The main focus is Ukraine, where fertility rates are very low and the population is in severe decline. The studies contribute new knowledge about the applicability of a family policy typology developed on the basis of Western countries’ experience for post-communist countries, and about the influence of family policies on fertility levels in these countries. Moreover, the studies investigate whether and how macro-level influences impact on individuals’ reproductive behaviour. Four articles are included in the thesis:

    Family policies in Ukraine and Russia in comparative perspective analyses the institutional set-up of family policies in both countries and compares the findings to 31 other countries. The results show that Ukrainian family policies support a male-breadwinner type of family, while the benefit levels of Russian family policies are low, compelling families to rely on relatives or the childcare market.

    Family policies and fertility - Examining the link between family policy institutions and fertility rates in 33 countries 1995-2010 comparatively explores whether family policies have an effect on fertility rates across the case-countries. Pooled time-series regression analysis demonstrates that gender-egalitarian family policies are connected to higher fertility rates, but that this effect is smaller at higher rates of female labour force participation.

    To have or not to have a child? Perceived constraints on childbearing in a lowest-low fertility context investigates the influence of the perception of postmodern values, childcare availability and environmental pollution on individuals’ fertility intentions in a city in Eastern Ukraine. It is shown that women who already have a child perceive environmental pollution as a constraint on their fertility intentions.

    Prevalence and correlates of the use of contraceptive methods by women in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007 examines changes in the prevalence and the correlates of the use of contraceptive methods. The use of modern contraceptive methods increased during the period and the use of traditional methods decreased, while the overall prevalence did not change. Higher exposure to messages about family planning in the media is correlated with the use of modern contraceptive methods.

  • 280.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Prevalence and correlates of the use of contraceptive methods by women in Ukraine in 1999 and 20072015In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 67, no 10, 1547-1570 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the prevalence and the correlates of the use of contraceptive methods in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007. Between those years, the overall use of contraceptive methods decreased slightly. However, the use of modern contraceptive methods, and especially the use of condoms, increased considerably, while the use of traditional contraceptive methods decreased. Higher exposure to messages about family planning in the media was correlated with the use of modern contraceptive methods. It is posited that the results suggest that state policies influence individual behaviour in contraception.

  • 281.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala Universitet.
    To Have or Not to Have a Child?: Perceived Constraints on Childbearing in a Lowest-Low Fertility Context2015In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 21, no 1, 86-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of perceived macro-level constraints on childbearing on women’s fertility decision-making on the micro level was analysed in Stakhanov, a city with a shrinking population in Eastern Ukraine. The perceived macro-level constraints employed in the study were related to childcare arrangements, value changes regarding family formation, and pollution of the environment and health concerns. To study the influence of those constraints, logistic regression analyses were conducted whereby first-birth and second-birth intentions were analysed separately. None of the constraints influenced childless women’s first-birth intentions. Instead, sociodemographic factors such as age and civil status appeared as significant predictors. That none of the constraints influenced childless women’s fertility intentions is interpreted to be an indicator of the strong norm of having at least one child in Ukraine.For women with one child, the fact that pollution of the environment and health concerns connected to childbirth were perceived as a constraint on childbearing at the national level was significantly associated with lower second-birth intentions. Women in Ukraine seem to perceive environmental pollution as a constraint on their fertility, possibly influenced by public discourse related to the health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Moreover, the inhabitants of Stakhanov itself have experienced environmental pollution at close range. Those factors together could explain why environmental pollution and poor health were seen as constraints on childbearing at the national level, and the negative influence these had on second-birth intentions.It is argued that environmental pollution should be considered a factor influencing fertility decision-making. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 282.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet.
    Family policies and fertility: Examining the link between family policy institutions and fertility rates in 33 countries 1995-2010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In what ways are family policies related to fertility? Previous studies of OECD countries have arrived at mixed results when analysing the effects of family policy expenditures or formal benefit rates. This study draws on new institutional family policy data from a wider set of 33 countries in a multidimensional analysis of the link between family policy institutions and fertility 1995-2010. Pooled time-series regressions show that more extensive gender-egalitarian family policies, i.e. earner-carer support, are linked to higher fertility, while policies supporting more traditional family patterns show no statistically significant effects. Analyses of the interaction between earner-carer support and female labour force participation indicate that the impact of introducing more gender-egalitarian policies is stronger in countries with lower levels of female labour force participation. Regressions with differenced data sustain ideas of earner-carer support being linked to total fertility increase.

  • 283.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet.
    Family policies in Ukraine and Russia in comparative perspectiveArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the institutional setting of family policies in Ukraine and Russia with 31 countries, including post-communist countries and other EU and OECD countries. Large-scale systematic comparisons of family policies in Ukraine and Russia with longstanding welfare states and other post-communist European countries have so far been lacking. The analyses are based on a comparative institutional approach, which captures the content of legislation multidimensionally instead of focusing only on social expenditure. This enables an evaluation of the structure of Ukrainian and Russian family policies in relation to other countries in 2005. Analyses show that Ukraine and Russia differ considerably in terms of family policy, as do other post-communist countries. Ukraine more actively supports traditional family patterns, while Russia leaves greater room for market forces. The policies in Ukraine and Russia are likely to be insufficient when it comes to addressing work-family conflicts and increasing long-term fertility.

  • 284.
    Witte, Klemens
    Södertörn University College, Baltic & East European Graduate School. Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences.
    The (Re-) Creation of Latvian Citizenship: Questioning Ethnic and Liberal Democracy2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is foremost dealing with the process and the consequences of the restoration of the Latvian republic after 1991.

    It was examined what liberal and ethnic democracy can tell about the assessment of citizenship in general and about the restoration of Latvia in particular. Further, it was analysed how the Latvian legislation defines the citizenry and if preference to a certain ethnic group is given. The change over time of the relevant legal documents was subject to this study as well.

    It was evaluated, which impact the exclusive approach to citizenship (initially purely based on state-continuity) that in 1991 disfranchised 30% of the population, had for the rights of these people.

    The method of ideational analysis was used to scrutinise the law texts.

    In order to gain information on the effects for the population in question, the method of effect analysis was used. This was enriched with interviews conducted by the author on two occasions with governmental representatives, researchers and members of NGO´s in Riga 2008.

    The legal documents here, encompass the Latvian Constitution (1922), the Resolution on Restoration (1991), the Law on Citizenship (1994, 1995, 1998) and the Law of the Republic of Latvia on the status of former USSR citizens who have neither the Latvian nor another state’s citizenship (1995). The literature read for the purpose of this study spans generally from 1992 to 2006.

    The conclusion drawn here is that the strict application of the state-continuity thesis and the denying of state responsibility for the changes of population in 50 years time are inconsistent with liberal democracy. Rather this citizenship policy resembles features of an ethnic democracy.

    The changes in the Law on Citizenship of 1995, where ethnic Latvians and Livs were given the possibility to come to Latvia and receive citizenship automatically (even if they were not citizens of interwar Latvia), while children born to non-citizen (all of them non-ethnic Latvians) after 1991, were not automatically conferred citizenship, made the preferential treatment for one ethnic group obvious.

    Due to the fact that large parts of the minority population were disenfranchised, they were not able to contest important governmental decisions. As a result, laws directed against the interest of the minority population were introduction.

    As a whole, a marginalisation of the minority population took place.

  • 285.
    Yakusheva, Natalya
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Parks, Policies and People: Nature Conservation Governance in Post-Socialist EU Countries2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The national parks in the Carpathian Mountains along the Polish and Slovak border represent encompassing policy agendas that strive to balance biodiversity conservation and social welfare tasks. These countries have, during the last 25 years, undergone rapid transformation from socialist regimes to liberal democracies, and this transformation has affected the political, social and economic spheres. The accession to the European Union (EU) introduced demands for further changes, such as closer integration of conservation and socioeconomic development and inclusive, transparent and accountable decision-making that are based on participatory mechanisms.

    This thesis explores key challenges and opportunities for nature conservation policy and practice at the local level in a context of post-socialist legacies and Europeanization. Multi-level governance, Europeanization, and post-socialist studies are used as theoretical vehicles for the analysis of four transboundary national parks: Pieninsky national parks (NP) in both Poland and Slovakia and Bieszczady NP [Poland] and Poloniny NP [Slovakia].

    The results of this study show that the early designation of the studied parks as protected areas prevented their exploitation and enabled preservation of important landscapes, which currently are highly valued at the European level. These nature conservation regimes have created tangible restrictions on the possible economic uses of these areas. However, rural development alternatives depend on a broader set of local, national and global factors such as the structure of the local economy and employment, the prioritization of nature conservation in national policies, investors’ interest, and increasing urbanization. Europeanization provided opportunities for local actors to benefit from additional funding made available for nature conservation and rural development. At the same time, demands for participatory decision-making posed significant procedural and conceptual challenges to achieving transparent, inclusive and accountable governance. The prevalence of informal practices in local policy-making and the lack of trust in state authorities pose further challenges to formal participatory processes. The opportunities of local actors to reach out across levels to express their interests remain scarce and are not institutionalized, whereas the multi-level characteristics of modern governance indirectly shape local processes by defining common legal and policy frameworks. 

  • 286.
    Yakusheva, Natalya
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Wildlife conservation policy and practice in Central Asia2017In: Unasylva, ISSN 0041-6436, Vol. 68, no 249, 45-52 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Yurchuk, Yuliya
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, History.
    Memory of the Past and Memory for the Future: History on the Crossroads of Nation-building2011In: Current Issues in European Cultural Studies, June 15–17, Norrköping, Sweden 2011, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, 133-145 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on the nationalisation of history and changes in memory politics of Ukraine after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The questions of history re-writing and re-evaluating is endemic to transitional societies. The very possibility to approach certain events is a direct consequence of freedom of speech that followed the disintegration of the socialist bloc. As a case study the paper scrutinizes new conceptualisations and interpretations of history of the WWII with a special focus on Ukrainian nationalist movements that acted in Western Ukraine in 1929-1956: the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and Ukrainian Insurgent Army. There have been constant attempts to place the heroic narrative about these movements into the core of a national history, yet this narrative failed to cross the invisible walls within Ukraine and the narrative purposed for the whole nation remains regional in its significance. The paper is to fill the gap in an existing debate and to show how complex the memory work is in the modern world. A lot of interferences on international, regional, and local levels make the representational take-over of a state-sanctioned view on history more difficult and complex. While the facts about the above-mentioned movements and their leaders were silenced and misrepresented under the Soviet rule, there are traces of new mythologization of these movements nowadays. This study analyzes politics of history in the post-soviet Ukraine as it is realized through erection of new monuments.

  • 288.
    Yurchuk, Yuliya
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Proshloe pod pritselom amnesii: pamiat ob OUN i UPA v Volynskom regione na primere pamiatnika Klymu Savuru2016In: Форум новейшей восточноевропейской истории и культуры, Vol. 14, no 2, 87-101 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [ru]

    В этой статье я подхожу к вопросу памяти об Организации Украинских Нацио- налистов и Украинской Повстанческой Армии (ОУН и УПА соответственно) в региональной перспективе. На примере одного конкретного случая построения памятника одному из командиров УПА – Климу Савуру – прослеживается, как героическая память об ОУН и УПА устанавливалась в Ровенской области. Эта область входит в один исторический регион – Волынь. Именно здесь сформиро- вались первые группы УПА в 1942 году, а также именно на Волыни произошли самые трагические события в истории УПА – убийства польского населения в 1943 году, которые потом перенеслись на Галичину. Я не рассматриваю историю самого украинско-польского конфликта (заинтересованный читатель может обра- титься к цитированной ниже литературе), а то, как история ОУН и УПА входила в культуру памяти региона, начиная с 1991 года. Памятник Климу Савуру – пример того, как место и форма памяти могут быть основаны больше на амнезии, чем на воспоминании. Как мы увидим, через про- цесс мифологизации его биографии почти все исторические факты о личности командира УПА исчезли. Единственная характеристика, на которой основывает- ся коммеморация – это архетип, который выражает ценности и интересы деяте- лей, которые занимались строительством памятника и продвижением героиче- ской формы памяти об ОУН и УПА. Такая мифологизация позволила проводить политику памяти через призывы к исторической справедливости, забывая при этом о тех несправедливостях, которые произошли под командованием этой исторической личности.

  • 289.
    Zakharov, Nikolay
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Attaining Whiteness: A Sociological Study of Race and Racialization in Russia2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Attaining Whiteness is the first book-length sociological study of how ideas about race resonate in post-Soviet Russia. The book charts how tropes of self, hybridity, and maturity constitute important symbolic vehicles for applying the idea of race to the drawing of differences. A new theoretical framework is developed that casts light on fields of study that have not yet received sufficient attention in Western European and American research concerning racial issues. This study of racialization takes a step towards providing a better understanding of how the discourses of race are extended and transformed through the production of social knowledge and social relations. This volume addresses the resilience of genetic criteria for defining cultures and behaviors in both the sciences and humanities in Russia, and also examines the ongoing and pervasive policy of racialized exclusion. The study argues that the concepts and practices of race, whiteness, and Russianness operate ambivalently insofar as they both hold the social fabric together, organizing the perception of the “Other”, but also undermine the unity of society. Racialization thus fosters, first, the sense that Russia belongs to the core of civilization as opposed to the Third World; second, the formulation of policies towards the internal peripheries that support social control informed by the notion of human material; and, finally, the promotion of exclusionary ethnic self-identifications that employ the discourse of hybridity.

  • 290.
    Zakharov, Nikolay
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala University.
    The social movement against immigration as the vehicle and the agent of racialization in Russia2013In: Beyond NGO-ization: The Development of Social Movements in Central and Eastern Europe / [ed] Jacobsson Kerstin & Saxonberg Steven, Farnham: Ashgate, 2013, 169-189 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Zakharov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Ivanou, Aleh
    ‘Tolerance' Frame As a Hindrance to Effective Public/Authorities Feedback in Belarus2014In: RC36 Alienation Theory and Research (host committee): Post-colonized Eastern Europe: Overcoming Alienation and Social Fatigue, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report is going to consider ‘tolerance’ as an ideological frame. A critical assessment will be done of tolerance on the part of Belarusian people.

    It is going to be shown that a) tolerance as an invariably beneficent trait of the Belarusian people is quite mistaken, b) that the ‘tolerance’ frame interferes with democratic governance principles as accepted and practiced worldwide, c) that responses to public dissatisfaction (part and parcel of normal governance systems) in Belarus are complicated due to persistence of the ‘tolerance’ frame; and d) that for the more fortunate and sustainable democratic outcomes in Belarus a regular public/authority feedback should be restored by getting rid of ‘tolerance’ as part of the ideological apparatus.

    The idea of this paper concerns ‘tolerance’ as it enters democratic governance schemes and might be leading to their malfunction. The word tolerance is widely used in liberal democracies and is ascribed a positive meaning. However, it appears that tolerance is not necessarily a virtue. The word tolerance has negative connotations as it acknowledges a problem. The danger with the ideological frame ‘tolerance’ is that it might enter democratic governance models where it can effectively block public responses to dissatisfaction. This way, the system is incapable of conveying public dissatisfaction, and the stimulus is removed for the authorities to improve their work. This might be evident in Belarus, where people have little opportunity to convey their dissatisfaction, given that they are considered as well as consider themselves ‘tolerant’. In this case, their tolerance, being mere holding on, is a potential volcano.

  • 292.
    Zalamans, Dennis
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    On the margin: the youth in Narva and Valga on the Estonian border2006In: Crossing the border: boundary relations in a changing Europe / [ed] Thomas Lundén, Eslöv: Gondolin , 2006, 103-116 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Alexandru Ofrim, Strădi vechi din Bucureştiul de azi2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Keith Hitchins, A Concise History of Romania2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 295.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Liliana Corobca, Controlul cărţii. Censura literaturii în regimul comunist din România2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 296.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Lucian Boia, Suveranii României. Monarhia, o soluţie2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Melinda Mitu, Sorin Mitu, Ungurii despre români. Naşterea unei imagini etnice2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Ruxandra Cesereanu, Panopticum. Eseu despre tortură în secolul XX2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Ştefan Bosomitu, Miron Constantinescu. O biografie2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 300.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Beyond the iron curtain of historiography, between party canon and scholarly standard: A theoretical and methodological approach to the analysis of East European national-communist historiographies: the case of Romania2014In: Diacronie, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 3, no 19, 5- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article aims at elaborating a new theoretical framework and a new methodology in order to identify the location of history discipline endorsed by the East European communist regimes between scholarly production and propaganda. The case study considered is the historiography produced by the History Institute of the Romanian Communist Party (Isisp) during the Ceausescu regime (1965-1989). This highly ideological, but still polymorphic historiography is placed into the context of the 19th and 20th centuries’ professionalization of history in Europe. Since historiography has been the main mean to develop nationalist messages, this paper is also a contribution to the study of nationalism. Since history-writing is a myth-breaker but also a (national) myths-maker, the theory considers that the Isisp historians were elaborating an academic, scholarly standard while performing the mandatory metanarrative canon imposed by the communist Party, creating a double-set of coherence, for the party and for their own profession. The theory implies also a methodology of analysis which integrates the study of the history-writings, considered in diachronical perspective, together with the collective biographies of Isisp and of its historians.

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