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  • 151.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Complex Shades of Green: Gradually Changing Notions of the 'Good Farmer' in a Swedish Context2016In: Sociologia Ruralis, ISSN 0038-0199, E-ISSN 1467-9523, Vol. 56, no 3, 391-407 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are ever-growing demands on farmers to consider the wider environmental implications of production, not least in the Baltic Sea Region where concerns about agricultural-related eutrophication are significant. In Sweden, farmers are being nudged through voluntary agri-environmental measures, enticed by the market and compelled to make the transition from a productivist agriculture to a multifunctional one. Drawing on the ‘good farmer’ concept, inspired by Bourdieu, this paper studies Swedish conventional and agri-environmental farmers’ views and reflections on the changing relationship between farming practices and the environment. The paper finds that despite 25 years of agri-environmental policy in Sweden, some conventional farmers are still mired in a narrow productivist mindset. That said, the study concludes that we should be wary of conceiving the ‘good farmer’ too strictly in productivist terms, given that the ‘rules of the agricultural game’ in Sweden are leading to a more divergent farmer habitus. Farmers are looking for opportunities within the multifunctional agricultural field, which increasingly demands and expects all farmers to embed social and environmental goals into production considerations.

  • 152.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Seeing and Doing Conservation Differently: A Discussion of Landscape Aesthetics, Wilderness, and Biodiversity Conservation2013In: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 22, no 1, 3-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that conservation agendas need to be informed by a landscape aesthetics that embraces the cultural and material richness of people’s relationship to place to better inform conservation agendas. Historical and contemporary views of landscape aesthetics and their relationship to nature conservation and notions  of wilderness need to be included to complement a scientific expert assessment of conservation needs and approaches. Recent examples of conservation projects in Zanzibar are used to reveal how representations and symbols in nature are deeply embedded in biodiversity conservation aspirations and practices promoted by conservation experts. The article posits that an embodied and pluralistic approach to landscape aesthetics can more profoundly contextualize the specificity of interaction between people and between people and their environments and lead to more viable conservation and development outcomes. This would provide a contingent perspective that would to help elucidate nuanced understandings of social relations and place, thereby better serving both conservation and development agendas.

  • 153.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    A Discussion of the Debates Underpinning Agri-Environmental Schemes as a form of Payment for Ecological Services2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Payments for Ecological Services (PES) has rapidly emerged around the world as a key environmental governance approach. This paper is concerned with Agricultural Environmental Schemes (AES) as a particular form of PES to improve the environmental performance of agriculture particularly in relation to water quality in Sweden. Win-win descriptions prevail in AES policy discourse to describe the simultaneous achievement of environmental goals and economic outcomes for farmers. AES are underpinned by an instrumental assumption that farmer behaviour can be influenced towards adopting better environmental practice by providing monetary incentives (or at least compensation). This paper has touched on a number of contentions in the PES literature, including: doubts about how well standardised PES schemes link with local conditions; how and whether PES schemes can engender local innovation; procedural and distributive equity concerns; claims that monetary incentives may ‘crowd out’ socially derived sources of motivation (local norms); and doubts about whether PES schemes, disembedded from local institutions, can deliver ‘sufficient’ environmental behavioural change. Given the relatively recent emergence of AES schemes, it is important that we learn more from the experience of implementation. Critically oriented empirically-based research then has the capacity to work as a circuit breaker between ideologically driven arguments that side either for or against the use of market mechanisms, such as AES for environmental governance. Such insights may be useful to help focus research on farmer engagement with AES that subjects it to greater empirical scrutiny and validation.

  • 154.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Planetary boundaries: at the threshold… again: sustainable development ideas and politics2015In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 17, no 4, 823-835 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implications of the planetary boundaries (PBs) proposal involves scien- tific, moral and political dimensions. The core of the PBs idea is that humankind is transgressing global environmental tipping points resulting in changed conditions that threaten to unravel human progress. The growing status of the proposal potentially makes it a highly influential organising concept that seems to contain within it aspirations to dra- matically reconstitute the relationship between society and the environment—thereby transforming the politics of sustainable development. This paper situates PBs in contem- porary green thinking. Key planning events and related documents supporting the Post- 2015 Development Agenda process are then examined to identify strategies and reactions to the PB proposal. The findings show that divisions reminiscent of older North/South environment and development tensions related to the role of experts, democracy and the Right to Development threaten to prevent PBs from being mainstreamed in key UN environment and development programmes and fora.

  • 155.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The promise of common pool resource theory and the reality of commons projects2014In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 8, no 2, 636-656 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commons projects, such as community-based natural resource management, have widespread appeal, which has enabled them to shrug off a mixed performance in practice. This paper discusses how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory may have inadvertently contributed to the unfulfilled expectations of commons projects. The paper argues that the individual ‘rational resource user’, encapsulated in the CPR design principles, struggles to provide clear direction for meaningful consideration of local norms, values and interests in commons projects. The focus of CPR theory on efficiency and functionality results in a tendency in commons projects to overlook how local conditions are forged through relations at multiple scales. Commonly politically complex and changing relations are reduced to institutional design problems based on deriving the incentives and disincentives of ‘rational resource users. The corollary is that CPR theory oversimplifies the project context that it is seeking to change because it offers little or no direction to deal with the social embeddedness of resource use or implications of different stratifications.

  • 156.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala University, Centre for Sustainable Development.
    Van Tuyen, Truong
    Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietman.
    Raemaekers, Serge
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Marciniak, Boguslaw
    Dıaz Pla, Rodrigo
    Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Chile.
    Transformation of small-scale fisheries: critical transdisciplinary challenges and possibilities2016In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 20, no June, 26-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to confront the global marginalisation of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is to support a sustainable transformation of these coastal communities. In 2014/15, a network of researchers and SSF communities from four countries cooperated in a transdisciplinary research approach to examine governance shifts, fish stock collapses, power structures, future visions and transformation strategies. We combined a political ecology approach with transformation theory to: (i) consider how local context is affected by structural changes and (ii) identify place-based transformational strategies for each case. The global emergence of large-scale fisheries and associated free markets appeared as key factors negatively affecting SSF and coastal sustainability. Through envisioning exercises and context dependent analysis, SSF communities articulated possible and actual strategies towards sustainability that will require ongoing support.

  • 157.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lenninger, Paula
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Schiele, Kerstin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk.
    BALTSPACE Deliverable: D1.2: Final Guidance Document on Analysing Possibilities and Challenges for MSP Integration2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how

    sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP)

    contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration

    in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a

    broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for

    improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve

    sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a

    means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable

    development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder

    engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP

    has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well

    have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary

    might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to

    analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes.

    Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the

    broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP

    practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including

    transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions.

    Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies,

    national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the

    role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on

    empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and

    preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine

    how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine

    space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure

    an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region.

    Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in

    science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework

    presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration

    dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of

    integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised;

    the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a

    conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report,

    which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts,

    beyond the Baltic Sea.

  • 158.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    University of Gothenburg.
    Knowledge for environmental governance: probing science–policy theory in the cases of eutrophication and fisheries in the Baltic Sea2017In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How science and policy interact has been a major research focus in the International Relations (IR) tradition, using the epistemic community (EC) concept, as well as in the alternative perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Should science be autonomous and as apolitical as possible in order to ‘speak truth to power’, as suggested by EC or should the inevitable entanglement of science and politics be accepted and embraced so as to make advice more conducive to negotiating the explicit travails of political decision-making as suggested by STS? With this point of departure, we compare similarities and differences between science–policy interactions in the issue areas of eutrophication and fisheries management of the Baltic Sea. To examine how knowledge is mobilised, the concepts of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘coherence’ are developed, drawing on both EC and STS thinking. We then reflect on the explanatory value of these approaches in both cases and discuss how a separation of science and policy-making in the pursuit of achieving scientific consensus leads to ineffectual policies. Drawing on STS thinking, we urge for a re-conceptualisation of coherence in order to accommodate a more reflexive practice of science–policy interactions.

  • 159.
    Schartau, Mai-Brith
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Political Culture, one condition for participatory governance2013In: On conferensce website, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Self, Angela E.
    et al.
    The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, UK.
    Klimaschewski, Andrea
    Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.
    Solovieva, Nadia
    University College London, UK / Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies, Kazan, Russia.
    Jones, Vivienne
    University College London, UK.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andreev, Andrei A.
    Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies, Kazan, Russia / Universität zu Kӧln, Germany.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Brooks, Stephen J.
    The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
    The relative influences of climate and volcanic activity on Holocene lake development inferred from a mountain lake in central Kamchatka2015In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, no SI, 67-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sediment sequence was taken from a closed, high altitude lake (informal name Olive-backed Lake) in the central mountain range of Kamchatka, in the Russian Far East. The sequence was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology and used for multi-proxy analyses (chironomids, pollen, diatoms). Although the evolution of Beringian climate through the Holocene is primarily driven by global forcing mechanisms, regional controls, such as volcanic activity or vegetation dynamics, lead to a spatial heterogeneous response. This study aims to reconstruct past changes in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and to separate the climate-driven response from a response to regional or localised environmental change. Radiocarbon dates from plant macrophytes gave a basal date of 7800 cal yr BP. Coring terminated in a tephra layer, so sedimentation at the lake started prior to this date, possibly in the early Holocene following local glacier retreat. Initially the catchment vegetation was dominated by Betula and Alnus woodland with a mosaic of open, wet, aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Between 7800 and 6000 cal yr BP the diatom-inferred lake water was pH 4.4 -5.3 and chironomid and diatom assemblages in the lake were initially dominated by a small number of acidophilic/acid tolerant taxa. The frequency of Pinus pumila (Siberian dwarf pine) pollen increased from 5000 cal yr BP and threshold analysis indicates that P. pumila arrived in the catchment between 4200 and 3000 cal yr BP. Its range expansion was probably mediated by strengthening of the Aleutian Low pressure system and increased winter snowfall. The diatom-inferred pH reconstructions show that after an initial period of low pH, pH gradually increased from 5500 cal yr BP to pH 5.8 at 1500 cal yr BP. This trend of increasing pH through the Holocene is unusual in lake records, but the initially low pH may have resulted directly or indirectly from intense regional volcanic activity during the mid-Holocene. The chironomid-inferred July temperature reconstruction suggests cool periods between 3200 – 2800 cal yr BP and 1100 – 700 cal yr BP and a warmer period between 2800 and 1100 cal yr BP. Chironomid and diatom DCA scores decline from ca. 6000 cal yr BP, indicating compositional changes in these aquatic assemblages. In comparison declines in pollen PCA scores are delayed, starting ca. 5100 cal yr BP. The results suggest that while catchment vegetation was responding primarily to climate change, the biota within the lake and lake water chemistry were responding to localised environmental conditions.

  • 161.
    Siebenhüner, B.
    et al.
    Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlan.
    Ecker, F.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Social learning research in ecological economics: A survey2016In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 55, 116-126 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding of human behaviour in contrast to the limited focus on incentive-driven behaviour. Our study analyses the emergence and thematic foci of social learning studies within ecological economics over the past 15 years. We selected and analysed 54 articles published after peer review in established journals adhering to the epistemological tradition of ecological economics. This study is guided by the interest in how social learning is conceptualised, how this research is positioned in terms of process dynamics, causal factors and outcomes of learning. Results show, that the number of related papers grew substantially in recent years. Also the role of formal or informal institutions has been found to be a strong causal factor for social learning and change processes vis-à-vis technological, economic or political factors. In addition, there is a growing awareness of social learning processes in various environmental policy fields such as biodiversity governance, water and land management, fisheries, and climate adaptation. We conclude that these insights can give new impulses to research on socio-ecological transition and to the related debate on societal change and transformation processes as core topics for ecological economics.

  • 162.
    Sjöling, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Thureborn, Petter
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Livet i havets djup2016In: HavsUtsikt- Om havsmiljön och Svensk havsforskning, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, 16-18 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 163.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Why is the Baltic Sea so special to live in?2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline; Schubert, Hendrik; Radziejewska, Teresa, Springer Netherlands, 2017, 23-84 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Why is the Baltic Sea so special to live in", is the main question the authors here give several arguments or answers for. Geographical position, geological development, hydrographical features, climate and physical drivers together create the Baltic Sea environment. The Baltic Sea water is brackish and characterized by pronounced salinity gradients, both in horizontal and vertical directions, because of the large volume of freshwater runoff from over 100 rivers, which mixes with the saline water from the Kattegat that enters the Baltic Sea via narrow shallow straits. Being a semi-enclosed continental sea with a large drainage area compared to its water volume , the Baltic Sea ecosystem is heavily impacted by the surrounding landmasses. The water residence time in the Baltic Sea is long (30–40 years), and therefore discharged nutrients and toxic compounds circulate within the sea for a long time, which contributes to its vulnerability to eutrophication and chemical contamination by hazardous substances. The Baltic Sea Area is geologically young and the Baltic Sea ecosystem is extremely young in an evolutionary perspective. Only few macroscopic species are fully adapted to its low-salinity environment. In an ecosystem-wide perspective, the large-scale Baltic Sea gradient is the principal ecological characteristic of the Baltic Sea.

  • 164.
    Solovieva, Nadia
    et al.
    University College London, UK / Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation.
    Klimaschewski, Andrea
    Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.
    Self, Angela E.
    The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
    Jones, Vivienne
    University College London, UK.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andreev, Andrei A.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation / University of Cologne, Köln, Germany.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Lepskaya, E.V.
    Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, Russian Federation.
    Nazarova, L.B.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation.
    The Holocene environmental history of a small coastal lake on the north-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula2015In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, 55-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A radiocarbon and tephra-dated sediment core from Lifebuoy Lake, located on the north-east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, was analysed for pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids and tephra in order to uncover regional environmental history.

  • 165.
    Sommer, Christian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sex odour preference in guppy (Poecilia wingei) males are influenced by the social environment2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, E47-E47 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Sommer, Christian
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Sex odour preference in guppy (Poecilia wingei) males is influenced by the social environment2016In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 153, no 12, 1419-1434 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social environment of animals, particularly in the early stages of life, can have great impact on species-specific and sex-specific behaviours. These changes can be irreversible and continue during the entire life. In the present study we asked the question whether the social environment of male Endler's guppies, Poecilia wingei, housed in an all-male community could affect their preference response to female or male odour cues in a flow through Y-maze. After 30 days in an all-male group males were tested for their preference-avoidance responses to conspecific odours. The males were attracted to male-scented water but not to water scented by females. In simultaneous choice between male and female odours they demonstrated no significant preference. The males were attracted to male-scented water after they were kept for 48 h or 12 days with females. After the Y-maze tests the males' were placed with two females and their courting behaviour were recorded. The males showed low frequencies of reproductive behaviours. In the all-male group the males had been courting each other. The results show that the social environment influence sexual odour preference and courting behaviour in guppy males.

  • 167.
    Ssenku, Jamilu
    et al.
    Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Ntale, Mohammad
    Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Backeus, Ingvar
    Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyv. 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Oryem-Origa, Hannington
    Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Dynamics of plant species during phytostabilisation of copper mine tailings and pyrite soils, Western Uganda2014In: Journal of Environmental Engineering & Ecological Science, ISSN 2050-1323, Vol. 3, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Destruction of vegetation resources emanating from deposition of mine wastes is a serious environmental problem. Conventional plant species restoration methodologies are costly and feasible only on a small scale. The current study was focussed on developing phytostabilisation protocols involving the application of limestone, compost, selected tree species and assessing the re-establishment of plants in polluted soils.

    Methods: Early establishment of plant species under Eucalyptus grandis, Senna siamea and Leucaena leucocephala planted on mine tailings and pyrite soils amended with compost, limestone and limestone+compost was studied. Four plant inventories were conducted on the study plots and surrounding plant communities, involving enumeration of the plant species and estimation of their ground covers. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils of the study plots were determined each time an inventory was conducted. Data were analysed using R statistical packages vegan and lme4.

    Results: Mine tailings and pyrite soils had extremely low pH, poor nutritional status, low organic matter content and elevated concentrations of heavy metals as compared to the unpolluted soils. Before treatment, species richness, diversity and plant cover were extremely low with most of the ground being completely bare. Treatment of the soils significantly improved the physico-chemical characteristics starting a plant succession that increased the number of species from 18 to 215 different species, belonging to 131 genera and 34 families. Plots of the leguminous tree species Senna siamea and Leucaena leucocephala had significantly more species than the non-leguminous Eucalyptus grandis. Early changes in species composition of the restoration plots were minimal. Correspondence analysis (CA) revealed significant differences in species composition between the experimental plots and the plots at the unpolluted site.

    Conclusion: Application of amendment material that significantly alters the physico-chemical characteristics of mine wastes is pre-requisite for their phytostabilisation. Leguminous tree species Senna siamea and Leucaena leucocephala have a higher potential for phytostabilisation of pyrite and copper tailings as their growth led to the establishment of understory plant communities with higher species diversity and cover.

  • 168.
    Sukovich, Ninél
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Backman, Jennifer
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kan musselextrakt (Mytilus edulis) inducera födosök hos omnivoren ruda, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last three decades there has been a significant increase in aquaculture production and the demand for farmed fish is predicted to rise further. More fish are being caught to become fishmeal in aquaculture, than for direct human consumption use, while a large number of fish stocks are being depleted. Many popular farmed species are carnivores and thus brought up on a diet consisting of fishmeal and fish oil. However, several studies have shown that several fish species can be brought up on a diet consisting of mussel meal instead of fishmeal. If so, this finding can possibly lead to a more sustainable fishing in the future by reducing the number of wild-caught fish. The purpose of this study has been to examine if mussel meal extract can induce foraging in the omnivorous species crucian carp (Carassius carassius), a commercial fish that is mainly farmed in China. Induced foraging can indicate that crucian carp could become accustomed to mussels, even though mussels are not part of its natural food source. The results revealed that foraging was induced in the crucian carp by conventional feed for carp, the control diet, but not by extract of mussels.

  • 169.
    Suškevičs, M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hahn, T.
    Stockholm University.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Macura, B.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pahl-Wostl, C.
    University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Learning for social-ecological change: a qualitative review of outcomes across empirical literature in natural resource management2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, 1-28 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is considered as a promising mechanism to cope with rapid environmental change. The implications of learning for natural resource management (NRM) have not been explored in-depth and the evidence on the topic is scattered across multiple sources. We provide a qualitative review of types of learning outcomes and consider their manifestations in NRM across selected empirical literature. We conducted a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature (N = 1,223) and a qualitative meta-synthesis of included articles, with an explicit focus on learning outcomes and NRM changes (N = 53). Besides social learning, we found several learning concepts used, including policy and transformative learning, and multiple links between learning and NRM reported. We observe that the development of skills, together with a system approach involving multi-level capacities, is decisive for implications of learning for NRM. Future reviews could systematically compare how primary research applies different learning concepts and discusses links between learning and NRM changes.

  • 170.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    et al.
    Institutionen för rysslandsstudier Uppsala universitet.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Cios, Stanislaw
    Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs,Warsaw, Poland.
    Fishing For Smelt, Osmerus Eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758): A traditional food fish – possible cuisinein post-modern Sweden?2016In: Slovak Ethnology, ISSN 1335-1303, Vol. 2, no 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the rural population in Sweden, fishing in lakes and rivers was of great importanceuntil recently. Many fish species served as food or animal fodder, or were used tomake glue and other useful products. But the receding of lakes in the nineteenthcentury, and the expansion of hydropower and worsening of water pollution in thetwentieth, contributed to the decline of inland fisheries. At the same time, marinefish became more competitive on the Swedish food market. In some regions, however,certain freshwater species continued to be caught for household consumption wellinto the twentieth century. One such species was the smelt (Osmerus eperlanus),which fifty years ago was still of economic importance. Nowadays, however, smeltis only caught in very low volumes; its role is therefore insignificant. In neighbouringcountries, however – such as Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia – it is still being exploitedcommercially. In Germany, where water quality has improved in rivers and restaurantshave shown increasing interest in smelt, a successful revival for the fish as a regionaland seasonal food can be seen. Smelt fishing has dimensions which are not onlyculinary, but social and cultural as well. Traditional ways of food preparation can betransformed into modern haute cuisine. Smelt fishing has the potential to developcommercially in Sweden also.

  • 171.
    Svensson, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Conflicting interests in natural resource management: - A case study on mining in northern Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the leading mining country in Europe and the Swedish government intends to retain this position by fostering innovation, investments and cooperation. However, mining is an extractive industry with massive consequences on the surrounding environment and the people living there. In resource abundant northern Sweden mineral extraction is a contested subject, not least in respect to the traditional land use by the Sami population. This study intends to increase the understanding of the current mining trial process in Sweden, the effects on sustainable regional development and the implications for local communities. To do so, this study aims to identify which aspects that are brought forward during the trial for exploitation concession and how different interests are evaluated. For the purpose of this study, the bureaucratic mining trial process is examined and 15 mining cases studied in detail considering the exploitation concession phase. The material indicates that conflicts over the bureaucratic process is based both in what aspects that should be included in the assessment, how these aspects are evaluated and at what stage in the formal process various aspects should be brought up. Guided by the concepts of extractivism and subnational resource curse, the main finding identified is that the mining trial process is state-centred. This is displayed in the limited influence of local actors on the decision and in the use of national interest as a policy tool to evaluate conflicting land use claims. These characteristics can in turn increase the risk of a subnational resource curse in northern Sweden. 

  • 172.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kern, Kristine
    eibniz Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning (IRS) & University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    ‘Environmental Governance’ and ‘Ecosystem Management’: Avenues for Synergies between Two Approaches2016In: Interdisciplinary Environmental Review, ISSN 1521-0227, E-ISSN 2042-6992, Vol. 17, no 1, 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a literature review of over 160 journal articles and books, this paper examines the ecosystem management and environmental governance approaches, and looks for common topics and integrated research agendas. While scientific articles on environmental governance stem primarily from social science research, the ecosystem management approach is more natural-science-oriented. A review of journal articles from the ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science) reveals that the two research communities hardly interact. The paper discusses two thematic linkages between the two approaches: the debates dealing with the scale and level of environmental policy; and the discussions surrounding multi-stakeholder participation. Moreover, the article identifies areas with a high potential for the establishment of common ground, such as the current discussion on science-policy interfaces. We argue for more interaction, claim that the two research approaches can learn from each other, and discuss the potential for the development of interdisciplinary research agendas

  • 173.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kern, Kristine
    Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Marine Governance in the Baltic Sea: Current Trends of Europeanization and Regionalization2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, 163-181 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Taking power to sea: Towards a post-structuralist discourse theoretical critique of marine spatial planning2017In: Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, ISSN 2399-6544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to calls for a more theoretically driven, post-positivist and radical marine spatial planning research that approaches the policy as a political project, this paper develops a poststructuralist discourse theory approach to critical marine spatial planning. Elaborating radical contingency as an ontological condition of social life, which points to the ineradicability of power and conflict in marine spatial planning social relations, the paper problematizes marine spatial planning as constituting politics, or key practices that attempt to organize human coexistence and thus, conceal this radical contingency. These practices (e.g. ecosystem-based management, participation, planning regulation and the organization of socio-natural spaces), whose outcomes are far from adaptive, consensual or neutral are discussed as sites of ‘politics’ that effectively marginalize particular groups of people and ‘herd’ their participation and ways of knowing toward achieving limited policy outcomes. Drawing on the EU Marine Spatial Planning Directive, the paper further teases out how specific narratives and rhetorical signifiers around ‘integrating’ and ‘balancing’ potentially irreconcilable sustainable development objectives may interpellate particular stakeholders in ways that render them ideologically complicitous in sustaining, rather than challenging, neoliberal logics of managerialism and economic maximization of marine resources. But in tune with the ontological condition of the social as radically contingent, the paper discusses how and why participatory spaces may constitute a potential space of contestation for marginalized voices and thus, reveal the political moment of marine spatial planning. Calls are made for future empirically grounded research that explores how these marine spatial planning practices are lived in both planning and extra-planning settings, and with what implications for marine protection and extant social relations of power in different marine spatial planning contexts.

  • 175.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Power and resistance in Cameroon: strategies, intentionality, intersectionality, and shifting spaces and identities2015In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 8, no 3, 321-343 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how forest communities in Cameroon engage in social transformation when faced with social injustices and uneven power relations in their interactions with local state authorities and transnational corporations. It focuses on the different strategies that marginalized resource-dependent communities employ in resisting existing forms of domination manifested in public–private-community forest governance relations. We show how power operates in closed governance spaces to work against equitable, democratic and effective policy-making. We take as a point of departure that resistance or social change cannot be understood in isolation from power. Moreover, we engage with the intentionality debate and make the case that some forms of resistance are goal oriented in character. We reveal how disenfranchised communities, using powerful traditional ritual as a form of public protest, can effectively open up closed spaces and obtain effective participation in processes denied them. Our findings have significance for resistance and power debates relating to intentionality, intersectionality and outcomes.

  • 176.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Power Relations and Cassava: Conservation and Development in Cameroon2015In: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 24, no 1, 82-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linking conservation and development activities requires local institutional change that can deliver global conservation as well as local socioeconomic benefits. Participatory approaches are considered a key element to this end, although recent research demonstrates that they may reinforce existing inequitable governance systems. This article examines microinstitutional formations and development interventions in the Mount Cameroon National Park. The study found that blending new governance approaches with traditional institutions at Mount Cameroon National Park led to diminished participation of the project and a failure to listen to and deliver meaningful development opportunities to Bavenga villagers. The article concludes that while local participation and governance institutions constitute laudable additions to Integrated Conservation and Development Projects, the implications of reproducing traditional authority structures must be carefully considered, and locally grounded development opportunities need to be better embedded into these projects.

  • 177. Thompson, Luke R.
    et al.
    Sanders, Jon G.
    McDonald, Daniel
    Amir, Amnon
    Ladau, Joshua
    Locey, Kenneth J.
    Prill, Robert J.
    Tripathi, Anupriya
    Gibbons, Sean M.
    Ackermann, Gail
    Navas-Molina, Jose A.
    Janssen, Stefan
    Kopylova, Evguenia
    Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki
    González, Antonio
    Morton, James T.
    Mirarab, Siavash
    Zech Xu, Zhenjiang
    Jiang, Lingjing
    Haroon, Mohamed F.
    Kanbar, Jad
    Zhu, Qiyun
    Jin Song, Se
    Kosciolek, Tomasz
    Bokulich, Nicholas A.
    Lefler, Joshua
    Brislawn, Colin J.
    Humphrey, Gregory
    Owens, Sarah M.
    Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad
    Berg-Lyons, Donna
    McKenzie, Valerie
    Fierer, Noah
    Fuhrman, Jed A.
    Clauset, Aaron
    Stevens, Rick L.
    Shade, Ashley
    Pollard, Katherine S.
    Goodwin, Kelly D.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Gilbert, Jack A.
    Knight, Rob
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zhao, Hongxia
    A communal catalogue reveals Earth’s multiscale microbial diversity2017In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 551, 457-463 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our growing awareness of the microbial world's importance and diversity contrasts starkly with our limited understanding of its fundamental structure. Despite recent advances in DNA sequencing, a lack of standardized protocols and common analytical frameworks impedes comparisons among studies, hindering the development of global inferences about microbial life on Earth. Here we present a meta-analysis of microbial community samples collected by hundreds of researchers for the Earth Microbiome Project. Coordinated protocols and new analytical methods, particularly the use of exact sequences instead of clustered operational taxonomic units, enable bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA gene sequences to be followed across multiple studies and allow us to explore patterns of diversity at an unprecedented scale. The result is both a reference database giving global context to DNA sequence data and a framework for incorporating data from future studies, fostering increasingly complete characterization of Earth's microbial diversity.

  • 178.
    Thureborn, Petter
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Microbial Ecosystem Functions Along the Steep Oxygen Gradient of the Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through complex metabolic interactions aquatic microbial life is essential as a driver of ecosystem functions and hence a prerequisite for sustaining plant and animal life in the sea and on Earth. Despite its ecological importance, infor­mation on the complexity of microbial functions and how these are related to environmental conditions is limited. Due to climate change and eutrophication, marine areas facing oxygen depletion are increasing and predicted to continue to do so in the future. Vertically steep oxygen gradients are particularly pronoun­ced in the Baltic Sea. In this thesis, therefore, the ecosystem functions of micro­bial communities were investigated, using metagenomics, to understand how they were distributed along the steep oxygen gradient at the Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, microbial communities from the Lands­ort Deep transect were compared to microbial communities of other marine environments to establish whether the environment at this site resulted in a characteristic community. To reveal what microbial community functions and taxa were active in the anoxic sediment a metatranscriptomic approach was used. Results showed a marked effect of the coupled environmental parameters dissolved oxygen, salinity and temperature on distribution of taxa and par­ti­cularly community functions. Microbial communities showed functional capa­cities consistent with a copiotrophic life-style dependent on organic ma­terial sinking through the water column. The eutrophic condition with high organic load was further reflected in the metatranscriptome of the anoxic sedi­ment com­munity, which indicated active carbon mineralisation through ana­erobic hetero­trophic-autotrophic community synergism. New putative linkages between nitro­gen and- sulphur metabolisms were identified at anoxic depths. Further­more, viable Cyanobacteria in the anoxic sediment was evident from the tran­script analyses as another reflection of marine snow. High abundance and expres­­sion of integron integrases were identified as a charac­teristic feature of the Lands­ort Deep communities, and may provide these communities with a mech­an­ism for short-term-adaptation to environmental change. In summary, this thesis clearly documents what impact eutrophication and oxygen depletion have on microbial community functions. Furthermore, it specifically advances the mechanistic insight into microbial processes in anoxic deep-water sediment at both genomic and transcriptional level. Given the predicted progress of oxygen depletion in marine and brackish environments, this work advances information necessary to estimate effects on marine and in particular brackish ecosystem functions where anoxic conditions prevail.

  • 179.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Franzetti, Andrea
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Science for Life Laboratories / Linnéuniversitetet.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, e1593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning.

  • 180.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hu, Yue O. O.
    KTH.
    Franzetti, Andrea
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University.
    A dark, anoxic mausoleum for DNA: perceived and actual community structure in the Landsort Deep sediment, the Baltic Sea2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous investigations of bacterial communities using sequence analysis of environmental DNA have revealed extensive diversity of microbial taxa in an array of different environmental habitats. Community analysis based solely on DNA, however, does not reveal whether the detected community members are actively contributing to community functioning, or whether they are dormant or remnants of dead cells. This dilemma is of particular concern when analyzing microbial community structure of sites with a high degree of deposited matter, such as marine sediments. For example, the Baltic Sea’s deepest point, the Landsort Deep, consists of anoxic sediments with a large deposition of allochthonous organic matter from the highly stratified 460 m water column above. Our previous metagenomics results indicated the presence of potential obligately aerobic and phototrophic microorganisms. To further elucidate which taxa may contribute to ecosystem function at this site, we here present three different datasets – rDNA amplicons, rDNA reads from a shotgun metagenome and expressed rRNA from a shotgun metatranscriptome. By comparing the three datasets and the ratios between rRNA and rDNA we seek to estimate the protein synthesis potential of the community members in order to provide an indication of what taxa may have cellular activity and metabolic potential. The variation in protein synthesis potential was large, both within and between taxa, in the sediment community. Many typically anaerobic taxa, e.g. from Deltaproteobacteria and Euryarchaeota, showed a high protein synthesis potential, while typical aerobes like Flavobacteria showed a low protein synthesis potential. More surprisingly, some common Baltic Sea surface water bacteria also displayed a high protein synthesis potential, suggesting they have an active role in the anoxic sediment ecosystem at 460 m depth. Both filamentous and unicellular Cyanobacteria exhibited very high protein synthesis potential, which implies a more complex role of these bacteria in carbon cycling in the Baltic Sea than previously suggested. Moreover, Mycobacteria, that were abundant in Landsort Deep sediment metagenome compared with other marine sediment metagenomes, showed protein synthesis potentials consistent with a functional role in the sediment community. Our results provide a new window of insight into the complexities of the microbial community of Landsort Deep with implications for the understanding of other anoxic accumulation sediments.

  • 181.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. KTH & Stockholm University.
    Plathan, Josefin
    Stockholm University.
    Poole, Anthony M
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    A Metagenomics Transect into the Deepest Point of the Baltic Sea Reveals Clear Stratification of Microbial Functional Capacities2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, e74983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by hyposaline surface waters, hypoxic and anoxic deep waters and sediments. These conditions, which in turn lead to a steep oxygen gradient, are particularly evident at Landsort Deep in the Baltic Proper. Given these substantial differences in environmental parameters at Landsort Deep, we performed a metagenomic census spanning surface to sediment to establish whether the microbial communities at this site are as stratified as the physical environment. We report strong stratification across a depth transect for both functional capacity and taxonomic affiliation, with functional capacity corresponding most closely to key environmental parameters of oxygen, salinity and temperature.

    We report similarities in functional capacity between the hypoxic community and hadal zone communities, underscoring the substantial degree of eutrophication in the Baltic Proper. Reconstruction of the nitrogen cycle at Landsort deep shows potential for syntrophy between archaeal ammonium oxidizers and bacterial denitrification at anoxic depths, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation genes are absent, despite substantial ammonium levels below the chemocline. Our census also reveals enrichment in genetic prerequisites for a copiotrophic lifestyle and resistance mechanisms reflecting adaptation to prevalent eutrophic conditions and the accumulation of environmental pollutants resulting from ongoing anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea.

  • 182.
    Thölberg, Anton
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Brusell, Fanny
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Förekomst av växtarter i en fragmenterad skogsmiljö utifrån en öbiogeografisk teori2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study address the problem of fragmentation, and its impact on species distribution and abundance. The main aim of the study was to test the theory of island biogeography using plant species prevalence from field islets at different distances from nearest “mainland”. We have studied 40 pairs of field islets (islands) and forest edges (mainland) in agricultural landscapes in the Stockholm County. The result of the inventory was analyzed using univariate linear models-, and multivariate ordination. Our result show that the theory of island biogeography partly can explain species prevalence patterns, but not all of them. Furthermore, we found that species distributions were limited by the size of the field islets. Distance from mainland had an effect on the species composition in the field islets. Our results indicate a need to include the size of habitat fragments, and the degree of isolation as important factors determining the ability for future species dispersal to newly established habitats.

  • 183.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Linköping University.
    Models of science-policy interaction: Exploring approaches to Bisphenol A management in the EU2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485-486, no 1, 23-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated science-policy interaction models and their limitations under conditions of uncertainty. In detail, it looked at the management of the suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol A (BPA). Despite growing evidence that BPA is hazardous to human and environmental health, the level of scientific uncertainty is still high and, as a result, there is significant disagreement on the actual extent and type of risk. Analysis of decision-making processes at different regulatory levels (EU, Sweden, and the Swedish municipality of Gothenburg) exposed chemicals risk management and associated science-policy interaction under uncertainty. The results of the study show that chemicals management and associated science-policy interaction follow the modern model of science-policy interaction, where science is assumed to 'speak truth to policy' and highlights existing limitations of this model under conditions of uncertainty. The study not only explores alternative models (precautionary, consensus, science-policy demarcation. and extended participation) but also shows their limitations. The study concludes that all models come with their particular underlying assumptions, strengths, and limitations. At the same time, by exposing serious limitations of the modern model, the study calls for a rethinking of the relationship between science, policy, and management.

  • 184.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Linköpings universitet, Tema teknik och social förändring.
    Science-policy interaction in the governance of complex socio-ecological risks: The case of chemicals management in the Baltic Sea2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I examine knowledge production and science-policy interaction associated with the management of chemical substances in the Baltic Sea under conditions of uncertainty and complexity. The thesis is primarily based on a qualitative analysis of policy documents and reports produced by the European Union (EU), the Helsinki Commission, the Swedish Chemicals Agency, and Gothenburg municipality, as well as 30 semi-structured interviews with scientific experts, policy makers, and government officials with knowledge and working experience in the relevant policy arenas.

    I identify and examine key challenges of science-policy interaction associated with the management of chemical substances in the Baltic Sea, such as lack of data, uncertainty, and complexity (Article I). I further argue that the current model of science-policy interaction fails to adequately handle and account for these challenges (e.g. uncertainty in Article II).

    Scientists and policy makers have made substantial (and sometimes successful) efforts to understand and counteract negative environmental trends in the Baltic Sea. However, on the basis of this empirical analysis, I conclude that the uncertainties tied to the complex chemical risks in the Baltic Sea region are too large and multifaceted to be adequately addressed by the “modern science-policy model” underpinning most contemporary risk assessments. Linked to this analysis, I identify several possible ways to improve the situation, for example new tools and methods for handling uncertainty as well as alternative models for science-policy interaction.

    As a consequence, I explore the potential of alternative models of science-policy interaction, giving particular attention to the participatory model and the associated idea of post-normal science. The results highlight the substantial amount of rhetoric in EU sources about recommending wider public involvement in policies, but also reveal that there is a different situation in practice. The introduction of more radical approaches (such as post-normal science) to knowledge co-production and participation would require epistemological, institutional, and constitutional changes that are not feasible in the foreseeable future – at least for the case of chemical substances (Article III).

    Improvements (methodological, institutional and so on) in the current modern model of science-policy interaction are just as important as the development of alternative modes of science-policy interaction (Article IV). However, the general conclusion of this thesis is that there is a need to rethink current science-policy interaction and in the process “break through” the widespread institutional denial of irreducible uncertainties.

  • 185.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Participation and post-normal science in practice?: Reality check for hazardous chemicals management in the European marine environment2014In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 63, 15-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses whether science-policy interactions linked to the management of hazardous chemicals in the European marine environment have developed in accordance with general theories on public involvement in policymaking in general and post-normal science (PNS) in particular. Special attention is given to a comparison between key EU policy frameworks, namely the "polluter-oriented" registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) and the "environment-oriented" Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), based on in-depth analysis of key policy-related documents and interviews with scientists and policy actors. The results outline that in spite of a substantial amount of rhetoric in EU sources about recommending wide and ambitious public involvement, current participation and deliberation practices are rather undeveloped in the studied EU policy frameworks. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the introduction of more radical approaches to knowledge co-production and participation (like PNS) would require epistemological, institutional and constitutional changes that are not feasible in the foreseeable future, at least not in respect to chemicals management. This study generates empirical data with regard to the management of chemicals in the European marine environment, specifically data on participation, the role of science, and uncertainty treatment at the science-policy interface. These data provide empirical information that can be used by environmental managers involved in the development of EU marine policy. At the same time, the results can be used theoretically to reflect on and problematise the current state of wider public participation in EU environmental policies and PNS development in particular cases.

  • 186.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hedren, Johan
    Linköping University.
    Utopian ideas about sustainability?: the case of chemical management in the EU2014In: International Journal of Sustainability Policy and Practice, ISSN 2325-1182, Vol. 9, no 3, 47-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines EU chemical management regimes with a focus on the treatment of uncertainty. Referring to current discourses on sustainability, the study criticizes existing practices and discusses alternative approaches to chemical management. In addition to highly discussed options for management under conditions of uncertainty (e.g., precautionary management and adaptive management), we argue that chemical management might also benefit from introducing the "sufficiency" concept into the production context. More generally, this would entail a shift in seeing quality of life as based on a sufficiency rather than an abundance of chemicals. The article concludes that, although these chemical management ideas might be very problematic, more integrated and holistic visions of future chemical and environmental policies might emerge from considering new sustainability ideas in various branches of the current economic system.

  • 187.
    van Helmond, Niels A.G.M.
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Quintana Krupinski, Nadine B.
    Lund University.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    Uppsala University.
    Obrochta, Stephen P.
    Akita University, Akita, Japan.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Slomp, Caroline P.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Seasonal hypoxia was a natural feature of the coastal zone in the Little Belt, Denmark, during the past 8 ka2017In: Marine Geology, ISSN 0025-3227, E-ISSN 1872-6151, Vol. 387, 45-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of the hypoxic area in the Baltic Sea has rapidly expanded over the past century. Two previous phases of widespread hypoxia, coinciding with the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 2–0.8 ka BP), have been identified. Relatively little is known about bottom water redox conditions in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene, however. Here we studied the geochemical composition of a sediment sequence from a currently seasonally hypoxic site in the Danish coastal zone, the Little Belt, retrieved during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 (Site M0059). The base of the studied sediment sequence consists of clays low in organic carbon (Corg), molybdenum (Mo) and iron sulfides (Fe-sulfides), and rich in iron oxides (Fe-oxides), indicative of a well-oxygenated, oligotrophic (glacial) meltwater lake. An erosional unconformity separates the glacial lake sediments from sediments that are rich in Corg. The absence of Mo, in combination with high Corg/S values, indicates that these sediments were deposited in a highly productive, well-oxygenated freshwater lake. The transition to modern brackish/marine conditions was very rapid, and subsequent continuous sequestration of Mo in the sediment and high ratios of reactive iron (FeHR) over total Fe (FeTOT) suggest (seasonal) hypoxia occurred over the last ~ 8 ka. Maxima in sediment Corg, Mo and FeHR/FeTOT ratios during the HTM and MCA suggest that the hypoxia intensified. Our results demonstrate that the Little Belt is naturally susceptible to the development of seasonal hypoxia. While periods of climatic warming led to increased deoxygenation of bottom waters, high nutrient availability in combination with density stratification were likely the main drivers of hypoxia in this part of the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene.

  • 188.
    Viktor, Watz
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The detrimental effect of alcohol on HIV treatment adherence: A systematic review and meta-analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The fight against HIV is addressed in both the Sustainable Development Goals and in the 90-90-90-goals set by the United Nations.Emerging evidence is suggesting a “neglected interface” between alcohol consumption and HIV. Earlier studies has sought out to quantify this relationship, but there are still uncertainties regarding the generalizability of the results and if this also applies to different types of drinking intensities.

    Methods: This study applied a systematic search for articles published between 1990-2017 in Pubmed/Medline. 46 studies was included in the final analysis.

    Results: Alcohol was found to have a significant detrimental effect on treatment adherence on all drinking intensities. All but one analysis showed a significant amount of heterogeneity.

    Conclusion: The findings of this study goes in line with previous research but adds insight on the harm of moderate drinking. The result of this and earlier findings give a clear point of direction of alcohol consumption guidelines in people living with HIV. If global targets of viral suppression should be achieved, a more holistic approach where the prevention of non-communicable diseases and infectious diseases go hand in hand might actually be the only way forward.

  • 189.
    Vinter, Tiina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Edge effects on plant species diversity in forest landscapes2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest interior and the forest edge are different due to the characteristics of the adjacent land cover surrounding the edge. When large forest areas are divided into smaller fragments the interface between the forest interior and surrounding environments increases and various processes start affecting remaining forest ecosystems and forest species. Urban or rural landscapes, cultivated monocultures or grasslands can influence the edge regions differently.

    This review is focusing on edge effects in forested environments. Edge effects on plant species diversity and species composition are expected to vary according to forest patch size, patch configuration and placement in the landscape. In general, edge effects are expected to have higher impact on species diversity and composition when the remaining forest patches are small, have an irregular shape or when the surrounding land use is significantly different from the forest patch. Edge effects depend on both biotic and abiotic factors, applied management regimes and on land use history. Further studies on landscape level can shed more light on the underlying mechanisms generating the observed patterns.

  • 190.
    Vinter, Tiina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Danzer, Ulrika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The relationship between landscape configuration and plant species richness in forests is dependent on habitat preferences of species2016In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 135, no 6, 1071-1082 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the effects of landscape configuration on local plant species richness, we tested whether local species richness of forest understory plants is affected by the total forest area and forest edge length in the adjacent landscape. We also tested whether the landscape effect on species richness is different for forest and edge species. We estimated species richness from 113 forest sites in four regions in Northern Europe. At each site, we studied two plots, one at the edge and one in the core of the forest. Total forested area and forest edge length in circles with a 1-km radius, together with plot-specific variables of environmental conditions and temporal continuity of forests, were recorded at each plot. The amount of forest and the length of the forest edge in the adjacent landscape had a significant positive effect on local species richness of all understory plant species. As expected, edge species were positively affected by increasing length of the forest edge in the landscape, but surprisingly there was no effect of forest area on species richness of forest species. Temporal forest continuity had a negative effect on species richness of edge species but no effect on species richness of forest species. Our results suggest that forest edge length had a stronger landscape effect on understory plant species richness than forest area. Implications of these findings for the management of forest landscapes depend on priorities given to different species groups in biodiversity conservation, i.e. if emphasis is in total species richness or species richness of forest or edge species.

  • 191.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Caspillo, Nasim Reyhanian
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Daniorerio) to 17α-Ethinylestradiol affects non-reproductive behavior and fertility as adults, and increases anxiety in unexposed progeny2015In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 73, 30-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) during of development affects fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. These effects can also be transferred to coming generations. In fish, the effects of developmental EDC exposure on non-reproductive behavior is less well studied. Here, we analyze the effects of 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) on anxiety, shoaling behavior and fertility in zebrafish after developmental treatment and remediation in clean water until adulthood. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from day 1 to day 80 post fertilization to actual concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2. After remediation for 82days non-reproductive behavior and fertilization success were analyzed in both sexes. Males and females from the 1.2ng/L group, as well as control males and females, were bred, and behavior of the untreated F1 offspring was tested as adults. Developmental treatment with 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2 significantly increased anxiety in the Novel Tank test and increased shoaling intensity in both sexes. Fertilization success was significantly reduced by EE2 in both sexes when mated with untreated fish of opposite sex. Progeny of fish treated with 1.2ng/L EE2 showed increased anxiety in the Novel tank test and increased light avoidance in the Scototaxis test compared to control offspring. In conclusion, developmental exposure of zebrafish to low doses of EE2 resulted in persistent changes in behavior and fertility. The behavior of unexposed progeny were affected by their parents' exposure, which might suggest transgenerational effects.

  • 192.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro university.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Uppsala university.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Transgenerational effects of 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol on anxiety behaviour in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata2015In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 223, 66-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Warnock, J.P.
    et al.
    University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA, USA.
    Bauersachs, T.
    Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany.
    Kotthoff, U.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Brandt, H.-T.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Holocene environmental history of the Ångermanälven Estuary, northern Baltic Sea2017In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea has experienced a complex geological history, with notable swings in salinity driven by changes to its connection with the Atlantic and glacio-isostatic rebound. Sediments obtained during International Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 allow the study of the effects of these changes on the ecology of the Baltic in high resolution through the Holocene in areas where continuous records had not always been available. Sites M0061 and M0062, drilled in the Ångermanälven Estuary (northern Baltic Sea), contain records of Holocene-aged sediments and microfossils. Here we present detailed records of palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental changes to the Ångermanälven Estuary inferred from diatom, palynomorph and organic-geochemical data. Based on diatom assemblages, the record is divided into four zones that comprise the Ancylus Lake, Littorina Sea, Post-Littorina Sea and Recent Baltic Sea stages. The Ancylus Lake phase is initially characterized as oligotrophic, with the majority of primary productivity in the upper water column. This transition to a eutrophic state continues into the Initial Littorina Sea stage. The Initial Littorina Sea stage contains the most marine phase recorded here, as well as low surface water temperatures. These conditions end before the Littorina Sea stage, which is marked by a return to oligotrophic conditions and warmer waters of the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Glacio-isostatic rebound leads to a shallowing of the water column, allowing for increased benthic primary productivity and stratification of the water column. The Medieval Climate Anomaly is also identified within Post-Littorina Sea sediments. Modern Baltic sediments and evidence of human-induced eutrophication are seen. Human influence upon the Baltic Sea begins c. 1700 cal. a BP and becomes more intense c. 215 cal. a BP.

     

  • 194.
    Weckström, Kaarina
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Chopenhagen, Denmark.
    Lewis, Jonathan P.
    Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ellegaard, Marianne
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rasmussen, Peter
    National Museum of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark .
    Telford, Richard
    Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway .
    Palaeoenvironmental History of the Baltic Sea: One of the Largest Brackish-Water Ecosystems in the World2017In: Applications of Paleoenvironmental Techniques in Estuarine Studies / [ed] Weckström, Kaarina; Saunders, Krystyna M.; Gell, Peter A.; Skilbeck, C. Gregory, Springer Netherlands, 2017, 615-662 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The past of the Baltic Sea has been intensively investigated using a wealth of techniques. By far the largest number of studies has focused on sea level and salinity changes, driven by global climate and isostatic crustal rebound after the Baltic Sea emerged underneath the Weichselian Ice Sheet ca. 15,000 cal. years BP. The post-glacial history of the Baltic has included both freshwater and brackish water stages depending on the connection of the Baltic Sea with the world’s oceans. As the Baltic is one of the most polluted sea areas in the world, many studies have also focused on both the long-term trends in nutrients and productivity and the relatively recent anthropogenic eutrophication. The long-term changes in the trophic state of the Baltic Sea have been found to be linked to changes in climate, which controls freshwater discharge from the catchment and weathering rates, as well as marine water inflow from the North Sea. The productivity of the Baltic Sea has followed major climate patterns: it was high during warm periods and lower during phases of deteriorating climate. Recent eutrophication of the Baltic Sea can mainly be explained by a marked increase in discharge of nutrients caused by a growing population and changes in the agricultural practice, although long-term climate variability also plays a part. Signs of recovery have recently been detected, however, the Baltic Sea is still far from its pre-industrial trophic state.

  • 195.
    Westerdahl, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Miljöcertifiering inom frisörbranschen: Grön Salongs miljöcertifiering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle exponeras vi dagligen för flera skadliga kemikalier. Frisörbranschen är en bransch där ett flertal skadliga ämnen används som exempelvis parafenylendiaminedia och resorcinol. Enligt svensk lag är användningen av skadliga ämnena inom frisörbranschen oreglerad. Detta på grund av att frisörsalonger inte är anmälningspliktiga verksamheter. En miljöcertifiering används av kunder som en försäkran om att en certifierad salong är ett miljövänligare alternativ. I denna uppsats undersöks frisörernas perspektiv på miljöcertifieringen Grön Salong och vad som påverkar certifieringens utbredning. Resultatet har nåtts genom en enkätundersökning och semi-strukturerade intervjuer med frisörsalonger med anknytning till Grön Salong. En intervju med en styrelsemedlem från Grön Salong har genomförts för att spegla organisationens perspektiv. Resultatet visar att Grön Salong har många brister som gör att frisörsalonger väljer att avstå från att fortsätta vara certifierade efter några år. Den brist som frisörerna mest lyfter fram är den dåliga kommunikationen. Organisationens kommunikation upplevs som dålig, både offentligt på hemsidan och enskilt mellan organisation och frisör.

  • 196.
    Wramner, Per
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Nygård, Odd
    Småskalig livsmedelsproduktion som ett instrument för att främja naturvården i odlingslandskapet2013In: Från matproduktion till gastronomi / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen, Madeleine Bonow, Per Wramner, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2013, 181-200 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Yakusheva, Natalya
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Cooperation in Wildlife Management:: Regional Aspects and Challenges in Central Asia2015In: The current situation of wildlife management in Central Asian Countries / [ed] Rolf Baldus, Bishkek: FLERMONECA , 2015, 66-80 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 198.
    Yakusheva, Natalya
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jonathan D. Oldfield & Denis J. B. Shaw: The Development of Russian Environmental Thought. Scientific and Geographical Perspectives on the Natural Environment2017In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 69, no 5, 850-852 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Yakusheva, Natalya
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Parks, Policies and People: Nature Conservation Governance in Post-Socialist EU Countries2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The national parks in the Carpathian Mountains along the Polish and Slovak border represent encompassing policy agendas that strive to balance biodiversity conservation and social welfare tasks. These countries have, during the last 25 years, undergone rapid transformation from socialist regimes to liberal democracies, and this transformation has affected the political, social and economic spheres. The accession to the European Union (EU) introduced demands for further changes, such as closer integration of conservation and socioeconomic development and inclusive, transparent and accountable decision-making that are based on participatory mechanisms.

    This thesis explores key challenges and opportunities for nature conservation policy and practice at the local level in a context of post-socialist legacies and Europeanization. Multi-level governance, Europeanization, and post-socialist studies are used as theoretical vehicles for the analysis of four transboundary national parks: Pieninsky national parks (NP) in both Poland and Slovakia and Bieszczady NP [Poland] and Poloniny NP [Slovakia].

    The results of this study show that the early designation of the studied parks as protected areas prevented their exploitation and enabled preservation of important landscapes, which currently are highly valued at the European level. These nature conservation regimes have created tangible restrictions on the possible economic uses of these areas. However, rural development alternatives depend on a broader set of local, national and global factors such as the structure of the local economy and employment, the prioritization of nature conservation in national policies, investors’ interest, and increasing urbanization. Europeanization provided opportunities for local actors to benefit from additional funding made available for nature conservation and rural development. At the same time, demands for participatory decision-making posed significant procedural and conceptual challenges to achieving transparent, inclusive and accountable governance. The prevalence of informal practices in local policy-making and the lack of trust in state authorities pose further challenges to formal participatory processes. The opportunities of local actors to reach out across levels to express their interests remain scarce and are not institutionalized, whereas the multi-level characteristics of modern governance indirectly shape local processes by defining common legal and policy frameworks. 

  • 200.
    Yakusheva, Natalya
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Socio-demographic changes in and around protected areas and management responses: Case studies from the Carpathians2016In: Parks of the Future:: Protected Areas in Europe Challenging Regional and Global Change / [ed] Thomas Hammer, Ingo Mose, Dominik Siegrist, Norbert Weixlbaumer, Munich: oekom verlag, 2016, 225-240 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
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