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  • 101.
    Jönsson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Dreyer, Marion
    DIALOGIK.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Risk Communication and the Role of the Public: Towards Inclusive Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea?2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek Mikael Karlsson Sebastian Linke Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 205-227Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on forms of and challenges for risk communication within regional environmental governance, based on an analysis of five environmental risks in the Baltic Sea – marine oil transportation, chemicals, overfishing, eutrophication and alien species. We address questions about how risks are framed and communicated and also analyse the role of communication in the governance process. Our main focus is on risk communication with the public (e.g. existing institutional arrangements and procedures of risk communication), but we also relate this analysis to discussions on communication with a broad range of actors and issues of stakeholder participation and communication. In the study we have identified some examples of relatively well-working risk communication with parts of the organised public in the Baltic Sea region (BSR), such as in fisheries or eutrophication, but also a number of different barriers and obstacles. Our key result from this study is that BSR consists of many national institutions for risk communication, but that there are hardly any centralised institutions for risk communication activities relating to environmental governance in the region. Another key conclusion is that public risk communication in this array of cross-national environmental risks is restricted mainly to (one-way) information. Against this backdrop and from our empirical and theoretical knowledge of risk communication and the role of the public, we finally suggest some ways for improvement.

  • 102.
    Karlsson, Jennifer
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ekofeministiska indikationer i biståndsarbetet i Afrika söder om Sahara2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Often women are affected to a greater extent by the lack of access to water andsanitation, both physically and mentally, than men. In these situations the poor areparticularly vulnerable. The fact that women get more affected is due to powerrelationship in the society. To address the issues of female oppression, these powerrelationship and structures needs to apparent. Since access to clean water andsanitation is a human right, it is therefore an international concern. This study aims toexamining international power structures that affect the access of water and sanitationfor poor women in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecofeminism combines feminist positions andenvironmental concerns. Therefore, this study will investigate which opinion line ofthe theory ecofeminism is the most prominent and what this can mean for the womenin Sub-Saharan Africa.

    The analysis method used in this study consisted a combination of text andcontent analysis on five gender equality documents published by the Swedishassistance authority (SIDA). This will allow the study to examine how ecofeministopinion lines emerge in the documents. The study shows that dualism, hierarchy anddominance logic occur in all countries and that the second ecofeminist wave is themost common, but this is not a clear answer, the result indicates that the opinion linesalso occur in combination.

  • 103.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH.
    Farligt när vetenskapen förnekas2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 6 septemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 104.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH.
    "Skolexempel på hur vetenskapsförnekare arbetar"2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 20 septemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 105.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Governance of Chemicals in the Baltic Sea Region: A Study of Three Generations of Hazardous Substances2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 97-123Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study zooms in on public governance in the Baltic Sea region of three generations of notorious hazardous substances, namely, PCBs, PBDEs and PFOS/PFOA. Following regulation, PCB concentrations in the Baltic Sea have decreased substantially although they are still above pre-industrial levels. PBDE levels have also decreased in some places, but they too are well above targeted levels, whereas the situation for PFOS and in particular for PFOA has hardly improved at all. In the case of PCBs, while comprehensive measures took long to implement, initial preventive measures were taken early based on the precautionary principle. This contrasts with the cases of PBDEs, PFOS and PFOA, where the burden of proof on policy-makers has been high and hence caused severe delays in policymaking. There has, however, generally been a positive interplay in all three cases between the EU, which has legislated, and HELCOM, which has taken the role of concept and agenda setting. While environment-oriented policies, such as the Ecosystem Approach to Management under MSFD and BSAP, have grown in importance over time, polluter-oriented chemical legislation has been more important when it comes to final decision-making. Nevertheless, the general response has been reactive rather than proactive, and there is no indication that society responds faster today than in the past, at least not given the fact that awareness, experience and knowledge are greater today than a few decades back. Based on that insight, the article discusses various options for improving governance.

  • 106.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Management of Hazardous Substances in the Marine Environment2018In: Handbook on Marine Environment Protection: Science, Impacts and Sustainable Management / [ed] Salomon, Markus; Markus, Till, Dordrecht: Springer, 2018, p. 715-732Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While modern society is highly dependent on chemicals, numerous substances also turn out to be hazardous and many give rise to severe risks and problems in the marine environment. In response, national, regional and global chemical policies, often focusing on the land-based sources to marine pollution, have been developed, as outlined in the article. As a result, the levels of some pollutants have decreased, but the vast majority of substances are not controlled in line with the internationally stated objectives of sound management of chemicals. An environment-oriented development of present policies, implementing the precautionary principle, is considered needed in order to improve the situation, and the question is raised in the article whether the present main international chemicals agreements would not also gain from being merged into a global framework convention.

  • 107.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Vägar till en friskare Östersjö2015In: HavsUtsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 1, p. 8-9Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Gapet är stort mellan miljömål och miljötillstånd i Östersjön. De omfattande insatser som görs av offentliga institutioner, näringsliv och allmänhet räcker inte. Samtidigt finns ett stort och växande engagemang från många politiker, företagare och enskilda för att stärka havsmiljöarbetet. När vi nu summerar ett större treårigt forskningsprojekt finner vi viktiga ledtrådar till vägar som kan leda till en förbättrad situation.

  • 108.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lundberg, Cecilia
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Eutrophication and the Ecosystem Approach to Management: A Case Study of Baltic Sea Environmental Governance2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 21-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if and how present institutional structures and interactions between scientific assessment and environmental management are sufficient for implementing the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the case of Baltic Sea eutrophication. Concerning governance structures, a number of institutions and policies focus on issues relating to eutrophication. In many cases, the policies are mutually supportive rather than contradictory, as seen, for example, in the case of the mutually supportive BSAP and MSFD. The opposite is true, however, when it comes to the linkages with some other policy areas, in particular regarding agricultural policy, where the EU CAP subsidises intensive agriculture with at best minor consideration of environmental objectives, thereby undermining EAM. Enhanced policy coherence and stricter policies on concrete measures to combat eutrophication seem well needed in order to reach stated environmental objectives.  When it comes to assessment-management interactions, the science- policy interface has worked well in periods, but the more specific that policies have become, for example, in the BSAP case, the more question marks have been raised about science by affected stakeholders. At present, outright controversies exist, and EAM is far from realised in eutrophication policy in the Baltic Sea region. Besides coping with remaining uncertainties by improving the knowledge on problems and solutions– not least in terms of the socio-economic impacts of eutrophication – it may therefore be valuable to develop venues for improved stakeholder participation.

  • 109.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in the environment: Effects of citalopram on fish behaviour2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of anxiolytic and anti-depressant drugs. SSRIs act on the evolutionarily ancient serotonergic system which is virtually identical throughout the vertebrate phylum. Serotonin is involved in a wide range of processes ranging from neuronal and craniofacial embryonic development to regulation of behaviour. However, SSRIs are also emerging pollutants, mainly entering the environment via sewage treatment plants. Since the serotonergic system is virtually identical in humans and other animals, exposed animals will be affected in similar ways as humans and suspicions are rising that ecologically important behaviours may be affected in subtle ways. Using the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) as model organisms, this thesis focuses on the behavioural effects of SSRIs in fish. The SSRI used throughout this thesis is citalopram, which has been found in fish in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea and other parts of the world.

    Effects on behaviour were investigated using several different tests measuring stress response, feeding behaviour, aggression and locomotor activity. Anxiolytic effects of 0.1 μg/l, 1.5 μg/l 15 μg/l were investigated as well as effects of 0.15 μg/l and 1.5 μg/l on feeding behaviour. Because serotonin is involved in the development of the nervous system, the effects of developmental exposure to 1.5 μg/l was studied after 100 days of remediation. Finally, because SSRIs rarely occur alone in natural waters, the effects on zebrafish of citalopram in a cocktail scenario, with the anxiogenic compound 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2 ) was also investigated. Citalopram was found to have anxiolytic effects on the three-spined stickleback at 0.1 μg/l, 1.5 μg/l and 15 μg/l.

    Citalopram also suppressed feeding behaviour within a week of exposure and at concentrations as low as 0.15 μg/l. Developmental exposure to 1.5 μg/l for 30 days was found to increase aggression and feeding behaviour and to reduce locomotor activity. The changes were persistent and remained in adult fish. In the cocktail scenario, citalopram in single-substance exposure had anxiolytic effects on one parameter in the novel tank test at 0.1 μg/l. Citalopram enhanced the anxiogenic effects of EE2 in the novel tank test, but in the scototaxis test citalopram appeared to counteract the effects of EE2. It is concluded that citalopram has the potential to affect behaviour in fish at concentrations that have been found in close proximity of sewage treatment plants.

  • 110.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hallgren, S
    Uppsala University.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Hansen, S H
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Waterborne citalopram has anxiolytic effects and increases locomotor activity in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2016In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 173, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, which acts by inhibiting the re-uptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic nerve ending. It is one of the most common drugs used in treatment of depression, it is highly lipophilic and frequently found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters around the world. Citalopram and other selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have, at concentrations that occur in nature, been shown to have behavioural as well as physiological effects on fish and other animals. This study is the result of several different experiments, intended to analyse different aspects of behavioural effects of chronic citalopram exposure in fish. Our model species the three-spine stickleback is common in the entire northern hemisphere and is considered to be a good environmental sentinel species. Female three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 0, 1.5 and 15μg/l nominal concentrations of citalopram for 21 days and subjected to the novel tank (NT) diving test. In the NT test, the fish exposed to 1.5μg/l, but not the 15μg/l fish made a significantly higher number of transitions to the upper half and stayed there for significantly longer time than the fish exposed to 0μg/l. The 15μg/l group, however, displayed a significantly lower number of freeze bouts and a shorter total freezing time. The test for locomotor activity included in the NT test showed that fish treated with 1.5 and 15μg/l displayed a significantly higher swimming activity than control fish both 5-7 and 15-17min after the start of the experiment. In the next experiment we compared fish exposed to 1.5μg/l and 0.15μg/l to pure water controls with regard to shoaling intensity and found no effect of treatment. In the final experiment the propensity of fish treated with 1.5μg/l to approach an unknown object and aggressive behaviour was investigated using the Novel Object test and a mirror test, respectively. The exposed fish ventured close to the unknown object significantly more often and stayed there for significantly longer time than unexposed fish. The aggression test yielded no statistically significant effects. It is concluded that citalopram changes the behaviour of the three-spine stickleback in a way that is likely to have ecological consequences and that it must not be considered an environmentally safe pharmaceutical.

  • 111.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Borg, Bertil
    Stockholm university.
    Roufidou, Chrysoula
    Stockholm university.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Developmental exposure to the SSRI citalopram causes long-lasting behavioural effects in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2018In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 12-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to persistent behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRI which last into adulthood. To study effects of developmental exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1.5 µg/l of the SSRI citalopram in the ambient water for 30 days, starting two days post-fertilisation. After 100 days of remediation in clean water the fish were put through an extensive test battery. Feeding behaviour was tested as the number of bites against a piece of food and found to be increased in the exposed fish. Aggression levels were measured as the number of bites against a mirror image during 10 minutes and was also found to be significantly increased in the exposed fish. Novel tank behaviour and locomotor activity was tested in an aquarium that had a horizontal line drawn half-way between the bottom and the surface. Neither the latency to the first transition to the upper half, nor the number of transitions or the total time spent in the upper half was affected by treatment. Locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the exposed fish. The light/dark preference was tested in an aquarium where the bottom and walls were black on one side and white on the other. The number of transitions to the white side was significantly reduced in the exposed fish but there was no effect on the latency to the first transition or the total time spent in the white half. The results in the current study indicate that developmental SSRI exposure causes persistent behavioural effects in fish and contribute to the existing knowledge about SSRIs as environmental pollutants.

  • 112.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Hansen, Steen
    Univ. of Copenhagen.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Environmentally relevant concentrations of citalopram partially inhibit feeding in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2015In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 158, p. 165-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRI) are mood-altering, psychotropic drugs commonly used in the treatment of depression and other psychological illnesses. Many of them are poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and enter the environment unaltered. In laboratory studies, they have been demonstrated to affect a wide range of behaviours in aquatic organisms. In this study we investigated the effect of a three-week exposure to 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l of the SSRI citalopram dissolved in the ambient water on the feeding behaviour in three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Feeding, measured as the number of attacks performed on a piece of frozen bloodworms during a 10-min period, was reduced by 30–40% in fish exposed to both 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l citalopram. The effects of the environmentally relevant concentration 0.15 μg/l on feeding, an important fitness characteristic, suggests that the ecological significance of environmental SSRI exposure may be pronounced.

  • 113.
    Kern, Kristine
    et al.
    Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development & Structural Planning, Erkner, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Governing Europe’s Marine Environment: Key Topics and Challenges2015In: Governing Europe’s Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham, England: Ashgate, 2015, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Klimaschewski, Andrea
    et al.
    School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN Northern Ireland, UK.
    Barnekow, Lena
    Quaternary Sciences, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, SE22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Bennett, Keith D.
    School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN Northern Ireland, UK.
    Andreev, Andrei A.
    Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 49a, D-50674 Cologne, Germany.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Bobrov, A.A.
    Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Vorobievy Gory, 119899 Moscow, Russia.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Quaternary Sciences, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, SE22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record2015In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, no SI, p. 142-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI).

    The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381–384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A.incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A.incana and also A.viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP, wet conditions dominate as dry indicating testate amoebae decrease. After 1800 cal yr BP soil conditions become more variable again but this time with dry dominating testate amoebae.

    In contrast to surrounding regions, there is no evidence of trees such as spruce or larch growing in the surroundings of the site even though those trees are characteristic of many eastern Siberian sites. This difference might be because of the maritime influence of the Okhotsk Sea. Even dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), which is currently widely dispersed in northern Kamchatka, became part of the local vegetation only during the last 700 yr.

  • 115.
    Klintman, M.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Political consumerism and the transition towards a more sustainable food regime: Looking behind and beyond the organic shelf2013In: Food Practices in Transition: Changing Food Consumption, Retail and Production in the Age of Reflexive Modernity, New York: Routledge, 2013, p. 107-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In media, policymaking and research, increasing attention is drawn to the phenomenon of ‘green political consumerism’, referring to consumerrelated practices that are based on concerns beyond the traditional criteria of product quality and price. Political consumerism is about expressing non-economic values, that is, values beyond the direct, economic self-interest of consumers. Such values may concern social conditions of farmers producing our food or the welfare of animals used in food production. Green political consumerism is a concept that highlights a concern for environmental conditions, although these concerns often overlap with social and animal-related ones (Boström & Klintman 2008). Micheletti (2003) has defi ned political consumerism as consumers’ ‘individualistic collective action’, practiced, for instance, through boycotting or buycotting certain products and services.

  • 116.
    Kotthoff, U.
    et al.
    University of Hamburg.
    Groeneveld, J.
    University of Bremen.
    Ash, J.L.
    UCLA.
    Fanget, A.-S.
    Aarhus University, Université de Perpignan.
    Krupinski, N.Q.
    Lund University.
    Peyron, O.
    University of Montpellier.
    Stepanova, A.
    Texas A&M University.
    Warnock, J.
    Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
    Van Helmond, N. A. G. M.
    Utrecht University.
    Passey, B.H.
    University of Michigan.
    Clausen, O.R.
    Aarhus University.
    Bennike, O.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Granoszewski, W.
    Polish Geological Institute-National Research Institute Krakow.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Filipsson, H.L.
    Lund University.
    Seidenkrantz, M.-S.
    Aarhus University.
    Slomp, C.P.
    Utrecht University.
    Bauersachs, T.
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität.
    Reconstructing Holocene temperature and salinity variations in the western Baltic Sea region: a multi-proxy comparison from the Little Belt (IODP Expedition 347, Site M0059)2017In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 14, p. 5607-5632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment records recovered from the Baltic Sea during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 provide a unique opportunity to study paleoenvironmental and climate change in central and northern Europe. Such studies contribute to a better understanding of how environmental parameters change in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins. Here we present a multi-proxy-based reconstruction of paleotemperature (both marine and terrestrial), paleosalinity, and paleoecosystem changes from the Little Belt (Site M0059) over the past  ∼  8000 years and evaluate the applicability of inorganic- and organic-based proxies in this particular setting. All salinity proxies (diatoms, aquatic palynomorphs, ostracods, diol index) show that lacustrine conditions occurred in the Little Belt until  ∼  7400 cal yr BP. A connection to the Kattegat at this time can thus be excluded, but a direct connection to the Baltic Proper may have existed. The transition to the brackish–marine conditions of the Littorina Sea stage (more saline and warmer) occurred within  ∼  200 years when the connection to the Kattegat became established after  ∼  7400 cal yr BP. The different salinity proxies used here generally show similar trends in relative changes in salinity, but often do not allow quantitative estimates of salinity. The reconstruction of water temperatures is associated with particularly large uncertainties and variations in absolute values by up to 8 °C for bottom waters and up to 16 °C for surface waters. Concerning the reconstruction of temperature using foraminiferal Mg  /  Ca ratios, contamination by authigenic coatings in the deeper intervals may have led to an overestimation of temperatures. Differences in results based on the lipid paleothermometers (long chain diol index and TEXL86) can partly be explained by the application of modern-day proxy calibrations to intervals that experienced significant changes in depositional settings: in the case of our study, the change from freshwater to marine conditions. Our study shows that particular caution has to be taken when applying and interpreting proxies in coastal environments and marginal seas, where water mass conditions can experience more rapid and larger changes than in open ocean settings. Approaches using a multitude of independent proxies may thus allow a more robust paleoenvironmental assessment.

  • 117.
    König, Malin A E
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Among-Population Variation in Tolerance to Larval Herbivory by Anthocharis cardamines in the Polyploid Herb Cardamine pratensis2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. e99333-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants have two principal defense mechanisms to decrease fitness losses to herbivory: tolerance, the ability to compensate fitness after damage, and resistance, the ability to avoid damage. Variation in intensity of herbivory among populations should result in variation in plant defense levels if tolerance and resistance are associated with costs. Yet little is known about how levels of tolerance are related to resistance and attack intensity in the field, and about the costs of tolerance. In this study, we used information about tolerance and resistance against larval herbivory by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines under controlled conditions together with information about damage in the field for a large set of populations of the perennial plant Cardamine pratensis. Plant tolerance was estimated in a common garden experiment where plants were subjected to a combination of larval herbivory and clipping. We found no evidence of that the proportion of damage that was caused by larval feeding vs. clipping influenced plant responses. Damage treatments had a negative effect on the three measured fitness components and also resulted in an earlier flowering in the year after the attack. Tolerance was related to attack intensity in the population of origin, i.e. plants from populations with higher attack intensity were more likely to flower in the year following damage. However, we found no evidence of a relationship between tolerance and resistance. These results indicate that herbivory drives the evolution for increased tolerance, and that changes in tolerance are not linked to changes in resistance. We suggest that the simultaneous study of tolerance, attack intensity in the field and resistance constitutes a powerful tool to understand how plant strategies to avoid negative effects of herbivore damage evolve.

  • 118.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Indigeneidad, descolonización y la paradoja del desarrollismo extractivista en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia: Indigeneity, decolonization and the paradox of extractive development in the Plurinational State of Bolivia2017In: Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política, ISSN 0718-9389, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 47-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, indigenous peoples have been marginalized and oppressed in the Bolivian political economy. During the presidency of Evo Morales, and under the 2009 Constitution, political, economic, social and cultural decolonization has become the central project for the transformation of the State and society. On the one hand, the new Constitution has been classified as one of the most progressive in the world with respect to ethnically defined rights; the indigenous ethical-philosophical principles of Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien, referring to the harmonious relationship between individuals and nature, have been incorporated into the Constitution. On the other hand, these rights collide with broader social rights (defined by class) and also the rights of the State to extract and market natural resources (especially hydrocarbon extraction and mining) under the banner of redistributive justice, social reforms and the common good. This collision is defined in this study as the paradox of extractivist developmentalism. The article is based on an ethnographic work and problematizes the extractivist dilemma and the tensions between ethnic rights and class rights, thus contributing to debates about indigeneity and the challenges and dilemmas of decolonizing projects.

  • 119.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Cuestas-Caza, Javier
    Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ecuador.
    Sumak Kawsay y Buen-Vivir en Ecuador2017In: Conocimientos ancestrales y procesos de desarrollo: Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador / [ed] Ana Dolores Verdú Delgado, Loja, Ecuador: Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja , 2017, p. 30-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    El interés de la academia por investigar sobre el término del Sumak Kawsay ha despegado a partir de su incursión en la Constitución del Ecuador en 2008. Su cuestionada traducción como Buen-Vivir ha despertado diversos debates epistemológicos y ontológicos. En la actualidad, son tres las corrientes de pensamiento que estudian al paradigma emergente del Buen-Vivir: indígena-culturalista, postdesarrollista-ecologista y socialista-estatista. Cada una de ellas ha interpretado de diferente manera los saberes indígenas relacionados con el Sumak Kawsay, lo que ha dado lugar a varios cuestionamientos, entre ellos, un posible extractivismo epistémico en el uso y contenido del término Buen Vivir. Además, en la práctica, la inclusión del Buen-Vivir en la Constitución ecuatoriana de 2008 y el reconocimiento de los derechos de la naturaleza ha dado lugar a una serie de críticas y dilemas político-ambientales debido a las políticas públicas neo-extractivistas implementadas por el gobierno de Rafael Correa. El presente capítulo tiene como objetivo ahondar y enfatizar varios de los debates intelectuales sobre el Sumak Kawsay y el Buen-Vivir, así como identificar algunos dilemas y desafíos en la implementación práctica de los principios y valores de estas visiones.

  • 120.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lembke, M.
    Stockholm University.
    The Andean Catch-22: ethnicity, class and resource governance in Bolivia and Ecuador2018In: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the tensions and contradictions between resource governance, welfare policies, and the constitutionally recognized rights of nature and the indigenous peoples in Bolivia and Ecuador. We have identified a certain reductionism in current debates on these issues and propose a more systematic analytical focus on class and the class-ethnicity duality, as expressed in historical and contemporary indigenous struggles, and also confirmed via our ethnographic material. Drawing on the double bind as expressed in Joseph Heller’s Catch-22 wherein the protagonists face situations in which they do not have any choice to achieve a net gain, this article centres on how national governments have to choose between the protections of rights – in this case ethnic and environmental rights – and welfare provision financed by extractive revenues. From the perspective of ecologically concerned indigenous actors, the Catch-22 is articulated in the choice or compromise between universal welfarism on the one hand, and ethno-environmental concerns on the other hand. The article draws primarily on ecosocialist arguments and on indigenous-culturalist perspectives on Good Life (Sumak Kawsay or Vivir Bien). A central finding is the existence of awareness among involved actors – oppositional movements and government authorities – that the Catch-22 quandary and joint class-ethnic concerns are unavoidable ingredients in their discourses, struggles, and understandings of Good Life.

  • 121.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Maija, Merimaa
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The Discursive Paradox of Environmental Conflict: Between Ecologism and Economism in Ecuador2018In: Forum for Development Studies, ISSN 0803-9410, E-ISSN 1891-1765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecuador in times of the Rafael Correa government constitutes a prime example of the paradox of environmental conflict, in which all involved actors claim to represent the true vanguard concerning safeguarding of the environment and human conditions. The country presents the ecologically most progressive constitution in the world and also incorporates far-reaching recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights. Notwithstanding, the economy remains reliant on extractivism and the government argues that the revenues of extractive industries benefit the common good. Anchored in a distinction between environmentalism and ecologism, this article identifies and problematizes dominant narratives among the actors of the contentious discursive scenarios, and analyses how the state and its ecological-indigenous opposition aim to position themselves within the political conflict. The central questions are: How are eco-progressive politics perceived, defined and expressed in this setting of an intercultural and plurinational society economically reliant on natural resource extraction? Which values, interests and ontological assumptions are at stake and how are these expressed in the discursive struggle? The research is based on several years of ethnographic fieldwork, combined with critical reading of the previous literature and discourse analysis. The article contributes to politico-environmental debates in Ecuador and beyond and shows that environmental struggle is entangled in broader political disputes conditioned by global economic structures. It likewise communicates with debates on argumentative discourse and illustrates that the same core arguments can constitute the argumentative basis of rivalling actors in political struggles, thus emphasizing the centrality of the contextual framing amid ontological divides in contentious discursive settings.

  • 122.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Genetic Aspects of Environmental Disturbances in Marine Ecosystems: Studies of the Blue Mussel in the Baltic Sea2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic environmental changes can serve as drivers for evolutionary responses in wild populations. To predict the long-term impact of anthropogenic changes on populations, it is crucial to understand the genetic effects caused by these disturbances. The Baltic Sea is considered to be one of the world’s most contaminated seas, and the increase of anthropogenic chemical pollution is a major threat to its ecosystems. This thesis assesses the impact of harbors and sewage treatment plants on physiological traits and genetic structure of resident populations of blue mussels at replicated sites in the Baltic Sea. The initial evaluation of the overall genetic pattern in blue mussel populations in the Swedish West Coast, the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea found genetic differentiation between the three water basins and a low genetic differentiation within each basin, especially within the Baltic Proper. Despite the low genetic differentiation among blue mussels within the Baltic Proper, a parallel genetic differentiation associated with sewage treatment plant effluents was found in this basin. This included genomic regions with a high degree of differentiation between reference sites and sites affected by sewage plants effluent. This genetic differentiation is suggested to be due to post-dispersal selection acting in each generation. In contrast, no parallel genetic differentiation was associated with harbors. We identified five genomic regions in blue mussels, showing strong signs of selection, shared among three out of four replicated reference sites and sites affected by sewage effluents in the Baltic Proper i.e. Askö, Tvärminne and Karlskrona. An initial characterization of these genomic regions revealed functions related to immune and endocrine responses, oxidative stress and shell formation. Our results indicate that selection caused by sewage effluents involves multiple loci. The same genomic regions are found across different locations in the Baltic Proper but there are also unique genomic regions at each location. No genotoxic or histopathological effects were found among blue mussels from sewage effluent-affected areas but a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland were observed in mussels from harbors.

  • 123.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University.
    A population genomic analysis of blue mussels identifies genomic regions associated with sewage treatment plant effluents in the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lind, E. E.
    SLU.
    Corell, H.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area2017In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.

  • 125.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Lind, Emma E
    SLU.
    Świeżak, Justyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e2628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  • 126.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Świeżak, J.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Turower, M.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Czerniawska, N.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Multi biomarker analysis of pollution effect on resident populations of blue mussels from the Baltic Sea2018In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 198, p. 240-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic pollution including metals, petroleum, toxins, nutrients and many others is a growing problem in the marine environment. These are important factors altering the environment and by that the fate of many local populations of marine organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of selected point pollution sources on resident populations of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) in the Baltic Sea using multiple biomarker approach. The study used a nested sampling scheme in which sites from reference (REF) habitats are geographically paired with selected sites from sewage treatment plants (STP) and harbors (HAR). The results showed that mussels from harbors had a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland compared to mussels from sewage effluent affected areas and reference sites. However these mussels together with mussels from STPs had higher lipid content, body mass index (BMI) and gonado-somatic index (GSI) compared to mussels from reference sites. A marked spatial variability was found with a stronger toxicity of ambient environment affecting resident mussel populations in the Gulf of Gdańsk area, while an opposite pattern was found in Tvärminne area. Yet the blue mussels sampled in the Gulf of Gdańsk were characterized by the highest GSI and BMI values compared to Askö and Tvärminne populations. No differences in analyzed biomarker response related to species identity, measured by a species-specific genetic marker, were found indicative of strong genetic introgression in the Baltic Proper.

  • 127.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dahlgren, Johan P
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark .
    Garcia, Maria Begoña
    Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología (CSIC), Saragossa, Spain.
    Leimu, Roosa
    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK .
    Syrjänen, Kimmo
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Forest succession and population viability of grassland plants: long repayment of extinction debt in Primula veris.2016In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 181, no 1, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time lags in responses of organisms to deteriorating environmental conditions delay population declines and extinctions. We examined how local processes at the population level contribute to extinction debt, and how cycles of habitat deterioration and recovery may delay extinction. We carried out a demographic analysis of the fate of the grassland perennial Primula veris after the cessation of grassland management, where we used either a unidirectional succession model for forest habitat or a rotation model with a period of forest growth followed by a clear-cut and a new successional cycle. The simulations indicated that P. veris populations may have an extinction time of decades to centuries after a detrimental management change. A survey of the current incidence and abundance of P. veris in sites with different histories of afforestation confirmed the simulation results of low extinction rates. P. veris had reduced incidence and abundance only at sites with at least 100 years of forest cover. Time to extinction in simulations was dependent on the duration of the periods with favourable and unfavourable conditions after management cessation, and the population sizes and growth rates in these periods. Our results thus suggest that the ability of a species to survive is a complex function of disturbance regimes, rates of successional change, and the demographic response to environmental changes. Detailed demographic studies over entire successional cycles are therefore essential to identify the environmental conditions that enable long-term persistence and to design management for species experiencing extinction debts.

  • 128.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Environmental Impacts of Rural Landscape Change During the Post-Communist Period in the Baltic Sea Region2017In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 155-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Lewis, J.P.
    et al.
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, England.
    Ryves, D.B.
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, England.
    Rasmussen, P.
    National Museum of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark / Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsen, J.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Knudsen, K.-L.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Andersen, S.H.
    Moesgård Museum, Højbjerg, Danmark.
    Weckström, K.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Clarke, A.L.
    APEM Aquatic Scientists Ltd, Stockport, UK.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Juggins, S.
    Newcastle University, Newcaslte, England.
    The shellfish enigma across the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in southern Scandinavia2016In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 151, p. 315-320, article id http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.09.004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-known and widespread replacement of oysters (abundant during the Mesolithic period) by cockles and mussels in many Danish Stone Age shell middens ca. 5900 cal yrs BP coincides with the transition to agriculture in southern Scandinavia. This human resource shift is commonly believed to reflect changing resource availability, driven by environmental and/or climatic change at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition rather than cultural choice. While several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the “Mesolithic-Neolithic oyster decline”, an explanation based on a sudden freshening of the inner Danish waters has received most attention. Here, for the first time, we test and refute this long-standing hypothesis that declining salinity explains the marked reduction in oysters identified within numerous shell middens across coastal Denmark at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition using quantitative and qualitative salinity inference from several, independent proxies (diatoms, molluscs and foraminifera) from multiple Danish fjord sites. Alternatively, we attribute the oyster decline to other environmental causes (particularly changing sedimentation), ultimately driven by external climatic forcing. Critical application of such high-quality environmental archives can reinvigorate archaeological debates and can aid in understanding and managing environmental change in increasingly impacted coastal regions.

  • 130.
    Linke, Sebastian
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Science-Policy Interfaces in Baltic Sea Environmental Governance: Towards Regional Cooperation and Management of Uncertainty?2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Gilek et al., Springer, 2016, 1, p. 173-203Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates and compares the interactions between science and policy (risk assessments and risk management) in five cases of environmental governance of the Baltic Sea: eutrophication, fisheries, invasive alien species, chemical pollution and oil discharges. An efficient interplay between science and policy is important for successful environmental governance, which applies particularly to the Baltic Sea where all five risks pose serious threats to environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainability. We use science-policy theory and an analytical framework based on a categorisation of relevant management responses linked to different states of incomplete knowledge (risk, uncertainty, ambiguity, ignorance) to investigate two main characteristics of science-policy interfaces: (1) organisational structures and (2) procedural aspects of managing scientific uncertainties and stakeholder disagreements. The analyses reveal differences and similarities in institutional and organisational designs of the respective assessment-management interactions, as well as in terms of how scientific uncertainties, stakeholder disagreements and socio-political ambiguities are addressed. All the five science-policy interfaces expose science-based management approaches that commonly are not able to cope sufficiently well with the complexities, uncertainties and ambiguities at hand. Based on our cross-case analyses, we conclude by recommending five key aspects that need to be addressed to improve science-policy interactions in Baltic Sea environmental governance: (1) more adaptive organisational structures in terms of time, context and place dependency, (2) increased knowledge integrations, (3) a more careful consideration of stakeholder participation and deliberation, (4) better management of uncertainty and disagreements and (5) increased transparency and reflection in the communication of science-policy processes.

  • 131.
    Linke, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Unravelling science-policy interactions in environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: Comparing fisheries and eutrophication2014In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 505-523Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Ljungberg, Stina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Drivkrafter och hinder ur ett multifunktionellt perspektiv: Förutsättningar och utvecklingsområden för produktion av biobränsle från våtmarker2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden have already reached several of their goals for energy consumption, but the overall goal to become a fossil free society can still be seen as a driving force to keep developing renewable fuels. There is financial support for wetland construction, reduce impact on the climate, improve the natural environment, for developing new techniques and for biomass fuel plants. Still, cultivation of wetland crops for energy extraction are not yet well established on the energy market. After interviews with actors interested and knowledgeable in this field, this study presents driving forces and barriers affecting the development of this energy source. Driving forces comes from the ambition to move away from fossil fuels, decrease emissions of nutrients, make room for biodiversity, and provide services for the society while helping to reach climate and environmental goals. The barriers affecting this development is that special machines might be needed for handling of the crops and also to harvest the sensitive wetlands while large areas would be needed to increase profitability. The financial support available is not enough to cover the costs for production. Also, the prices on electricity and fossil fuels are low, which lowers the profitability for this type of energy source. Bioenergy producers have not yet found an effective way to extract energy from the crops. All of this makes the demand for energy crops from wetlands small. Despite this, wetlands provide several important ecosystem services and it is therefore recommended to use the management philosophy of multiple-use. With a multifunctional view of wetlands, the value of its ecosystem services can be added to the calculations of energy production and increase its role in reaching several national climate and environmental goals.

  • 133.
    Lundberg, Max
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Liedvogel, Miriam
    Lund University / Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Plön, Germany.
    Larson, Keith
    Umeå University.
    Sigeman, Hanna
    Lund University.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wright, Anthony Ph
    Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Åkesson, Susanne
    Lund University.
    Bensch, Staffan
    Lund University.
    Genetic differences between willow warbler migratory phenotypes are few and cluster in large haplotype blocks2017In: Evolution Letters, ISSN 2056-3744, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that differences in migratory behavior between populations of songbirds have a genetic basis but the actual genes underlying these traits remains largely unknown. In an attempt to identify such candidate genes we de novo assembled the genome of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus, and used whole-genome resequencing and a SNP array to associate genomic variation with migratory phenotypes across two migratory divides around the Baltic Sea that separate SW migrating P. t. trochilus wintering in western Africa and SSE migrating P. t. acredula wintering in eastern and southern Africa. We found that the genomes of the two migratory phenotypes lack clear differences except for three highly differentiated regions located on chromosomes 1, 3, and 5 (containing 146, 135, and 53 genes, respectively). Within each migratory phenotype we found virtually no differences in allele frequencies for thousands of SNPs, even when comparing geographically distant populations breeding in Scandinavia and Far East Russia (>6000 km). In each of the three differentiated regions, multidimensional scaling-based clustering of SNP genotypes from more than 1100 individuals demonstrates the presence of distinct haplotype clusters that are associated with each migratory phenotype. In turn, this suggests that recombination is absent or rare between haplotypes, which could be explained by inversion polymorphisms. Whereas SNP alleles on chromosome 3 correlate with breeding altitude and latitude, the allele distribution within the regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 perfectly matches the geographical distribution of the migratory phenotypes. The most differentiated 10 kb windows and missense mutations within these differentiated regions are associated with genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, possibly representing physiological adaptations to the different migratory strategies. The ∼200 genes in these regions, of which several lack described function, will direct future experimental and comparative studies in the search for genes that underlie important migratory traits.

  • 134.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Linköping University.
    Bergman, K. -O
    Linköping University.
    Rapp, M.
    Linköping University.
    Tälle, M.
    Linköping University.
    Westerberg, L.
    Linköping University.
    Milberg, P.
    Linköping University.
    Decline in lichen biodiversity on oak trunks due to urbanization2014In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 518-528Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity often suffers from urbanization. In the present study, we focused on how the duration of urbanization affects the richness of 17 epiphytic lichen species and their cover on large oaks in urban environments in a city of 100 000 inhabitants in southeast Sweden. We also surveyed trees in adjacent rural areas, selected to have similar distributions of tree trunk circumference and surrounding oak density (within 300 m). Lichen richness and cover were lower on urban trees compared to rural trees. Furthermore, richness and cover decreased with the length of time that urban trees had been surrounded by houses. Most of the species that were analysed demonstrated a decline in occurrence with respect to the duration of housing development. The reduction in the probability of occurrence varied from 60% (Calicium viride, Evernia prunastri), 80% (Chrysothrix candelaris) to 90% (Ramalina spp.) during the considered 160-year period of urbanization. Therefore, even if valuable trees survive over the course of development, their lichen biota is likely to become depleted over time. © 2014 The Authors.

  • 135.
    Musumeci, Matías A
    et al.
    Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos, CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Lozada, Mariana
    Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos, CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Rial, Daniela V
    Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Rosario, Argentina.
    Mac Cormack, Walter P
    Instituto Antártico Argentino, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina / CONICET—Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Carroll, JoLynn
    Fram—High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment, Tromsø, Norway / UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Dionisi, Hebe M
    Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos, CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Prospecting Biotechnologically-Relevant Monooxygenases from Cold Sediment Metagenomes: An In Silico Approach2017In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work was to identify sequences encoding monooxygenase biocatalysts with novel features by in silico mining an assembled metagenomic dataset of polar and subpolar marine sediments. The targeted enzyme sequences were Baeyer-Villiger and bacterial cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP153). These enzymes have wide-ranging applications, from the synthesis of steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins and pheromones to the synthesis of monomers for polymerization and anticancer precursors, due to their extraordinary enantio-, regio-, and chemo- selectivity that are valuable features for organic synthesis. Phylogenetic analyses were used to select the most divergent sequences affiliated to these enzyme families among the 264 putative monooxygenases recovered from the ~14 million protein-coding sequences in the assembled metagenome dataset. Three-dimensional structure modeling and docking analysis suggested features useful in biotechnological applications in five metagenomic sequences, such as wide substrate range, novel substrate specificity or regioselectivity. Further analysis revealed structural features associated with psychrophilic enzymes, such as broader substrate accessibility, larger catalytic pockets or low domain interactions, suggesting that they could be applied in biooxidations at room or low temperatures, saving costs inherent to energy consumption. This work allowed the identification of putative enzyme candidates with promising features from metagenomes, providing a suitable starting point for further developments.

  • 136.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Rist, Lucy
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Umeå universitet.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Lämås, Tomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years’ rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

    This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

  • 137.
    Nesme, Joseph
    et al.
    Université de Lyon, Ecully, France / Helmholtz Zentrum München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Achouak, Wafa
    Aix-Marseille Université, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France.
    Agathos, Spiros N
    Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium / Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ecuador.
    Bailey, Mark
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Oxford, UK.
    Baldrian, Petr
    Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Brunel, Dominique
    Centre National de Génotypage, Evry, France.
    Frostegård, Åsa
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway.
    Heulin, Thierry
    Aix-Marseille Université, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France.
    Jansson, Janet K
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.
    Jurkevitch, Edouard
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.
    Kruus, Kristiina L
    Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kowalchuk, George A
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Lagares, Antonio
    Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina.
    Lappin-Scott, Hilary M
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Lemanceau, Philippe
    Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.
    Le Paslier, Denis
    Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne, Evry, France.
    Mandic-Mulec, Ines
    University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Murrell, J Colin
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Myrold, David D
    Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.
    Nalin, Renaud
    NALINOV, Dremil Lafage, France.
    Nannipieri, Paolo
    University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
    Neufeld, Josh D
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
    O'Gara, Fergal
    National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland / Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parnell, John J
    National Ecological Observatory Network, Boulder, CO, USA.
    Pühler, Alfred
    Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Pylro, Victor
    René Rachou Research Centre, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Ramos, Juan L
    Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Granada, Spain.
    Roesch, Luiz F W
    Federal University of Pampa, São Gabriel, Brazil.
    Schloter, Michael
    Helmholtz Zentrum München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Schleper, Christa
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Sczyrba, Alexander
    Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Sessitsch, Angela
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Tulln, Austria.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sørensen, Jan
    niversity of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Søren J
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tebbe, Christoph C
    Thünen-Institute of Biodiversity, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Topp, Edward
    University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
    Tsiamis, George
    University of Patras, Agrinio, Greece.
    van Elsas, Jan Dirk
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    van Keulen, Geertje
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Widmer, Franco
    Institute for Sustainability Sciences, Agroscope, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Wagner, Michael
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Zhang, Tong
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Zhang, Xiaojun
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhao, Liping
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhu, Yong-Guan
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, China.
    Vogel, Timothy M
    Université de Lyon, Ecully, France.
    Simonet, Pascal
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Back to the Future of Soil Metagenomics2016In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, article id 73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Nguyen, P.
    et al.
    Can Tho University, Ninh Kieu District, Can Tho City, Vietnam.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bosma, R.
    Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bregt, A.
    Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ligtenberg, A.
    Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    An Investigation of the Role of Social Dynamics in Conversion to Sustainable Integrated Mangrove-Shrimp Farming in Ben Tre Province, Vietnam2018In: Singapore journal of tropical geography, ISSN 0129-7619, E-ISSN 1467-9493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the coastal area of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, much of the mangrove forest has been cut to make space for expansion of industry and aquaculture. Export-oriented shrimp farming is a particularly fast-growing business. Nonetheless, the importance of tropical mangrove forest ecosystems for coastal protection and marine biodiversity is widely recognized. The Vietnamese government, supported by non-governmental organizations and donors, has sought to restore mangrove forest. To this end, the government has promoted mixed or integrated mangrove-shrimp systems in which farmers maintain at least 40 per cent of their area under mangrove cover. Since 2012, mangrove reforestation, care and protection has benefited from local authority stimulus as well. Multiple studies have examined the condition of the mangrove forest in Ben Tre and other coastal provinces of the Mekong Delta. However, no research has investigated the role of social dynamics in farmers' willingness to shift to, or maintain, integrated mangrove-shrimp systems. Specifically, the influence of information, group dynamics and social learning on farmer decision-making is poorly understood and, indeed, hardly investigated in Vietnam. This article reports on a study of social processes in three communes in Binh Dai District, Ben Tre Province, Vietnam. We conducted 42 semi-structured interviews (with 34 farmers and eight local officials) and used secondary data. Our preliminary findings indicate that social dynamics in these communes were issue-driven and played an important role in farmers' decisions to adopt, or convert to, the integrated mangrove-shrimp farming system. Television, radio, the internet, books, neighbours and training courses all had some influence in farmer decision-making processes. However, our findings suggest that the accessibility, usefulness, relevance and approach of these communication methods must be improved if they are to adequately inform and support local farmers.

  • 139.
    Nielsen, Sebastian V
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Henriksen, Per G
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hansen, Steen H
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Baatrup, Erik
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    The psychoactive drug Escitalopram affects swimming behaviour and increases boldness in zebrafish (Danio rerio)2018In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 485-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    was not significantly different from control fish in either sex. The results of this study demonstrate that Escitalopram can affect subtle but ecologically important aspects of fish behaviour and lends further credibility to the assumption that Escitalopram is an environmentally active pharmaceutical.

  • 140.
    Nilsson, Elinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Nordin, Therese
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    100 år av miljöförändringar som de registrerats i Hallsfjärden, västra Östersjön: En biostratigrafisk studie om vad bevarade kiselalger i sediment kan berätta om tidigare miljöförhållande i Hallsfjärden.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diatoms are microscopic, photosynthetic, single-celled organisms that are useful in studies of water qualities (eg pH, nutrients, salinity). By analyzing changes in the species composition of diatoms back in time, gives an opportunity to interpret the marine environment affected by various factors (Andren et al, 1999). The aim of the study was to study changes in diatom abundance and composition in Hallsfjärden, a bay in the Baltic Sea located north of Himmerfjärden in Södertälje. The site was chosen because it is a bay that is assumed to have a large environmental impact due to external factors such as increased population growth, water treatment plants, industrial areas, dredging and a link to Lake Mälaren. The purpose of the study therefore to investigate whether there was an environmental impact in Hallsfjärden, in order to draw conclusions about what happened in the area and what has affected the water the last 100 years.

         The survey is conducted by sampling sediment cores, studied by biostratigraphy of fossil diatoms to reconstruct past environmental conditions. The results of the analysis showed that oxygen deficiency was a particular problem, which is related to the eutrophication that are threatening some diatoms and thereby changes the species composition of ecosystems in Hallsfjärden. A plausible interpretation of the analyze results is that Hallsfjärden was adversely affected by the Södertalje area's population growth and Himmerfjärdsverkets startup by high emissions of nutrients. It has on the other hand appeared a positive impact for Himmerfjärdsverkets gradually improved purification with clearer water conditions. Hallsfjärden have proved to be a particularly sensitive ecosystem in this study, with low salinity and strong thermocline, which means that it is more affected by eutrophication and pollution in its drainage area. This causes a problem of eutrophication in Hallsfjärden due to the bay showing the influence of the surrounding areas and its emissions, which later exports further to the Baltic Sea via Himmerfjärden with the southbound flow.

  • 141.
    Ning, W.
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Nielsen, A.B.
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden; Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jilber, T.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Åkesson, C.M.
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden; Department of Biological Science, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, USA.
    Slomp, C.P.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Broström, A.
    The Archaeologists, Swedish National Historical Museums, Lund, Sweden.
    Filipsson, H.L.
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Anthropogenic and climatic impacts on a coastal environment in the Baltic Sea over the last 1000 years2018In: Anthropocene, E-ISSN 2213-3054, Vol. 21, p. 66-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal environments have experienced large ecological changes as a result of human activities over the last 100−200 years. To understand the severity and potential consequences of such changes, paleoenvironmental records provide important contextual information. The Baltic Sea coastal zone is naturally a vulnerable system and subject to significant human-induced impacts. To put the recent environmental degradation in the Baltic coastal zone into a long-term perspective, and to assess the natural and anthropogenic drivers of environmental change, we present sedimentary records covering the last 1000 years obtained from a coastal inlet (Gåsfjärden) and a nearby lake (Lake Storsjön) in Sweden. We investigate the links between a pollen-based land cover reconstruction from Lake Storsjön and paleoenvironmental variables from Gåsfjärden itself, including diatom assemblages,organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, stable C and N isotopic ratios, and biogenic silica contents. The Lake Storsjön record shows that regional land use was characterized by small-scale agricultural activity between 900 and 1400 CE, which slightly intensified between 1400 and 1800 CE. Substantial expansion of cropland was observed between 1800 and 1950 CE, before afforestation between 1950 and 2010 CE. From the Gåsfjärden record, prior to 1800 CE, relatively minor changes in the diatom and geochemical proxies were found. The onset of cultural eutrophication in Gåsfjärden can be traced to the 1800s and intensified land use is identified as the main driver. Anthropogenic activities in the 20th century have caused unprecedented ecosystem changes in the coastal inlet, as reflected in the diatom composition and geochemical proxies.

  • 142. Nygård, Odd
    et al.
    Wramner, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Terroir - ett nyckelbegrepp för att ge lokalproducerade livsmedel geografisk identitet2013In: Från matproduktion till gastronomi / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen, Madeleine Bonow, Per Wramner, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2013, p. 201-235Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Obrochta, S. P.
    et al.
    Akita University Akita, Japan.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Fazekas, S. Z.
    Akita University Akita, Japan.
    Lougheed, B. C.
    Uppsala University.
    Snowball, I.
    Uppsala University.
    Yokoyama, Y.
    University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Miyairi, Y.
    University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Kondo, R.
    Kogakkan University, Mie, Japan.
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Marine Geology, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyttinen, O.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fehr, A
    RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    The undatables: Quantifying uncertainty in a highly expanded Late Glacial-Holocene sediment sequence recovered from the deepest Baltic Sea basin—IODP Site M00632017In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 858-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated, organic-rich silts and clays with high dissolved gas content characterize sediments at IODP Site M0063 in the Landsort Deep, which at 459 m is the deepest basin in the Baltic Sea. Cores recovered from Hole M0063A experienced significant expansion as gas was released during the recovery process, resulting in high sediment loss. Therefore, during operations at subsequent holes, penetration was reduced to 2 m per 3.3 m core, permitting expansion into 1.3 m of initially empty liner. Fully filled liners were recovered from Holes B through E, indicating that the length of recovered intervals exceeded the penetrated distance by a factor of >1.5. A typical down-core logarithmic trend in gamma density profiles, with anomalously low-density values within the upper ∼1 m of each core, suggests that expansion primarily occurred in this upper interval. Thus, we suggest that a simple linear correction is inappropriate. This interpretation is supported by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data that indicate vertical stretching in the upper ∼1.5 m of expanded cores. Based on the mean gamma density profiles of cores from Holes M0063C and D, we obtain an expansion function that is used to adjust the depth of each core to conform to its known penetration. The variance in these profiles allows for quantification of uncertainty in the adjusted depth scale. Using a number of bulk 14C dates, we explore how the presence of multiple carbon source pathways leads to poorly constrained radiocarbon reservoir age variability that significantly affects age and sedimentation rate calculations.

  • 144.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Effects of pollutants on olfactory detection and responses to chemical cues including pheromones in fish2014In: Fish pheromones and related cues / [ed] Peter W. Sorensen and Brian D. Wisenden, Ames: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, p. 217-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lundh, Torbjörn
    SLU.
    Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758)2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, p. E46-E47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 146.
    Peil, Tiina
    et al.
    Tallin University, Estonia.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Permanence of the family farm questioned: Rural mobility in the nineteenth-century Estonia and Sweden2014In: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 247-267Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Perunicic, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dånvikens algblomning och dess sociala konsekvenser för fastighetsägare i Sjöudden/Gråstena i Salems kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recreational loss due to algal blooms is large even though recreation is important for human health and social cohesion. This study examines the social consequences of the autumn bloom in the lake Dånviken, Sweden, for property owners in close proximity to the lake and how future algal blooms can be prevented. Through sewerage analysis, survey, interview and conflict analysis, one can see that recreational opportunities have been threatened by the bloom through consequences such as bad odors and ruined beaches. Reduced recreation reduces social cohesion among residents as the bloom affected the social hotspots with connection to Dånviken negatively. With the help of conflict theory, we see the existence of different values ​​and uneven distribution of the power property owners have regarding the impact on Dånviken, which means increased risk of conflict in conjunction with algal blooms. The sewage situation looks better today compared to 2006 but still contributes to eutrophication through nutritional emissions. Since 2006, 54.5 % of the properties concerned have fixed their sewerage and the proportion of real estate’s connected to a sewer system has increased by 19.6 %, where the number of mini-treatment plant and soil- and infiltration beds has more than doubled. In order to prevent future blooms in Dånviken, the municipality must continue to demand better sewage and supervision, the water and sewage network also needs to be expanded among other measures. Continued studies in the area are important in order to better understand the social consequences of threatened recreational opportunities due to algal blooms.

  • 148.
    Petrogiannis, Vasileios
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    What Is It That Holds A Region Together?2016In: Baltic Worlds In-house edition, p. 5-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Cousins, S. A. O.
    Stockholm University.
    Seed dispersal in both space and time is necessary for plant diversity maintenance in fragmented landscapes2018In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 127, no 6, p. 780-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metacommunity theory emphasizes that seed dispersal not only limits but equally maintains plant diversity, though the latter receives little empirical attention. Discerning the temporal and spatial components of seed dispersal and understanding how their interaction shapes fragmented communities and maintains their diversity may be pivotal to further our ecological understanding of spatial and temporal seed dispersal and its implications for landscape-scale conservation management. To investigate the relative importance of spatial and temporal seed dispersal and their roles in maintaining plant diversity, the herb layer and seed bank of grassland communities were inventoried in 77 sites across abandoned and intact rotational grazing networks in a 100 km2 fragmented grassland landscape in the Stockholm archipelago (Baltic Sea, Sweden). Besides analysing alpha- and beta-diversity patterns, nestedness analyses connect deterministic community changes and diversity losses with dispersal-related life-history traits and habitat specialization to identify the mechanism driving community changes and maintaining local diversity. The loss of rotational grazing networks caused community diversity declines via non-random extinctions of spatially and temporally poor dispersers, particularly among grassland specialists. Temporal seed dispersal halted further community disassembly, maintaining diversity in the abandoned grazing networks. Spatial dispersal within the intact grazing networks was found to be an overriding, homogenizing agent conserving diversity in both the herb layer and seed bank. This empirical evidence establishes how spatial and temporal seed dispersal interact to maintain diversity in fragmented landscapes. Poorly connected grasslands appear limited by spatial dispersal, yet are maintained by temporal seed dispersal. In fragmented landscapes where grazing networks are rarely present, temporal rather than spatial seed dispersal may be more important in maintaining species diversity, since effective spatial dispersal may be significantly diminished. The grazing network's efficacy at boosting spatial dispersal and upholding community diversity presents a powerful management tool to conserve local and regional species diversity. © 2017 The Authors

  • 150.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University / University of Bremen, Germany.
    De Frenne, P.
    Ghent University, Belgum.
    Acharya, K.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Brunet, J.
    SLU.
    Chabrerie, O.
    Jules Verne University of Picardie, Amiens Cedex, France.
    Decocq, G.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Diekmann, M.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Graae, B. J.
    Heinken, T.
    University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Hermy, M.
    University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Kolb, A.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Lemke, I.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Liira, J.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Naaf, T.
    Institute of Land Use Systems, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Verheyen, K.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Wulf, M.
    Institute of Land Use Systems, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Cousins, S. A. O.
    Stockholm University.
    Where does the community start, and where does it end?: Including the seed bank to reassess forest herb layer responses to the environment2017In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 424-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Below-ground processes are key determinants of above-ground plant population and community dynamics. Still, our understanding of how environmental drivers shape plant communities is mostly based on above-ground diversity patterns, bypassing below-ground plant diversity stored in seed banks. As seed banks may shape above-ground plant communities, we question whether concurrently analysing the above- and below-ground species assemblages may potentially enhance our understanding of community responses to environmental variation. Location: Temperate deciduous forests along a 2000 km latitudinal gradient in NW Europe. Methods: Herb layer, seed bank and local environmental data including soil pH, canopy cover, forest cover continuity and time since last canopy disturbance were collected in 129 temperate deciduous forest plots. We quantified herb layer and seed bank diversity per plot and evaluated how environmental variation structured community diversity in the herb layer, seed bank and the combined herb layer–seed bank community. Results: Seed banks consistently held more plant species than the herb layer. How local plot diversity was partitioned across the herb layer and seed bank was mediated by environmental variation in drivers serving as proxies of light availability. The herb layer and seed bank contained an ever smaller and ever larger share of local diversity, respectively, as both canopy cover and time since last canopy disturbance decreased. Species richness and β-diversity of the combined herb layer–seed bank community responded distinctly differently compared to the separate assemblages in response to environmental variation in, e.g. forest cover continuity and canopy cover. Conclusions: The seed bank is a below-ground diversity reservoir of the herbaceous forest community, which interacts with the herb layer, although constrained by environmental variation in e.g. light availability. The herb layer and seed bank co-exist as a single community by means of the so-called storage effect, resulting in distinct responses to environmental variation not necessarily recorded in the individual herb layer or seed bank assemblages. Thus, concurrently analysing above- and below-ground diversity will improve our ecological understanding of how understorey plant communities respond to environmental variation.

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