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  • 101.
    König, Malin A E
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Among-Population Variation in Tolerance to Larval Herbivory by Anthocharis cardamines in the Polyploid Herb Cardamine pratensis2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, e99333- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants have two principal defense mechanisms to decrease fitness losses to herbivory: tolerance, the ability to compensate fitness after damage, and resistance, the ability to avoid damage. Variation in intensity of herbivory among populations should result in variation in plant defense levels if tolerance and resistance are associated with costs. Yet little is known about how levels of tolerance are related to resistance and attack intensity in the field, and about the costs of tolerance. In this study, we used information about tolerance and resistance against larval herbivory by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines under controlled conditions together with information about damage in the field for a large set of populations of the perennial plant Cardamine pratensis. Plant tolerance was estimated in a common garden experiment where plants were subjected to a combination of larval herbivory and clipping. We found no evidence of that the proportion of damage that was caused by larval feeding vs. clipping influenced plant responses. Damage treatments had a negative effect on the three measured fitness components and also resulted in an earlier flowering in the year after the attack. Tolerance was related to attack intensity in the population of origin, i.e. plants from populations with higher attack intensity were more likely to flower in the year following damage. However, we found no evidence of a relationship between tolerance and resistance. These results indicate that herbivory drives the evolution for increased tolerance, and that changes in tolerance are not linked to changes in resistance. We suggest that the simultaneous study of tolerance, attack intensity in the field and resistance constitutes a powerful tool to understand how plant strategies to avoid negative effects of herbivore damage evolve.

  • 102.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Indigeneidad, descolonización y la paradoja del desarrollismo extractivista en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia: Indigeneity, decolonization and the paradox of extractive development in the Plurinational State of Bolivia2017In: Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política, ISSN 0718-9389, Vol. 8, no 1, 47-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, indigenous peoples have been marginalized and oppressed in the Bolivian political economy. During the presidency of Evo Morales, and under the 2009 Constitution, political, economic, social and cultural decolonization has become the central project for the transformation of the State and society. On the one hand, the new Constitution has been classified as one of the most progressive in the world with respect to ethnically defined rights; the indigenous ethical-philosophical principles of Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien, referring to the harmonious relationship between individuals and nature, have been incorporated into the Constitution. On the other hand, these rights collide with broader social rights (defined by class) and also the rights of the State to extract and market natural resources (especially hydrocarbon extraction and mining) under the banner of redistributive justice, social reforms and the common good. This collision is defined in this study as the paradox of extractivist developmentalism. The article is based on an ethnographic work and problematizes the extractivist dilemma and the tensions between ethnic rights and class rights, thus contributing to debates about indigeneity and the challenges and dilemmas of decolonizing projects.

  • 103.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Genetic Aspects of Environmental Disturbances in Marine Ecosystems: Studies of the Blue Mussel in the Baltic Sea2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic environmental changes can serve as drivers for evolutionary responses in wild populations. To predict the long-term impact of anthropogenic changes on populations, it is crucial to understand the genetic effects caused by these disturbances. The Baltic Sea is considered to be one of the world’s most contaminated seas, and the increase of anthropogenic chemical pollution is a major threat to its ecosystems. This thesis assesses the impact of harbors and sewage treatment plants on physiological traits and genetic structure of resident populations of blue mussels at replicated sites in the Baltic Sea. The initial evaluation of the overall genetic pattern in blue mussel populations in the Swedish West Coast, the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea found genetic differentiation between the three water basins and a low genetic differentiation within each basin, especially within the Baltic Proper. Despite the low genetic differentiation among blue mussels within the Baltic Proper, a parallel genetic differentiation associated with sewage treatment plant effluents was found in this basin. This included genomic regions with a high degree of differentiation between reference sites and sites affected by sewage plants effluent. This genetic differentiation is suggested to be due to post-dispersal selection acting in each generation. In contrast, no parallel genetic differentiation was associated with harbors. We identified five genomic regions in blue mussels, showing strong signs of selection, shared among three out of four replicated reference sites and sites affected by sewage effluents in the Baltic Proper i.e. Askö, Tvärminne and Karlskrona. An initial characterization of these genomic regions revealed functions related to immune and endocrine responses, oxidative stress and shell formation. Our results indicate that selection caused by sewage effluents involves multiple loci. The same genomic regions are found across different locations in the Baltic Proper but there are also unique genomic regions at each location. No genotoxic or histopathological effects were found among blue mussels from sewage effluent-affected areas but a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland were observed in mussels from harbors.

  • 104.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University.
    A population genomic analysis of blue mussels identifies genomic regions associated with sewage treatment plant effluents in the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lind, E. E.
    SLU.
    Corell, H.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area2017In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, 98-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.

  • 106.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Lind, Emma E
    SLU.
    Świeżak, Justyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, e2628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  • 107.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Świeżak, J.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Turower, M.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Czerniawska, N.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Multi biomarker analysis of pollution effect on resident populations of blue mussels from the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dahlgren, Johan P
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark .
    Garcia, Maria Begoña
    Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología (CSIC), Saragossa, Spain.
    Leimu, Roosa
    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK .
    Syrjänen, Kimmo
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Forest succession and population viability of grassland plants: long repayment of extinction debt in Primula veris.2016In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 181, no 1, 125-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time lags in responses of organisms to deteriorating environmental conditions delay population declines and extinctions. We examined how local processes at the population level contribute to extinction debt, and how cycles of habitat deterioration and recovery may delay extinction. We carried out a demographic analysis of the fate of the grassland perennial Primula veris after the cessation of grassland management, where we used either a unidirectional succession model for forest habitat or a rotation model with a period of forest growth followed by a clear-cut and a new successional cycle. The simulations indicated that P. veris populations may have an extinction time of decades to centuries after a detrimental management change. A survey of the current incidence and abundance of P. veris in sites with different histories of afforestation confirmed the simulation results of low extinction rates. P. veris had reduced incidence and abundance only at sites with at least 100 years of forest cover. Time to extinction in simulations was dependent on the duration of the periods with favourable and unfavourable conditions after management cessation, and the population sizes and growth rates in these periods. Our results thus suggest that the ability of a species to survive is a complex function of disturbance regimes, rates of successional change, and the demographic response to environmental changes. Detailed demographic studies over entire successional cycles are therefore essential to identify the environmental conditions that enable long-term persistence and to design management for species experiencing extinction debts.

  • 109.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Environmental Impacts of Rural Landscape Change During the Post-Communist Period in the Baltic Sea Region2017In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 155-171 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Lewis, J.P.
    et al.
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, England.
    Ryves, D.B.
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, England.
    Rasmussen, P.
    National Museum of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark / Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsen, J.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Knudsen, K.-L.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Andersen, S.H.
    Moesgård Museum, Højbjerg, Danmark.
    Weckström, K.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Clarke, A.L.
    APEM Aquatic Scientists Ltd, Stockport, UK.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Juggins, S.
    Newcastle University, Newcaslte, England.
    The shellfish enigma across the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in southern Scandinavia2016In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 151, 315-320 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.09.004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-known and widespread replacement of oysters (abundant during the Mesolithic period) by cockles and mussels in many Danish Stone Age shell middens ca. 5900 cal yrs BP coincides with the transition to agriculture in southern Scandinavia. This human resource shift is commonly believed to reflect changing resource availability, driven by environmental and/or climatic change at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition rather than cultural choice. While several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the “Mesolithic-Neolithic oyster decline”, an explanation based on a sudden freshening of the inner Danish waters has received most attention. Here, for the first time, we test and refute this long-standing hypothesis that declining salinity explains the marked reduction in oysters identified within numerous shell middens across coastal Denmark at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition using quantitative and qualitative salinity inference from several, independent proxies (diatoms, molluscs and foraminifera) from multiple Danish fjord sites. Alternatively, we attribute the oyster decline to other environmental causes (particularly changing sedimentation), ultimately driven by external climatic forcing. Critical application of such high-quality environmental archives can reinvigorate archaeological debates and can aid in understanding and managing environmental change in increasingly impacted coastal regions.

  • 111.
    Linke, Sebastian
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Science-Policy Interfaces in Baltic Sea Environmental Governance: Towards Regional Cooperation and Management of Uncertainty?2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Gilek et al., Springer, 2016, 1, 173-203 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates and compares the interactions between science and policy (risk assessments and risk management) in five cases of environmental governance of the Baltic Sea: eutrophication, fisheries, invasive alien species, chemical pollution and oil discharges. An efficient interplay between science and policy is important for successful environmental governance, which applies particularly to the Baltic Sea where all five risks pose serious threats to environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainability. We use science-policy theory and an analytical framework based on a categorisation of relevant management responses linked to different states of incomplete knowledge (risk, uncertainty, ambiguity, ignorance) to investigate two main characteristics of science-policy interfaces: (1) organisational structures and (2) procedural aspects of managing scientific uncertainties and stakeholder disagreements. The analyses reveal differences and similarities in institutional and organisational designs of the respective assessment-management interactions, as well as in terms of how scientific uncertainties, stakeholder disagreements and socio-political ambiguities are addressed. All the five science-policy interfaces expose science-based management approaches that commonly are not able to cope sufficiently well with the complexities, uncertainties and ambiguities at hand. Based on our cross-case analyses, we conclude by recommending five key aspects that need to be addressed to improve science-policy interactions in Baltic Sea environmental governance: (1) more adaptive organisational structures in terms of time, context and place dependency, (2) increased knowledge integrations, (3) a more careful consideration of stakeholder participation and deliberation, (4) better management of uncertainty and disagreements and (5) increased transparency and reflection in the communication of science-policy processes.

  • 112.
    Linke, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Unravelling science-policy interactions in environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: Comparing fisheries and eutrophication2014In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, no 4, 505-523 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Ljungberg, Stina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Drivkrafter och hinder ur ett multifunktionellt perspektiv: Förutsättningar och utvecklingsområden för produktion av biobränsle från våtmarker2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden have already reached several of their goals for energy consumption, but the overall goal to become a fossil free society can still be seen as a driving force to keep developing renewable fuels. There is financial support for wetland construction, reduce impact on the climate, improve the natural environment, for developing new techniques and for biomass fuel plants. Still, cultivation of wetland crops for energy extraction are not yet well established on the energy market. After interviews with actors interested and knowledgeable in this field, this study presents driving forces and barriers affecting the development of this energy source. Driving forces comes from the ambition to move away from fossil fuels, decrease emissions of nutrients, make room for biodiversity, and provide services for the society while helping to reach climate and environmental goals. The barriers affecting this development is that special machines might be needed for handling of the crops and also to harvest the sensitive wetlands while large areas would be needed to increase profitability. The financial support available is not enough to cover the costs for production. Also, the prices on electricity and fossil fuels are low, which lowers the profitability for this type of energy source. Bioenergy producers have not yet found an effective way to extract energy from the crops. All of this makes the demand for energy crops from wetlands small. Despite this, wetlands provide several important ecosystem services and it is therefore recommended to use the management philosophy of multiple-use. With a multifunctional view of wetlands, the value of its ecosystem services can be added to the calculations of energy production and increase its role in reaching several national climate and environmental goals.

  • 114.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Linköping University.
    Bergman, K. -O
    Linköping University.
    Rapp, M.
    Linköping University.
    Tälle, M.
    Linköping University.
    Westerberg, L.
    Linköping University.
    Milberg, P.
    Linköping University.
    Decline in lichen biodiversity on oak trunks due to urbanization2014In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 32, no 4, 518-528 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity often suffers from urbanization. In the present study, we focused on how the duration of urbanization affects the richness of 17 epiphytic lichen species and their cover on large oaks in urban environments in a city of 100 000 inhabitants in southeast Sweden. We also surveyed trees in adjacent rural areas, selected to have similar distributions of tree trunk circumference and surrounding oak density (within 300 m). Lichen richness and cover were lower on urban trees compared to rural trees. Furthermore, richness and cover decreased with the length of time that urban trees had been surrounded by houses. Most of the species that were analysed demonstrated a decline in occurrence with respect to the duration of housing development. The reduction in the probability of occurrence varied from 60% (Calicium viride, Evernia prunastri), 80% (Chrysothrix candelaris) to 90% (Ramalina spp.) during the considered 160-year period of urbanization. Therefore, even if valuable trees survive over the course of development, their lichen biota is likely to become depleted over time. © 2014 The Authors.

  • 115.
    Musumeci, Matías A
    et al.
    Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos, CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Lozada, Mariana
    Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos, CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Rial, Daniela V
    Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Rosario, Argentina.
    Mac Cormack, Walter P
    Instituto Antártico Argentino, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina / CONICET—Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Carroll, JoLynn
    Fram—High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment, Tromsø, Norway / UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Dionisi, Hebe M
    Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos, CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Prospecting Biotechnologically-Relevant Monooxygenases from Cold Sediment Metagenomes: An In Silico Approach2017In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 15, no 4, 114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work was to identify sequences encoding monooxygenase biocatalysts with novel features by in silico mining an assembled metagenomic dataset of polar and subpolar marine sediments. The targeted enzyme sequences were Baeyer-Villiger and bacterial cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP153). These enzymes have wide-ranging applications, from the synthesis of steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins and pheromones to the synthesis of monomers for polymerization and anticancer precursors, due to their extraordinary enantio-, regio-, and chemo- selectivity that are valuable features for organic synthesis. Phylogenetic analyses were used to select the most divergent sequences affiliated to these enzyme families among the 264 putative monooxygenases recovered from the ~14 million protein-coding sequences in the assembled metagenome dataset. Three-dimensional structure modeling and docking analysis suggested features useful in biotechnological applications in five metagenomic sequences, such as wide substrate range, novel substrate specificity or regioselectivity. Further analysis revealed structural features associated with psychrophilic enzymes, such as broader substrate accessibility, larger catalytic pockets or low domain interactions, suggesting that they could be applied in biooxidations at room or low temperatures, saving costs inherent to energy consumption. This work allowed the identification of putative enzyme candidates with promising features from metagenomes, providing a suitable starting point for further developments.

  • 116.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Rist, Lucy
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Umeå universitet.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Lämås, Tomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years’ rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

    This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

  • 117.
    Nesme, Joseph
    et al.
    Université de Lyon, Ecully, France / Helmholtz Zentrum München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Achouak, Wafa
    Aix-Marseille Université, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France.
    Agathos, Spiros N
    Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium / Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ecuador.
    Bailey, Mark
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Oxford, UK.
    Baldrian, Petr
    Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Brunel, Dominique
    Centre National de Génotypage, Evry, France.
    Frostegård, Åsa
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway.
    Heulin, Thierry
    Aix-Marseille Université, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France.
    Jansson, Janet K
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.
    Jurkevitch, Edouard
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.
    Kruus, Kristiina L
    Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kowalchuk, George A
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Lagares, Antonio
    Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina.
    Lappin-Scott, Hilary M
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Lemanceau, Philippe
    Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.
    Le Paslier, Denis
    Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne, Evry, France.
    Mandic-Mulec, Ines
    University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Murrell, J Colin
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Myrold, David D
    Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.
    Nalin, Renaud
    NALINOV, Dremil Lafage, France.
    Nannipieri, Paolo
    University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
    Neufeld, Josh D
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
    O'Gara, Fergal
    National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland / Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parnell, John J
    National Ecological Observatory Network, Boulder, CO, USA.
    Pühler, Alfred
    Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Pylro, Victor
    René Rachou Research Centre, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Ramos, Juan L
    Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Granada, Spain.
    Roesch, Luiz F W
    Federal University of Pampa, São Gabriel, Brazil.
    Schloter, Michael
    Helmholtz Zentrum München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Schleper, Christa
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Sczyrba, Alexander
    Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Sessitsch, Angela
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Tulln, Austria.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sørensen, Jan
    niversity of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Søren J
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tebbe, Christoph C
    Thünen-Institute of Biodiversity, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Topp, Edward
    University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
    Tsiamis, George
    University of Patras, Agrinio, Greece.
    van Elsas, Jan Dirk
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    van Keulen, Geertje
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Widmer, Franco
    Institute for Sustainability Sciences, Agroscope, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Wagner, Michael
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Zhang, Tong
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Zhang, Xiaojun
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhao, Liping
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhu, Yong-Guan
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, China.
    Vogel, Timothy M
    Université de Lyon, Ecully, France.
    Simonet, Pascal
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Back to the Future of Soil Metagenomics2016In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, 73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Nilsson, Elinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Nordin, Therese
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    100 år av miljöförändringar som de registrerats i Hallsfjärden, västra Östersjön: En biostratigrafisk studie om vad bevarade kiselalger i sediment kan berätta om tidigare miljöförhållande i Hallsfjärden.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diatoms are microscopic, photosynthetic, single-celled organisms that are useful in studies of water qualities (eg pH, nutrients, salinity). By analyzing changes in the species composition of diatoms back in time, gives an opportunity to interpret the marine environment affected by various factors (Andren et al, 1999). The aim of the study was to study changes in diatom abundance and composition in Hallsfjärden, a bay in the Baltic Sea located north of Himmerfjärden in Södertälje. The site was chosen because it is a bay that is assumed to have a large environmental impact due to external factors such as increased population growth, water treatment plants, industrial areas, dredging and a link to Lake Mälaren. The purpose of the study therefore to investigate whether there was an environmental impact in Hallsfjärden, in order to draw conclusions about what happened in the area and what has affected the water the last 100 years.

         The survey is conducted by sampling sediment cores, studied by biostratigraphy of fossil diatoms to reconstruct past environmental conditions. The results of the analysis showed that oxygen deficiency was a particular problem, which is related to the eutrophication that are threatening some diatoms and thereby changes the species composition of ecosystems in Hallsfjärden. A plausible interpretation of the analyze results is that Hallsfjärden was adversely affected by the Södertalje area's population growth and Himmerfjärdsverkets startup by high emissions of nutrients. It has on the other hand appeared a positive impact for Himmerfjärdsverkets gradually improved purification with clearer water conditions. Hallsfjärden have proved to be a particularly sensitive ecosystem in this study, with low salinity and strong thermocline, which means that it is more affected by eutrophication and pollution in its drainage area. This causes a problem of eutrophication in Hallsfjärden due to the bay showing the influence of the surrounding areas and its emissions, which later exports further to the Baltic Sea via Himmerfjärden with the southbound flow.

  • 119. Nygård, Odd
    et al.
    Wramner, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Terroir - ett nyckelbegrepp för att ge lokalproducerade livsmedel geografisk identitet2013In: Från matproduktion till gastronomi / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen, Madeleine Bonow, Per Wramner, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2013, 201-235 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Obrochta, S. P.
    et al.
    Akita University Akita, Japan.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Fazekas, S. Z.
    Akita University Akita, Japan.
    Lougheed, B. C.
    Uppsala University.
    Snowball, I.
    Uppsala University.
    Yokoyama, Y.
    University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Miyairi, Y.
    University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Kondo, R.
    Kogakkan University, Mie, Japan.
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Marine Geology, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyttinen, O.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fehr, A
    RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    The undatables: Quantifying uncertainty in a highly expanded Late Glacial-Holocene sediment sequence recovered from the deepest Baltic Sea basin—IODP Site M00632017In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 18, no 3, 858-871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated, organic-rich silts and clays with high dissolved gas content characterize sediments at IODP Site M0063 in the Landsort Deep, which at 459 m is the deepest basin in the Baltic Sea. Cores recovered from Hole M0063A experienced significant expansion as gas was released during the recovery process, resulting in high sediment loss. Therefore, during operations at subsequent holes, penetration was reduced to 2 m per 3.3 m core, permitting expansion into 1.3 m of initially empty liner. Fully filled liners were recovered from Holes B through E, indicating that the length of recovered intervals exceeded the penetrated distance by a factor of >1.5. A typical down-core logarithmic trend in gamma density profiles, with anomalously low-density values within the upper ∼1 m of each core, suggests that expansion primarily occurred in this upper interval. Thus, we suggest that a simple linear correction is inappropriate. This interpretation is supported by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data that indicate vertical stretching in the upper ∼1.5 m of expanded cores. Based on the mean gamma density profiles of cores from Holes M0063C and D, we obtain an expansion function that is used to adjust the depth of each core to conform to its known penetration. The variance in these profiles allows for quantification of uncertainty in the adjusted depth scale. Using a number of bulk 14C dates, we explore how the presence of multiple carbon source pathways leads to poorly constrained radiocarbon reservoir age variability that significantly affects age and sedimentation rate calculations.

  • 121.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Effects of pollutants on olfactory detection and responses to chemical cues including pheromones in fish2014In: Fish pheromones and related cues / [ed] Peter W. Sorensen and Brian D. Wisenden, Ames: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 217-236 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lundh, Torbjörn
    SLU.
    Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758)2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, E46-E47 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Peil, Tiina
    et al.
    Tallin University, Estonia.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Permanence of the family farm questioned: Rural mobility in the nineteenth-century Estonia and Sweden2014In: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 45, no 2, 247-267 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Perunicic, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dånvikens algblomning och dess sociala konsekvenser för fastighetsägare i Sjöudden/Gråstena i Salems kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recreational loss due to algal blooms is large even though recreation is important for human health and social cohesion. This study examines the social consequences of the autumn bloom in the lake Dånviken, Sweden, for property owners in close proximity to the lake and how future algal blooms can be prevented. Through sewerage analysis, survey, interview and conflict analysis, one can see that recreational opportunities have been threatened by the bloom through consequences such as bad odors and ruined beaches. Reduced recreation reduces social cohesion among residents as the bloom affected the social hotspots with connection to Dånviken negatively. With the help of conflict theory, we see the existence of different values ​​and uneven distribution of the power property owners have regarding the impact on Dånviken, which means increased risk of conflict in conjunction with algal blooms. The sewage situation looks better today compared to 2006 but still contributes to eutrophication through nutritional emissions. Since 2006, 54.5 % of the properties concerned have fixed their sewerage and the proportion of real estate’s connected to a sewer system has increased by 19.6 %, where the number of mini-treatment plant and soil- and infiltration beds has more than doubled. In order to prevent future blooms in Dånviken, the municipality must continue to demand better sewage and supervision, the water and sewage network also needs to be expanded among other measures. Continued studies in the area are important in order to better understand the social consequences of threatened recreational opportunities due to algal blooms.

  • 125.
    Petrogiannis, Vasileios
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    What Is It That Holds A Region Together?2016In: Baltic Worlds In-house edition, 5-9 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University / University of Bremen, Germany.
    De Frenne, P.
    Ghent University, Belgum.
    Acharya, K.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Brunet, J.
    SLU.
    Chabrerie, O.
    Jules Verne University of Picardie, Amiens Cedex, France.
    Decocq, G.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Diekmann, M.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Graae, B. J.
    Heinken, T.
    University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Hermy, M.
    University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Kolb, A.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Lemke, I.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Liira, J.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Naaf, T.
    Institute of Land Use Systems, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Verheyen, K.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Wulf, M.
    Institute of Land Use Systems, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Cousins, S. A. O.
    Stockholm University.
    Where does the community start, and where does it end?: Including the seed bank to reassess forest herb layer responses to the environment2017In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 28, no 2, 424-435 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Below-ground processes are key determinants of above-ground plant population and community dynamics. Still, our understanding of how environmental drivers shape plant communities is mostly based on above-ground diversity patterns, bypassing below-ground plant diversity stored in seed banks. As seed banks may shape above-ground plant communities, we question whether concurrently analysing the above- and below-ground species assemblages may potentially enhance our understanding of community responses to environmental variation. Location: Temperate deciduous forests along a 2000 km latitudinal gradient in NW Europe. Methods: Herb layer, seed bank and local environmental data including soil pH, canopy cover, forest cover continuity and time since last canopy disturbance were collected in 129 temperate deciduous forest plots. We quantified herb layer and seed bank diversity per plot and evaluated how environmental variation structured community diversity in the herb layer, seed bank and the combined herb layer–seed bank community. Results: Seed banks consistently held more plant species than the herb layer. How local plot diversity was partitioned across the herb layer and seed bank was mediated by environmental variation in drivers serving as proxies of light availability. The herb layer and seed bank contained an ever smaller and ever larger share of local diversity, respectively, as both canopy cover and time since last canopy disturbance decreased. Species richness and β-diversity of the combined herb layer–seed bank community responded distinctly differently compared to the separate assemblages in response to environmental variation in, e.g. forest cover continuity and canopy cover. Conclusions: The seed bank is a below-ground diversity reservoir of the herbaceous forest community, which interacts with the herb layer, although constrained by environmental variation in e.g. light availability. The herb layer and seed bank co-exist as a single community by means of the so-called storage effect, resulting in distinct responses to environmental variation not necessarily recorded in the individual herb layer or seed bank assemblages. Thus, concurrently analysing above- and below-ground diversity will improve our ecological understanding of how understorey plant communities respond to environmental variation.

  • 127.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Vandepitte, Katrien
    Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Population Biology, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Honnay, Olivier
    Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Population Biology, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Cousins, Sara A O
    Stockholm University.
    Does the seed bank contribute to the build-up of a genetic extinction debt in the grassland perennial Campanula rotundifolia?2017In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 120, no 3, 373-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Habitat fragmentation threatens global biodiversity. Many plant species persist in habitat fragments via persistent life cycle stages such as seed banks, generating a species extinction debt. Here, seed banks are hypothesized to cause a temporal delay in the expected loss of genetic variation, which can be referred to as a genetic extinction debt, as a possible mechanism behind species extinction debts.

    Methods: Fragmented grassland populations of Campanula rotundifolia were examined for evidence of a genetic extinction debt, investigating if the seed bank contributed to the extinction debt build-up. The genetic make-up of 15 above- and below-ground populations was analysed in relation to historical and current levels of habitat fragmentation, both separately and combined.

    Key Results: Genetic diversity was highest in above-ground populations, though below-ground populations contained 8 % of unique alleles that were absent above-ground. Above-ground genetic diversity and composition were related to historical patch size and connectivity, but not current patch characteristics, suggesting the presence of a genetic extinction debt in the above-ground populations. No such relationships were found for the below-ground populations. Genetic diversity measures still showed a response to historical but not present landscape characteristics when combining genetic diversity of the above- and below-ground populations.

    Conclusions: The fragmented C. rotundifolia populations exhibited a genetic extinction debt. However, the role of the seed banks in the build-up of this extinction debt is probably small, since the limited, unique genetic diversity of the seed bank alone seems unable to counter the detrimental effects of habitat fragmentation on the population genetic structure of C. rotundifolia .

  • 128.
    Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Börjeson, L.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Land Concessions and Rural Livelihoods in Mozambique: The Gap Between Anticipated and Real Benefits of a Chinese Investment in the Limpopo Valley2017In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 43, no 6, 1181-1198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In rural Mozambique, as in other African countries, large-scale land acquisitions are on the rise. This process is usually portrayed by host governments and investors as comprising win–win deals that can simultaneously boost agricultural productivity and combat poverty. This article focuses on one such investment, a large-scale Chinese land acquisition in the lower Limpopo valley, where attempts to modernise agriculture have occurred since colonial times. Based on an analysis of primary quantitative and qualitative data, this study explores livelihoods in the targeted area and local experiences and views regarding land loss and its implications. Our findings reveal a top-down process enabled by disregard for sound legislation, whereby land dispossession was followed by ‘take-it-or-leave-it’ opportunities that were unsuited to the most land-dependent livelihoods, particularly those of single-headed households. As the modernisation of the region is once again attempted through the promotion of large-scale agriculture, important historical continuities prevail. This study adds critical evidence to the discussion on the local development potential of land deals in Mozambique and other areas marked by similar democratic deficits. 

  • 129.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Örebro University.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Örebro University.
    Elabbas, Lubna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Ullah, Shahid
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska University Hospital Laboratory.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Combinatory effects of low concentrations of 17α-etinylestradiol and citalopram on non-reproductive behavior in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)2017In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 193, 9-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plant effluents contain a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals, thus exposing aquatic organisms. Still, the consequences of exposure to combinations of different classes of drugs is largely unknown. In this study, we expose adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males and females to low, environmentally relevant concentrations of the endocrine disrupting chemical 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, alone and in combination, and analyse three non-reproductive behaviours of importance for population fitness.

    Two weeks exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 resulted in increased anxiety in males in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test. Significantly longer latency periods before entering the white zone and fewer visits in the white zone were observed in males exposed to both 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 compared to unexposed males. No significant effects of citalopram alone (0.1 and 0.5 µg/L) were observed in the scototaxis test. The combined exposures (0.1 ng/L EE2 + 0.1 µg/L citalopram and 0.5 ng/L EE2 + 0.5 µg/L citalopram) resulted in abolishment of the anxiogenic effects of EE2, with significantly shorter latency period (low dose) and more transitions to white (high and low dose) than in fish exposed to EE2 alone. No significant effects of either EE2, citalopramor the combination of the two were observed in females. In the novel tank test, significantly more transitions to the upper half of the tank were observed in males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone compared to unexposed males while males exposed to 0.1 ng/lEE2 had significantly shorter latency period to enter the upper half. Exposure to the combination of the two low concentrations did, however, result in a significantly longer latency and fewer transitions to upper half compared to both control, EE2- and citalopram-exposed males. These males also spent significantly less time in the upper half than the fish exposed to 0.1 ng/l EE2 or 0.1 µg/l citalopram alone. No significant effects on novel tank behaviour were observed in females or males exposed to the higher concentrations. In the shoaling test, males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram and females exposed to 0.5 ng/l EE2 made significantly fewer transitions away from peers while males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram + 0.1 ng/l EE2 performed significantly more transitions than the fish exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone.

    In conclusion, this study shows that very low concentrations ofEE2, at or slightly above the predicted noeffect concentration (NOEC), affects anxiety in zebrafish males. Furthermore, citalopram, in spite of marginal effect of its own at such low levels, counteracts the response to EE2. This study represents an initial effort to understand the effects on water-living organisms of the cocktails of anthropogenic substances contaminating aquatic environments.

  • 130.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro univesitet.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Persistent Effects of Developmental Exposure to 17α-Ethinylestradiol on the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain Transcriptome and Behavior2017In: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5153, E-ISSN 1662-5153, Vol. 11, 69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting compound of concern due to its persistence and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. Effects of developmental exposure to low concentrations of EE2 in fish on reproduction and behavior not only persisted to adulthood, but have also been observed to be transmitted to several generations of unexposed progeny. To investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the persistent anxiogenic phenotype, we exposed zebrafish embryos for 80 days post fertilization to 0, 3 and 10 ng/L EE2 (measured concentrations 2.14 and 7.34 ng/L). After discontinued exposure, the animals were allowed to recover for 120 days in clean water. Adult males and females were later tested for changes in stress response and shoal cohesion, and whole-brain gene expression was analyzed with RNA sequencing. The results show increased anxiety in the novel tank and scototaxis tests, and increased shoal cohesion in fish exposed during development to EE2. RNA sequencing revealed 34 coding genes differentially expressed in male brains and 62 in female brains as a result of EE2 exposure. Several differences were observed between males and females in differential gene expression, with only one gene, sv2b, coding for a synaptic vesicle protein, that was affected by EE2 in both sexes. Functional analyses showed that in female brains, EE2 had significant effects on pathways connected to the circadian rhythm, cytoskeleton and motor proteins and synaptic proteins. A large number of non-coding sequences including 19 novel miRNAs were also differentially expressed in the female brain. The largest treatment effect in male brains was observed in pathways related to cholesterol biosynthesis and synaptic proteins. Circadian rhythm and cholesterol biosynthesis, previously implicated in anxiety behavior, might represent possible candidate pathways connecting the transcriptome changes to the alterations to behavior. Further the observed alteration in expression of genes involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic function may be important for the developmental modulations resulting in an anxiety phenotype. This study represents an initial survey of the fish brain transcriptome by RNA sequencing after long-term recovery from developmental exposure to an estrogenic compound.

  • 131.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro university.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala university.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Persistent effects of developmental exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain transcriptome and stress behaviorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Prentice, Honor C
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Li, Yuan
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tunlid, Anders
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Ghatnekar, Lena
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    A horizontally transferred nuclear gene is associated with microhabitat variationin a natural plant population2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1821, 20152453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horizontal gene transfer involves the non-sexual interspecific transmission of genetic material. Even if they are initially functional, horizontally transferred genes are expected to deteriorate into non-expressed pseudogenes, unless they become adaptively relevant in the recipient organism. However, little is known about the distributions of natural transgenes within wild species or the adaptive significance of natural transgenes within wild populations. Here, we examine the distribution of a natural plant-to-plant nuclear transgene in relation to environmental variation within a wild population. Festuca ovina is polymorphic for an extra (second) expressed copy of the nuclear gene (PgiC) encoding cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase, with the extra PgiC locus having been acquired horizontally from the distantly related grass genus Poa. We investigated variation at PgiC in samples of F. ovina from a fine-scale, repeating patchwork of grassland microhabitats, replicated within spatially separated sites. Even after accounting for spatial effects, the distributions of F. ovina individuals carrying the additional PgiC locus, and one of the enzyme products encoded by the locus, are significantly associated with fine-scale habitat variation. Our results suggest that the PgiC transgene contributes, together with the unlinked 'native' PgiC locus, to local adaptation to a fine-scale mosaic of edaphic and biotic grassland microhabitats.

  • 133.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Participation and Legitimacy: Actor Involvement for Nature Conservation2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis in environmental science aims to contribute to the theoretical and empirical understanding of the relation between participation and legitimacy in multi-level environmental governance.

    It is widely assumed that actor involvement has great potential to improve the legitimacy of nature conservation through long-term acceptance and target achievement. However, local resource conflicts problematize the way a relation between participation and legitimacy is depicted on other administrative levels. Studies exploring the effect that participation has on legitimacy are relatively rare, especially in multi-level arrangements of coastal conservation.

    In this thesis the relation between participation and legitimacy on the local level is examined, as well as how this relation is conditioned by multi-level governance and power. The relation is empirical studied with two local implementation processes of the Helsinki Convention’s network of marine protected areas (HELCOM MPAs). The cases are located in Sweden.

    Sweden and the Baltic Sea region are in the forefront of participation in nature conservation, and therefore act as a strong case for the exploration of institutional participation. However, despite apparent political will and international support, the efficiency of actor involvement for nature conservation has been questioned, also for the HELCOM MPA and especially on the local level.

    Based on the results of this study, I question the assumption that weak legitimacy predominantly is an issue of insufficient information sharing. The findings show that involving actors to legitimize the adoption of strict adherence to a pre-established model of conservation likely fails to create long term support for conservation. Instead, relocation of power to the affected actors seems essential in order to make participation establish legitimacy. It appears important to create room for local influence in the design, management and implementation of a particular conservation area in the particular place/context. In both examined cases, there are elements of participation that support legitimacy, for example the development of a shared vision. There are also elements that hamper legitimacy, such as, for example, the high expectations different actors have on participation to reach consensus on protective values. These unmet expectations seem to fuel conflicts of interests among actors on different levels.

  • 134.
    Rabe, Linn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Community-based Natural Resource Management of the Jozani-Pete Mangrove Forest: Do They Have a Voice?2013In: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 12, no 2, 133-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local participation, especially in natural resource management, has been promoted as a key strategy in the quest for sustainable development. Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is an approach that has generally been promoted as an institution that genuinely includes and empowers ‘local people' in natural resource use and management. This paper examines how local participation in conservation projects works in practice by drawing on concepts from institutional and actor-oriented theories and applying a case study approach to examine community-based mangrove management at Jozani-Pete, Zanzibar. Here CBNRM became embedded within a conservation agenda that resulted in conflict, resistance, frustration and uncertainty amongst community members. The paper offers insight into how exogenously initiated CBNRM projects have difficulty gaining traction unless they both address existing power relations and deliver on promises of material benefits. If they fail to do so the experience of the Jozani-Pete case study suggests that CBNRM may work to further marginalize already marginalized people.

  • 135.
    Remling, Elise
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Logics, assumptions and genre chains: a framework for poststructuralist policy analysis2017In: Critical Discourse Studies, ISSN 1740-5904, E-ISSN 1740-5912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An unresolved aspect of the Logics Approach within Poststructuralist Discourse Theory (PDT) is how to operationalize its abstract theoretical concepts – of social, political and fantasmatic logics – for concrete textual analysis, especially of policy documents. Policies often institute new understandings, procedures or practices, something the logics, as originally articulated, fall somewhat short of capturing. To overcome these methodological challenges this article constructs a framework for poststructuralist policy analysis that brings together the Logics Approach with more textually oriented tools developed within Critical Discourse Analysis, namely assumptions and genre chains. For empirical illustration it draws on a case study of the European Union's adaptation policy in response to climate change. The resulting framework offers a means through which more implicit social and political logics can be examined, and contributes new insights to methodological debates around the use of the Logics Approach (and PDT more broadly), specifically in relation to critical policy analysis. The article concludes with seven observations of relevance for future studies and suggests avenues for further empirical and conceptual exploration.

  • 136.
    Remling, Elise
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Veitayaki, Joeli
    School of Marine Studies, University of the South Pacific (USP).
    Community-based action in Fiji’s Gau Island: a model for the Pacific?2016In: International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, ISSN 1756-8692, E-ISSN 1756-8706, Vol. 8, no 3, 375-398 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Drawing on qualitative fieldwork on a remote outer island in Fiji, this paper aims to address a shortcoming in the literature on climate adaptation in the Pacific. Internationally community-based adaptation (CBA) is recognised as a promising approach to help vulnerable populations adjust to climate change. However, with pilot projects in their infancy documented experience for Pacific Islands remains scarce. This limits the ability of the region – faced with persisting development challenges and predicted significant climate impacts – to learn from and build on previous experiences and develop robust responses to climate change.

    Design/methodology/approach – By using a community-based initiative in response to environmental challenges and unsustainable development as a proxy, the paper interrogates the potential usefulness of the CBA framework for the Pacific and identifies potential strengths and weaknesses. Sketching out the process and its outcomes, it shows how the initiative has resulted in a diversity of strategies, ranging from pollution control measures, to improved governance of resources and community participation in decision making, to livelihood and income diversification.

    Findings – Findings indicate that CBA could have a lot of potential for building more resilient communities in the face of climate change and other pressures associated with modernising Pacific societies. However, to be effective, interventions should pay attention to people’s development aspirations; immediate economic, social and environmental benefits; dynamics of village governance, social rules and protocols; and traditional forms of knowledge that can inform sustainable solutions.

    Originality/value – The conclusions provide a reflection on the CBA framework in general and make concrete suggestions for practitioners on how the framework could be usefully implemented in the Pacific context.

  • 137.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Elabbas, Lubna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala university.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Testis transcriptome alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio) with reduced fertility due to developmental exposure to 17α-ethinyl estradiolManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Ring, Eva
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Bjarnadóttir, Brynhildur
    University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Finér, Leena
    Natural Resources Institute Finland-Luke, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lībiete, Zane
    LSFRI Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Lode, Elve
    Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stupak, Inge
    University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sætersdal, Magne
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic-Baltic region: Large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width.2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 8, 878-893 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness. Sweden and Finland relied to a large extent on voluntary commitments. The prescribed zone widths within the region ranged from 1 m to 5 km. The results indicated that land-use distribution, forest ownership structure and historical and political legacies have influenced the varying degrees of prescriptiveness in the region.

  • 139.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    On the use of databases about research performance: comments on Karlovčec and Mladenić (2015) and others using the SICRIS database2016In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 109, no 3, 2151-2157 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accuracy of interdisciplinarity measurements depends on how well the data is used for this purpose and whether it can meaningfully inform about work that crosses disciplinary domains. At present, there are no ad hoc databases compiling information only and exclusively about interdisciplinary research, and those interested in assessing it have to reach out to existing databases that have been compiled for other purposes. Karlovčec and Mladenić (Scientometrics 102:433–454, 2015) saw an opportunity in a national database that brings together information meant to be used for assessing the scientific performance of the Slovene academic community, which they used to obtain information that was then applied to measure interdisciplinarity. However, the context and purpose for which databases are produced have certain implications on their use. In their study, the authors overlooked the social and political context within which that specific database was created, is maintained and is used for (evaluation of research performance). This resulted in an incomplete interpretation of the results obtained and description of the current situation. This commentary addresses two aspects that warrant further consideration: one pertains to the limitations of the dataset itself and the measures used to debunk these, while the second pertains to the line of reasoning behind the integration and use of IDR measures in this study.

  • 140.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Alašević, Dušan
    University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia.
    Crossing disciplinary boundaries in environmental research: Interdisciplinary engagement across the Slovene research community2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 574, 1492-1501 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary approaches to environmental research are calling for a type of scientific inquiry that is able to bring together the natural and social sciences. This with the aim to advance our understanding of environmental issues and produce synthetic and actionable knowledge meant to address these. Yet, interdisciplinarity research of this type is a demanding and challenging pursuit; many have shown that in certain thematic areas and geographic regions practice falls behind discourse. We bring together ideas about interdisciplinary research collaborations (after Patricia L. Rosenfield) and interdisciplinary epistemic synthesis (after Julie T. Klein) that are used to analyse a sample of research projects funded (from 2006 to 2013) by the Slovene Research Agency. We triangulated interview data (with principal investigators) with document analysis and integrated these with other secondary data. Our results suggest for the sample of environmental projects to be interdisciplinary in a narrow sense, this prevalently within natural and life sciences with little input from the humanities and social sciences. Also, the results obtained suggest that environmental research with unambiguous problem solving objectives is preferred over research with a high degree of abstraction, as involved in theoretical and conceptual work.

  • 141.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Issues and opportunities with participatory governance for the management of marine resources in the Adriatic Sea2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The marine natural environment is under high pressure. Not only are marine resources as flora and fauna intensively used (with consequent decrease of stocks) but in recent times, the seas have become the next frontier of a specific type of anthropization (i.e. the conversion of open space by human action) that of energy infrastructure. While this is a current process and, within the European Union, only recently policy actions have been taken in order facilitate a more coherent coordination of interventions (Marine Strategy), little research has been done about formal and informal institutional arrangements already existing between the many stakeholders who have specific stakes in the Adriatic Sea.

    The North Adriatic Sea is an area characterised by a history of (between state) conflicts and tensions that impacted on the development of collaborative arrangement for the management of the marine environment. Of interest to this research, therefore, was to map out formal and informal institutional arrangements currently in place between stakeholders from Italy, Slovenia and Croatia - countries with coastal access to the North Adriatic Sea. Also, of an interest was to understand if, and how, participatory practices are being used in relation to decision-making and management of the marine natural environment ( in particular siting of an energy infrastructure).

    Methods:  In this case study we used interviews, archive material, policy documents and other secondary data (statistics, official documents) for the analysis.

    Findings: The preliminary analysis of our data suggests that the North Adriatic Sea is a highly politicized area over which different stakeholders advance claims but engage in little, or no cooperation. Marine resources appear to be under high pressure and in the following months we will continue the exploration into the institutional arrangements. 

  • 142.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. WageningenUniversity and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Bregt, Arnold K.
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ligtenberg, Arend
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Pérez-Soba, Marta
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Verweij, Peter
    University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    The social side of spatial decision support systems: Investigating knowledge integration and learning2017In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 76, 177-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) represent a step forward in efforts to account for the spatial dimension in environmental decision-making. The aim of SDSS is to help policymakers and practitioners access, interpret and understand information from data, analyses and models, and guide them in identifying possible actions during a decision-making process. Researchers, however, report difficulties in up-take of SDSS by the intended users. Some suggest that this field would benefit from investigation of the social aspects involved in SDSS design, development, testing and use. Borrowing insights from the literature on science-policy interactions, we explore two key social processes: knowledge integration and learning. Using a sample of 36 scientific papers concerning SDSS in relation to environmental issues, we surveyed whether and how the selected papers reported on knowledge integration and learning. We found that while many of the papers mentioned communication and collaboration with prospective user groups or stakeholders, this was seldom underpinned by a coherent methodology for enabling knowledge integration and learning to surface. This appears to have hindered SDSS development and later adoption by intended users.

  • 143.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Reinecke, S.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Bregt, A.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Kilham, E.
    Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
    Lapeyre, R.
    Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales (IDDRI) - Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, France.
    Challenges to and opportunities for biodiversity science-policy interfaces2015In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 54, 483-486 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 144.
    Rodela, Romina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Udovč, A.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Developing Environmental NGO Power for Domestic Battles in a Multilevel Context: Lessons from a Slovenian case2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, 244-255 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Rosenberg, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hand Hygiene Barriers faced byHealth Care Workers in The Gambia:: A Health Belief Model Approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health care associated infections cause major challenges to the provision of health care. This isdue to the burden placed on individuals, their families, and health services. Hand hygiene actions are cost effective measures towards reducing the spread of health care associated infections and have proven very effective in preventing microbial transmission during patient care. It has beenproven that health care workers hands are the main routes of transmission of health care associated infections. Despite this, hand hygiene is still frequently overlooked by health careworkers especially in settings with limited resources. This paper therefore explores hand hygieneknowledge and behaviours of public and private health care workers in The Gambia with focuson the health belief model. The required information has been gathered from 4 public and 2 private health care facilities through the use of a questionnaire based on the WHO evaluation toolkit. Hand hygiene knowledge of health care workers corresponded with their hand hygiene behaviour. Inadequate hand hygiene performance was noted in many health care workers as wellas limited availability of hand hygiene resources from health care facilities. Private health care facilities provided better hand hygiene opportunities for their health care workers yet neither private nor public health care facilities offered adequate hand hygiene training and feedback on hand hygiene performances to their health care workers.

  • 146.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Genus, företagande och politik2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, 7-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a review of some of the most important contributions in the field of gender and entrepreneurship in Sweden. The gender perspective is one of society's most important organizing principles, while entrepreneurship is seen as important for promoting growth, creating jobs, etc. The study of gender and entrepreneurship in combination is therefore important to understand the forces that shape our history, our present and our future. This field of research focuses on the study of the entrepreneur,  enterprise, entrepreneurship, business relevant organizations, industries, and business and how these are affected by gender issues and gender contracts. It involves formal and informal institutional arrangements that influence, highlights and explains differences in conditions for women and men in employment and in their roles as business owners, as well as the socio-economic consequences of the same. Gender orders put an imprint on both the public and private sectors, the division of labor inside and outside the home, in education, in the allocation of resources in society, etc. Gender issues are embedded in a variety of institutional and contextual circumstances and for instance also of a dimension and such class of ethnicity. Therefore intersectionality both a common and important approaches in gender studies in general and in the study of gender and entrepreneurship in particular. Today therefore research on female and male immigrant entrepreneurship and conditions of the same are becoming more frequent, but also how the deregulation of the public sector has funneled low-income people, mainly women in health care to low-profit businesses. The chapter also raises the recent criticism raised about how this research field has now matured and a need to move towards more critical and problem oriented research is needed. The critical voices argue that improving and increasing the contextualization of  research by problematizing the state's support to women in business, to analyze the restructuring of the public sector restructuring, which in practice promotes entrepreneurship and entrepreneurialism is a viable way to address current shortcomings in current research.

  • 147.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    ”Jag är en fäbodjänta”: Arbetsdelning, institutioner företagande och identiteter inom gårdsnära mejerihantering igår och idag2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, 79-108 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter studies the development of the dairy sector from a gender perspective from the early 1900s to today. During the first part of the century agriculture was modernized and milk processing moved out from the farms and into the emerging food industry. During this process technological change was one of the main driving forces behind the outcrowding of women, who dominated the elaboration of dairy products, by men who became dominant in the emerging industry. During the outset of the 20th century, on-farm elaboration of dairy products became marginalized and decimated as a farm activity. But since the 1970’s farm elaboration of dairy products has made a comeback and has become and emblematic case for the emergence of the new rurality in Sweden. Results show that the prevalance of female examples has contributed to inspire women into starting new businesses within the trade, this is why the majority of the business owners within the trade are women. The main challenges for this trade are not related to gender issues, but are the result of the struggle between the productivist production system in which farm elaboration of food had no place and the post-modern one, in which farm elaboration and a variety of farm sizes (including small ones) are key elements. Farm dairy owners are therefore called ”jam makers” by representatives of the old structure. But despite the resistance, farm dairy owners are slowly creating new spaces for their businesses and creating a gradual change of current institutional arrangements.

  • 148.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Mountain agriculture at the crossroads, biodiversity, culture, and modernization, conflicting and interacting interests.2014In: Farming systems facing global challenges: Capacities and strategies / [ed] Thomas Aenis, Andrea Knierim, Maja-Catrin Riecher, Rebecka Ridder, Heike Schobert and Holger Fischer, 2014, 893-904 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mountain agriculture emerged at the intersection of the "wild economy," which focused on hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants and the agricultural based economy that is characterized by the domestication of animals and cultivation of the soil. Like other traditional systems based on pasture, the Swedish mountain systems is based on the use of inherited traditional knowledge and mountain pastures have over centuries created a very rare and rich habitat in the form of upland hay meadows. Today, both traditional knowledge and the rich biodiversity in the mountains are endangered by the implementation of modern practices that lead to a number of conflicts that go beyond the tragedy of the commons. One important source of conflict emanates from the changing role of the countryside, a role that creates expectations on farmers to deliver recreation, magnificent landscapes, new job opportunities, operate hotels , produce, cheese, maintain a cultural heritage and contribute to the conservation of native breeds . Another problem is caused by new support systems and regulations that create incentives to intensify the exploitation of summer farms by using the pastures for modern meat cattle breeds, which changes the landscape, but also makes traditional farmers upset, because of the risk of losing the traditions of summer farms.

    An additional source of conflict is created by the state’s changing attitudes towards the mountain world, as the state aims to shut down all existing (state owned) leased mountain flats (fjällägenheter) by cutting down basic infrastructure. The remaining flats are located primarily in the northern parts of Jämtland. They contribute to the maintenance of a very unique flora and insect fauna.  By comparing two cases, one in Klövsjö and one in the northern part of the region, this paper contributes with new knowledge about  mountain agriculture, including interlocking interests, competitive activities, potentials and conflicts.

  • 149.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences.
    Wramner, PerSödertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.Bonow, MadeleineSödertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography.
    Från matproduktion till gastronomi2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antologin Från matproduktion till gastronomi belyser aktuella frågor kring livsmedel och måltider. Förändringarna inom detta område illustrerar på flera sätt dagens samhällsutveckling. Boken består av tre tematiska delar.

    ”Strukturella förändringar och aktuella trender” tar upp efterfrågemönster, institutionella förhållanden, interaktion mellan olika aktörer och varumärkesstrategier. Fokus ligger på småskalig livsmedelsproduktion.

    ”Måltider och måltidskultur” tar upp kulturella och sociala faktorer bakom förändringar av popularitet, status etc. hos olika livsmedel. Här behandlas också betydelsen av miljön kring måltiden och av restaurangsektorns utveckling.

    ”Maten och naturen” tar upp hur lokalproducerade livsmedel påverkas av naturmiljön på produktionsplatsen och hur deras lokala identitet kan användas i marknadsföringen. Vidare behandlas hur lokal produktion kan gynna naturvården i odlingslandskapet.

  • 150.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Complex Shades of Green: Gradually Changing Notions of the 'Good Farmer' in a Swedish Context2016In: Sociologia Ruralis, ISSN 0038-0199, E-ISSN 1467-9523, Vol. 56, no 3, 391-407 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are ever-growing demands on farmers to consider the wider environmental implications of production, not least in the Baltic Sea Region where concerns about agricultural-related eutrophication are significant. In Sweden, farmers are being nudged through voluntary agri-environmental measures, enticed by the market and compelled to make the transition from a productivist agriculture to a multifunctional one. Drawing on the ‘good farmer’ concept, inspired by Bourdieu, this paper studies Swedish conventional and agri-environmental farmers’ views and reflections on the changing relationship between farming practices and the environment. The paper finds that despite 25 years of agri-environmental policy in Sweden, some conventional farmers are still mired in a narrow productivist mindset. That said, the study concludes that we should be wary of conceiving the ‘good farmer’ too strictly in productivist terms, given that the ‘rules of the agricultural game’ in Sweden are leading to a more divergent farmer habitus. Farmers are looking for opportunities within the multifunctional agricultural field, which increasingly demands and expects all farmers to embed social and environmental goals into production considerations.

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