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  • 1.
    Aldén, Nina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Is A Holistic Approach Relevant for Non-Governmental Organizations’ Agricultural Extension Strategies?: Case Studies from Tanzania2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural extension can play a major part in the development and adoption of sustainable agriculture practices. Local NGOs have a unique opportunity to serve as extension agents due to their acceptance and close relationship in communities. The paper argues that agricultural extension needs to adopt a holistic approach to the communities’ development to achieve a lasting and sustainable agriculture. This study examines four NGOs in Tanzania to see 1) how they provide extension services; 2) if they have a holistic approach; and 3) if the holistic approach is a conscious strategy. The findings show that a mixture of extension methods is commonly used by all four of the NGOs. More over the NGOs offer a wide variety of projects, which focus on different issues. This results in a holistic approach, even though this probably is rather a result of funding practices than a conscious extension strategy.

  • 2.
    Bergfeldt, Vendela
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Microbes that never sleep: A multidisciplinary study of the antibiotic resistance management in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses of this study are that reduction and rational usage of antibiotics reduces development of antibiotic resistance. In Sweden, the trends do not follow this pattern. Despite a decrease in prescriptions of antibiotics, there is an increase in the number of patients infected with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and ESBL selecting for carbapenem-resistance (ESBLCARBA). This study aims to study factors affecting antibiotic resistance management. An additional aim is to use a multidisciplinary approach for a subject that has mostly been studied with quantitative methods. First, linear regressions investigated any possible significant changes of prescription rates in outpatient care, hospital usage of antibiotic groups and antibiotic resistance. After this, nine interviews were conducted with physicians in outpatient care, hospital care and with representatives from the Swedish Strategic Programme for the Rational Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Surveillance of Resistance (Strama), a network working for Swedish prevention against antibiotics resistance. There was a significant decrease in the number of prescriptions of antibiotics in outpatient care among all Swedish counties and a small, but significant increase of antibiotics used in hospitals. The number of patients infected with multidrug resistant bacteria also show a significant increase. The interviews revealed that health care workers in all counties follow the same guidelines and try to be as specific as possible in choosing antibiotics to hit specific bacteria. The respondents suggested migration and extended travelling as explanations to the growing number of cases of multidrug resistant bacteria. Further, two major factors emerged as important for an efficient antibiotic resistance management; Education/knowledge and Discussion. The results indicate a need for further research on rational usage of antibiotics and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in hospital care, rather than the reduction through prescriptions. The results indicate that rational usage has a bigger impact than reduction. Using a multidisciplinary approach gave a broader perspective on the issue and future studies should see the possibilities of mixing quantitative and qualitative studies.

  • 3.
    Berkmann, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Greening Potentials and Limits of Eco-Labelling Schemes in the EU: A policy evaluation with a focus on small firms in the German coffee-processing sector2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As SMEs transformation to sustainable practices in manufacturing, processing and services, is declared to be the key to a green growth model, the research in this thesis aims to understand in what way eco-labelling can be a part of that. In order to approach this complex issue, the thesis aims to identify the greening potential and the limits of contemporary eco-labelling schemes for SME product within the German coffee-processing sector. With regard to that, the thesis applied the policy evaluation method "Program Theory Evaluation" (PTE), which assesses a policy in place and thus provides information how the introduction and the function of eco-labelling schemes is observed and perceived by German coffee-processing SMEs (GCPS). Hence, based on a policy evaluation from a rational perspective, which has the focus on the policy’s problem-solving process and implementation cycle, the thesis reveals how eco-labelling schemes’ underlying theoretical greening strategy act in practice to German coffee-processing SME (GCPS). Thereby it could be evaluated that eco-labelling schemes imply shortcomings to address and green GCPS high quality coffee products. As the PTE-method aims also on optimizing the policy’s rationalisation, the inappropriate or failed implementation of eco-labelling schemes by GCPS has been further explored. To grasp the eco-labelling schemes extent of limits to green GCPS products, the thesis compares and analyses the policy evaluation results against the backdrop of eco-labelling schemes’ normative theoretical policy conception and in the light of "Environmental Authority of Political Consumerism (Ecological Modernisation Theory)". With regard to that, the thesis fosters a policy learning process and uncovers that eco-labelling scheme eco-labelling schemes potential to green GCPS products is limited and conditioned to this a lower level of sustainable value as they are focused to supply mainly the demand for mainstream coffee products. Hence, the thesis concludes that it is not the underlying rationality of eco-labelling schemes, namely being a consumer-oriented and market-based policy instrument that does not apply to green GCPS products. However, this opens up a new perspective as it points out a sustainable quality gap between products using eco-labelling schemes and non-labelled GCPS high quality products. In return this raises considerations in terms of improving eco-labelling schemes’ contribution to sustainable development. Thus the thesis argues to optimize their rationalization with regard to GCPS high quality products as frontrunners of tomorrow’s sustainability.

  • 4.
    Borglund, Hanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Governing the commons: A case-study of Rio Limpio National Park, Dominican Republic2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to scarce natural resources and problems of governing the commons, alternative management of the commons has again emerged. The earlier known governing methods used by international and state conservation are state or private ownership. Governing the commons with local institutions was brought to attention in 2009 by Elinor Ostrom.

    In this case-study of governing the commons, a national park is the objective. There are many stakeholders, with a focus on the community institution. The co-management of governing the national park between the local institution, the state and the NGO is analysed to find out if sustainable governance can be achieved in Rio Limpio National Park, and if so how? The rules are set on the conditions of the state about the regulations of the national park, although its protection is legitimized by the activities of the local institution.

    The regulation that prohibits the use of the natural resources within the park is enforced in a situation -where poor people are directly dependant on the natural resources and have few employment alternatives. This creates conflicts between the state, the NGO and the community of the environmental policies. The study has shown that increased benefits of the community, as with social protection and local participation in decision making, will lead to more successful nature resource management as well as sustainable development.

  • 5.
    Breivik, Moa
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    En utvärdering av Länsstyrelsen i Jämtlands läns uppföljning av den hotade orkidén brunkulla2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish agriculture has gone through major changes of practices in the last century. Traditional haymaking and grazing have almost ceased and the land-use change is causing a loss of habitat for many plants and animals. These semi-natural landscapes belong to the most diverse plant communities in Sweden and many pastures and meadows are threatened by overgrowth. In this paper, I study the Jämtland County Administrative Board´s monitoring of the endangered Black Vanilla Orchid (Gymnadenia nigra) which is a grassland species in sharp decline. The study is based on interviews with employees of the Jämtland County Administrative Board and on the inventory data that has been gathered in the monitoring project. I have evaluated if the collected data can fulfil the original purpose of the monitoring project. I have studied and analysed the data and monitoring methodology in relation to scientific advice, and performed statistical tests. I have found that the monitoring method was unsuccessful in addressing the underlying purpose. In combination with the short period of monitoring, it is not possible to evaluate the effect of management and other environmental variables on the status of G. nigra.

  • 6.
    Burfoot, Christopher
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tourism as a tool for communicating complex environmental issues: Applying the ecosystem services framework to nature-based tourism activities across Iceland2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the twenty-first century, the lowering cost and increased availability of travel options has resulted in virtually uninterrupted economic growth of the international tourism sector. While financially beneficial, the increased movement of people has also been shown to have a negative impact on the environment, leading to the growth of a more environmentally-friendly approach to travel called nature-based tourism. One country at the forefront of the nature-based tourism movement is Iceland, and while the sector has grown significantly in the country over the past decade, the way in which information concerning environmental issues is communicated to tourists has not been widely researched. Being the case, the aim of this study was to examine the extent to which environmental issues are communicated to the general public through the use of the ecosystem services framework. Four popular nature-based tourism activities were selected for analysis; a whale watching tour, a horse riding tour, a boat tour of a glacial lagoon and a spa experience in a geothermal hot spring. A literature review concerning how the ecosystem services framework related to each of these tours was carried out and findings were compared to observatory data gathered through participation in said tourism activities. Results showed that while scientific publications could be found for each tour/ecosystem service combination, information concerning environmental issues was not widely communicated to participants in the nature-based tourism activities using the ecosystem services framework.

  • 7.
    Båverman, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Effekter av habitatstorlek, konnektivitet och områdesskydd på förekomst av revlummer Lycopodium annotinum och mattlummer Lycopodium clavatum i Södermanland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to test theories of the effects of habitat size, connectivity, area protection, habitat amount and fragmentation on the occurrence of single species, plus examining the existence of a fragmentation threshold and an extinction threshold. Occurrence of stiff clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum and stag’s-horn clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum was examined in 61 forest fragments scattered over 10 large 2,5×2,5 km plots, located in the county of Stockholm in Sweden. In each forest an area covering 500m2 was searched for the two species. Lycopodium annotinum occured in 13 and L. clavatum in 10 of the investigated fragments. Lycopodium annotinum occurred in at least 1 fragment in 7 large plots, 8 large plots was the corresponding number for L. clavatum. The results showed a significant positive effect of habitat size on the occurrence of both species and a significant positive effect of connectivity on the occurrence of Lycopodium clavatum. Area protection, habitat amount and fragmentation had no observed effect on the occurrence of these species, and no fragmentation threshold or extinction threshold was found. These results indicate the importance of preserving large forest fragments with high connectivity, to assure continued viability of the examined species.

  • 8.
    Bökmark, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linnala, Laura
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Miljön som handelsvara: en diskursanalys över utsläppsrättssystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Växthusgasnivåerna i atmosfären har nått nivåer som påverkar klimatet på jorden. Det här ställer krav på politiska överenskommelser som effektivt kan verka för en minskning av växthusgaser i atmosfären. Kyotoprotokollet implementerades 1997 och innehåller lagbindande krav på medlemsländerna att minska sina växthusgasutsläpp och presenterar utsläppsrätter som styrmedel för att nå målen. Utsläppsrätter innebär att politiker sätter ett pris på rätten att släppa ut och låter verksamheter som förorenar handla med rätterna, vilket enligt nationalekonomisk marknadsteori är det mest effektiva sättet att gå tillväga. Detta kan däremot kritiseras av ekologiska ekonomer som motsätter sig prissättande av miljön.

    Diskursteori används för att studera vad som har normaliserats med införandet av utsläppsrättssystem och därför inte ifrågasätts. Analysen visade att två diskurser primärt råder i den utvalda empirin; ekonomisk liberalism och teknologisk tilltro. Fokus på vinst, tillväxt, kostnadseffektivitet samt teknikoptimism återkom i alla tre dokumenten och framställs som avgörande för att nå målen för utsläppsreduktion.

    Utsläppsrätter är ett ekonomiskt styrmedel vars styrka ligger i marknadsmekanismer, men ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv finns problematik med prissättande av miljön; framförallt att det vilar på svag hållbarhet. Även marknadens otillräckliga förmåga att ta hänsyn till moraliska angelägenheter, prissättning av miljön och att ansvarsförskjutning mot företag placerar en större klyfta mellan människa och miljö kan tolkas som problematiskt.

  • 9.
    Börjesson, Hannah
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Miljömärkning av logianläggningar: En studie av effekterna på Green Key-märkta hotell och vandrarhems miljöprestanda2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The accommodation sector accounts for a significant proportion of resource consumption and environmental impact of the tourism industry. Today, there are a growing number of ecolabels in the accommodation sector to help establishments become more sustainable. One of them is the international eco-label Green Key. Lodging establishments have different motives for joining an eco-label in addition to an internal commitment to the environment; cost savings, competitive advantages, more guests and increased profitability.

    This study investigated if there is any difference when it comes to the effects of Green Key depending on the type of facility, and if the number of ‘scoring criteria’ affect environmental performance. The purpose was mainly to find out whether Green Key reduces the environmental impact over time, and if the label leads to an increased number of guests, depending on the type of guests.

    A quantitative method was chosen and longitudinal data over Green Key hotel and hostel's annual water, electricity and energy consumption was collected. Data on the number of guest nights per year, type of guests and total indoor area was also collected. Statistical tests were conducted and they showed that there was no correlation between the number of ‘scoring criteria’ and environmental impact. Only hotel and hostel's electricity consumption differed - hotels had a significantly higher electricity consumption/m2 than hostels. The results showed that there was an effect of Green Key on the establishments' resource consumption over time, although the effect differed. However, the majority of the establishments had reduced their resource consumption over time. The results also showed that there was a significant difference in water consumption per guest night from the starting year with Green Key in comparison with 2015. There was no difference in the increase of guest nights, depending on the type of guests. Although, the number of guest nights in total had significantly increased after the establishments had been rewarded with Green Key. However, it is difficult to demonstrate that the effect depends on Green Key.

  • 10.
    Cortobius Fredriksson, Moa
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Involvement without Influence?: Theoretical and Organisational Premises for Women´s Empowerment in Development Programmes2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the thesis is to discuss how the theoretical and organisational premises of the gender approaches of development programmes affect their possibilities to empower women and to enhance gender equality. This will be done through a study of the gender approaches of six development programmes for democratic and economic governance in the water and sanitation sector located in Angola, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay and Philippines respectively. The programmes strive towards the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals and are financed by the Spanish Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund. The programmes‟ gender approaches are defined as: the way the programmes interpret the concepts of women‟s empowerment and gender equality; the way they incorporate the concepts into their programme design and organisational structure, and; the activities and strategies implemented to enhance women‟s empowerment and gender equality in the programme areas. The analysis of the gender approaches of the programmes will be centred on the five theoretical assumptions which together state that a) a gender approach based on a collective postulation, with; b) adequate mechanisms for women‟s influence and; c) a purposeful involvement of men, backed-up by; d) adequate resource and responsibility allocation, and; e) a gender integrated design enabling evaluation and monitoring, is more probable to empower women. The main findings of the thesis are that: 1) all of the six gender approaches of the programmes are fundamentally individualistic and driven by efficiency rationales; 2) women‟s possible influence is generally limited and partial because of inadequate scope of participatory spaces; 3) men are not considered in any of the gender approaches; 4) the responsibility allocation for gender issues is the most important organisational feature for the implementation of the approaches, but it is weak in the majority of the programmes; 5) the integration of gender in the programme design and the funding mechanisms appear to not affect the implementation directly. Based on the results of the thesis it is concluded that both the theoretical and organisational premises of the gender approaches create small possibilities for the programmes to empower women and to enhance gender equality. The results also point to what appears to be fundamental structural weaknesses in the present gender interpretation, integration and implementation of international development agencies.

  • 11.
    Edlund, Nathalie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gaspar, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jordbruksfåglarnas minskning i Stockholms län: En kvantitativ studie av fåglarna i jordbrukslandskapet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1970s, a breeding bird survey was conducted to see how many birds are breeding in Sweden. This was done because the research at the time pointed out that there was a decrease in the number of bird species. This inventory became known as atlas inventory 1, and an additional inventory was done in the 2000s, which was called atlas inventory 2. The second inventory was carried out in order to see trends in bird population distribution and to be compared with atlas inventory 1. The purpose of this study was to examine if it is possible to compare the inventories with each other to see if there are any changes in the number of breeding birds in Sweden. The study was limited to the Stockholm report area, which includes all municipalities in Stockholm County except for Norrtälje. A limitation was also made to only examine agricultural birds, where six species were selected. The results show that the number of atlas squares with data for breeding birds within the Stockholm report area have decreased between atlas inventory 1 and atlas inventory 2. To obtain these results, information was retrieved from the website Artportalen, and was then compiled and processed in Excel and ArcMap. A comparison between the period 2013-2016 and atlas inventory 2 was also done, which showed a decrease in the number of atlas squares with available data, as well as a reduction in the number of observations of breeding birds.

  • 12.
    Ekblom, Mikaela
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Challenges Facing Food Processing MSEs in Tanzania: A Qualitative Case Study of the Sunflower Oil Industry in Babati, Manyara2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food processing micro- and small-scale enterprises (MSEs) play an important role in the national economic development of Tanzania. Though many of them have great growth potential, they face a number of constraints hindering further development, and large amounts of cooking oil are imported each year. The aim of thesis has therefore been to identify and analyse the different factors affecting these MSEs in order to find out which the major growth challenges are. The case study is mainly based on individual semi-structured interviews with sunflower oil processors and farmers in Babati districts, conducted in February and March 2016, and earlier research and studies on the topic of MSE growth make up the theoretical framework used for analysis of the data. The findings show that there are indeed numerous challenges facing these processors, and the major constraint was found to be lack of capital; an issue causing or worsening a majority of the other challenges at hand. Other problems are related to raw material, equipment & electricity for processing, regulations, market accessibility, and competition. These obstacles need to be overcome in order to enable the industry's expansion within and outside of Tanzania, and further research is recommended.

  • 13.
    Ekblom, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Green Wave: How communication, advocacy andparticipation measures are included indocuments important for increase bicycling inStockholm City and Nacka Municipality2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is becoming increasingly urban. This puts pressure on a number of functions within cities, not the least the transportation system. Motorized traffic is responsible for a number of negative environmental effects, such as carbon dioxide emissions and particle pollution. To halt this development an increased share of bicyclists is needed. Stockholm County is an area with rapid urbanization. Therefore, a comparative study was undertaken to analyse how Stockholm City and Nacka Municipality are including communication, advocacy and participation measures in documents important for increased bicycling. This as those measures are important to increase the number of bicyclists. The analysis was undertaken by using two typologies, a modified version of the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) to understand how the two cases include communication and advocacy measures whereas Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizens Participation was chosen to understand how participation is included in the documents. The findings suggest many similarities between the two cases but Nacka Municipality perform better with their use of social media, and the activities ”bicycle-friendly workplace” and ”winter bicycling”. From the findings three recommendations where provided: create bicycle councils to improve inclusion of bicyclists in the processes. Second, it is important to have different type of role models across the municipality, both in socio-economic strong and weak areas. And third, create dedicated outlets for bicycle issues, tentatively on a social media outlet. This will increase the status of bicycles, it will promote bicycling as a good transportation choice and it open ups channels for citizens interaction.

  • 14.
    Ekedahl, Sanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Trädet, tillståndet, turerna: Konflikten i samband med beslutet om TV-ekens fällning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the autumn of 2011 a veteran oak of protective value, ”TV-eken”, located on Oxenstiernsgatan in the city district Östermalm in Stockholm, was felled. The decision to fell the tree – officially a technical decision to fell a high-risk tree, whereas protesting people interpeted the decision completely different – caused a conflict between responsible decision-takers and people fighting to preserve the tree. The aim of this study is to understand what events and processes lead up to the conflict arising from the decision to fell the ”TV-eken” tree. Responsible decision-taking public official at the traffic administration in the city of Stockholm has been interviewed as well as three oak activists. The interviews have been complemented by reviews of some relevant documents. Due to the background of the conflicting parties and the parties' preconceived view of the opposite party, the conflict developed to be all about more questions than the factual question (i.e. the felling of the oak). New studies that were performed in order to examine the state of the oak exacerbated the conflict as none of the studies were considered legitimate by both parties. Both parties have expressed substantial suspiciousness towards the other party and many actings have been interpreted as strategical. Inadequate communication between the parties is the general explanation to the origin and increase of the conflict.

  • 15.
    Elander, Lina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Diatom analyses of sediment from Himmerfjärden estuary, southern archipelago of Stockholm: has the water discharge from a constructed sewage treatment plant led to eutrophication?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A sediment core from Himmerfjärden estuary, south of Stockholm, was examined to detect records of eutrophication on the site since the opening of the sewage treatment plant Himmerfjärdsverket in 1974. The core was analysed with respect to the diatom record and lithology. Four macrofossil that were found in the sediment were dated using 14C-dating.    This study aims to detect changes in the environment of Himmerfjärden by using the diatom stratigraphy record. The results have been interpreted and discussed regarding natural environmental and climate change and/or anthropogenic impact, and detected changes will be associated with the history of the sampling site. The results show that the lowermost zone started to deposit around 1300-1490 cal yr BP and the homogeneous sediment indicates that the area was not suffering from hypoxia at that time. There is a successive transition towards more distinct lamination further up in the core which show that the environment in Himmerfjärden have changed and become hypoxic. This may have to do with factors such as the opening of heavily trafficked Södertälje Canal, and also the increased nutrient input from Himmerfjärdsverket.    This study could be a part of the process of working towards a “good environmental status” in the Baltic Sea. However, continued and improved work is needed for further and more accurate interpretations.

  • 16.
    Fredrikson, Oskar
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Biofuel Production: Examining the development of sub-Saharan Africa through the concepts of land grabbing, environmental justice and different views on development theories2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines and problematize the effects of biofuel production by focusing on local communities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The premise lays in a critique of neoliberal thoughts of development and the concept of sustainable development. The establishment of biofuel production in SSA has been depicted to carry with it opportunities of development for the rural population. However, there have been a big interest from foreign actors looking to invest in sub-Saharan biofuel production which have raced concern for land grabbing. A conflict of interest has emerged between Southern and Northern interests. A literature study is used as the method to examine reported outcomes on local communities in the proximity of biofuel production in order to determine if sub-Saharan biofuel production is established for the development need of SSA or the interest of the North. To analyze the results a theoretical framework has been constructed from concepts of large-scale land acquisition (land grabbing), environmental justice and the four worldviews market liberalism, institutionalism, bioenvironmentalism and social greens. The paper concludes that the large-scale production of biofuels is highly problematic due to the risk of land grabbing and Northern mitigation schemes are based on Southern lands raises the question of environmental justice. Depending on which worldview one adopts there can be several explanations to why this occur. 

  • 17.
    Frost, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Populationsdifferentiering hos kransalger2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Charophytes are an important key species in the Baltic Sea. They reproduce by using oospores and this study aims at distinguish morphological differentiation between oospores within and between individuals and populations. Mainly I asked myself the question whether the differences and similarities in morphology could be associated with differences between geographic distance and habitat, and to what extent oospores could be reassigned to the correct population and individual. Charophytes of the genus Chara aspera were collected in eastern Svealand and harmonics from elliptic Fourier transforms have been used to describe the contours of the oospores. The parameters of the harmonics were then used for statistical analyses. The results showed that the different populations could be separated morphologically when the population affiliation of the oospores has been known to the analysis. It was difficult to separate individuals from each other, but it worked well in the population in which most oospores were collected. When the identity of the oospores was unknown to the analysis only half of them were returned to the correct population, and it did not work to reassign unknown oospores to individuals. The three populations from brackish water grouped together in the discriminant analysis, separated from the two freshwater populations, which, in turn, were clearly distinct from one another. Dispersal between the different populations in brackish water is likely. However, dispersal between the populations in fresh water is not likely. There is nothing to indicate dispersal between brackish and freshwater habitats. I can conclude that there is enough information in the morphology of the oospores to measure relative differences between individuals and groups, as well as to estimate variability.

  • 18.
    George, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Social responsibility and import of certified organic food: A case study of 13 Swedish firms2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis explores how social responsibility is addressed by firms importing certified organic food from developing countries to Sweden. The approaches to social responsibility of 13 Swedish firms were investigated, of which the majority were small or medium size (< 250 employees) and none belonged to the market-dominating group of grocery retailers. The results show that a majority of the firms consider social responsibility in relation with their suppliers but in view of scarce resources trust intermediary firms for follow up. Many mix ethical trading approaches focused on production conditions, and fair trade initiatives focused on community development. Companies experience uncertainty as to whether organic certification that includes requirements for social responsibility will render a higher price premium. The co-existence of multiple social schemes related to organic trade enables flexibility but in some cases resulted in a perception of subjectivity and differentiation of control measures, which risks to result in a loss of systemic trust. Working through intermediaries has benefits but at the same time leads to the loss of connection to the place and people that the social responsibility targets. Organic certification schemes need to be clearer about the scope and purpose of included social aspects. Further research is needed to understand and compare the social effects and differences at farm or factory level, in relation to the four identified approaches to social responsibility in organic trade. The four approaches were:  organic certification according to a standard with social requirements, combining organic certification according to minimum production standard either with a separate social label, or with a business supplier code of conduct, or finally the belief that conversion to organic farming will automatically bring about social benefits.

  • 19.
    Girard, Chloé
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Producing and consuming artisan food: a way of preserving our biological heritage?: A phenomenographic study on how biological heritage is understood, described and communicated in the context of artisan food production and consumption2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the environmental quality goal 13 for A Varied Agricultural Landscape, that combines environment, food production and rurality and aims at keeping the agricultural landscape open, was considered as not achieved in 2016. One of the reasons for this non-achievementis the agricultural intensification and specialisation and in turn the decrease in number of pastures during the 20th century, threating thus habitats, diversity and values resulting from a continuous, traditional use of the land commonly called ‘biological heritage’. This study focuses on the traditional and sustainable animal husbandry using pastures, contributing to both the preservation of biological heritage and the production of high-quality food. It relies upon the assumption that the link between artisan food production and biological heritage is not well understood nor highlighted by the different actors taking part into the process of producing, selling, buying and consuming artisan food products in the rural areas of mid-northern Scandinavia, and therefore the study attempts to contribute with knowledge about how biological heritage is understood, described and communicated within this context. For such purposes the study takes a phenomenographic approach with biological heritage, pastures and artisan food products as the conceptions to be tested, and consists of semi-structured interviews of three agencies and surveys of artisan food producers and consumers. It adopts an environmental communication theoretical framework where a model is suggested for investigating actors’ learning process of biological heritage, from agencies to producers to consumers. The results reveal three phenomenographic categories showing that agencies and producers understand biological heritage in terms of (1) cared habitat and cared species, (2) historical and cultural know-how and (3) animals and their tasteful diet, and it is showed that the necessity of a continuous, traditional human use was less put forward than the cultural dimension of biological heritage. Also producers communicate about biological heritage to consumers through both their products and their actions. Furthermore the results show that consumers’ understandings of biological heritage are similar to the agencies’ and producers’ phenomenographic categories and that they could make a link between artisan food production and biological heritage, but only to some extent. Finally, in order to create an economic value for such products, a sense of place for pastures is argued to be a basis for people’s willingness to take care of and safeguard pastures. This study can be the starting point for further research, especially for investigating how producers actually interact with consumers about biological heritage when selling their products.

  • 20.
    Grant Axén, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Fuel-efficiency and Efficient Aid: An analysis of factors affecting the spread of fuel-efficient cooking stoves in Northern Tanzania2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is the result of nine weeks fieldwork in Babati and Bukoba districts in Northern Tanzania during spring 2012. The purpose of this thesis is to study why development projects on fuel-efficient stoves have had a limited adoption in these two regions and what obstacles and opportunities there are for further spread of fuel-efficient cooking stoves. Semi-structured interviews were the main method used for collecting the empirical data, which was then analysed from a socio-economic perspective with help from the framework of Sustainable Rural Livelihoods.

    The Results showed that people’s perceptions of fuel-efficient stoves are positive but that projects face many obstacles connected to socio-economic conditions. Knowledge on how to get stoves and access to financial capital is main obstacles for further spreading. Social networks and organisations are channels for information, but to spread outside these networks will need complementing strategies from organisations promoting fuel-efficient stoves. Important are also finding ways of making the financial aspect of adopting stoves less, like using materials with lower costs, using stove-models with low costs and training people in building stoves so re-investments are unnecessary and dependency of funding from organisations less. Gender is a factor affecting the adoption of fuel-efficient stoves, regarding access to assets and generated benefits. There is therefore an importance of involving gender throughout the different stages of the projects. 

  • 21.
    Grönros, Amanda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Holmström Petterson, Sofia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Vargen och vetenskapen: En fallstudie om vetenskapens roll inom vargförvaltningens beslutsfattning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has through its membership of the EU, an obligation to strive that the wolf population should be both long and short time viability. The signed Convention on Biological Diversity means that the wolf population must meet a favorable conservation status, which has required a great need for scientific facts about what a sustainable status is. The relationship between science and decision making can be difficult, especially in complex environmental problems with many uncertainties. The purpose of this study is to examine the various scientific uncertainties and find out how they influence decision-making within the Swedish wolf policy. The focus is on the impact of the scientific advice for decision-makers.

    The study is a case study in which the results are based on five interviews with experts in the field as well as a deeper text analysis of the reports and regulations used in the decision-making process. In conclusion, the study indicates that research and scientific findings have had a major role in the decision-makers in wolf management. To some extent, it has also complicated the issue because of the lack of consensus among researchers. The attitude around Sweden's wolves extends far back in time and the conflict today is a contentious question that seems to act much about values ​​and not just scientific contradictions.

  • 22.
    Hansén, Hanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Odlingsfria skyddszoner i jordbrukslandskapet: En studie av Dyåprojektet i Nynäshamns kommun2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of the most substantial environmental problems in the Baltic sea and is caused by elevated nutrient concentrations in the water. A large part of these nutrients comes from losses in agricultural land (Bernes, 2005, s. 83). A number of measures can be taken to reduce agricultural nutrient loss to water, for example by introducing vegetative buffer zones adjacent to watercourses (Jordbruksverket, 2008). This paper examine such buffer zones and uses a 16 year long project in Nynäshamn municipality as a field study, the Dyå project. The local participation in the project was analyzed to see how this have influenced the nutrient content in the water table of Dyån. The result shows that nutrient content in the Dyå river surface water is still high regarding both total phosphorus and total nitrogen and the nutrient losses from the drainage area is extremely high. The method for analyzing the water samples differ from predominant research on buffer zones, which shall be kept in mind when analyzing the result. The local participation has worked well despite poor contact with the municipal authorities who initiated the project in 1995. The paper discusses other possible reasons for Dyåns high nutrient content, for example the soil quality, drainage tubes and changed land use in the drainage area.

  • 23.
    Hedenström, Eva
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Offentlig upphandling av textila produkter – faktorer som kan inverka på en kommun när det gäller att ställa krav på miljö- och social hänsyn: En fallstudie av Örebro kommun2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector is a major purchaser of goods and services. By setting requirements for environmental and social considerations in public procurement, an authority has the possibility to use consumer power to influence the actors in a market. The purpose of this paper is to investigate public procurement of textile products in a municipality, in order to gain knowledge about factors that may be important for the use of environmental and social criteria. Håkan Hydén´s (professor in sociology of law) norm model was used as the basis of the analysis, where the conduct was investigated along three dimensions of the norm – willingness, knowledge and system conditions – in order to identify underlying factors that can influence the process.

    The results – analyzed by using interviews and documents – show that the procurer's willingness, motivation and knowledge are important factors in this context, as well as the political priority of the municipality. Procurers gain knowledge in this area to a large extent through networking with other actors. The possibilities to be able to verify the criteria are important. Verification of requirements is problematic because the municipality, as a public actor, is far from the production in the textile production chain. Lack of knowledge, in the form of mapping the textile production, prevents the development of criteria for best available technique. However, demands on manufacturing can be set indirectly by asking for some eco-labels (or equivalent) as verification. Furthermore, system conditions in terms of rules in the public procurement legislation set the framework for the procurement process.

  • 24.
    Helldorff, Hedvig
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Social acceptance of antimalarial strategies in Uganda2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the World Health Organization(WHO) the most efficient and cost-effective strategies in the global fight of malaria are the Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and the Insecticide Treated Nets ITNs). However, since the strategies include the use of synthetic insecticides, WHO reports that they sometimes meet opposition in the society. In a Global Malaria Programme report from 20061, WHO describes that concerns in the community regarding the safety of the IRS hinder its effective implementation. WHO states that the social acceptability of ITNs2 has to increase. This study aims at investigating if and where in the Ugandan society the antimalarial strategies meet opposition. The study analyzes whether authorities, non-governmental organizations and caretakers in one region in Uganda reject the antimalarial strategies recommended by WHO. The aim is further to investigate where focus should be put in order to meet the

    opposition (if any) to current strategies and thus facilitate the implementation of the strategies. The methodology used is an empirical approach based on interviews with officials at authorities, representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and caretakers in the slum areas in Kawempe Division, which is an area highly exposed to malaria, in Uganda. The results show that the authorities and the NGOs in this study accept the current strategies but believe that they are not fully accepted by caretakers. Further, the authorities and the NGOs point out that current strategies, mainly IRS, meet great resistance among politicians and within the agricultural and environmental sector. Nevertheless, the majority of the caretakers in the interviews does accept the strategies and give other reasons for not having them implemented in their houses. Many of the households do not have the money neither to buy the ITNs nor to have the IRS implemented in their houses. Thus, this study implies that the opposition to the current strategies is not among authorities, NGOs or caretakers but in the political, environmental and agricultural

    sphere. In order to fight malaria in the study area, WHO and stakeholders have to work with the change of attitudes among politicians and stakeholders within the environmental and agricultural sector in Uganda. They also have to provide poor households with ITNs or IRS for free, since lack of money is the reason for the studied group of caretakers not having the recommended strategies implemented in their houses.

  • 25.
    Hillbur, Siri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Farmer's perceptions of agroforestry: A case study about the obstacles and opportunities for agroforestry adoption in Babati, Tanzania2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the perceptions of agroforestry among farmers in Babati, north- central Tanzania. The focus is on which resources farmers perceive that they need to adopt agroforestry and which risks that are connected with agroforestry adoption. It is also to see how farmers perceive that the access to resources changes after agroforestry adoption and how their livelihoods change. The data has been collected through qualitative interviews with agroforestry farmers, conventional farmers and extension officers. After that the data has been analyzed through the sustainable livelihood approach and a risk perception theory. The results show that some of the obstacles or risks that farmers perceive with agroforestry adoption are high input costs, dependency on short-term benefits, competition between trees and crops and lack of education from extension services. Without financial capital and human capital in terms of knowledge there might be too many risks connected with adoption. If agroforestry however is adopted the farmers perceive that the access to firewood, timber and fruits increase which increase their incomes and therefore financial capital. They also perceive that the fruits improve food security and that the timber improves the housing. The firewood is also perceived to improve the situation for women as they do not have to walk as far to collect the firewood. Agroforestry is also perceived to provide environmental services like erosion prevention and increased soil fertility, therefore it increases natural capital. Some trees can also be used as natural pesticides. The increased soil fertility or the access to natural pesticides, however does not seem to affect the use of industrial fertilizers or pesticides. Agroforestry is also not perceived to have any effects on biodiversity or water quality. Even if agroforestry may not be a good choice for all farmers, it can for some farmers increase their ability to cope with stress and shocks like future climate change. This is because the agroforestry system can work as a buffer against increased climatic variability.

  • 26.
    Hoflin, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Övergödning i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde: En utvärdering av genomförda insatser för minskad näringsbelastning från enskilda avlopp och jordbruk2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and examine the first period of the unique project Enskilda avlopp i kretslopp and actions implemented in the agriculture sector to reduce nutrient loading in Stavbofjärden. The idea was to provide an overall assessment of the current situation and discuss the possible future effects of the work. Challenges of the project are also discussed to examine the possibility for other communities to follow the initiative. To achieve the purpose, a study of literature and semi-structured interviews were conducted. The work is a case study of the evaluative nature and has been implemented in Stavbofjärdens catchment area. 

    Today several actors in Södertälje kommun are working actively to reduce nutrient loading in Stavbofjärdens catchment area. For the past three years, the project has been carried out in order to reduce eutrophication and enable recycling of nutrients to cropland. Within the project framework toilet water is collected in a closed tank separate from the bath, sink and wash water, the fraction is then processed in a facility and spread on farmland. In connection with this, the agriculture sector tries to close the cycle and reduce nutrient discharges to Stavbofjärden. Several measures have been implemented during the project's first phase, a recycling policy has been adopted, a local treatment facility has been built and nutrients have begun return to arable land. Distinct structural changes have occurred in the first years of the project, in particular, cooperation between different actors in the catchment area strengthened. The prospects for achieving improved water quality in Stavbofjärden increasing with the implemented and planned measures. The project also raises a number of challenges. Interviews and literature studies have shown that the use of sludge on farmland is not an entirely uncontroversial issue, mostly because of a concern about the possible effects of hormones and medicine which may occur in factions. Other challenges are that the replacement of sewer means a high investment cost and that people feel insecure when major changes happens. All actors involved in the project refers to the fact that human waste has to end up somewhere, and that it is much better to put the waste on soil than it leaks out in the water because there are far more degrading bacteria in the soil than in water.

  • 27.
    Holmström, Lisen
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    En rättvisa eller flera?: En studie av rättvisepluralism i samrådet inför bildandet av naturreservatet Gräsö östra skärgård2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our perceptions of what is just and unjust varies depending on our experiences or ideological affiliation. The formation of the nature reserve Gräsö eastern archipelago was preceded by a debate highlighted in the media, where several of the people on Gräsö positioned themselves for and against the marine reserve. The claims of justice in the debate show variations in perceptions of environmental justice aspects of distribution, recognition and participation. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the pluralism in perceptions of justice may have contributed to the conflict by conducting interviews with advocates and opponents who participated in the deliberation that preceded the decision of the reserve. These are compared with the opinions of environmental justice expressed in interviews with employees of the provincial government who handled the deliberation. The results show a variation in ideas of justice in most aspects and many times the opinions of the advocates better with county government persons than the opponents. That the local population must be recognized as one of the parties to take the decision on reserve formation, if the reserve means a restriction of rights and whether compensation should be paid for these losses are aspects which perceptions of justice varies. In order to address conflicts that are rooted in the variations of justice perception attention must be paid to pluralism in interpretations of environmental justice and the rights that should be taken into account.

  • 28.
    Håkansson, John
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Att indexera hållbarhet: En metautvärdering av Miljöaktuellts rankning av svenska kommuners hållbarhetsarbete2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor's thesis in Environmental Science studies the quality of an index of performance measurement of Swedish municipalities' sustainability governance offered by the environmental magazine Miljöaktuellt. Executed for six consecutive years, this evaluation is arguably the most comprehensive and widely spread local sustainability assessment in Sweden. Contextualizing this quantitative measurement tool in the paradigm of New Public Management, the research questions posed are: 'to what extent does the index employed by Miljöaktuellt correspond to the requirements of a set of quality criteria for sustainability assessment?' and 'is the index appropriate as a measure of, or a goal for, Swedish municipalities' internal sustainability efforts?' Through the perspective of evaluation theory, Miljöaktuellt's index is seen as a performance evaluation, thus categorizing this study as a meta-evaluation. Through a qualitative thematic approach, the index is analyzed using the 8 BellagioSTAMP-principles that were developed as tools for assessing quality of sustainability assessments as themes for the analysis. The results found by Miljöaktuellt are clearly and effectively communicated, but the index in itself is shown to be inadequate in methodological rigour in its handling of indicator data, lacking analytical power as ecological indicators are given disproportionate attention compared to economic and social indicators, and insufficient in transparency due to unexplained theoretical considerations, rendering the index inappropriate as a basis for policy guidance in Swedish municipalities.

  • 29.
    Jandovský, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Inga miljövinster med ekologisk produktion?: Lägesrapport över den svenska jordbruksdebatten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organic agriculture is financially promoted in Sweden by special environmental support and as consumers we are all encouraged to buy organic food. At the same time scholars at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences claim that organic farming does not provide any environmental benefits. The main criticism is that organic farming has lower yields than conventional, which means that more land is needed to produce the same amount of food as in conventional farming, leading to deforestation and loss of biodiversity. As for climate change, the critics claim that the significantly higher productivity in conventional crop production compared to organic, releases surplus land, which could be used for bio-fuel production and thereby replace the fossil fuels. The critics also claim that organic farming causes higher nutrient leaching than conventional. Scholars who advocate organic farming fight back against the criticisms and claim; that organic farming benefits biodiversity, as organic farms have on average 30% higher species richness than conventional farms, that conventional farming due to fertilizer use causes higher green house gas emissions than organic, and that the conventional farming causes higher nutrient losses than the organic one from a system perspective. The purpose of this essay is to present and analyze arguments of both sides of the Swedish agricultural debate and try to find answers to how scholars can have such widely differing views about which farming-system is preferable. At first glance, it may seem as if scholars totally disagree on the issues regarding scientific facts. This essay however, suggests that this is not the case at all. On the contrary, scholars agree on quite a lot when it comes to facts. The reasons for disagreement appear to be about much more than just a scientific controversy. My explanation to how they can have such different views is that agriculture, to a large extent, is a social and political issue, which means that scholars' values and view of nature also play a crucial role in their overall perception.

  • 30.
    Jansson, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    An atomic adventure: A case study of the history of the Swedish nuclear policy using the theories of historical institutionalism and advocacy coalition framework2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of the first 35 years, 1945 to 1980, of the Swedish nuclear institution. The purpose is to discover which actors that have shaped the Swedish nuclear institution. By using the theories of historical institutionalism and advocacy coalition framework I have analyzed these 35 years in three separate parts. Historical institutionalism puts emphasis on the creation of an institution, and so have I. The creation phase goes from 1945 to 1972. The following two parts are critical junctures that spans the years 1973-1978 and 1978-1980. The first critical juncture deals with the Centre Party's reversal in their opinion on nuclear power, the 1976 election and the outcome of that election. The third juncture starts with the Harrisburg accident and ends after the 1980 referendum. Using the advocacy coalition framework to analyze the actions or actors and coalitions during these three phases, I have come to the conclusion that the industry actors, those that have built the reactors, have been the most successful in pushing their coalition's agendas, over the years. Their influence was considerable during the years of institutional creation, while the coalitions that opposed nuclear power were quite weak during this time frame, which is consistent with historical institutionalism's focus on the creation, and path dependence.

  • 31.
    Jansson, Matilda
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Miljömärkning av hotell: En studie av miljömässiga och ekonomiska effekter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är turismen en av världens största näringar och den förväntas växa ytterligare framöver. Turismen bidrar på många sätt till den ekonomiska utvecklingen världen över men effekterna av tillväxten kan även få förödande konsekvenser för miljön. En ökad miljömedvetenhet inom turismbranschen har på senare tid resulterat i olika miljöledningssystem och miljömärkningar. En miljömärkning är Svanen som bildades som ett svar på den ökade miljömedvetenheten i samhället. År 1988 beslöt sig det Nordiska Ministerrådet att utreda möjligheterna att införa en frivillig nordisk miljömärkning. Svanens kriterier för miljömärkning av hotell blev klara år 1999 och det första Svanenmärkta hotellet öppnades i Sverige. Idag finns det över 250 Svanenmärkta hotell i Sverige.

    I uppsatsen undersöks huruvida en Svanenmärkning av ett hotell resulterar i positiva miljömässiga och ekonomiska effekter. Uppsatsen undersöker även varför hotellen har valt att miljömärka sig, vad de anser sig fått ut av miljömärkningen och vilka möjligheter och svårigheter miljömärkningen har bidragit med. Studien är avgränsad till Stockholmsområdet och behandlar tio hotell med Svanenmärkningen.

    Det finns flera anledningar varför ett hotell väljer att miljömärka sig men de flesta grundar sig i den ökande efterfrågan från samhället som avser att företag måste ta mer ansvar för miljön. Miljöarbete på ett hotell handlar ofta om att minska vatten-, energi-, och materialförbrukningen. I studien visar sig dessa vara en stor drivkraft bakom en miljömärkning då minskningen ofta leder till ekonomiska besparingar. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) är ett begrepp som fått genomslag de senaste åren och innebär att företag på en frivillig grund integrerar social och miljömässig hänsyn i sin verksamhet, utöver vad lagen kräver. I studien visar det sig att hotell som aktivt arbetar med CSR-frågor och integrerar dessa i sin verksamhet stärker relationen mellan anställda och ägare, och inte minst kunder, vilket i sin tur kan leda till en ökad lönsamhet och tillväxt.

  • 32.
    Jernberg, Kersti
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Träd och buskar i kantzoner: en undersökning av kanteffekter i några av östersjöregionens skogar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Around the world, forests are generally being fragmented and as plant populations decline in both sizeand number of individuals, the genetic variation will also decrease whitch in the end leads to totalextinction of the plant. In this paper, I wanted to investigate what specific species of trees and shrubsyou usually find in the edge and core habitats in some of the forests in the Baltic Sea region. I alsowanted to identify the edge effects and their sources and finally compare the results between thedifferent regions.The data sources used are derived from the ongoining research project Landscape structures, patterns ofbiodiversity and conservation strategies in the Baltic Sea region by Kari Lehtilä, Patrik Dinnétz ochTiina Vinter who have made a record of all herbaceous plant species in four randomly chosen forestregions situated around the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Skåne, Södermanland and Germany. I made statisticalanalyses, using the computer program R, concerning the distribution of species in the edge habitats ofthe forests as well as in the core habitats. I performed generalized linear models and then variationanalyses with the factors light and biomass in order to investigate wether edge effects might appear dueto these factors. I also used the ecological characteristics – Ellenberg indicators – light, soil pH andnitrogen performing linear regression models. I then compared the results – within the regions but alsobetween them.As the results showed great variancy both within the regions and between them no general explanationto the edge effects could be affirmed. The Ellenberg analyses showed no difference between the species,i. e. the ecological characteristics could not explain why some species were associated to edge habitatsand some were not. All four regions had in common that the greatest biodiversity were to be found inthe edge habitats, which is characteristical for a habitat in an early successional state. Due to the thefeatures of the forests, the specific species that received the label ”edge species” or ”core species” werenot always mutual in all regions. For example Quercus robur turned out to be a typical forest species inGermany while in Estonia it was strongly associated to edge habitats and in this investigation one mightdiscuss later states of successions in Germany rather than stronger edge effects in Estonia.

  • 33.
    Johansson, Jerker
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Proactivity and sustainable transition at the fish counter?: A study about ecological sustainability regarding fish at four ICA Kvantum supermarkets within the Stockholm region2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fish and shellfish are important sources of protein for the world population. Nearly 50 percent of fish and shellfish products originate from aquaculture, and the rest comes from traditional fishing. The marine stocks are under threat from unsustainable fishing practices. Together with fishing, aquaculture constitutes extra stress on the marine stocks and ecosystems. Aquaculture also causes other environmental side effects. International trade rules do not sufficiently take care of the ecological problems. Voluntary initiatives, like ecolabels, are one way of dealing with the problems. This thesis does an attempt to, from an environmental science perspective, analyze how the fish counters at four ICA Kvantum stores in the Stockholm region work with ecological sustainability issues with regards to fish and shellfish. The overall purpose is to examine the shops’ historical, current and potential future work and to analyze if the work is conducted in a proactive, reactive or in a passive way. The main findings include that the knowledge, sustainability statuses, responsiveness, and changes in time, and the intentions or plans for the future differed a lot between the different shops. Furthermore, many of the investigated potential problem areas seemed to constitute problems in practice. Additionally, it seemed like additional pressure may be needed if the aggregated ecological status should be raised. The research method consisted of case studies with semistructured qualitative interviews and analysis of corporate documents, and a minor quantitative investigation of the frozen assortment at the stores.

  • 34.
    Jöngren, Therese
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    En studie om förutsättningarna att certifiera sig enligt ISO 14001 är desamma för stora och små företag2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the environmental awarenesshas increasedin recent decadessohas the society’s demand forenvironmentalresponsible companies(Ammenberg, 2004).One way for companies to take responsibility and work with environmental issues is to implement anenvironmental management system(EMS). EMSserves as a tool for companies to systematically work with environmental issues and develop the company's environmental efforts. ISO 14001 is theEMSaccording to whichthat the majority of companies today choose to get certified(Brorson & Almgren, 2007). The introduction and operation of the ISO 14001 requires significant financial and human resources and it can therefore be questioned whether the environmental managementsystem is adaptable forall companysizes.The purpose of this studyis to examine whether EMScan provide environmental and economic benefits for companies of all sizes and ifthe conditions to get certifiedaccordingto ISO 14001 is the same for large and smallcompanies.A literature study was made to collect information on company'simplementation of ISO 14001. Furthermore, as a complementto the literature study,an empirical investigationincluding e-mail correspondence with four consulting companies thatoffer services for companies that want to get certifiedaccordingto ISO 14001was made. The result of the study showsthat there are different conditions for large and small companies to get certified to ISO 14001, and these differencesis mainly because large companies have morefinancial and human resources.There are disagreementsin the literature whether ISO 14001 is designed for both large and small companies, where critics argue that the EMS primarily are adapted for large companies, and then transferred to small companies.The more positive arguments to ISO 14001 arethat the EMS is flexible and therefore adaptable, in similarity with the arguments put forward by the informants.Despite the factthat all of the informants replied that ISO 14001 is designed for both large and small companies, two of them also claimthat there are some difficulties for small companieswhen implementing and working with the EMS.

  • 35.
    Karlsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Beaktande av hälsorisker från luftföroreningar vid lokalisering av nya bostäder i Stockholm: En fallstudie av fem projekt intill Essingeleden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The numbers of people that are living in cities are expanding. That means an arising competition of the ground surface. To create enough homes areas that earlier was filled with natural green spaces are sometimes becoming mobilized. Green space’s that seems to clean the air becomes rarer. This study is based on the city of Stockholm, that is planned to expand more towards the central parts of the city. The city air is as in many other cities polluted and citizens are exposed to health risks. 

    This is a case study that examines how air pollution is being noticed in new residential projects. Five projects located close to a heavy traffic road have been chosen. Documents have been surveyed and relevant stakeholders have been interviewed in reason to find out how air quality is being observed. The different concerns regarding air quality has lead to decisions that environmental impact assessment (EIA) has being required in some cases, but not in others. Thus the levels of air quality or traffic density have approximately been the same or sometimes even higher in the cases that mentioned air quality least. This case study highlights the varied mention about air pollution and thereby the risks for human health in the studied projects.

  • 36.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Environmentally friendly agriculture in Tanzania: A case study of a farm in Himiti village, Babati2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Total agriculture area has during the last decades been reduced because of urbanization, land deterioration, and inputs of chemicals. Today many farmers produce monocultures and the agricultural production system has been reaching far away from a natural system. Attention is now needed to establish and minimize environmental impacts through changes towards a more environmentally friendly agriculture, worldwide. The aim of this thesis has been to examine an agroforestry system in Babati to see if and how this agricultural system is a sustainable agricultural production system. Through the theoretical framework of this thesis the agroforestry system is compared to what current research frontier present as needed for a more environmentally friendly agriculture, with the main importance to obtain fertile soils.The case study were made through semi-structural interviews and observation between February and March 2016 and showed that the agroforestry system examined met many of the needs presented for a sustainable agriculture, through no tillage, low-input of pesticides and no fertilizers, and by having a diverse system with crops and trees supporting healthy soils.

  • 37.
    Karlén, AnnSofie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Giftpåverkan av kolloidalt silver på Blåstång Fucus vesiclosus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Silver is commonly used in clothes, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products as well as water refinement products these days. With the increased usage of silver there is an increased risk that the amount of silver in nature raises and that it affects ecosystems. Aquatic ecosystems have shown to be sensitive to the toxic effects of the silver. The bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) is one of the most important species in the Baltic Sea and is of major importance for the survival of other species. The purpose of the study is to increase the knowledge of colloidal silver toxic effects on the bladderwrack. This study measures the stress level and leakage of pigment of the bladderwrack which has been exposed to different levels of colloidal silver. The study was conducted at Askö laboratory during the period 19/4 to 25/4 -2017. The results show that colloidal silver has a significant stressful effect on bladderwrack, especially at the higher levels. During a period of three days, significant values of the higher concentration, was found over three consecutive measurement events. Thereafter the bladderwrack recovers. A second study of two and a half days shows two significant values in succession, with a subsequent weak rejuvenation at higher levels. The study also shows that the stress level varies over time. Measures on the water that the bladderwrak laid in during the stress measurements showed that the bladderwrack released more dye, the higher the concentration of colloidal silver to which they were exposed. Despite the low sample size, the bladderwrack shows signs of stress but after multiple test corrections the values ​​were not significant. The Baltic Sea has aggravating factors such as slow water exchange, low salinity and a lot of pollution. Resistance is low. The bladderwrack is a structurally important species in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. If larger colloidal silver is released due to increased use, there is a risk that the bladderwrack may be stressed.

  • 38.
    Kolari, Sandra
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Tolkacheva, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Resor och miljö: En resvane-undersökning om miljömedvetenhet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will see whether the factors of climate, image, price and transport affect the population of environmental awareness when traveling.

  • 39.
    Larsson, Kiara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Barriers to Access to Antiretroviral Treatment in Babati, Tanzania2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region in the world most severely affected by HIV, and Tanzania is among the most severely affected countries in the region. The introduction of antiretroviral treatment has offered hope to people living with HIV/AIDS, improving their quality of life significantly. Still, there are individuals living with HIV who either lack access to ART, or choose not to make use of the available treatments. The purpose of this thesis is to identify underlying factors perceived as barriers for HIV- positive individuals to initiate and maintain Antiretroviral treatment in Babati District, Tanzania. Twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out between the 15th of February and 6th of March 2016. The interviews were conducted with ART-patients, health workers and members of the community. An analysis was made within a theoretical framework based upon Goffman's notion of stigma and the Initial Behavioral Model by Andersen. The following obstacles to access to ART were indicated by the findings: HIV/AIDS related stigma issues, discrimination, economic barriers, ignorance due to lack of education, counseling on HIV treatment, and beliefs that HIV can be cured by traditional healers. 

  • 40.
    Ljungberg, Stina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Drivkrafter och hinder ur ett multifunktionellt perspektiv: Förutsättningar och utvecklingsområden för produktion av biobränsle från våtmarker2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden have already reached several of their goals for energy consumption, but the overall goal to become a fossil free society can still be seen as a driving force to keep developing renewable fuels. There is financial support for wetland construction, reduce impact on the climate, improve the natural environment, for developing new techniques and for biomass fuel plants. Still, cultivation of wetland crops for energy extraction are not yet well established on the energy market. After interviews with actors interested and knowledgeable in this field, this study presents driving forces and barriers affecting the development of this energy source. Driving forces comes from the ambition to move away from fossil fuels, decrease emissions of nutrients, make room for biodiversity, and provide services for the society while helping to reach climate and environmental goals. The barriers affecting this development is that special machines might be needed for handling of the crops and also to harvest the sensitive wetlands while large areas would be needed to increase profitability. The financial support available is not enough to cover the costs for production. Also, the prices on electricity and fossil fuels are low, which lowers the profitability for this type of energy source. Bioenergy producers have not yet found an effective way to extract energy from the crops. All of this makes the demand for energy crops from wetlands small. Despite this, wetlands provide several important ecosystem services and it is therefore recommended to use the management philosophy of multiple-use. With a multifunctional view of wetlands, the value of its ecosystem services can be added to the calculations of energy production and increase its role in reaching several national climate and environmental goals.

  • 41.
    Lublinn, Sandra
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Modeintresserad och miljömedveten - en möjlig kombination?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption is something we do every day which we cannot get away from. New opportunities today, whether it is a higher income or a higher supply on the market, enable the creation of new desires and that the new consumption after a while feels necessary. Today we consume more products than ever before. But the consumption of both products and services affect the environment during their whole life cycle, from production to waste.

    Consuming fashion is an example of consumption where desires are expressed. Fashion which is often expressed through clothes stimulates a longing for consumption, and with fashion changing so fast it is hard to keep track of the whole production and how the environment is affected. If consuming fashion has negative effects on the environment the question is whether it is possible to consume fashion in a more sustainable manner.

    The purpose of this essay is to examine if it is possible to combine a fashion interest with an environmental awareness. Some of the matters examined are whether fashion can be consumed in a sustainable way or not, and what opportunities and challenges there are with combining fashion with an awareness of the environment. These questions are answered with the help of a theoretical literature study. Theories about consumption and behaviours are being used, and to combine fashion with an environmental awareness, consumption patterns have to change. Alternatives to conventional clothing must also be found on the market. If more choices are provided on the market, the individual can find alternatives through which she/he can unite a fashion interest with an awareness of the environment, but that cannot be seen as the only solution. This paper also analyzes whether practical examples, such as labelling and second hand, can contribute towards combining environment and fashion. 

  • 42.
    Millegård, Markus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Mercury concentration in Baltic herring, Clupea harengus, coupled to abiotic environmental factors: A study using monitoring data2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies on the relationship between mercury concentration in fish – or alternatively bioavailability of mercury in aquatic systems – and different abiotic oceanographic factors such as water temperature, pH and salinity, have shown that such associations often exist. The results are not always consistent between studies, however. The aim of this study is to investi­gate if this type of relationships can be established in Baltic herring, Clupea harengus, with the use of temporal monitoring data from the northern Bothnian Bay (northern Sweden), compiled within Swedish monitoring programmes. The abiotic factors being assessed in this study are water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH and measurements of nutrient content in the water; phosphate, total phosphorus and total nitrogen. Relationships between these parameters and mercury concentration in herring were investi­gated using multiple linear regression. Generally however, relationships were absent, and only one significant association was found, a positive relationship between total phosphorus in water and herring mercury load. Difficulty to reveal relationships in the presence of confoun­ding factors, which cannot be controlled for when using monitoring data from the field, is suggested as one reason for the absence of such relationships. Furthermore, the somewhat incomplete monitoring data of abiotic factors likely made it hard to detect any relationships.

  • 43.
    Mpoyi, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Regeringens miljösatsningar och deras förhållande till en hållbar livsstil hos det svenska folket: En studie av biståndssatsningars påverkan på hållbar livsstil i givarlandet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish government aid is divided into three main themes: democracy and human rights, the environment and climate, and gender equality and women's role in development. These three themes in aid are considered by the government to be vital in order to fight poverty and create fair and sustainable development. This study will examine two of the four focus areas designated under the theme of "environment and climate". The study observes the relationship between projects in energy and water and how it promotes a sustainable lifestyle. A survey on environmental habits will be conducted. The purpose of the study is to see if international aid projects funded by the Swedish government are able to promote a sustainable lifestyle in the Swedish population. The study has revealed the following: there is a lack of knowledge among the respondents of how the government conducts its environmental efforts; there is an interest in the environment and environmental issues among the respondents; the respondents consider environmental issues important. The investigation has also revealed that water projects have a greater tendency to promote sustainable lifestyles among the respondents because it had the greatest degree of influence on individuals’ actions. However, the investigation also showed that the action readiness for environmental behavior is generally low but that development aid for water and electricity can promote a sustainable lifestyle in the donor country in conjunction with other factors. 

  • 44.
    Muntrakis, Emelie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Impacts of large scale sugar investments on local livelihoods seen through the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach: A case study on a multinational sugar company’s presence in Manhiça, Mozambique2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Establishment of big companies in rural areas is something that is getting more and more common as the phenomenon of land acquisition is growing. This study is based on a case study in Manhiça where a big scale multinational sugar company, consisting of a sugar factory and sugarcane plantations, has been present for almost 20 years. The theoretical framework is based on the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) that is made into a method by taking dimensions from the theory and converting them into analytical tools. The aim is to identify and analyse the impacts that the company’s activities have on longer term on the capital basis of the various groups with which the company relates. Using the perspective of SLA helps identify the wide range of impacts – direct and indirect, positive and negative – that matter to local people. The study is qualitative and based on semi-structured interviews made with different groups of outgrower farmers and employees as well as representatives for the company and the municipality. The results are, in accordance with the principles underlying the SLA, focusing on the perceptions of people and the dynamic nature of livelihoods. A pilot study is used to indicate which impacts that are a result of the company’s presence and which only a result of switching to cash crops. The study shows that different groups are affected different from the interactions with the company. People with already weak livelihoods are benefited least since their access to different capital assets decrease.

  • 45.
    Nordin, Bodil
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    NGO-state cooperation in the Republic of Moldova: A study of the cooperation between environmental NGOs and the Moldovan state2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Non-governmental organisations (NGO) have been recognised as important actors when it comes to achieving a sustainable development. Cooperation between the state and NGOs is desirable and this thesis is a contribution to the knowledge about the cooperation between NGOs and the state. The objective is to provide a deeper understanding of the cooperation between environmental NGOs and the Moldovan state. The environmental NGOs that are chosen are based in Chisinau and have worked with waste management and recycling. Further the thesis also aims to suggest factors that can affect the nature of the relationship     between the chosen actors. To achieve this I carried out a case study of four environmental NGOs that are based in Chisinau. A representative from each NGO was interviewed about the organisation and its relationship to the state. Theories about clientelism and synergy were then used to analyse the results. I have come to the conclusion that there is a positive attitude towards cooperation with the state but at the same time the NGOs strive to maintain their independence from the state. In addition to this there are certain factors such as trust, availability of resources, and the characteristics of the NGOs can influence the nature of the relationship. This study is a contribution to the knowledge regarding NGO-state relationships and can be used as a base for further studies on this subject. This subject is important to study as NGOs have been identified as important actors in achieving a sustainable development and governments are encouraged to cooperate with them. 

  • 46.
    Olsson, Linnea
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Human-elephant conflicts: A qualitative case study of farmers’ attitudes toward elephants in Babati, Tanzania2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that human-wildlife conflicts can reduce farmers’ support for long-term species conservation. The subject of human-elephant conflicts is highly relevant in villages around Babati District in North Central Tanzania because of the closeness to Tarangire National Park. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine local farmers’ attitudes toward elephants and the attitudes’ effects on conservation efforts. Primary data was collected through a qualitative approach of semi-structured interviews with twelve farmers in four villages around Babati, with Wildlife Officer Nashon Macokesha at Babati District Council and with Allan Carlson, Nature Conservation Expert at WWF. A thematic analysis was done to make comparisons between the answers from farmers, Macokesha and Carlson. The Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm theory were also used to analyze the underlying factors of the farmers’ attitudes.

     

    The results of this study show that around half of the farmers have positive attitudes toward elephants, while the other half think negatively of them. Elephants were identified as the most problematic species and crop-raiding as the most problematic type of human-elephant conflict. The problems that farmers experience do to crop-raiding and other types of human-elephant conflicts include the direct effects of lost livelihood and income and indirect effects like health impacts and security issues. The result also indicates that factors affecting farmers’ attitudes toward elephants include: 1) the proportion of available land affected by elephants, 2) the closeness of farmers’ fields to Tarangire National Park, 3) the lack of compensation, 4) the ability to affect the decision-making concerning the human-elephant conflicts and 5) the information about and knowledge of elephants and their importance. The underlying cause of the human-elephant conflicts is identified to be the spatial overlap of the two species. To prevent human-elephant encounters in the first place, thereby reducing the risk of human-elephants conflicts, better land use planning can be used to avoid settlement and cultivation close to protected areas. Buffer zones can be established around national parks and reserves to reduce the overlap between humans and wildlife. Mitigation through preventive and deterrent methods like lighting fires, making noises, using chili-dung or chili-grease to scare elephants off farmers’ fields can also be used. Another alternative is to switch from growing high-risk crops that elephants prefer to crops like chili or sesame which rarely gets eaten by elephants.

  • 47.
    Perunicic, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dånvikens algblomning och dess sociala konsekvenser för fastighetsägare i Sjöudden/Gråstena i Salems kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recreational loss due to algal blooms is large even though recreation is important for human health and social cohesion. This study examines the social consequences of the autumn bloom in the lake Dånviken, Sweden, for property owners in close proximity to the lake and how future algal blooms can be prevented. Through sewerage analysis, survey, interview and conflict analysis, one can see that recreational opportunities have been threatened by the bloom through consequences such as bad odors and ruined beaches. Reduced recreation reduces social cohesion among residents as the bloom affected the social hotspots with connection to Dånviken negatively. With the help of conflict theory, we see the existence of different values ​​and uneven distribution of the power property owners have regarding the impact on Dånviken, which means increased risk of conflict in conjunction with algal blooms. The sewage situation looks better today compared to 2006 but still contributes to eutrophication through nutritional emissions. Since 2006, 54.5 % of the properties concerned have fixed their sewerage and the proportion of real estate’s connected to a sewer system has increased by 19.6 %, where the number of mini-treatment plant and soil- and infiltration beds has more than doubled. In order to prevent future blooms in Dånviken, the municipality must continue to demand better sewage and supervision, the water and sewage network also needs to be expanded among other measures. Continued studies in the area are important in order to better understand the social consequences of threatened recreational opportunities due to algal blooms.

  • 48.
    Reisner, Gunilla
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Conflicting Environmental Management Tools: Grazing of Semi-natural Grasslands vs. Wetland Conservation2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study explores the possibility of conflicts between conservation of wetlands and semi-natural grasslands in the county of Stockholm. Both habitats are important to protect from a biodiversity perspective. The species rich semi-natural grasslands have been created by agricultural practices like grazing and mowing. At the same time, wetlands have diminished due to earlier drainage in order to increase the area of arable land. Both habitats are incorporated in the Swedish Environmental Objectives and are parts of the EU’s Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES), where farmers get financial support to maintain or restore valuable habitats.

    Wetland conservation/restoration often requires raised water tables, but also maintenance with cattle grazing in certain areas. On the other hand, raised water tables can act as hinder for grazing animals and lead to conflict situations. Using a mixed method approach, this study scrutinized if the use of different management tools can result in conflicts between actors and objectives. The study is based on a literature review, interviews and the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Institutionalism and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework are used to analyze and evaluate the situation in the county of Stockholm.

    The quantitative results reveal that 12,8 % of all semi-natural grasslands of high biological value intersects with wetlands. However, these areas are maintained with environmental support to a larger extent than semi-natural grasslands outside wetlands. This indicates there is no conflict between wetland and semi-natural grassland conservation, a perception shared by authorities. From farmers’ perspective the situation is described differently, rule compliance for environmental support is hard to obtain specifically in wet areas. Increased dialogue between authorities and farmers rather than harsh inspections would be preferable as the county of Stockholm needs more farmers and grazing cattle to maintain biologically important habitats.

    Grazing in wetlands is needed from a biodiversity perspective but can at the same time disturb the wetlands functioning of nutrient reduction. There is a risk of authorities prioritizing water quality in front of biodiversity in conflicting situations. Water, as a common-pool recourse, is surrounded by stricter regulation and also easier to monitor.

  • 49.
    Rosenberg, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hand Hygiene Barriers faced byHealth Care Workers in The Gambia:: A Health Belief Model Approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health care associated infections cause major challenges to the provision of health care. This isdue to the burden placed on individuals, their families, and health services. Hand hygiene actions are cost effective measures towards reducing the spread of health care associated infections and have proven very effective in preventing microbial transmission during patient care. It has beenproven that health care workers hands are the main routes of transmission of health care associated infections. Despite this, hand hygiene is still frequently overlooked by health careworkers especially in settings with limited resources. This paper therefore explores hand hygieneknowledge and behaviours of public and private health care workers in The Gambia with focuson the health belief model. The required information has been gathered from 4 public and 2 private health care facilities through the use of a questionnaire based on the WHO evaluation toolkit. Hand hygiene knowledge of health care workers corresponded with their hand hygiene behaviour. Inadequate hand hygiene performance was noted in many health care workers as wellas limited availability of hand hygiene resources from health care facilities. Private health care facilities provided better hand hygiene opportunities for their health care workers yet neither private nor public health care facilities offered adequate hand hygiene training and feedback on hand hygiene performances to their health care workers.

  • 50.
    Rosenberg, Anna Charlotta
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Overlooking Girls’ Wellbeing: The opportunity cost of education encountered by menstruating schoolgirls in Sub Saharan Africa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Educating girls is advantageous for future livelihood security and socio economic development. Menstruating schoolgirls especially need to experience improved menstrual hygiene management (MHM) within schools in order to obtain quality education towards securing future as well as present wellbeing. This paper explores how menstruating schoolgirls’ opportunities are affected by insufficient water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities in schools within Sub-Saharan Africa. The required information has been gathered through a qualitative research method using scientifically based material on the situation of MHM in Sub-Saharan African schools as well as semi-structured questionnaires alongside my personal recollection of MHM. Focus has been given to the capabilities of menstruating schoolgirls under existing WASH facilities in schools analysed through the Capability Approach. Effects of poor MHM in schools are known to cause discomfort and poor constructive participation during lessons as well as decreased school attendance. A gender-based approach has also been examined which presents most schools as non-conducive towards girl’s education promotion.

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