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  • 1.
    Alzhanova-Ericsson, Alla T.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Bergman, Christina
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lecture attendance is a pivotal factor for improving prospective teachers’ academic performance in Teaching and Learning Mathematics2017In: Journal of Further and Higher Education, ISSN 0309-877X, E-ISSN 0013-1326, Vol. 41, no 1, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The value and importance of lectures in higher education is part of a modern education discourse worldwide. This study aims to estimate the importance of lectures for prospective teachers of kindergarten, preschool and early primary school. We analysed academic achievements of prospective teachers who had either mandatorily or voluntarily attended lectures in the subject of teaching and learning mathematics. Students’ examination grades in a maths course with mandatory or voluntary lecture attendance were analysed with a logistic model testing the association between lecture attendance requirement and grades. We show that mandatory lecture attendance (1) more than double the odds of students receiving a pass grade when their situated and tacit knowledge was examined and (2) quadrupled the odds of students achieving the highest grade (pass with distinction) when both their understanding of elementary mathematics and their situated and tacit knowledge of teaching and learning mathematics were examined. Our study provides evidence for a significant positive role of lecture attendance for students acquiring skills in Teaching and Learning Mathematics. While attending lectures students receive situated tacit knowledge of the subject which is otherwise difficult, if not impossible, for them to obtain in a different way. The observed improvement may have an additional positive effect in being a step towards overcoming a maths anxiety, which is otherwise relatively common among prospective teachers.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quarternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quarternary Geology.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saving the Baltic Sea, the Inland Waters of Its Drainage Basin, or Both? Spatial Perspectives on Reducing P-Loads in Eastern Sweden2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 7, 914-925 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Business as un-usual through dislocatory moments – change for sustainability and scope for subjectivity in classroom practice2017In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes a contribution to the debate that has been described as a tension between instrumental and emancipatory educational objectives in environment and sustainability education. The contribution involves a methodological approach (introd-) using the concept ‘dislocatory moments’, to identify and analyse moments in classroom practice that address educational objectives relating to ‘change for sustainability’ and ‘thinking and acting independently’. A case of business education, when ‘sustainable development’ is integrated in a series of lessons, is used to exemplify the approach involving analysis of the emergence and closure of a dislocatory moment and the change of logics that occur. The illustrative case shows how room for subjectivity and change can be intertwined in educational practice. It is suggested that the methodological approach could be used in empirical research of classroom practice to further knowledge about the kind of situations that contribute to ‘business as un-usual’ without compromising emancipatory education ideals.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro Universitet.
    Logics of business education for sustainability2016In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 22, no 4, 463-479 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores various kinds of logics of ‘business education for sustainability’and how these ‘logics’ position the subject business person, based on eight teachers’ reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers’ reasoning. The analysis takes its starting point in different approaches to how a business ought to or could take responsibility for sustainable development. Different approaches to business ethical responsibilities, in combination with assumptions about how educational content is legitimised and presupposed purposes of education, are used to construct logics of business education for sustainability. In the paper, the results of this analysis are presented as: the logic of profit-, social- or radical-oriented business education. Our results also show how the different logics position the subject business person differently, as one who adapts to, adds or creates ethical values. The results are first discussed in terms of how environmental and social challenges could be dealt with in the future and secondly, considering the risk of de-subjectification with regard to profit-oriented business education, the implications this may have for the educational quality itself.

  • 5.
    Andrén, Elinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Syrefria bottnar - orsakade av klimat, människa eller både och?2014In: Havsutsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, 12-14 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Andrén, Elinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Klimaschewski, Andrea
    Queen's University Belfast, UK.
    Self, Angela E.
    The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
    St. Amour, Natalie
    University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Andreev, Andrei A.
    University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Bennett, Keith D.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia / Uppsala University.
    Conley, Daniel J.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Edwards, Thomas W.D.
    University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Solovieva, Nadia
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia / University College London, UK.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Holocene climate and environmental change in north-eastern Kamchatka (Russian Far East), inferred from a multi-proxy study of lake sediments2015In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, 41-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sediment record from a small lake in the north-eastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula has been investigated in a multi-proxy study to gain knowledge of Holocene climatic and environmental change. Pollen, diatoms, chironomids and selected geochemical parameters were analysed and the sediment record was dated with radiocarbon. The study shows Holocene changes in the terrestrial vegetation as well as responses of the lake ecosystem to catchment maturity and multiple stressors, such as climate change and volcanic eruptions. Climate change is the major driving force resulting in the recorded environmental changes in the lake, although recurrent tephra deposition events also contributed. The sediment record has an age at the base of about 10,000 cal yrs BP, and during the first 400 years the climate was cold and the lake exhibited extensive ice-cover during winter and relatively low primary production. Soils in the catchment were poor with shrub alder and birches dominatingthe vegetation surrounding the lake. At about 9600–8900 cal yrs BP the climate was cold and moist, and strong seasonal wind stress resulted in reduced ice-cover and increased primary production. After ca. 8900 cal yrs BP the forest density increased around the lake, runoff decreased in a generally drier climate resulting in decreasedprimary production in the lake until ca. 7000 cal yrs BP. This generally dry climate was interrupted by a brief climatic perturbation, possibly attributed to the 8.2 ka event, indicating increasingly windy conditions with thick snow cover, reduced ice-cover and slightly elevated primary production in the lake. The diatom record shows maximum thermal stratification at ca. 6300–5800 cal yrs BP and indicates together with the geochemical proxies a dry and slightly warmer climate resulting in a high productive lake. The most remarkably change in the catchment vegetation occurred at ca. 4200 cal yrs BP in the form of a conspicuous increase in Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), indicating a shift to a cooler climate with a thicker and more long-lasting snow cover. Thisvegetational change was accompanied by marked shifts in the diatom and chironomid stratigraphies, which are also indicative of colder climate and more extensive ice-cover.

  • 7.
    Andrén, Elinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Telford, Richard J.
    University of Bergen.
    Jonsson, Per
    Stockholm University.
    Reconstructing the history of eutrophication and quantifying total nitrogen reference conditions in Bothnian Sea coastal waters2016In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reference total nitrogen (TN) concentrations for the Gårdsfjärden estuary in the central Bothnian Sea, which receives discharge from an industrial point-source, have been estimated from diatom assemblages using a transfer function. Sedimentological and diatom evidence imply a good ecological status before 1920 with an assemblage dominated by benthic taxa indicating excellent water transparency, high diatom species richness and less organic sedimentation resulting in homogeneous well oxygenated sediments. A change in the diatom assemblage starts between 1920 and 1935 when the species richness declines and the proportion of planktic taxa increases. Increased organic carbon sedimentation after 1920 led to hypoxic bottom waters, and the preservation of laminae in the sediments. The trend in the reconstructed TN-values agrees with the history of the discharge from the mill, reaching maximum impact during the high discharge between 1945 and 1990. The background condition for TN in Gårdsfjärden is 260-300 μg L-1, reconstructed until 1920.

  • 8.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jørgensen, Bo Barker
    Cotterill, Carol
    Green, Sophie
    IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere2015In: Scientific Drilling, ISSN 1816-8957, E-ISSN 1816-3459, Vol. 20, 1-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north.

     

    The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During theWeichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies.

     

    The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to Holocene brackish mud. High-resolution sampling and analyses of interstitial water chemistry revealed the intensive mineralization and zonation of the predominant biogeochemical processes. Quantification of microbial cells in the sediments yielded some of the highest cell densities yet recorded by scientific drilling.

  • 9.
    Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro univarsitet.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Local land-scape effects on population dynamics of Ixodes ricinus2016In: Geospatial Health, ISSN 1827-1987, Vol. 11, 283-289 p., 487Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Pettersson, John H-O
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway / Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andreassen, Åshild
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Deep sequencing analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus from questing ticks at natural foci reveals similarities between quasispecies pools of the virus2017In: Journal of General Virology, ISSN 0022-1317, E-ISSN 1465-2099, Vol. 98, no 3, 413-421 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10 000 to 15 000 people in Europe and Asia. TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. This adaptation is facilitated by the error-prone nature of the virus's RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which generates genetically distinct virus variants called quasispecies. TBEV shows a focal geographical distribution pattern where each focus represents a TBEV hotspot. Here, we sequenced and characterized two TBEV genomes, JP-296 and JP-554, from questing Ixodes ricinus ticks at a TBEV focus in central Sweden. Phylogenetic analysis showed geographical clustering among the newly sequenced strains and three previously sequenced Scandinavian strains, Toro-2003, Saringe-2009 and Mandal-2009, which originated from the same ancestor. Among these five Scandinavian TBEV strains, only Mandal-2009 showed a large deletion within the 3' non-coding region (NCR), similar to the highly virulent TBEV strain Hypr. Deep sequencing of JP-296, JP-554 and Mandal-2009 revealed significantly high quasispecies diversity for JP-296 and JP-554, with intact 3' NCRs, compared to the low diversity in Mandal-2009, with a truncated 3' NCR. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis showed that 40% of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were common between quasispecies populations of JP-296 and JP-554, indicating a putative mechanism for how TBEV persists and is maintained within its natural foci.

  • 11.
    Berini, Francesca
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano and University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Presti, Ilaria
    Politecnico di Milano and University of Insubria, Varese, Italy / Chemo Biosynthesis, Corana, Pavia, Italy.
    Beltrametti, Fabrizio
    Actygea, Gerenzano, Varese, Italy.
    Pedroli, Marco
    Vårum, Kjell M
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Pollegioni, Loredano
    Politecnico di Milano and University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Marinelli, Flavia
    Politecnico di Milano and University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Production and characterization of a novel antifungal chitinase identified by functional screening of a suppressive-soil metagenome2017In: Microbial Cell Factories, ISSN 1475-2859, E-ISSN 1475-2859, Vol. 16, no 1, 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Through functional screening of a fosmid library, generated from a phytopathogen-suppressive soil metagenome, the novel antifungal chitinase-named Chi18H8 and belonging to family 18 glycosyl hydrolases-was previously discovered. The initial extremely low yield of Chi18H8 recombinant production and purification from Escherichia coli cells (21 μg/g cell) limited its characterization, thus preventing further investigation on its biotechnological potential.

    RESULTS: We report on how we succeeded in producing hundreds of milligrams of pure and biologically active Chi18H8 by developing and scaling up to a high-yielding, 30 L bioreactor process, based on a novel method of mild solubilization of E. coli inclusion bodies in lactic acid aqueous solution, coupled with a single step purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Chi18H8 was characterized as a Ca(2+)-dependent mesophilic chitobiosidase, active on chitin substrates at acidic pHs and possessing interesting features, such as solvent tolerance, long-term stability in acidic environment and antifungal activity against the phytopathogens Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia solani. Additionally, Chi18H8 was found to operate according to a non-processive endomode of action on a water-soluble chitin-like substrate.

    CONCLUSIONS: Expression screening of a metagenomic library may allow access to the functional diversity of uncultivable microbiota and to the discovery of novel enzymes useful for biotechnological applications. A persisting bottleneck, however, is the lack of methods for large scale production of metagenome-sourced enzymes from genes of unknown origin in the commonly used microbial hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a novel metagenome-sourced enzyme produced in hundreds-of-milligram amount by recovering the protein in the biologically active form from recombinant E. coli inclusion bodies.

  • 12.
    Bolinder, K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Humphreys, A. M.
    Stockholm University / Imperial College London, UK.
    Ickert-Bond, S. M.
    University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA / Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
    Han, F.
    China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China.
    Hoorn, C.
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rydin, C.
    Stockholm University.
    Pollen morphology of Ephedra (Gnetales) and its evolutionary implications2016In: Grana, ISSN 0017-3134, E-ISSN 1651-2049, Vol. 55, no 1, 24-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ephedra lineage can be traced at least to the Early Cretaceous. Its characteristically polyplicate pollen is well-represented in the fossil record and is frequently used as an indicator of paleoclimate. However, despite previous efforts, knowledge about variation and evolution of ephedroid pollen traits is poor. Here, we document pollen morphology of nearly all extant species of Ephedra, using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM), and reconstruct ancestral states of key pollen traits. Our results indicate that the ancestral Ephedra pollen type has numerous plicae interspaced by unbranched pseudosulci, while the derived pollen type has branched pseudosulci and (generally) fewer plicae. The derived type is inferred to have evolved independently twice, once along the North American stem branch and once along the Asian stem branch. Pollen of the ancestral type is common in Mesozoic fossil records, especially from the Early Cretaceous, but it is less commonly reported from the Cenozoic. The earliest documentation of the derived pollen type is from the latest Cretaceous, after which it increases strongly in abundance during the Paleogene. The results of the present study have implications for the age of crown group Ephedra as well as for understanding evolution of pollination syndromes in the genus.

  • 13.
    Bonca, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Udovc, Andrej
    University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    A social marketing perspective on road freight transportation of fresh fruits and vegetables: a Slovene case2017In: Ekonomska Istrazivanja, ISSN 1331-677X, E-ISSN 1848-9664, Vol. 30, no 1, 1132-1151 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the large increase in transportation over the last decades and the associated negative impacts upon the environment and society, a more sustainable use of transport is a crucial policy issue. This analysis focuses on road freight transport of selected produce (carrots, cabbage, apples and pears) with the aim to appraise the sustainability of road freight transport of these for the Slovene market. To this end, we take into account self-sufficiency, import and export features, transport needs, produce origin and prices differences between domestic and non-domestic produce. The method used for obtaining transported quantities, exported from and imported to the county, was material flow accounts (MFA). Then we undertook an analysis of sustainability of road transport of produce where we considered the country's transport needs. The study finds that road freight transport for selected produce is not sustainable. Recognising the normative dimensions of sustainability, the role of social marketing in this context is explored and suggestions on how to promote more sustainable transport solutions advanced.

  • 14.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Conflict or convergence?: Products of origin. An analysis of the Swedish case of Baltic Sea fish2013In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. VI, no 3-4, 48-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the contemporary globalization ofthe economy, food markets are shifting toward differentiation of services and products based on theunique qualities and attributes of the products. Aparadigm called the “quality turn” corresponds to the increasing variety of food services. “Alternative foods”,including organic products or products qualified bytheir origin, and new methods of marketing the sefoods (farmer’s markets, local contracts, etc.) are developingthrough the mainstreaming of innovation. Protected designation of origin (PDO) is a certificationscheme that certifies products by their origin, and is one of several important tools to strengthen the competitiveness of rural areas, especially for smallscalefood processing in rural and less-developed areas in Europe. A PDO provides groups of producers with protection against unfair competition for products whose unique sensory characteristics essentially depend on the local geographic and cultural conditions as well as the local know-how of the productionsite. A PDO certification informs consumers that the product quality and its value depend on the geographic origin of the product. Despite the potential value of PDOs for producers, their use is unevenly distributed throughout the EU. The organization of the qualitycertification systems and corresponding legal provisions vary between countries. France, Italy, and Spainare models for the development of the PDO schemeand have more than 800 PDO-certified products. However, countries such as Sweden, Finland, andDenmark have a much smaller number of products that are certified. In Sweden, several products have applied for a PDO, but only one, Kalix Löjrom, has been certified under the scheme. The reason for this failure is mainly that Sweden’s current customs do not correspond to the rules and traditions used to createthe PDO scheme. To increase the likelihood of successfully obtaining PDOs, Sweden should work to reinvent local knowledge and local food and to recover its traditional food culture.

  • 15.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences.
    Kalixlöjom - an institutional analysis of the application and implementation of Sweden's first PDO2013In: Spanish Journal of Rural Development, ISSN 2171-1216, Vol. 4, no 4, 59-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use and implementation of Geographical Indications (GI) is a wellestablished practice in most EU countries. Previous studies show thatthe use of PDOs and PGIs is directly related to previous experiencesas well as the relative importance of the agro-food sector in a country'seconomy. In the case of Sweden, the agro-food sector has beenoriented towards continuous structural rationalization since at least the1930's. However, the transformation pressure exerted by a risingcompetitive level in the market, that emanates both from global aswell as regional European sources led to the adoption of newstrategies. These strategies entail the on-farm elaboration of farmproduce, the diversification of activities as well as the use ofcertification schemes. In the case of Kalixlöjrom, the strategy selectedwas the adoption of a PDO, as a way of entering a valorisation processfor export purposes as well as defending the product against dislojalcompetition of products with less quality. As this is the firstexperience with a PDO in Sweden, the case of Kalixlöjrom caviaroffers a rare opportunity to understand the actual problems inimplementing a policy tool developed by Southern European countriesin a country like Sweden. Thus the article highlights the institutionaland structural shortcomings discovered in this process and offers newknowledge and reflections valuable for the future adaptation andimplementation of previously unknown policy instruments

  • 16.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    Institutionen för rysslandsstudier Uppsala universitet.
    "Rudor finnas öfverflödigt": Fiskdammar vid svenska prästgårdar på 1600- och 1700-talet2013In: Saga och Sed: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs akademiens årsbok, ISSN 0586-5360Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    Institutionen för rysslandsstudier Uppsala universitet.
    Urban Ponds for Breeding Medicinal Leeches (Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758) in Sweden2017In: Meta: Medeltidsarkeologisk tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7903, 63-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leeches and their medicinal applications are well-studied in history. In Scandinavia the use of medicinal leeches for therapy is mentioned already by Olaus Magnus in his Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (1555). Carl Linnaeus named the species Hirudo medicinalis. In the 1760s leeches became widely accepted as a medicament and the demand increased, not only in Sweden but all over Europe. By the 1830s around 50 million leeches were employed in hospitals every year causing a shortage of leeches all over Europe. However, the species is rare in Scandinavia. In Sweden medicinal leeches have been harvested in the southern part of the country. The local occurrence did not cover the large demand and imported leeches had to be used. In the nineteenth century, over-exploitation reduced many local populations and breeding medicinal leeches in ponds became a concern for authorities in many countries. Several farms for breeding leeches in ponds were also founded in rural and urban settings. We know very little about them, but toponyms serve to remind us of such ponds. This article aims to shed some light on the forgotten practice of breeding medicinal leeches in urban ponds in Sweden.

  • 18.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    Institutionen för rysslandsstudier Uppsala universitet.
    Urbana fiskdammar i 1600 och 1700-talets Sverige: strödda notiser om akvakultur i stadsmiljö2014In: RIG: Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0035-5267, E-ISSN 2002-3863, Vol. 97, no 4, 215-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hedenström, Eva
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    How to achieve sustainable procurement for “peripheral” products with significant environmental impacts2015In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 11, no 1, 21-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from previous theoretical and empirical studies on sustainable supply-chain management, we investigate organizational commitment (drivers and motivations) and capabilities (resources, structures, and policy instruments) in sustainable procurement of “noncore” products. By focusing on chemicals in textiles, the article explores the activi-ties of differently sized organizations and discusses the potentials and limitations of sustainable procurement measures. The study is based on a qualitative and comparative approach, with empirical findings from 26 case stud-ies of Swedish public and private procurement organizations. These organizations operate in the sectors of hotels/ conference venues, transport, cinema, interior design, and hospitals/daycare. While this work demonstrates major challenges for buyers to take into account peripheral items in sustainable procurement, it also identifies constructive measures for moving forward. A general sustainability/environmental focus can, as an effect, spill over to areas per-ceived as peripheral. © 2014 Boström et al.

  • 20.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Environmental non-governmental organizations and transnational collaboration: The Baltic Sea and Adriatic-Ionian Sea regions2015In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 24, no 5, 762-787 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGO) have primarily taken place within a nation-state perspective without considering multiple levels of politics and governance. Because environmental problems are usually cross-border phenomena, environmental movements must develop transnational features to play constructive roles in politics and governance. This study contributes to the theorizing and study of transnationalization of ENGOs by illuminating the different regional conditions for this process. The conditions for ENGOs to develop transnational collaboration are explored by comparing ENGOs from six countries in two macro-regions: Sweden, Germany, and Poland in the Baltic Sea region, and Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia in the Adriatic-Ionian Sea region. Grounded in the literatures on social movement theory and ENGO transnationalization, the study identifies how different national, macro-regional, and European institutional structures shape the conditions under which ENGOs develop cross-border collaborations, and demonstrate the importance of long-term and dynamic interplay between processes that occur at the domestic and transnational levels.

  • 21.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Stockholm University.
    Global Multi-Stakeholder Standard Setters: How fragile are they?2013In: Journal of Global Ethics, ISSN 1744-9626, E-ISSN 1744-9634, Vol. 9, no 1, 93-110 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide we see the rise of new non-state, ‘multi-stakeholder’ organizations setting standardsfor socially and environmentally responsible practices. A multi-stakeholder organization builds on the idea of assembling actors from diverse societal spheres into one rule-setting process, thereby combining their resources, competences, and experiences. These processes also allow competing interests to negotiate and deliberate about their different concerns in globalpolitical and ethical matters. This paper analyzes multi-stakeholder dynamics within three global standard setters: the Forest Stewardship Council, the Marine Stewardship Council, andthe work of the International Organization for Standardization on social responsibility (ISO26000). Although the multi-stakeholder organizational form facilitates the establishment oftransnational non-state authority, this very structure could also result in fragility. The key aim of this paper is to elaborate on this fragility with specific focus on how participatoryaspects within a multi-stakeholder context both contribute to and destabilize the authority of the multi-stakeholder organization. The paper contributes theoretically to current discussionsabout transnational governance in the making, and more specifically it adds nuance to thediscussion about the fragility of non-state authority as well as a critical perspective to the literature on multi-stakeholder arrangements.

  • 22.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro Universitet.
    Towards reflexive responsibility in a textile supply chain2017In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Knowledge challenges for responsible supply chain management of chemicals in textiles - as experienced by procuring organisations2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, 130-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great number of chemicals - many of which are hazardous to human health and the environment - are used along the complex supply chains of textiles. These complexities and hazards make knowledge for understanding chemical properties and management practices at multiple nodes central to the responsible management of textile supply chains. This study investigates the knowledge requirements of, and the knowledge strategies used by, textile procuring organisations in response to both external stakeholders and internal pressure. Based on a qualitative study of small and medium-sized Swedish textile procuring organisations, the paper describes these knowledge challenges and analyses how efforts to meet them relate to expressed commitments and capabilities for responsible supply chain management (RSCM), as well as to organisational characteristics (i.e. whether the organisation is private or public, small or large, and whether textiles is a core or peripheral activity). It was found that several textile procuring organisations expressed commitment towards achieving RSCM. However, most organisations felt that they lacked capacity to rise to the challenge. There was a poor state of knowledge regarding many chemical substances and inherent difficulties in gaining knowledge of chemical risks and how to manage these. Moreover, the input of knowledge was limited and based on only a few key sources. Such factors proved to be obstacles for procuring organisations when attempting to facilitate responsible management upstream in complex supply chains.

  • 24.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Swedish Environm Protect Agcy.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tolerance to apical and leaf damage of Raphanus raphanistrum in different competitive regimes2015In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, no 22, 5193-5202 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tolerance to herbivory is an adaptation that promotes regrowth and maintains fitness in plants after herbivore damage. Here, we hypothesized that the effect of competition on tolerance can be different for different genotypes within a species and we tested how tolerance is affected by competitive regime and damage type. We inflicted apical or leaf damage in siblings of 29 families of an annual plant Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae) grown at high or low competition. There was a negative correlation of family tolerance levels between competition treatments: plant families with high tolerance to apical damage in the low competition treatment had low tolerance to apical damage in the high competition treatment and vice versa. We found no costs of tolerance, in terms of a trade-off between tolerance to apical and leaf damage or between tolerance and competitive ability, or an allocation cost in terms of reduced fitness of highly tolerant families in the undamaged state. High tolerance bound to a specific competitive regime may entail a cost in terms of low tolerance if competitive regime changes. This could act as a factor maintaining genetic variation for tolerance.

  • 25.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University.
    Dahlgren, Henrik
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, 1597-1604 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.

  • 26.
    Dick, Jan
    et al.
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, UK.
    Verweij, Peter
    Earth Informatics, Alterra, Wageningen-UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Carmen, Esther
    Earth Informatics, Alterra, Wageningen-UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Rodela, Romina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Andrews, Christopher
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, UK.
    Testing the ecosystem service cascade framework and QUICKScan software tool in the context of land use planning in Glenlivet Estate Scotland2017In: International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, ISSN 2151-3732, E-ISSN 2151-3740, Vol. 13, no 2, 12-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ecosystem services has been extensively studied in recent decades. Most studies have focused on describing the specific aspects such as production, spatial extent, valuation of services and the trade-off between services. Few studies however assess the practitioners? views on the frameworks, models or tools developed. In this paper, we report on a multi-stakeholder workshop where two tools were tested (i) the ecosystem service cascade framework was tested as a means to frame the issues and (ii) a participatory-spatial modelling method, QUICKScan, was tested as an aid to support discussion over natural resource management and planning in a multi-use landscape. A focused group discussion was utilised to determine stakeholders? views of the cascade framework and pre- and post-workshop questionnaires quantified the stakeholders? views of the QUICKScan method. The stakeholders identified both positive and negative aspects of both tools. The diversity of views expressed were associated with (i) the past experience of the individual with the issues discussed, (ii) the technical aspects of the tools i.e. the ability with GIS and (iii) the level of new shared knowledge they reported acquiring on the day which was related to their initial knowledge of the issue and area studied.

  • 27.
    Dreyer, Marion
    et al.
    DIALOGIK Non-Profit Institute for Communication and Cooperation Research, Stuttgart, Germany .
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Participatory Deliberation, Risk Governance and Management of the Marine Region in the European Union2014In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 16, no 4, 497-515 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, marine environmental risks are governed in a complex multi-level system. The role that the marine region could or should play as a level of risk governance has attracted growing attention of late. In this context, reference has been made to the regional sea as one level at which participatory processes in the future governing of European Union's (EU) marine environment and resources are required. The paper unfolds the particular challenges that one faces when trying to implement stakeholder and citizen participatory deliberation at marine region level. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive is highlighted as a key European environmental policy initiative and participatory deliberation at regional sea level is underlined as a requirement for the Directive's successful implementation. The paper's account of participatory deliberation is informed by perspectives of inclusive risk governance and reflexive governance. The discussion of the challenges draws on the distinction between horizontal and vertical risk governance. The paper's main argument is that frequently encountered problems of participatory deliberation are exacerbated when deliberation is to be carried out at the regional sea level, i.e. at a large trans-boundary scale. These problems include the 'inclusivity-effectiveness dilemma', a fragmentation of participation efforts and a loose connection to actual decision-making.

  • 28.
    Espínola, Fernando
    et al.
    Centro Nacional Patagónico, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Dionisi, Hebe M
    Centro Nacional Patagónico, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Borglin, Sharon
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA.
    Brislawn, Colin J
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Mac Cormack, Walter P
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Instituto Antártico Argentino, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Carroll, JoLynn
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lozada, Mariana
    Centro Nacional Patagónico, Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
    Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation Processes2017In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon's index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.

  • 29.
    Franzén, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Factors affecting farmers' willingness to participate in eutrophication mitigation: a case study of preferences for wetland creation in Sweden2016In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 130, 8-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local stakeholder participation in water management is emphasized in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Wetland creation to mitigate nutrient leakage from agriculture is one example where participation of local farmers is needed. In this case study of the Himmerfjärden coastal catchment area, south of Stockholm, Sweden, we assessed both the importance of several demo-graphic factors, and of the main subsidy factors in the present Agri-Environmental Scheme (AES) for their effects on farmers’ willingness to create wetlands on their farms. The farm and farmer characteristics analyzed were age, gender, knowledge of the WFD, education, farm size, land ownership, current measures to reduce nutrient leakage and trust for other actors. The main factors from the AES were defined as five attributes in a discrete choice experiment approach related to the current agri-environmental policy instrument for wetland creation applied in the area. The results showed that approximately 30 % of the farmers were interested in wetland creation at their farms. The most common reason for not wanting to create a wetland was economic cost. Males were significantly more willing than females to create wetlands. Younger farmers were significantly more willing than older. Prior knowledge of the WFD increased willingness almost threefold, and land owners were significantly more willing than leaseholders. The choice experiment showed that higher cost ceiling for subsidies, higher compensation percentage and higher annual subsidies can significantly increase the willingness to create wetlands. However to attract also the remaining 70% of all farmers to join the AES we must look at other options than only using action based AES.

  • 30.
    Franzén, Frida
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Institutional development for stakeholder participation in local water management-An analysis of two Swedish catchments2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 43, 217-227 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) promotes a change of European water governance towards increased stakeholder participation and water management according to river basins. To implement the WFD, new institutional arrangements are needed. In Sweden, water councils have been established on the local level to meet the requirements of the WFD of a broad stakeholder involvement in water management. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge on institutional arrangements for meeting the WFD requirements on stakeholder participation in local water management. A case study of two adjacent catchments in southern Sweden is presented to analyze how institutional legacy affect organizational arrangements and stakeholder participation. Based on literature studies and semi-structure interviews, the case study is analyzed with special emphasis on the scope, the organization and the activities in practical water management in catchments. The result shows different institutional arrangements for water management, despite similarities of the catchments' characteristics and the regulatory framework on national and regional level.The study identifies four important factors regarding institutional arrangements for water councils and local stakeholder participation in water management. Firstly, an organization involving key stakeholders that are committed to the scope and goals of the water council and willing to provide resources for the implementation of the planned activities. Secondly, institutional arrangements that include a willingness for flexibility and awareness of the need to include the most relevant stakeholders. Thirdly, a clear leadership to drive the process to realize the specific goals and assess the outcome. Fourthly, voluntary involvement of farmers to take part in the implementation of the measures and contribute with knowledge and experiences regarding local conditions.

  • 31.
    Fridfeldt, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Rämgård, Margareta
    Malmö högskola.
    Trygger, Sophie
    Stockholms universitet.
    Schaerström, Anders
    Medicinsk geografi på svenska universitet2014In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 72, no 4, 182-187 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sokolov, Tatiana
    Uppsala University.
    Börebäck, Kristina
    Stockholm University .
    van Laerhoven, Frank
    Utrecht University.
    Kokko, Suvi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    We adapt … but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic: Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic2017In: Journal of political ecology, ISSN 1073-0451, E-ISSN 1073-0451, Vol. 24, 667-691 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer herding (RDH) is a livelihood strategy deeply connected to Sami cultural tradition. This article explores the implications of two theoretical and methodological approaches for grasping complex socio-environmental relationships of RDH in Subarctic Sweden. Based on joint fieldwork, two teams – one that aligns itself with political ecology (PE) and the other with social-ecological systems (SES) – compared PE and SES approaches of understanding RDH. Our purpose was twofold: 1) to describe the situation of Sami RDH through the lenses of PE and SES, exploring how the two approaches interpret the same empirical data; 2) to present an analytical comparison of the ontological and epistemological assumptions of this work, also inferring different courses of action to instigate change for the sustainability of RDH. Key informants from four sameby in the Kiruna region expressed strong support for the continuation of RDH as a cultural and

    economic practice. Concerns about the current situation raised by Sami representatives centered on the cumulative negative impacts on RDH from mining, forestry and tourism. PE and SES researchers offered dissimilar interpretations of the key aspects of the RDH socio-economic situation, namely: the nature and scale of RDH systems; the ubiquitous role of conflict; and conceptualizations of responses to changing socio-environmental conditions. Due to these disparities, PE and SES analyses have radically divergent socio-political implications for what ought to be done to redress the current RDH situation.

  • 33.
    Hammarlund, D.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Klimaschewski, A.
    Queen's University, Belfast, UK.
    St. Amour, N. A.
    University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Self, A. E.
    The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, UK .
    Solovieva, N.
    University College London, UK / Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia .
    Andreev, A. A.
    Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia / University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany .
    Barnekow, L.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Edwards, T. W. D.
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada / University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada .
    Late Holocene expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in Kamchatka in response to increased snow cover as inferred from lacustrine oxygen-isotope records2015In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, no SI, 91-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Holocene records of cellulose-inferred lake-water δ18O were produced from two lake-sediment sequences obtained in central and northern Kamchatka, Russian Far East. The sediment records share similar fluctuations in δ18O during the interval of ca. 5000-800calyr BP that correspond (inversely) with changes in K+ content of the GISP2 ice-core record from Greenland, a proxy for the relative strength of the Siberian High, suggesting control by climate-related variability in δ18O of regional precipitation. The dramatic expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in northern and central Kamchatka between ca. 5000 and 4000calyr BP, as inferred from pollen records from the same and neighbouring sites, appears to have occurred at a time of progressively declining δ18O of precipitation. This development is interpreted as reflecting a regional cooling trend accompanied by increasing winter snowfall related to gradual intensification of the Siberian High from ca. 5000 to ca. 3000calyr BP. A thicker and more long-lasting snow cover can be assumed to have favoured P. pumila by providing a competitive advantage over other boreal and subalpine tree and shrub species in the region during the later part of the Holocene. These results, which are the first of their kind from Kamchatka, provide novel insight into the Holocene vegetational and climatic development in easternmost Asia, as well as long-term atmospheric circulation dynamics in Beringia.

  • 34.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The role of horse keeping in transforming peri-urban landscapes: A case study from metropolitan Stockholm, Sweden2017In: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1951, E-ISSN 1502-5292, Vol. 71, no 3, 146-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors analyze sustainable cultural landscapes through the lens of ecosystem services. Their case study focuses on transformation of the peri-urban landscape of the Stockholm region, Sweden. Peri-urban landscapes are characterized by diversified and fragmented land uses that are strongly related to urban lifestyles. The rapidly increasing trend for recreational horse keeping is replacing traditional agriculture. Horse keepers’ and local government perspectives on horse keeping are examined, as well as the related demand for ecosystem services, which affects the landscape. The article is based on government documents, interviews with local government officials, and field visits to 16 horse-keeping facilities in two municipalities. Horse keeping was found important for sustaining cultural ecosystem services related to a rural cultural landscape and for maintaining traditional agriculture that provides provisioning ecosystem services. However, several differences between traditional agriculture and horse keeping that affect the demand for ecosystem services related to land use were found to shift the focus from provisioning services to recreational services. The authors conclude that horse keeping, as an emerging crosscutting issue in peri-urban landscapes, needs new more integrative planning processes that account for the full range of ecosystem services and links between cultural services and ecosystem functioning.

  • 35.
    Hardisty, Dalton S.
    et al.
    University of California-Riverside, Riverside California, USA .
    Riedinger, Natascha
    Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA .
    Planavsky, Noah J.
    Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Asael, Dan
    Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jorgensen, Bo B.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark .
    Lyons, Timothy W.
    University of California-Riverside, Riverside California, USA .
    A Holocene History Of Dynamic Water Column Redox Conditions In The Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea2016In: American Journal of Science, ISSN 0002-9599, E-ISSN 1945-452X, Vol. 316, no 8, 713-745 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern Baltic Sea is the world's largest anthropogenically forced anoxic basin. Using integrated geochemical records collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347 from the deepest and one of the most reducing sub-basins in the Baltic Sea, Landsort Deep, we explore the degree and frequency of natural anoxia through the Baltic Holocene. A marked decrease in carbon-to-sulfur ratios (C/S) from the cores indicate the transition from the Baltic Ice Lake to the current brackish sea, which occurred about 8.5 kyrs B.P. Following this, laminations throughout sediments recording brackish deposition suggest sustained anoxia or extreme low oxygen, while high molybdenum (Mo) concentrations of >100 ppm and iron (Fe) geochemistry suggest water column sulfide accumulation, or euxinia, that persisted beyond seasonal timescales during deposition of two distinct sapropel units. Sedimentary Mo isotope values range from +1.11 to -0.50 permil, which are distinctly fractionated from modern Baltic seawater (+2.26 to -2.67 parts per thousand) and thus indicate that each of the sapropels experienced only weak and/or oscillatory euxinia-in contrast to the more stable euxinic conditions of more restricted basins. A shift in delta Mo-98 starting above the lower sapropel to a distinctly more negative range suggests particularly weak and oscillatory euxinia, with an enhanced contribution of manganese (Mn) redox cycling to Mo deposition relative to the lower portion of the profile. This conclusion is supported by extreme sedimentary Mn enrichments of up to 15 weight percent. We interpret the combined data to indicate episodic but major Baltic inflow events of saline and oxygenated North Sea water into the anoxic Landsort Deep that limited the concentrations and residence time of water column sulfide and caused episodic oxide deposition. Considering the temporal overlap between the most reducing conditions and periods of redox instability, we hypothesize that major Baltic inflows, as is observed today, lead to short-term instability while simultaneously supporting longer-term Baltic anoxia by strengthening the halocline. Ultimately, our results indicate that periods more reducing than the modern Baltic Sea have occurred naturally over the Holocene, but the characteristic dynamic saline inputs have historically prevented the relatively more widespread and stable anoxia observed in other classic restricted basins and will likely continue to do so.

  • 36.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Transnational environmental collective action facing implementation constraints: the case of nutrient leakage in the Baltic Sea Action Plan2017In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 19, no 4, 408-422 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While scholars have showed a long-standing interest for how to design effective environmental treaties and other international agreements, less interest has been paid to implementation phases of these agreements. This article takes the Eutrophication Segment in the Baltic Sea Action Plan as an example of a regional effort to reduce nutrient leakages, where national reporting of adopted strategies has been a key mechanism to improve implementation effectiveness. It is shown that although transnational collective action theory is a powerful tool to analyse underlying drivers and priorities in state implementation policies, a deeper analysis of domestic and external constraints can shed additional light on observed implementation gaps. Varying views among countries on, for example, the role of stakeholder participation, legitimacy and top-down governing versus multi-stakeholder governance approaches may comprise domestic constraints that make effective and efficient implementation problematic. In terms of external constraints, states’ balancing of action plan objectives versus other international commitments, such as other environmental treaties and EU Directives, is shown to potentially reduce implementation efficiency as well.

  • 37.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi, Turku, Finland.
    Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Management in Regional Marine Governance?: The Baltic Sea Context2013In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 15, no 2, 225-245 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, European marine governance seems to be undergoing significantchanges. From having been based largely on scientific expert knowledge, restricted riskassessments and governmental regulation, we are now witnessing a management turntowards holistic perspectives, the inclusion of stakeholders, adaptive governance, and coproductionof knowledge—the so-called ecosystem approach to management (EAM). Byusing the Baltic Sea as an example of these changes, we have taken a closer look at the2007 Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) of the Helsinki Commission and the recent organizationalchanges within the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).Informed by a Reflexive Governance perspective, the primary objective has been toanalyse the extent to which institutional preconditions for using an EAM exist in thesetwo cases. Our results show that even though the BSAP has been designed with anEAM approach as its core philosophy, existing implementation, financing, monitoring,and enforcement structures make it unlikely that actual management modes will changesignificantly in the near feature. Changes in the ICES have occurred as a result of aninternal restructuring process characterized by integrative and learning elements. It hasbeen shown that adopting a broad social science perspective and a reflexive governanceviewpoint can elucidate how factors such as inadequate institutional change, limitedcooperation over sector borders, and adjustment problems caused by path dependencycan threaten the successful turn towards the EAM in marine governance.

  • 38.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Problems and potential solutions to effective communication among stakeholders in the Baltic Sea shipping for reduced air pollution: Outcomes from a survey2013In: Clean Shipping Currents, ISSN 2242-9794, Vol. 2, no 5, -33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a web survey distributed to stakeholders in the Baltic Sea marine sector regarding environmental communication on air pollution from shipping. The survey was carried out in the spring and summer of 2012. Drawing on the literature on risk communication and environmental governance, the main focus was placed on so-called communication barriers, that is, possible hindrances to effective communication among stakeholders on how to reduce air pollution without threatening sector competitiveness. The results show that although there is a dense networking among stakeholders in this sector, there is a demand for improvements in communication in (a) exploratory phases among broad groups of stakeholders and (b) operational phases among selected groups of e.g. business and research teams. To facilitate the emergence of such improved communication, regional organizations such as HELCOM and EU could play important roles. Furthermore, it is shown that there is a perceived need among many stakehold­ers to step up the involvement of certain stakeholders, for example fuel companies, in collabora­tion on how to reduce pollution from shipping in cost-efficient ways. Finally, the results show that although continuous improvements of international regulation is a vital part of the governance of the marine sector, compliance will suffer if operators’ incentives are too strong in favor of not con­tributing to reduced pollution levels. Therefore, there is a strong need for innovative thinking on how to design such incentive schemes, not the least in relation to the continued implementation of Baltic Sea SECA and NECA as well as of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  • 39.
    Hellström, Gustav
    et al.
    SLU, Umeå.
    Prestegaard, Tore
    SLU, Uppsala .
    Dannewitz, Johan
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Sperm from pheromone primed brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) produce more larvae2013In: Fish Physiology & Biochemistry, ISSN 0920-1742, E-ISSN 1573-5168, Vol. 39, no 3, 471-478 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Hyttinen, O.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Virtasalo, J. J.
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Kekäläinen, P.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki, Finland.
    Snowball, I.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Obrochta, S.
    Akita University, Akita City, Japan.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Holocene stratigraphy of the Ångermanälven River estuary, Bothnian Sea2017In: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 37, no 3, 273-288 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the Holocene depositional succession at the IODP Expedition 347 sites M0061 and M0062 in the vicinity of the Ångermanälven River estuary in the Bothnian Sea sector of the Baltic Sea in northern Scandinavia. Site M0061 is located in a coastal offshore setting (87.9 m water depth), whereas site M0062 is fully estuarine (69.3 m water depth). The dataset comprises acoustic profiles and sediment cores collected in 2007 and late 2013 respectively. Three acoustic units (AUs) were recognized. Lowermost AU1 is interpreted as a poorly to discontinuous stratified glaciofluvial deposit, AU2 as a stratified conformable drape of glaciolacustrine origin, and AU3 as a poorly stratified to stratified mud drift. A strong truncating reflector separates AU2 and AU3. Three lithological units (LUs) were defined in the sediment cores. LU1 consists of glaciofluvial sand and silt gradating into LU2, which consists of glaciolacustrine varves. A sharp contact interpreted as a major unconformity separates LU2 from the overlying LU3 (brackish-water mud). In the basal part of LU3, one debrite (site M0061) or two debrites (site M0062) were recognized. Information yielded from sediment physical properties (magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, dry bulk density), geochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon and nitrogen), and grain size support the LU division. The depositional succession was formally subdivided into two alloformations: the Utansjö Alloformation and overlying Hemsön Alloformation; the Utansjö Alloformation was further subdivided into two lithostratigraphic formations: the Storfjärden and Åbordsön formations. The Storfjärden (sandy outwash) and Åbordsön (glaciolacustrine rhythmite) formations represent a glacial retreat systems tract, which started at ca. 10.6 kyr BP. Their deposition was mainly controlled by meltwater from the retreating ice margin, glacio-isostatic land uplift and the regressive (glacial) lake level. The Hemsön Alloformation (organic-rich brackish-water mud) represents a period of forced regression, starting possibly at ca. 9.5 kyr BP. At about 7 kyr BP, brackish water reached the study area as a result of the mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin, but the rapid land uplift soon surpassed the associated (Littorina) transgression. Changed near-bottom current patterns, caused by the establishment of a permanent halocline, and the reduced sediment consistency caused by increased organic deposition resulted in a sharp and erosional base of the brackish-water mud. Estuarine processes and salinity stratification at site M0062 started to play a more important role. This study applies a combined allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic approach over the conventional Baltic Sea stages. This approach makes it more straightforward to study this Baltic Sea deglaciation–postglacial sequence and compare it to other formerly glaciated shallow sea estuaries.

  • 41.
    Högström, J.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Balfors, B.
    KTH.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Planning for sustainability in expansive metropolitan regions: exploring practices and planners’ expectations in Stockholm, Sweden2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, local and regional planning practices are faced with the challenge of managing rapid growth in expansive urban regions. However, spatial planning should also contribute to the fulfilment of formalized sustainability objectives and support sustainable development. This includes addressing cross-cutting sustainability issues that transcend established administrative and territorial boundaries. Thus, the management of sustainability issues requires attention from actors at different levels, and challenges how contemporary planning practices plan for development. Based in the expansive Stockholm region, this study explores the cross-level interaction in spatial planning and decision-making and planning practitioners’ experiences and apprehensions of contemporary municipal planning practices with a focus on statutory plans to achieve sustainability targets and objectives. The results show that municipal planning organizations are under pressure because of rapid urban expansion. It is concluded that the role, format and content of statutory as well as informal planning instruments are decisive for the cross-level interaction between planning levels. Moreover, planning instruments find new trajectories resulting in mismatches in expectations from planners at adjacent planning levels. This influences the interplay and preconditions for achieving national and regional sustainability targets and objectives. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 42.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Peckmann, Jörn
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Tehler, Anders
    wedish Museum of Natural History.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University.
    Bach, Wolfgang
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Behrens, Katharina
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Reitner, Joachim
    Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany.
    Böttcher, Michael E.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Warnemünde, Germany.
    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zygomycetes in Vesicular Basanites from Vesteris Seamount, Greenland Basin - A New Type of Cryptoendolithic Fungi2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, e0133368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungi have been recognized as a frequent colonizer of subseafloor basalt but a substantial understanding of their abundance, diversity and ecological role in this environment is still lacking. Here we report fossilized cryptoendolithic fungal communities represented by mainly Zygomycetes and minor Ascomycetes in vesicles of dredged volcanic rocks (basanites) from the Vesteris Seamount in the Greenland Basin. Zygomycetes had not been reported from subseafloor basalt previously. Different stages in zygospore formation are documented in the studied samples, representing a reproduction cycle. Spore structures of both Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes are mineralized by romanechite-like Mn oxide phases, indicating an involvement in Mn(II) oxidation to form Mn(III, VI) oxides. Zygospores still exhibit a core of carbonaceous matter due to their resistance to degradation. The fungi are closely associated with fossiliferous marine sediments that have been introduced into the vesicles. At the contact to sediment infillings, fungi produced haustoria that penetrated and scavenged on the remains of fragmented marine organisms. It is most likely that such marine debris is the main carbon source for fungi in shallow volcanic rocks, which favored the establishment of vital colonies.

  • 43.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Participation and deliberation in Swedish forest governance: The process of initiating a National Forest Program2016In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 70, 137-146 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades intergovernmental organizations have supported the initiation of National Forest Programs (NFPs): forums for joint deliberation by the state, private companies and NGOs that are intended to resolve conflicts over forestry and enhance sustainability. However, NFPs do not always reconcile conflicting perspectives or produce legitimate strategies for sustainable forestry. Thus, further analysis of NFPs' organization and processes is required, including exploration of effective means to address such challenges in early stages. These are key concerns of this paper, focusing on the first process to establish a Swedish NFP. Possibilities for an NFP to constitute a new arena for deliberation and consensus-building, producing forest policy statements and action plans considered legitimate by various stakeholders, are discussed. A number of key challenges are identified through a theoretical framework based on notions regarding the input and output legitimacy of collaborative governance. Analysis of official documentation, records of public hearings and stakeholder comments from the establishment phase in 2013–2015 suggests that the process will continually face a number of challenges, including balancing production and conservation values in the new bio-economy and securing equal stakeholder participation. The paper concludes with some remarks on the future of the NFP process.

  • 44.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hallgren, S
    Uppsala University.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Hansen, S H
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Waterborne citalopram has anxiolytic effects and increases locomotor activity in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2016In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 173, 19-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, which acts by inhibiting the re-uptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic nerve ending. It is one of the most common drugs used in treatment of depression, it is highly lipophilic and frequently found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters around the world. Citalopram and other selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have, at concentrations that occur in nature, been shown to have behavioural as well as physiological effects on fish and other animals. This study is the result of several different experiments, intended to analyse different aspects of behavioural effects of chronic citalopram exposure in fish. Our model species the three-spine stickleback is common in the entire northern hemisphere and is considered to be a good environmental sentinel species. Female three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 0, 1.5 and 15μg/l nominal concentrations of citalopram for 21 days and subjected to the novel tank (NT) diving test. In the NT test, the fish exposed to 1.5μg/l, but not the 15μg/l fish made a significantly higher number of transitions to the upper half and stayed there for significantly longer time than the fish exposed to 0μg/l. The 15μg/l group, however, displayed a significantly lower number of freeze bouts and a shorter total freezing time. The test for locomotor activity included in the NT test showed that fish treated with 1.5 and 15μg/l displayed a significantly higher swimming activity than control fish both 5-7 and 15-17min after the start of the experiment. In the next experiment we compared fish exposed to 1.5μg/l and 0.15μg/l to pure water controls with regard to shoaling intensity and found no effect of treatment. In the final experiment the propensity of fish treated with 1.5μg/l to approach an unknown object and aggressive behaviour was investigated using the Novel Object test and a mirror test, respectively. The exposed fish ventured close to the unknown object significantly more often and stayed there for significantly longer time than unexposed fish. The aggression test yielded no statistically significant effects. It is concluded that citalopram changes the behaviour of the three-spine stickleback in a way that is likely to have ecological consequences and that it must not be considered an environmentally safe pharmaceutical.

  • 45.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Borg, Bertil
    Stockholm university.
    Roufidou, Chrysoula
    Stockholm university.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Developmental exposure to the SSRI citalopram causes long-lasting behavioural effects in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2017In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to persistent behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRI which last into adulthood. To study effects of developmental exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1.5 µg/l of the SSRI citalopram in the ambient water for 30 days, starting two days post-fertilisation. After 100 days of remediation in clean water the fish were put through an extensive test battery. Feeding behaviour was tested as the number of bites against a piece of food and found to be increased in the exposed fish. Aggression levels were measured as the number of bites against a mirror image during 10 minutes and was also found to be significantly increased in the exposed fish. Novel tank behaviour and locomotor activity was tested in an aquarium that had a horizontal line drawn half-way between the bottom and the surface. Neither the latency to the first transition to the upper half, nor the number of transitions or the total time spent in the upper half was affected by treatment. Locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the exposed fish. The light/dark preference was tested in an aquarium where the bottom and walls were black on one side and white on the other. The number of transitions to the white side was significantly reduced in the exposed fish but there was no effect on the latency to the first transition or the total time spent in the white half. The results in the current study indicate that developmental SSRI exposure causes persistent behavioural effects in fish and contribute to the existing knowledge about SSRIs as environmental pollutants.

  • 46.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Hansen, Steen
    Univ. of Copenhagen.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Environmentally relevant concentrations of citalopram partially inhibit feeding in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2015In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 158, 165-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRI) are mood-altering, psychotropic drugs commonly used in the treatment of depression and other psychological illnesses. Many of them are poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and enter the environment unaltered. In laboratory studies, they have been demonstrated to affect a wide range of behaviours in aquatic organisms. In this study we investigated the effect of a three-week exposure to 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l of the SSRI citalopram dissolved in the ambient water on the feeding behaviour in three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Feeding, measured as the number of attacks performed on a piece of frozen bloodworms during a 10-min period, was reduced by 30–40% in fish exposed to both 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l citalopram. The effects of the environmentally relevant concentration 0.15 μg/l on feeding, an important fitness characteristic, suggests that the ecological significance of environmental SSRI exposure may be pronounced.

  • 47.
    Klimaschewski, Andrea
    et al.
    School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN Northern Ireland, UK.
    Barnekow, Lena
    Quaternary Sciences, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, SE22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Bennett, Keith D.
    School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN Northern Ireland, UK.
    Andreev, Andrei A.
    Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 49a, D-50674 Cologne, Germany.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Bobrov, A.A.
    Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Vorobievy Gory, 119899 Moscow, Russia.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Quaternary Sciences, Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, SE22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record2015In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 134, no SI, 142-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI).

    The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381–384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A.incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A.incana and also A.viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP, wet conditions dominate as dry indicating testate amoebae decrease. After 1800 cal yr BP soil conditions become more variable again but this time with dry dominating testate amoebae.

    In contrast to surrounding regions, there is no evidence of trees such as spruce or larch growing in the surroundings of the site even though those trees are characteristic of many eastern Siberian sites. This difference might be because of the maritime influence of the Okhotsk Sea. Even dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), which is currently widely dispersed in northern Kamchatka, became part of the local vegetation only during the last 700 yr.

  • 48.
    König, Malin A E
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Among-Population Variation in Tolerance to Larval Herbivory by Anthocharis cardamines in the Polyploid Herb Cardamine pratensis2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, e99333- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants have two principal defense mechanisms to decrease fitness losses to herbivory: tolerance, the ability to compensate fitness after damage, and resistance, the ability to avoid damage. Variation in intensity of herbivory among populations should result in variation in plant defense levels if tolerance and resistance are associated with costs. Yet little is known about how levels of tolerance are related to resistance and attack intensity in the field, and about the costs of tolerance. In this study, we used information about tolerance and resistance against larval herbivory by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines under controlled conditions together with information about damage in the field for a large set of populations of the perennial plant Cardamine pratensis. Plant tolerance was estimated in a common garden experiment where plants were subjected to a combination of larval herbivory and clipping. We found no evidence of that the proportion of damage that was caused by larval feeding vs. clipping influenced plant responses. Damage treatments had a negative effect on the three measured fitness components and also resulted in an earlier flowering in the year after the attack. Tolerance was related to attack intensity in the population of origin, i.e. plants from populations with higher attack intensity were more likely to flower in the year following damage. However, we found no evidence of a relationship between tolerance and resistance. These results indicate that herbivory drives the evolution for increased tolerance, and that changes in tolerance are not linked to changes in resistance. We suggest that the simultaneous study of tolerance, attack intensity in the field and resistance constitutes a powerful tool to understand how plant strategies to avoid negative effects of herbivore damage evolve.

  • 49.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Indigeneidad, descolonización y la paradoja del desarrollismo extractivista en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia: Indigeneity, decolonization and the paradox of extractive development in the Plurinational State of Bolivia2017In: Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política, ISSN 0718-9389, Vol. 8, no 1, 47-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, indigenous peoples have been marginalized and oppressed in the Bolivian political economy. During the presidency of Evo Morales, and under the 2009 Constitution, political, economic, social and cultural decolonization has become the central project for the transformation of the State and society. On the one hand, the new Constitution has been classified as one of the most progressive in the world with respect to ethnically defined rights; the indigenous ethical-philosophical principles of Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien, referring to the harmonious relationship between individuals and nature, have been incorporated into the Constitution. On the other hand, these rights collide with broader social rights (defined by class) and also the rights of the State to extract and market natural resources (especially hydrocarbon extraction and mining) under the banner of redistributive justice, social reforms and the common good. This collision is defined in this study as the paradox of extractivist developmentalism. The article is based on an ethnographic work and problematizes the extractivist dilemma and the tensions between ethnic rights and class rights, thus contributing to debates about indigeneity and the challenges and dilemmas of decolonizing projects.

  • 50.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lind, E. E.
    SLU.
    Corell, H.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area2017In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, 98-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.

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  • asciidoc
  • rtf