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  • 1.
    Jonsson, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Fångna i begreppen?: Revolution, tid och politik i svensk socialistisk press 1917–19242017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the uses of the concept of revolution in Swedish socialist press from 1917 to 1924. Political revolution and civil wars shook several countries. The Russian February and October Revolutions were soon followed by uprisings in countries such as Germany and Finland.

    While the social and political history of this period, with its mass demonstrations for bread and voting rights, often called the Swedish revolution, has been covered extensively in existing research, we know much less about the theoretical understanding of revolution among Swedish socialists. This thesis examines the concept of revolution from a perspective inspired by the Begriffsgeschichte of German historian Reinhart Koselleck. This foundation in the history of concepts aims at understanding how Swedish socialists, in a wide sense, understood their own time, how they related to the past and what they expected from the future, during the years of the First World War and the immediately following years. By focusing on what might be the most central, but also the most contested and most difficult to define, concept I hope to complement earlier research focusing on the social and political history of the period and its socialist movements.

    The main purpose of the thesis is to analyse how the labour movement understood revolution with particular weight placed upon the theoretical and ideological tensions between revolution and reform, determinism and voluntarism and localized and universal revolution. The starting point is the political and social changes in Sweden and abroad at that time and the place of the political press as opinion leaders capable of negotiating the space of political action. A secondary aim is to discuss how focusing on temporality can inspire new perspectives on the use of conceptual history.

    My research shows that how the concept of revolution was used was shaped both by already established notions regarding the socialist revolution as well as by the political situation at hand. The October Revolution forced a sharpening of its meaning, wherein different factions elaborated their understanding of it in relation to each other, which in turn determined how the concept was used fom that point on. 

  • 2.
    Kharkina, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Stockholms universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    From Kinship to Global Brand: The Discourse on Culture in Nordic Cooperation after World War II2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work analyzes the political instrumentalization of culture. Specifically, it studies how this is done through cultural policy within Western democracies. The analysis takes, as an example, official Nordic cultural cooperation in the post-war period. During this time, cultural exchange among Nordic countries became the subject of political attention establishing itself as part of the Nordic inter-governmental cooperation framework.

    This work focuses on three key moments in the history of official Nordic cultural cooperation: (i) the failure of the NORDEK plan (a plan which envisaged extensive economic cooperation between the Nordic countries) and the establishment of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 1971; (ii) the collapse of the Soviet system at the end of the 1980s - beginning of the 1990s; and (iii) the movement towards promoting the Nordic region on the global market in the first decade of the 2000s.

    The analysis traces the lack of convergence between the official arm’s length principle in cultural policy and how cultural cooperation actually worked. The results of the research both demonstrate the various ways culture was instrumentalized and also prove that the politically defined concept of culture can receive different interpretations in the official discourse depending on current political goals.

  • 3.
    Malitska, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Negotiating Imperial Rule: Colonists and Marriage in the Nineteenth-century Black Sea Steppe2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After falling under the power of the Russian Crown, the Northern Black Sea steppe from the end of eighteenth century crystallized as the Russian government’s prime venue for socioeconomic and sociocultural reinvention and colonization. Vast ethnic, sociocultural and even ecological changes followed.  Present study is preoccupied with the marriage of the immigrant population from the German lands who came to the region in the course of its state orchestrated colonization, and was officially categorized as “German colonists.” The book illuminates the multiple ways in which marriage and household formation among the colonists was instrumentalized by the imperial politics in the Northern Black Sea steppe, and conditioned by socioeconomic rationality of its colonization. Marriage formation and dissolution among the colonists were gradually absorbed into the competencies of the colonial vertical power. Intending to control colonist marriage and household formation through the introduced marriage regime, the Russian government and its regional representatives lacked the actual means to exert this control at the local level. On the ground, however, imperial politics was mediated by the people it targeted, and by the functionaries tasked with its implementation. As the study reveals, the paramount importance was given to functional households and sustainable farms based on non-conflictual relations between parties. Situated on the crossroads of state, church, community, and personal interests, colonist marriage engendered clashes between secular and ecclesiastical bodies over the supremacy over it. The interplay of colonization as politics, and colonization as an imperial situation with respect to the marriage of the German colonists is explored in this book by concentrating on both norms and practices. Another important consideration is the ways gender and colonization constructed and determined one another reciprocally, both in legal norms and in actual practices. Secret divorces and unauthorized marriages, open and hidden defiance, imitations and unruliness, refashioning of rituals and discourses, and desertions – a number of strategies and performances which challenged and negotiated the marriage regime in the region, were scholarly examined for the first time in this book. 

  • 4.
    Malitska, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    People in between: Baltic islanders as colonists on the steppe2014In: The Lost Swedish Tribe: Reapproaching the history of Gammalsvenskby in Ukraine / [ed] Piotr Wawrzeniuk & Julia Malitska, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, 1, , 151 p.61-85 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Nase, Marco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Academics and Politics: Northern European Area Studies at Greifswald University, 1917–19912016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The decision to institute Area Studies in German universities in 1917, was born out of a perceived need to widen the intellectual horizon of the public and academia alike. At Greifswald University this ambitious reform programme saw the foundation of a Nordic Institute, charged with interdisciplinary studies of contemporary Northern Europe. Its interdisciplinarity and implicit role in public diplomacy made the Nordic Institute, and the institutions that succeeded it, an anomaly within the university, until the institute was fundamentally reformed in the early 1990s. The study explores the institutional development of the institute under five different political regimes – Kaiserreich, Weimar Republic, Third Reich, GDR and FRG. It does so through the lens of scholars as utility-seeking actors, manoeuvring between the confines of an academic environment and the possibilities afforded by the institute’s political task. It becomes apparent that the top-down institution of interdisciplinary scholarship produced a number of conflicts between the disciplinarily organized career path on theone hand, and scholars’ investment in broader regional research on the other. Personal conflicts in a confined and competitive environment, and a persistent shortage of funding provided further incentives for scholars to overcome perceived limitations of the academic sphere by offering their cooperation to the political field. Individual attempts to capitalize on a reciprocal exchange of resources with the political field remained a feature under all political regimes, but the opportunity to do so successfully depended on the receptiveness of the political field. Cooperation, where it was established, also proved to be difficult, with the interests of political and academic actors often diverging, and the political side’s interest becoming dominant. The study examines the underlying motivations of scholars to seek assistance from outside the academic field, but also the problems connected with that approach, and demonstrates the specific problems faced by Area Studies in a German context.

  • 6.
    Nase, Marco
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History.
    "Att Sverige skall dominera här": Johannes Paul und das Schwedische Institut der Universität Greifswald 1933-19452014Book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Nase, Marco
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History.
    Forscher - Diplomaten - Spione: Die Nordischen Auslandsinstitute der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität2015In: "...die letzten Schranken fallen lassen": Studien zur Universität Greifswald im Nationalsozialismus / [ed] Dirk Alvermann, Köln: Böhlau, 2015, 224-255 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Nase, Marco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Paul, Johannes (1891-1990): Historiker, Universitätsprofessor2013In: Biographisches Lexikon für Pommern: Band 1 / [ed] Alvermann, Dirk & Jörn, Nils, Köln: Böhlau, 2013, 212-214 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Rabenschlag, Ann-Judith
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Arbeiten im Bruderland: Arbeitsmigranten in der DDR und ihr Zusammenleben mit der deutschen Bevölkerung2016In: Deutschland Archiv (Online)Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Rabenschlag, Ann-Judith
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Negotiating Anti-Racism: Language, Migration, and State Power in the GDR2016In: Global Humanities: studies in histories, cultures, and societies, ISSN 2199-3939, Vol. 3, 103-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Wawrzeniuk, Piotr
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Malitska, Julia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Approaching the "Lost Swedish Tribe" in Ukraine2014In: The Lost Swedish Tribe: Reapproaching the history of Gammalsvenskby in Ukraine / [ed] Piotr Wawrzeniuk & Julia Malitska, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2014, 1, , 151 p.13-35 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Wawrzeniuk, Piotr
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Malitska, JuliaSödertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The Lost Swedish Tribe: Reapproaching the history of Gammalsvenskby in Ukraine2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the spring of 1782 a group of peasants of Swedish origin reached their destination on the right bank of Dnipro River in Ukraine. The village they founded became known as “Gammalsvenskby” (Russian “Staroshvedskoe,” English “Old Swedish Village”). In the 1880s links were established with Sweden and Swedophone Finland where the villagers were seen through a nationalistic-romantic prism and in broad circles became known as a brave group of people who had preserved their Swedish culture in hostile surroundings; in the terminology of this volume, a “lost Swedish tribe”. The village remained largely intact until 1929, when in the aftermath of the Russian revolution a majority of the villagers decided to leave for Sweden. When they arrived, there was disappointment. Neither Sweden nor the lost tribe lived up to expectations. Some of the villagers returned to Ukraine and the USSR.

    This book offers an alternative perspective on Gammalsvenskby. The changing fortunes of the villagers are largely seen in the light of two grand top-down modernization projects – Russia’s imperial, originating in the latter half of the eighteenth century, and the Soviet, carried out in the early 1920s – but also of the modernization projects in Sweden and Finland. The story the book has to tell of Gammalsvenskby is a new one, and moreover, it is a story of relevance also for the history of Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and Finland.

  • 13.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Alexandru Ofrim, Strădi vechi din Bucureştiul de azi2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Keith Hitchins, A Concise History of Romania2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Liliana Corobca, Controlul cărţii. Censura literaturii în regimul comunist din România2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Lucian Boia, Suveranii României. Monarhia, o soluţie2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Melinda Mitu, Sorin Mitu, Ungurii despre români. Naşterea unei imagini etnice2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Ruxandra Cesereanu, Panopticum. Eseu despre tortură în secolul XX2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [A review of] Ştefan Bosomitu, Miron Constantinescu. O biografie2015In: Diacronie. Studi di storia Contemporanea, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 22, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Beyond the iron curtain of historiography, between party canon and scholarly standard: A theoretical and methodological approach to the analysis of East European national-communist historiographies: the case of Romania2014In: Diacronie, ISSN 2038-0925, Vol. 3, no 19, 5- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article aims at elaborating a new theoretical framework and a new methodology in order to identify the location of history discipline endorsed by the East European communist regimes between scholarly production and propaganda. The case study considered is the historiography produced by the History Institute of the Romanian Communist Party (Isisp) during the Ceausescu regime (1965-1989). This highly ideological, but still polymorphic historiography is placed into the context of the 19th and 20th centuries’ professionalization of history in Europe. Since historiography has been the main mean to develop nationalist messages, this paper is also a contribution to the study of nationalism. Since history-writing is a myth-breaker but also a (national) myths-maker, the theory considers that the Isisp historians were elaborating an academic, scholarly standard while performing the mandatory metanarrative canon imposed by the communist Party, creating a double-set of coherence, for the party and for their own profession. The theory implies also a methodology of analysis which integrates the study of the history-writings, considered in diachronical perspective, together with the collective biographies of Isisp and of its historians.

  • 21.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Comunisti per Caso: Regime e Consenso in Romania durante e dopo la Guerra Fredda2014 (ed. 1st)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of the Second World War, Stalin forged the communist regimes in Eastern Europe as satellites of Soviet Union. After ten hard years of Soviet Stalinism, with the changings introduced by the 20th Congress of the CPSU, the leaderships of satellites' communist parties risked to be overthrown by their internal rivals. In Romania, in 1956, Party Secretary Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej converted Romania into a Stalinist system guided by Romanians: the Romanian receipe in order to prevent the change included the recovery of the national elite and intellectuals previously ostracized. While presenting itself as communist, the regime increasingly used nationalism for the creation of domestic consensus in anti-Soviet function. Nicolae Ceausescu, came to power in 1965, continued this strategy and led it to its climax, expanding dramatically the propaganda machine, that flooded into the everyday life of the Romanians. In particular, it was the discourse on national history that was manipulated and falsified for mere political needs, and declined in each type of cultural product, both in the academic literature as well as in popular literature and the arts. This book narrates how Romanian culture was subservient to the maintenance of a political system for over forty years and the consequences of this forced regimentation after the demolition of the Berlin Wall.

  • 22.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Fusing the Horizons: A Criticism of Archival Sources and Oral and Written Accounts in the Study of the History of the Historiography of Communist Romania2015In: Archiva Moldaviae, ISSN 2067-3930, Vol. VII, 255-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a contribution to the understanding of the bias and limitations that different kind of sources offer to the researcher in the contemporary history. Specifically, the study addresses how the researcher poses him/herself in front of the problems generated by different kinds of source materials, acknowledging Hans-Georg Gadamer’s Truth and Method, and proposes how to deal with the different kind of narratives proposed by the sources. The specific field of investigation chosen for this study is the history of historiography under communism, and specifically of the History Institute of the Romanian Communism Party, a central party institution for history-writing existing in Romania between 1951 and 1990. The researcher has at his/her disposition different typologies of sources for this study, first of all the archival sources conserved at the National Archives of Romania (the archive of the Institute, the funds of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, the familial fund of the Institute’s director, Ion Popescu-Puţuri), and the funds present at the National Council for the Study of the Securitate Archives on the Institute’s historians. The article demonstrates, relying on a consolidated tradition of historical methodology, that these sources offer several limitations: they already offer a narrative, they are incomplete, and they have been subject to manipulation. A second resource for the historian are the memoires of the historians of the communist period, working at the Institute or in similar institutions. This second kind of sources, analysed trough the instruments offered by memory studies and post-colonial studies, is considerate as biased for numerous reasons: they were written after 1989, in some cases with an apologetic or justificatory intent; the researcher cannot easily distinguish information from the affection of memory, which is generated by the collective and vernacular memory that has been created after 1989. The authors of these autobiographies have imagined and framed the materials of their memory according to the discourses elaborated by a series of social frameworks (and networks) in which they lived, including the national one, and they contributed with their memories to the forging of a new image of the networks in which they are inserted. A third kind of sources is offered by the methodology of oral history, namely interviews with former historians of the Institute. In this case, the advantage for the researcher to create ad hoc sources for the purposes of the study is counterbalanced by the limitations of these sources, which are the same as for the autobiographies, with the addition of the performative aspect that is contextual within the interview. The article concludes that no source can claim the status of “truth”. Therefore, the distance between different typologies of sources result to be shortened. In conclusion, the researcher has only partially the possibility to obviate the bias offered by the sources with a strong research question. The researcher’s only possibility to establish a new narrative on a topic is to merge the horizon and the research questions and expectations with the narrative presented by the sources, as explained by Gadamer.

  • 23.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    La latinità nel Novecento romeno. I dibattiti intellettuali interbellici e le politiche culturali comuniste2014In: Sulle spalle degli antichi: Eredità classica e costruzione delle identità nazionali nel Novecento / [ed] Jacopo Bassi, Gianluca Canè, Milan: Edizioni Unicopli, 2014, 85-100 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Romania: land of conquest by Romans, Huns, Turks, last outpost of Christendom in Eastern Europe, part of the Eastern front during the 20th century wars, a Soviet satellite and, finally, member of the European Union and of NATO. Romania has always been subject to different ideas of identity meant to define its essence: latinity or dacianism? Europe or authochthonism? The essay aims at analysing the debate regarding the ethnogenesis of the Romanian people since its origin in the 17th century, through the debates of the 19th century and the interwar period and, finally, analysing the debate between latinity and dacianism during the Ceauşescu regime in the light of the cultural politics of the regime and of the debate between different factions of intellectuals.

  • 24.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Romans, Dacians, Thracians, Slavs,or Pelasgians?: A history of the debate on the ethnogenesis of the Romanian people since 17th century until the computer age2014In: Cadernos do Tempo Presente, ISSN 2179-2143, no 17, 41-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Romania: land of conquest by Romans, Huns, Turks, last outpost of Christendom in Eastern Europe, part of the Eastern front during the 20th century wars, a Soviet satellite and, finally, member of the European Union and of NATO. Romania has always been subject to different ideas of identity meant to define its essence: latinity or dacianism? Europe or authochthonism? The essay aims at analysing the debate regarding the ethnogenesis of the Romanian people since its origin in the 17th century, through the debates of the 19th century and the interwar period and, finally, analysing the debate between latinity and dacianism during the Ceauşescu regime in the light of the cultural politics of the regime and of the debate between different factions of intellectuals.

  • 25.
    Zavatti, Francesco
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Writing History in a Propaganda Institute: Political Power and Network Dynamics in Communist Romania2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1990, the Institute for Historical and Socio-Political Studies of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party was closed, since the Party was dissolved by the Romanian Revolution. Similar institutions had existed in all countries belonging to the Soviet bloc. This Institute was founded in 1951 under the name of the Party History Institute, and modelled on the Marx-Lenin-Engels Institute in Moscow. Since then, it served the Communist Party in producing thousands of books and journals on the history of the Party and of Romania, following Party orders. Previous research has portrayed the Institute as a loyal executioner of the Party’s will, negating the agency of its history-writers in influencing the duties of the Institute. However, the recent opening of the Institute’s archive has shown that a number of internal and previously obscured dynamics impacted on its activities. This book is dedicated to the study of the Party History Institute, of the history-writers employed there, and of the narratives they produced. By studying the history-writers and their host institution, this study re-contextualizes the historiography produced under Communist rule by analysing the actual conditions under which it was written: the interrelation between dynamics of control and the struggle for resources, power and positions play a fundamental role in this history. This is the first scholarly inquiry about a highly controversial institute that struggled in order to follow the constantly shifting Party narrative canon, while competing formaterial resources with rival Party and academic institutions. The main actors in this study are the history-writers: Party veterans, young propagandists and educated historians, in conflicting networks and groups, struggled in order to gain access to the limited resources and positions provided by the Party, and in order to survive the political changes imposed by the leadership. By doing so they succeed, on many occasions, to influence the activities of the Institute.

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