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  • 1.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Baltic Sea Governance: Towards Increased Reflexivity?2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, 149-172 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the governance structures linked to the marine environment of the Baltic Sea. The purpose is to assess whether current developments of the governance structures have a potential to take into account requirements of an Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). We use the concept of reflexive governance to understand key components and weaknesses in contemporary governance modes, as well as to elaborate on possible pathways towards a governance mode more aligned with EAM. The reflexive governance framework highlights three elements: (1) acknowledgement of uncertainty and ambiguity; (2) a holistic approach in terms of scales, sectors and actors; and (3) acknowledgement of path dependency and incremental policy-making. Our analysis is based on a comparative case study approach, including analysis of the governance in five environmental risk areas: chemical pollution, overfishing, eutrophication, invasive alien species and pollution from shipping. The chapter highlights an existing governance mode that is ill-equipped to deal with the complexity of environmental problems in a holistic manner, with systematic attention to uncertainty, plurality of values, ambiguity and limited knowledge, while also pointing at important recent cognitive and institutional developments that can favour pathways towards reflexive governance and consequently EAM.

  • 2.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Engkvist, Fanny
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Kern, Kristine
    The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan: challenges of implementing an innovative ecosystem approach2013In: Political State of the Region Report 2013: Trends and Directions in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Bernd Henningsen, Tobias Etzold and Anna-Lena Pohl, Copenhagen: Baltic Development Forum , 2013, 58-61 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jentoft, Svein
    Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, 900 Tromsø. Norway.
    Marine Environmental Governance in Europe: Problems and Opportunities2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, 249-264 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Coping and adaptation in socio-ecological problem structures: Towards an integrated framework for analyzing trans-boundary environmental problems in marine settings2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on governance of socio-ecological systems has been growing fast during the last one or two decades. However, sound theoretical underpinnings to these systems have not been sufficiently articulated and tied to existing theory, it is argued in this working paper. To address this shortcoming, this paper aims to elaborate on how the theoretical constructs  problem structure, collective choice theory and adaptive governance can be brought together to form a coherent analytical framework for analyzing trans-boundary environmental problems in marine settings. The argument that collective action problematiques may inhibit successful adaptation to environmental change among sovereign states is fundamental to this model. Given that governments tend to prefer national coping strategies where expected national rather than joint benefits are maximized, mutually beneficial cooperation often does not evolve and regional adaptation turn out piecemeal. It is concluded that in order to improve trans-national environmental governance, a better understanding of underlying drivers and countries’ incentives to take action is a necessary prerequisite.

  • 5.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Oil Spills from Shipping: a case study of the governance of accidental hazards and intentional pollution in the Baltic Sea2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea: / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 125-146 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Transnational environmental collective action facing implementation constraints: the case of nutrient leakage in the Baltic Sea Action Plan2017In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 19, no 4, 408-422 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While scholars have showed a long-standing interest for how to design effective environmental treaties and other international agreements, less interest has been paid to implementation phases of these agreements. This article takes the Eutrophication Segment in the Baltic Sea Action Plan as an example of a regional effort to reduce nutrient leakages, where national reporting of adopted strategies has been a key mechanism to improve implementation effectiveness. It is shown that although transnational collective action theory is a powerful tool to analyse underlying drivers and priorities in state implementation policies, a deeper analysis of domestic and external constraints can shed additional light on observed implementation gaps. Varying views among countries on, for example, the role of stakeholder participation, legitimacy and top-down governing versus multi-stakeholder governance approaches may comprise domestic constraints that make effective and efficient implementation problematic. In terms of external constraints, states’ balancing of action plan objectives versus other international commitments, such as other environmental treaties and EU Directives, is shown to potentially reduce implementation efficiency as well.

  • 7.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi, Turku, Finland.
    Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Management in Regional Marine Governance?: The Baltic Sea Context2013In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 15, no 2, 225-245 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, European marine governance seems to be undergoing significantchanges. From having been based largely on scientific expert knowledge, restricted riskassessments and governmental regulation, we are now witnessing a management turntowards holistic perspectives, the inclusion of stakeholders, adaptive governance, and coproductionof knowledge—the so-called ecosystem approach to management (EAM). Byusing the Baltic Sea as an example of these changes, we have taken a closer look at the2007 Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) of the Helsinki Commission and the recent organizationalchanges within the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).Informed by a Reflexive Governance perspective, the primary objective has been toanalyse the extent to which institutional preconditions for using an EAM exist in thesetwo cases. Our results show that even though the BSAP has been designed with anEAM approach as its core philosophy, existing implementation, financing, monitoring,and enforcement structures make it unlikely that actual management modes will changesignificantly in the near feature. Changes in the ICES have occurred as a result of aninternal restructuring process characterized by integrative and learning elements. It hasbeen shown that adopting a broad social science perspective and a reflexive governanceviewpoint can elucidate how factors such as inadequate institutional change, limitedcooperation over sector borders, and adjustment problems caused by path dependencycan threaten the successful turn towards the EAM in marine governance.

  • 8.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Problems and potential solutions to effective communication among stakeholders in the Baltic Sea shipping for reduced air pollution: Outcomes from a survey2013In: Clean Shipping Currents, ISSN 2242-9794, Vol. 2, no 5, -33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a web survey distributed to stakeholders in the Baltic Sea marine sector regarding environmental communication on air pollution from shipping. The survey was carried out in the spring and summer of 2012. Drawing on the literature on risk communication and environmental governance, the main focus was placed on so-called communication barriers, that is, possible hindrances to effective communication among stakeholders on how to reduce air pollution without threatening sector competitiveness. The results show that although there is a dense networking among stakeholders in this sector, there is a demand for improvements in communication in (a) exploratory phases among broad groups of stakeholders and (b) operational phases among selected groups of e.g. business and research teams. To facilitate the emergence of such improved communication, regional organizations such as HELCOM and EU could play important roles. Furthermore, it is shown that there is a perceived need among many stakehold­ers to step up the involvement of certain stakeholders, for example fuel companies, in collabora­tion on how to reduce pollution from shipping in cost-efficient ways. Finally, the results show that although continuous improvements of international regulation is a vital part of the governance of the marine sector, compliance will suffer if operators’ incentives are too strong in favor of not con­tributing to reduced pollution levels. Therefore, there is a strong need for innovative thinking on how to design such incentive schemes, not the least in relation to the continued implementation of Baltic Sea SECA and NECA as well as of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  • 9.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Communication among maritime stakeholders: Problems and solutions in the field of ship’s air emissions2013In: Pan-Baltic Manual of Best Practices on Clean Shipping and Port Operations / [ed] Breitzmann, K-H and M. Hytti, Turku: Union of the Baltic Cities , 2013, 98-102 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lenninger, Paula
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Schiele, Kerstin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk.
    BALTSPACE Deliverable: D1.2: Final Guidance Document on Analysing Possibilities and Challenges for MSP Integration2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how

    sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP)

    contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration

    in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a

    broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for

    improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve

    sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a

    means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable

    development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder

    engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP

    has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well

    have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary

    might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to

    analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes.

    Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the

    broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP

    practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including

    transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions.

    Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies,

    national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the

    role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on

    empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and

    preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine

    how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine

    space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure

    an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region.

    Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in

    science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework

    presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration

    dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of

    integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised;

    the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a

    conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report,

    which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts,

    beyond the Baltic Sea.

  • 11.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kern, Kristine
    Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Marine Governance in the Baltic Sea: Current Trends of Europeanization and Regionalization2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, 163-181 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 11 of 11
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