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  • 1.
    Aldén, Nina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Is A Holistic Approach Relevant for Non-Governmental Organizations’ Agricultural Extension Strategies?: Case Studies from Tanzania2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural extension can play a major part in the development and adoption of sustainable agriculture practices. Local NGOs have a unique opportunity to serve as extension agents due to their acceptance and close relationship in communities. The paper argues that agricultural extension needs to adopt a holistic approach to the communities’ development to achieve a lasting and sustainable agriculture. This study examines four NGOs in Tanzania to see 1) how they provide extension services; 2) if they have a holistic approach; and 3) if the holistic approach is a conscious strategy. The findings show that a mixture of extension methods is commonly used by all four of the NGOs. More over the NGOs offer a wide variety of projects, which focus on different issues. This results in a holistic approach, even though this probably is rather a result of funding practices than a conscious extension strategy.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    The Responsible Business Person: Studies of business education for sustainability2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Calls for the inclusion of sustainable development in the business curriculum have increased significantly in the wake of the financial crisis and increased concerns around climate change. This has led to the appearance of new initiatives and the development of new teaching approaches. This thesis explores business education at the upper secondary school level in Sweden following the inclusion of the concept of sustainable development in the curriculum. Drawing on poststructuralist discourse theory, the overarching purpose is to identify the roles of a responsible business person that are articulated in business education and to discuss how these roles could enable students to address sustainability issues. The thesis consists of four studies, based on textbook analyses, teacher interviews and classroom observations. Three categories of roles have been identified, implying that a business person is expected to either adapt to, add or create ethical values. These three categories are compared with the roles indicated in the environmental discourses constructed by Dryzek and the responsibility regimes developed by Pellizzoni. Drawing on Dryzek’s and Pellizzoni’s reasoning about which qualities are important for addressing sustainability issues, it is concluded that the roles identified in the studies could mean that students are unequipped (the adapting role), ill-equipped (the adding role) or better equipped (the creating role) to address uncertain and complex sustainability issues. The articles include empirical examples that illustrate how and in which situations specific roles are articulated, privileged or taken up. The examples also indicate how the scope for business students’ subjectivities are facilitated or hampered. It is suggested that the illustrative empirical examples could be used for critical reflection in order to enhance students’capabilities of addressing uncertain and complex sustainability issues and to improve educational quality in terms of scope for subjectivity.

  • 3.
    Asghar, Naveed
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ticks and Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus: From Nature to Infection2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vector-borne diseases are an increasing global threat to humans due to climate changes, elevating the risk of infections transmitted by mosquitos, ticks, and other arthropod vectors. Ixodes ricinus, a common tick in Europe, transmits dangerous tick-borne pathogens to humans. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a vector-borne disease caused by TBE virus (TBEV). Climate change has contributed to increased tick abundance and incidence of tick-borne diseases, and between 10,000 and 15,000 human TBE cases are reported annually in Europe and Asia. TBEV shows a patchy geographical distribution pattern where each patch represents a natural focus. In nature, TBEV is maintained within the tick-rodent enzootic cycle. Co-feeding is the main route for TBEV transmission from infected to uninfected ticks and for maintenance within the natural foci. The increasing number of TBE cases in Scandinavia highlights the importance of characterizing additional TBEV sequences and of identifying novel natural foci, and in this work we sequenced and phylogenetically characterized four TBEV strains: Saringe-2009 (from a blood-fed nymph), JP-296 (from a questing adult male), JP-554 (from a questing adult male), and Mandal-2009 (from a pool of questing nymphs, n = 10). Mandal-2009 represents a TBEV genome from a natural focus in southern Norway. Saringe-2009 is from a natural endemic focus in northern Stockholm, Sweden, and JP-296 and JP-554 originate from a natural focus “Torö” in southern Stockholm. In addition, we have studied the effect of different biotic and abiotic factors on population dynamics of I. ricinus in southern Stockholm and observed significant spatiotemporal variations in tick activity patterns. Seasonal synchrony of immature stages and total tick abundance are important factors for the probability of horizontal transmission of TBEV among co-feeding ticks. We found that the probability of co-occurrence of larvae, nymphs, and female adults was highest during early summer whereas increasing vegetation height and increasing amounts of forest and open water around the study sites had a significant negative effect on co-occurrence of larvae, nymphs, and female adults.

    The proximal part of the 3 ́non-coding region (3 ́NCR) of TBEV contains an internal poly(A) tract, and genomic analysis of Saringe-2009 revealed variability in the poly(A) tract indicating the existence of different variants within the TBEV pool of Saringe-2009. Like other RNA viruses, TBEV exists as swarms of unique variants called quasispecies. Because Saringe-2009 came from an engorged nymph that had been feeding on blood for >60 h, we propose that Saringe-2009 represents a putative shift in the TBEV pool when the virus switches from ectothermic/tick to endothermic/mammalian environments. We investigated the role of poly(A) tract variability in replication and virulence of TBEV by generating two infectious clones of the TBEV strain Toro-2003, one with a short/wild-type (A)3C(A)6 poly(A) tract and one with a long (A)3C(A)38 poly(A) tract. The infectious clone with the long poly(A) tract showed poor replication in cell culture but was more virulent in C57BL/6 mice than the wild-type clone. RNA folding predictions of the TBEV genomes suggested that insertion of a long poly(A) tract abolishes a stem loop structure at the beginning of the 3 ́NCR. Next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of the TBEV genomes after passaging in cell culture and/or mouse brain revealed molecular determinants and quasispecies structure that might contribute to the observed differences in virulence. Our findings suggest that the long poly(A) tract imparts instability to the TBEV genome resulting in higher quasispecies diversity that in turn contributes to TBEV virulence. Phylogenetic analysis of Saringe-2009, JP-296, JP-554, and Mandal-2009 predicted a strong evolutionary relationship among the four strains. They clustered with Toro-2003, the first TBEV strain from Torö, demonstrating a Scandinavian clade. Except for the proximal part of the 3 ́NCR, TBEV is highly conserved in its genomic structure. Genomic analysis revealed that Mandal-2009 contains a truncated 3 ́NCR similar to the highly virulent strain Hypr, whereas JP-296 and JP-554 have a genomic organization identical to Toro-2003, the prototypic TBEV strain from the same natural focus. NGS revealed significantly higher quasispecies diversity for JP-296 and JP-554 compared to Mandal-2009. In addition, single nucleotide polymerphism (SNP) analysis showed that 40% of the SNPs were common between quasispecies populations of JP-296 and JP-554, indicating the persistence and maintenance of TBEV quasispecies within the natural focus.

    Taken together, these findings indicate the importance of environmental factors for the occurrence pattern of the different life-stages of the tick vector, which are important for the persistence of TBEV in nature. Our findings also show that the selection pressure exerted by specific host also affects the population structure of the TBEV quasispecies. In addition, our results further demonstrate that the evolution of quasispecies has effect on TBEV virulence in mice.

  • 4.
    Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro universitet.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro univarsitet.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Local land-scape effects on population dynamics of Ixodes ricinus2016In: Geospatial Health, ISSN 1827-1987, Vol. 11, 283-289 p., 487Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Benulic, Kajsa-Stina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    A Beef with Meat: Media and Audience Framings of Environmentally Unsustainable Production and Consumption2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to identify potential routes of participation in environmentally sustainable changes of the Swedish meat production and consumption. Changes are needed as meat production and consumption have been linked to serious environmental problems, such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and land use change. Scientists, international organizations, and Swedish government authorities have identified individual consumer responsibility as key in making that change happen. The public is to be informed and educated to make more environmentally sustainable choices as meat consumers, and become more supportive of policy instruments. This strategy, which mirrors the dominant approach to solving environmental problems, is suggested by government authorities despite their suspicion that media should have made most Swedes aware of the environmental impacts of meat.

    In this thesis potential participatory routes are identified through the analysis of Swedish news media and audience framings of meat production and consumption. Media framing is studied as an important source of information, and perhaps motivation, crucial in the individualized consumer responsibility approach. The media framing is studied through content analysis of mainstream and alternative radical newspapers. The audiences’ framing of meat may be influenced by media, but also by their everyday experiences, beliefs, values, and opinions. Focus group discussions with reception elements are the methods used for studying how audiences frame meat and use media in the process. The concept of participation is broadened to include passive and active forms to capture in which roles individuals consider to contribute to changing meat production and consumption. It is not self-evident that routes to change must include individual participation, since responsibility may be attributed to other actors, both by media and their audiences.

    The results imply only participatory route supported by media and audience framing. It is the one that mirrors the individualized consumer responsibility approach to solving environmental problems. The major barrier to the route is the audiences’ perceived inability to act. In an alternative route supported by both media and audience framing, state centered actors are made responsible for enforcing change. Here, the major barrier is the perceived unlikeliness of powerful actors assuming responsibility. Audiences construct no citizen roles for themselves to participate in. Neither does media, who only address audiences as consumers. Based on these findings it is suggested that the outlook for the individualized responsibility approach to making meat production and consumption environmentally sustainable is gloomy. At least if it the approach is to continuously rely on the information and motivation offered by media.

  • 6.
    Bergfeldt, Vendela
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Microbes that never sleep: A multidisciplinary study of the antibiotic resistance management in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses of this study are that reduction and rational usage of antibiotics reduces development of antibiotic resistance. In Sweden, the trends do not follow this pattern. Despite a decrease in prescriptions of antibiotics, there is an increase in the number of patients infected with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and ESBL selecting for carbapenem-resistance (ESBLCARBA). This study aims to study factors affecting antibiotic resistance management. An additional aim is to use a multidisciplinary approach for a subject that has mostly been studied with quantitative methods. First, linear regressions investigated any possible significant changes of prescription rates in outpatient care, hospital usage of antibiotic groups and antibiotic resistance. After this, nine interviews were conducted with physicians in outpatient care, hospital care and with representatives from the Swedish Strategic Programme for the Rational Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Surveillance of Resistance (Strama), a network working for Swedish prevention against antibiotics resistance. There was a significant decrease in the number of prescriptions of antibiotics in outpatient care among all Swedish counties and a small, but significant increase of antibiotics used in hospitals. The number of patients infected with multidrug resistant bacteria also show a significant increase. The interviews revealed that health care workers in all counties follow the same guidelines and try to be as specific as possible in choosing antibiotics to hit specific bacteria. The respondents suggested migration and extended travelling as explanations to the growing number of cases of multidrug resistant bacteria. Further, two major factors emerged as important for an efficient antibiotic resistance management; Education/knowledge and Discussion. The results indicate a need for further research on rational usage of antibiotics and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in hospital care, rather than the reduction through prescriptions. The results indicate that rational usage has a bigger impact than reduction. Using a multidisciplinary approach gave a broader perspective on the issue and future studies should see the possibilities of mixing quantitative and qualitative studies.

  • 7.
    Berkmann, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Greening Potentials and Limits of Eco-Labelling Schemes in the EU: A policy evaluation with a focus on small firms in the German coffee-processing sector2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As SMEs transformation to sustainable practices in manufacturing, processing and services, is declared to be the key to a green growth model, the research in this thesis aims to understand in what way eco-labelling can be a part of that. In order to approach this complex issue, the thesis aims to identify the greening potential and the limits of contemporary eco-labelling schemes for SME product within the German coffee-processing sector. With regard to that, the thesis applied the policy evaluation method "Program Theory Evaluation" (PTE), which assesses a policy in place and thus provides information how the introduction and the function of eco-labelling schemes is observed and perceived by German coffee-processing SMEs (GCPS). Hence, based on a policy evaluation from a rational perspective, which has the focus on the policy’s problem-solving process and implementation cycle, the thesis reveals how eco-labelling schemes’ underlying theoretical greening strategy act in practice to German coffee-processing SME (GCPS). Thereby it could be evaluated that eco-labelling schemes imply shortcomings to address and green GCPS high quality coffee products. As the PTE-method aims also on optimizing the policy’s rationalisation, the inappropriate or failed implementation of eco-labelling schemes by GCPS has been further explored. To grasp the eco-labelling schemes extent of limits to green GCPS products, the thesis compares and analyses the policy evaluation results against the backdrop of eco-labelling schemes’ normative theoretical policy conception and in the light of "Environmental Authority of Political Consumerism (Ecological Modernisation Theory)". With regard to that, the thesis fosters a policy learning process and uncovers that eco-labelling scheme eco-labelling schemes potential to green GCPS products is limited and conditioned to this a lower level of sustainable value as they are focused to supply mainly the demand for mainstream coffee products. Hence, the thesis concludes that it is not the underlying rationality of eco-labelling schemes, namely being a consumer-oriented and market-based policy instrument that does not apply to green GCPS products. However, this opens up a new perspective as it points out a sustainable quality gap between products using eco-labelling schemes and non-labelled GCPS high quality products. In return this raises considerations in terms of improving eco-labelling schemes’ contribution to sustainable development. Thus the thesis argues to optimize their rationalization with regard to GCPS high quality products as frontrunners of tomorrow’s sustainability.

  • 8.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Cios, Stanislaw
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Warsaw, Poland.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet.
    Fishponds in teh Baltic States: Historical Cyprinid Culture in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania2016In: Historical Aquaculture in Northern Europe / [ed] M. Bonow; H. Olsén; I. Svanberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2016, 139-156 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Olsén, HåkanSödertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.Svanberg, IngvarUppsala universitet.
    Historical Aquaculture in Northern Europe2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How were fishponds introduced, farmed and spread in Scandinavia and the Baltic Region in early modern times? What was their economic, social and religious importance? Which fish species were significant and why?

    This book uncovers a long, now broken, tradition that barely left traces in the written record or physical environment. Its broad and multidisciplinary scope highlights the situation from medieval times until the late nineteenth century. Besides Scandinavia and the Baltic States, insights from England are also introduced.

    Several socio-cultural domains have been identified: late medieval monastic fishponds; late medieval aristocratic fishponds associated with castles and manors; seventeenth and eighteenth century ponds rectory ponds as well as urban ponds from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth century.

  • 10.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet.
    Historical Pond-Breeding of Cyprinids in Sweden and Finland2016In: Historical Aquaculture in Northern Europe / [ed] M. Bonow; H. Olsén; I. Svanberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2016, 89-119 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Borglund, Hanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Governing the commons: A case-study of Rio Limpio National Park, Dominican Republic2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to scarce natural resources and problems of governing the commons, alternative management of the commons has again emerged. The earlier known governing methods used by international and state conservation are state or private ownership. Governing the commons with local institutions was brought to attention in 2009 by Elinor Ostrom.

    In this case-study of governing the commons, a national park is the objective. There are many stakeholders, with a focus on the community institution. The co-management of governing the national park between the local institution, the state and the NGO is analysed to find out if sustainable governance can be achieved in Rio Limpio National Park, and if so how? The rules are set on the conditions of the state about the regulations of the national park, although its protection is legitimized by the activities of the local institution.

    The regulation that prohibits the use of the natural resources within the park is enforced in a situation -where poor people are directly dependant on the natural resources and have few employment alternatives. This creates conflicts between the state, the NGO and the community of the environmental policies. The study has shown that increased benefits of the community, as with social protection and local participation in decision making, will lead to more successful nature resource management as well as sustainable development.

  • 12.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Towards responsible procurement in relation to chemical risks in textiles?: Findings from an interview study2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we ask whether and how different organizations work with sustainable procurement and how this work relates to the complexity of the product chain. We have chosen to focus on chemical risks in relation to textiles – an issue that increasingly is becoming part of the public discourse and a target for journalists. In the case of textiles, the product chain from raw material to consumption often involves a great number of production steps, sub-contractors and users, often on a global scale. Sustainable management of the supply chain would improve health, quality of life, and labour conditions, for instance in the areas and factories in developing countries where production and processing often take place. However, such management faces great difficulties and challenges in terms of capabilities, knowledge, communication, and policy instruments. These difficulties are related to high uncertainties and other problems that in turn are related to the high complexity of global product chains. The objective of the present report is to gain insights into the opportunities and challenges that private and public organizations face regarding the development of responsible procurement in relation to a complex and uncertain issue. The report focuses on chemicals in textiles and uses a qualitative methodology with semi-structured interviews. Key elements of a pro-active, responsible procurement strategy are defined in the report and include criteria such as using a preventive, systematic, responsive, integrative, and reflective approach. The analysis includes the following topics: (i) priorities and knowledge, (ii) communicative strategies, (iii) policy instruments, (iv) monitoring and trust in relation to suppliers. The results show a fairly modest level of organizational responsibility, although it is possible to observe an initial positive development among the cases investigated. The report ends by suggesting a number of topics that require further investigation.

  • 13.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Örebro universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    IKEA and the Responsible Governance of Supply Chains: IKEA’s work on chemicals in textiles2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report focuses on IKEA’s management and communication surrounding sustainability in general and chemical risks specifically. IKEA’s work is analysed in relation to theoretical concepts around responsibility, supply chain, and governance . The report focuses on IKEA’s visions and organizational structures, its policy instruments to deal with chemical risks, supplier-relations and communication and learning. The study is based on previous scholarly literature, analyses of relevant documents, a field visit at a few of IKEA’s suppliers in southern India, as well as interviews with staff working at IKEA in Sweden. The report focuses on IKEA’s systems and processes for dealing with chemical risks, and not on the implementation of such measures in quantitative terms.

  • 14.
    Breivik, Moa
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    En utvärdering av Länsstyrelsen i Jämtlands läns uppföljning av den hotade orkidén brunkulla2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish agriculture has gone through major changes of practices in the last century. Traditional haymaking and grazing have almost ceased and the land-use change is causing a loss of habitat for many plants and animals. These semi-natural landscapes belong to the most diverse plant communities in Sweden and many pastures and meadows are threatened by overgrowth. In this paper, I study the Jämtland County Administrative Board´s monitoring of the endangered Black Vanilla Orchid (Gymnadenia nigra) which is a grassland species in sharp decline. The study is based on interviews with employees of the Jämtland County Administrative Board and on the inventory data that has been gathered in the monitoring project. I have evaluated if the collected data can fulfil the original purpose of the monitoring project. I have studied and analysed the data and monitoring methodology in relation to scientific advice, and performed statistical tests. I have found that the monitoring method was unsuccessful in addressing the underlying purpose. In combination with the short period of monitoring, it is not possible to evaluate the effect of management and other environmental variables on the status of G. nigra.

  • 15.
    Burfoot, Christopher
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tourism as a tool for communicating complex environmental issues: Applying the ecosystem services framework to nature-based tourism activities across Iceland2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the twenty-first century, the lowering cost and increased availability of travel options has resulted in virtually uninterrupted economic growth of the international tourism sector. While financially beneficial, the increased movement of people has also been shown to have a negative impact on the environment, leading to the growth of a more environmentally-friendly approach to travel called nature-based tourism. One country at the forefront of the nature-based tourism movement is Iceland, and while the sector has grown significantly in the country over the past decade, the way in which information concerning environmental issues is communicated to tourists has not been widely researched. Being the case, the aim of this study was to examine the extent to which environmental issues are communicated to the general public through the use of the ecosystem services framework. Four popular nature-based tourism activities were selected for analysis; a whale watching tour, a horse riding tour, a boat tour of a glacial lagoon and a spa experience in a geothermal hot spring. A literature review concerning how the ecosystem services framework related to each of these tours was carried out and findings were compared to observatory data gathered through participation in said tourism activities. Results showed that while scientific publications could be found for each tour/ecosystem service combination, information concerning environmental issues was not widely communicated to participants in the nature-based tourism activities using the ecosystem services framework.

  • 16.
    Båverman, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Effekter av habitatstorlek, konnektivitet och områdesskydd på förekomst av revlummer Lycopodium annotinum och mattlummer Lycopodium clavatum i Södermanland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to test theories of the effects of habitat size, connectivity, area protection, habitat amount and fragmentation on the occurrence of single species, plus examining the existence of a fragmentation threshold and an extinction threshold. Occurrence of stiff clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum and stag’s-horn clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum was examined in 61 forest fragments scattered over 10 large 2,5×2,5 km plots, located in the county of Stockholm in Sweden. In each forest an area covering 500m2 was searched for the two species. Lycopodium annotinum occured in 13 and L. clavatum in 10 of the investigated fragments. Lycopodium annotinum occurred in at least 1 fragment in 7 large plots, 8 large plots was the corresponding number for L. clavatum. The results showed a significant positive effect of habitat size on the occurrence of both species and a significant positive effect of connectivity on the occurrence of Lycopodium clavatum. Area protection, habitat amount and fragmentation had no observed effect on the occurrence of these species, and no fragmentation threshold or extinction threshold was found. These results indicate the importance of preserving large forest fragments with high connectivity, to assure continued viability of the examined species.

  • 17.
    Bökmark, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linnala, Laura
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Miljön som handelsvara: en diskursanalys över utsläppsrättssystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Växthusgasnivåerna i atmosfären har nått nivåer som påverkar klimatet på jorden. Det här ställer krav på politiska överenskommelser som effektivt kan verka för en minskning av växthusgaser i atmosfären. Kyotoprotokollet implementerades 1997 och innehåller lagbindande krav på medlemsländerna att minska sina växthusgasutsläpp och presenterar utsläppsrätter som styrmedel för att nå målen. Utsläppsrätter innebär att politiker sätter ett pris på rätten att släppa ut och låter verksamheter som förorenar handla med rätterna, vilket enligt nationalekonomisk marknadsteori är det mest effektiva sättet att gå tillväga. Detta kan däremot kritiseras av ekologiska ekonomer som motsätter sig prissättande av miljön.

    Diskursteori används för att studera vad som har normaliserats med införandet av utsläppsrättssystem och därför inte ifrågasätts. Analysen visade att två diskurser primärt råder i den utvalda empirin; ekonomisk liberalism och teknologisk tilltro. Fokus på vinst, tillväxt, kostnadseffektivitet samt teknikoptimism återkom i alla tre dokumenten och framställs som avgörande för att nå målen för utsläppsreduktion.

    Utsläppsrätter är ett ekonomiskt styrmedel vars styrka ligger i marknadsmekanismer, men ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv finns problematik med prissättande av miljön; framförallt att det vilar på svag hållbarhet. Även marknadens otillräckliga förmåga att ta hänsyn till moraliska angelägenheter, prissättning av miljön och att ansvarsförskjutning mot företag placerar en större klyfta mellan människa och miljö kan tolkas som problematiskt.

  • 18.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. natasja.borjeson@sh.se.
    Toxic Textiles: Towards Responsibility in Complex Supply Chains2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The governance of the environmental and health problems that follow in the wake of globalised trade is one of the great contemporary challenges. One of these challenges is the management of chemical pollution and associated risks, and one sector facing this challenge is the textile industry, which has complex supply chains spread across continents. At the same time the role of actors on the playing field are changing and market actors are being called on to responsibly manage the issue of chemical risks and associated challenges. However, governance and control are often obstructed due to complexity and considerable knowledge uncertainty. This situation complicates responsibility-taking and makes it difficult to ascribe liabilities to specific actors, as it is not obvious who is responsible for what. This thesis is concerned with the process of how a group of market actors – private and public textile buyers – assume responsibility of chemical risks in their supply chains in a situation that is characterized by uncertainty and complexity. This thesis aims to contribute to an understanding of what happens when market actors are called on to manage the negative side effects of globalisation. The focus is on Swedish textile-buying private and public organisations. The thesis constructs an analytical model based on the key concepts responsible governance, responsibilisation, and responsible supply chain management (RSCM). The thesis explores the barriers, challenges and opportunities that exist for buyers seeking to assume RSCM and whether a process of responsibilisation can be observed in the textile sector. The thesis uses an exploratory approach and interviews, participatory observations and literature studies, as well as case studies to understand the process and to investigate barriers, challenges, opportunities. In summary, the thesis shows that a process of responsibilisation is ongoing on the organisational and sector levels. Further, it is shown that due to the complex structures of the chains, there are more barriers and challenges than opportunities for buyers striving for RSCM. However, it is argued that cooperation, stronger public and private policy, and a reflexive approach could be ways forward towards RSCM and increased responsibilisation in the textile sector.

  • 19.
    Börjesson, Hannah
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Miljömärkning av logianläggningar: En studie av effekterna på Green Key-märkta hotell och vandrarhems miljöprestanda2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The accommodation sector accounts for a significant proportion of resource consumption and environmental impact of the tourism industry. Today, there are a growing number of ecolabels in the accommodation sector to help establishments become more sustainable. One of them is the international eco-label Green Key. Lodging establishments have different motives for joining an eco-label in addition to an internal commitment to the environment; cost savings, competitive advantages, more guests and increased profitability.

    This study investigated if there is any difference when it comes to the effects of Green Key depending on the type of facility, and if the number of ‘scoring criteria’ affect environmental performance. The purpose was mainly to find out whether Green Key reduces the environmental impact over time, and if the label leads to an increased number of guests, depending on the type of guests.

    A quantitative method was chosen and longitudinal data over Green Key hotel and hostel's annual water, electricity and energy consumption was collected. Data on the number of guest nights per year, type of guests and total indoor area was also collected. Statistical tests were conducted and they showed that there was no correlation between the number of ‘scoring criteria’ and environmental impact. Only hotel and hostel's electricity consumption differed - hotels had a significantly higher electricity consumption/m2 than hostels. The results showed that there was an effect of Green Key on the establishments' resource consumption over time, although the effect differed. However, the majority of the establishments had reduced their resource consumption over time. The results also showed that there was a significant difference in water consumption per guest night from the starting year with Green Key in comparison with 2015. There was no difference in the increase of guest nights, depending on the type of guests. Although, the number of guest nights in total had significantly increased after the establishments had been rewarded with Green Key. However, it is difficult to demonstrate that the effect depends on Green Key.

  • 20.
    Cortobius Fredriksson, Moa
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Involvement without Influence?: Theoretical and Organisational Premises for Women´s Empowerment in Development Programmes2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the thesis is to discuss how the theoretical and organisational premises of the gender approaches of development programmes affect their possibilities to empower women and to enhance gender equality. This will be done through a study of the gender approaches of six development programmes for democratic and economic governance in the water and sanitation sector located in Angola, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay and Philippines respectively. The programmes strive towards the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals and are financed by the Spanish Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund. The programmes‟ gender approaches are defined as: the way the programmes interpret the concepts of women‟s empowerment and gender equality; the way they incorporate the concepts into their programme design and organisational structure, and; the activities and strategies implemented to enhance women‟s empowerment and gender equality in the programme areas. The analysis of the gender approaches of the programmes will be centred on the five theoretical assumptions which together state that a) a gender approach based on a collective postulation, with; b) adequate mechanisms for women‟s influence and; c) a purposeful involvement of men, backed-up by; d) adequate resource and responsibility allocation, and; e) a gender integrated design enabling evaluation and monitoring, is more probable to empower women. The main findings of the thesis are that: 1) all of the six gender approaches of the programmes are fundamentally individualistic and driven by efficiency rationales; 2) women‟s possible influence is generally limited and partial because of inadequate scope of participatory spaces; 3) men are not considered in any of the gender approaches; 4) the responsibility allocation for gender issues is the most important organisational feature for the implementation of the approaches, but it is weak in the majority of the programmes; 5) the integration of gender in the programme design and the funding mechanisms appear to not affect the implementation directly. Based on the results of the thesis it is concluded that both the theoretical and organisational premises of the gender approaches create small possibilities for the programmes to empower women and to enhance gender equality. The results also point to what appears to be fundamental structural weaknesses in the present gender interpretation, integration and implementation of international development agencies.

  • 21. Dreyer, Marion
    et al.
    Sellke, Piet
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jönsson, Anna-Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Structures and processes of stakeholder and public communication on Baltic Seaenvironmental risks: RISKGOV Deliverable 102011Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Edlund, Nathalie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gaspar, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jordbruksfåglarnas minskning i Stockholms län: En kvantitativ studie av fåglarna i jordbrukslandskapet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1970s, a breeding bird survey was conducted to see how many birds are breeding in Sweden. This was done because the research at the time pointed out that there was a decrease in the number of bird species. This inventory became known as atlas inventory 1, and an additional inventory was done in the 2000s, which was called atlas inventory 2. The second inventory was carried out in order to see trends in bird population distribution and to be compared with atlas inventory 1. The purpose of this study was to examine if it is possible to compare the inventories with each other to see if there are any changes in the number of breeding birds in Sweden. The study was limited to the Stockholm report area, which includes all municipalities in Stockholm County except for Norrtälje. A limitation was also made to only examine agricultural birds, where six species were selected. The results show that the number of atlas squares with data for breeding birds within the Stockholm report area have decreased between atlas inventory 1 and atlas inventory 2. To obtain these results, information was retrieved from the website Artportalen, and was then compiled and processed in Excel and ArcMap. A comparison between the period 2013-2016 and atlas inventory 2 was also done, which showed a decrease in the number of atlas squares with available data, as well as a reduction in the number of observations of breeding birds.

  • 23.
    Ekblom, Mikaela
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Challenges Facing Food Processing MSEs in Tanzania: A Qualitative Case Study of the Sunflower Oil Industry in Babati, Manyara2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food processing micro- and small-scale enterprises (MSEs) play an important role in the national economic development of Tanzania. Though many of them have great growth potential, they face a number of constraints hindering further development, and large amounts of cooking oil are imported each year. The aim of thesis has therefore been to identify and analyse the different factors affecting these MSEs in order to find out which the major growth challenges are. The case study is mainly based on individual semi-structured interviews with sunflower oil processors and farmers in Babati districts, conducted in February and March 2016, and earlier research and studies on the topic of MSE growth make up the theoretical framework used for analysis of the data. The findings show that there are indeed numerous challenges facing these processors, and the major constraint was found to be lack of capital; an issue causing or worsening a majority of the other challenges at hand. Other problems are related to raw material, equipment & electricity for processing, regulations, market accessibility, and competition. These obstacles need to be overcome in order to enable the industry's expansion within and outside of Tanzania, and further research is recommended.

  • 24.
    Ekblom, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Green Wave: How communication, advocacy andparticipation measures are included indocuments important for increase bicycling inStockholm City and Nacka Municipality2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is becoming increasingly urban. This puts pressure on a number of functions within cities, not the least the transportation system. Motorized traffic is responsible for a number of negative environmental effects, such as carbon dioxide emissions and particle pollution. To halt this development an increased share of bicyclists is needed. Stockholm County is an area with rapid urbanization. Therefore, a comparative study was undertaken to analyse how Stockholm City and Nacka Municipality are including communication, advocacy and participation measures in documents important for increased bicycling. This as those measures are important to increase the number of bicyclists. The analysis was undertaken by using two typologies, a modified version of the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) to understand how the two cases include communication and advocacy measures whereas Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizens Participation was chosen to understand how participation is included in the documents. The findings suggest many similarities between the two cases but Nacka Municipality perform better with their use of social media, and the activities ”bicycle-friendly workplace” and ”winter bicycling”. From the findings three recommendations where provided: create bicycle councils to improve inclusion of bicyclists in the processes. Second, it is important to have different type of role models across the municipality, both in socio-economic strong and weak areas. And third, create dedicated outlets for bicycle issues, tentatively on a social media outlet. This will increase the status of bicycles, it will promote bicycling as a good transportation choice and it open ups channels for citizens interaction.

  • 25.
    Ekedahl, Sanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Trädet, tillståndet, turerna: Konflikten i samband med beslutet om TV-ekens fällning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the autumn of 2011 a veteran oak of protective value, ”TV-eken”, located on Oxenstiernsgatan in the city district Östermalm in Stockholm, was felled. The decision to fell the tree – officially a technical decision to fell a high-risk tree, whereas protesting people interpeted the decision completely different – caused a conflict between responsible decision-takers and people fighting to preserve the tree. The aim of this study is to understand what events and processes lead up to the conflict arising from the decision to fell the ”TV-eken” tree. Responsible decision-taking public official at the traffic administration in the city of Stockholm has been interviewed as well as three oak activists. The interviews have been complemented by reviews of some relevant documents. Due to the background of the conflicting parties and the parties' preconceived view of the opposite party, the conflict developed to be all about more questions than the factual question (i.e. the felling of the oak). New studies that were performed in order to examine the state of the oak exacerbated the conflict as none of the studies were considered legitimate by both parties. Both parties have expressed substantial suspiciousness towards the other party and many actings have been interpreted as strategical. Inadequate communication between the parties is the general explanation to the origin and increase of the conflict.

  • 26.
    Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörn University.
    Loftsson, Elfar
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för ekonomi och samhälle, Political science.
    Norling, Sofia
    Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Strandskyddsproblematiken på Ornö: En kritisk diskussion kring miljöpolitisk decentralisering2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ofta hävdas att de lokala, direkt berörda parterna är mest lämpade att fatta beslut i miljöfrågor. I denna pilotstudie sätts det ifråga. En undersökning presenteras av hur lagen om strandskydd fungerar på kommunal nivå, mer specifikt dess tillämpning i Haninge kommun och skärgårdsön Ornö.

  • 27.
    Elander, Lina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Diatom analyses of sediment from Himmerfjärden estuary, southern archipelago of Stockholm: has the water discharge from a constructed sewage treatment plant led to eutrophication?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A sediment core from Himmerfjärden estuary, south of Stockholm, was examined to detect records of eutrophication on the site since the opening of the sewage treatment plant Himmerfjärdsverket in 1974. The core was analysed with respect to the diatom record and lithology. Four macrofossil that were found in the sediment were dated using 14C-dating.    This study aims to detect changes in the environment of Himmerfjärden by using the diatom stratigraphy record. The results have been interpreted and discussed regarding natural environmental and climate change and/or anthropogenic impact, and detected changes will be associated with the history of the sampling site. The results show that the lowermost zone started to deposit around 1300-1490 cal yr BP and the homogeneous sediment indicates that the area was not suffering from hypoxia at that time. There is a successive transition towards more distinct lamination further up in the core which show that the environment in Himmerfjärden have changed and become hypoxic. This may have to do with factors such as the opening of heavily trafficked Södertälje Canal, and also the increased nutrient input from Himmerfjärdsverket.    This study could be a part of the process of working towards a “good environmental status” in the Baltic Sea. However, continued and improved work is needed for further and more accurate interpretations.

  • 28.
    Fredrikson, Oskar
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Biofuel Production: Examining the development of sub-Saharan Africa through the concepts of land grabbing, environmental justice and different views on development theories2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines and problematize the effects of biofuel production by focusing on local communities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The premise lays in a critique of neoliberal thoughts of development and the concept of sustainable development. The establishment of biofuel production in SSA has been depicted to carry with it opportunities of development for the rural population. However, there have been a big interest from foreign actors looking to invest in sub-Saharan biofuel production which have raced concern for land grabbing. A conflict of interest has emerged between Southern and Northern interests. A literature study is used as the method to examine reported outcomes on local communities in the proximity of biofuel production in order to determine if sub-Saharan biofuel production is established for the development need of SSA or the interest of the North. To analyze the results a theoretical framework has been constructed from concepts of large-scale land acquisition (land grabbing), environmental justice and the four worldviews market liberalism, institutionalism, bioenvironmentalism and social greens. The paper concludes that the large-scale production of biofuels is highly problematic due to the risk of land grabbing and Northern mitigation schemes are based on Southern lands raises the question of environmental justice. Depending on which worldview one adopts there can be several explanations to why this occur. 

  • 29.
    Frost, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Populationsdifferentiering hos kransalger2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Charophytes are an important key species in the Baltic Sea. They reproduce by using oospores and this study aims at distinguish morphological differentiation between oospores within and between individuals and populations. Mainly I asked myself the question whether the differences and similarities in morphology could be associated with differences between geographic distance and habitat, and to what extent oospores could be reassigned to the correct population and individual. Charophytes of the genus Chara aspera were collected in eastern Svealand and harmonics from elliptic Fourier transforms have been used to describe the contours of the oospores. The parameters of the harmonics were then used for statistical analyses. The results showed that the different populations could be separated morphologically when the population affiliation of the oospores has been known to the analysis. It was difficult to separate individuals from each other, but it worked well in the population in which most oospores were collected. When the identity of the oospores was unknown to the analysis only half of them were returned to the correct population, and it did not work to reassign unknown oospores to individuals. The three populations from brackish water grouped together in the discriminant analysis, separated from the two freshwater populations, which, in turn, were clearly distinct from one another. Dispersal between the different populations in brackish water is likely. However, dispersal between the populations in fresh water is not likely. There is nothing to indicate dispersal between brackish and freshwater habitats. I can conclude that there is enough information in the morphology of the oospores to measure relative differences between individuals and groups, as well as to estimate variability.

  • 30.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sokolov, Tatiana
    Uppsala University.
    Börebäck, Kristina
    Stockholm University .
    van Laerhoven, Frank
    Utrecht University.
    Kokko, Suvi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    We adapt … but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic: Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic2017In: Journal of political ecology, ISSN 1073-0451, E-ISSN 1073-0451, Vol. 24, 667-691 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer herding (RDH) is a livelihood strategy deeply connected to Sami cultural tradition. This article explores the implications of two theoretical and methodological approaches for grasping complex socio-environmental relationships of RDH in Subarctic Sweden. Based on joint fieldwork, two teams – one that aligns itself with political ecology (PE) and the other with social-ecological systems (SES) – compared PE and SES approaches of understanding RDH. Our purpose was twofold: 1) to describe the situation of Sami RDH through the lenses of PE and SES, exploring how the two approaches interpret the same empirical data; 2) to present an analytical comparison of the ontological and epistemological assumptions of this work, also inferring different courses of action to instigate change for the sustainability of RDH. Key informants from four sameby in the Kiruna region expressed strong support for the continuation of RDH as a cultural and

    economic practice. Concerns about the current situation raised by Sami representatives centered on the cumulative negative impacts on RDH from mining, forestry and tourism. PE and SES researchers offered dissimilar interpretations of the key aspects of the RDH socio-economic situation, namely: the nature and scale of RDH systems; the ubiquitous role of conflict; and conceptualizations of responses to changing socio-environmental conditions. Due to these disparities, PE and SES analyses have radically divergent socio-political implications for what ought to be done to redress the current RDH situation.

  • 31.
    George, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Social responsibility and import of certified organic food: A case study of 13 Swedish firms2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis explores how social responsibility is addressed by firms importing certified organic food from developing countries to Sweden. The approaches to social responsibility of 13 Swedish firms were investigated, of which the majority were small or medium size (< 250 employees) and none belonged to the market-dominating group of grocery retailers. The results show that a majority of the firms consider social responsibility in relation with their suppliers but in view of scarce resources trust intermediary firms for follow up. Many mix ethical trading approaches focused on production conditions, and fair trade initiatives focused on community development. Companies experience uncertainty as to whether organic certification that includes requirements for social responsibility will render a higher price premium. The co-existence of multiple social schemes related to organic trade enables flexibility but in some cases resulted in a perception of subjectivity and differentiation of control measures, which risks to result in a loss of systemic trust. Working through intermediaries has benefits but at the same time leads to the loss of connection to the place and people that the social responsibility targets. Organic certification schemes need to be clearer about the scope and purpose of included social aspects. Further research is needed to understand and compare the social effects and differences at farm or factory level, in relation to the four identified approaches to social responsibility in organic trade. The four approaches were:  organic certification according to a standard with social requirements, combining organic certification according to minimum production standard either with a separate social label, or with a business supplier code of conduct, or finally the belief that conversion to organic farming will automatically bring about social benefits.

  • 32.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Environmental Risk Governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Final report : Deliverable 122012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea area is still unable to fully support implementation of the ecosystem approach to management. Hence, the aims of the international RISKGOV project were: 1) to improve our understanding of environmental risk governance and its challenges in the Baltic Sea; 2) to suggest possible avenues for improvement.

    These aims were addressed by integrating social and natural science approaches on five strategically selected environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges).

    The findings, recommendations and dissemination products of RISKGOV are described in detail in the Final report (http://www.sh.se/riskgov). Researchers from Södertörn University were involved in all case studies and cross-case comparisons. In summary, RISKGOV concludes that it is necessary to improve the robustness and responsiveness of governance practices to achieve sustainable ecosystem management. Specifically, RISKGOV recommends that: (i) Governance structures need to move towards more reflexive governance by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration, and interaction space for reflexivity. This is, for example, exemplified by increased interactions between HELCOM and the EU aiming at the combination of mandatory regulation and voluntary agreements; (ii) Assessment-management interactions require improvements e.g. relating to the regional and interdisciplinary knowledge-base, stakeholder participation and coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement; (iii) Stakeholder participation and communication require improvements in terms of a more integrated system of stakeholder input possibly via an expansion of HELCOM’s stakeholder involvement policy and enhanced efforts to communicate environmental issues to the general public. Implications of these general recommendations for specific actors and stakeholders were analysed and developed through thematic roundtable discussions.

  • 33.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jentoft, Svein
    Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, 900 Tromsø. Norway.
    Marine Environmental Governance in Europe: Problems and Opportunities2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, 249-264 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Science and Policy in the Governance of Europe’s Marine Environment: The Impact of Europeanization, Regionalization and the Ecosystem Approach to Management2015In: Governing Europe’s Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 141-160 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Girard, Chloé
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Producing and consuming artisan food: a way of preserving our biological heritage?: A phenomenographic study on how biological heritage is understood, described and communicated in the context of artisan food production and consumption2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the environmental quality goal 13 for A Varied Agricultural Landscape, that combines environment, food production and rurality and aims at keeping the agricultural landscape open, was considered as not achieved in 2016. One of the reasons for this non-achievementis the agricultural intensification and specialisation and in turn the decrease in number of pastures during the 20th century, threating thus habitats, diversity and values resulting from a continuous, traditional use of the land commonly called ‘biological heritage’. This study focuses on the traditional and sustainable animal husbandry using pastures, contributing to both the preservation of biological heritage and the production of high-quality food. It relies upon the assumption that the link between artisan food production and biological heritage is not well understood nor highlighted by the different actors taking part into the process of producing, selling, buying and consuming artisan food products in the rural areas of mid-northern Scandinavia, and therefore the study attempts to contribute with knowledge about how biological heritage is understood, described and communicated within this context. For such purposes the study takes a phenomenographic approach with biological heritage, pastures and artisan food products as the conceptions to be tested, and consists of semi-structured interviews of three agencies and surveys of artisan food producers and consumers. It adopts an environmental communication theoretical framework where a model is suggested for investigating actors’ learning process of biological heritage, from agencies to producers to consumers. The results reveal three phenomenographic categories showing that agencies and producers understand biological heritage in terms of (1) cared habitat and cared species, (2) historical and cultural know-how and (3) animals and their tasteful diet, and it is showed that the necessity of a continuous, traditional human use was less put forward than the cultural dimension of biological heritage. Also producers communicate about biological heritage to consumers through both their products and their actions. Furthermore the results show that consumers’ understandings of biological heritage are similar to the agencies’ and producers’ phenomenographic categories and that they could make a link between artisan food production and biological heritage, but only to some extent. Finally, in order to create an economic value for such products, a sense of place for pastures is argued to be a basis for people’s willingness to take care of and safeguard pastures. This study can be the starting point for further research, especially for investigating how producers actually interact with consumers about biological heritage when selling their products.

  • 36.
    Grant Axén, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Fuel-efficiency and Efficient Aid: An analysis of factors affecting the spread of fuel-efficient cooking stoves in Northern Tanzania2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is the result of nine weeks fieldwork in Babati and Bukoba districts in Northern Tanzania during spring 2012. The purpose of this thesis is to study why development projects on fuel-efficient stoves have had a limited adoption in these two regions and what obstacles and opportunities there are for further spread of fuel-efficient cooking stoves. Semi-structured interviews were the main method used for collecting the empirical data, which was then analysed from a socio-economic perspective with help from the framework of Sustainable Rural Livelihoods.

    The Results showed that people’s perceptions of fuel-efficient stoves are positive but that projects face many obstacles connected to socio-economic conditions. Knowledge on how to get stoves and access to financial capital is main obstacles for further spreading. Social networks and organisations are channels for information, but to spread outside these networks will need complementing strategies from organisations promoting fuel-efficient stoves. Important are also finding ways of making the financial aspect of adopting stoves less, like using materials with lower costs, using stove-models with low costs and training people in building stoves so re-investments are unnecessary and dependency of funding from organisations less. Gender is a factor affecting the adoption of fuel-efficient stoves, regarding access to assets and generated benefits. There is therefore an importance of involving gender throughout the different stages of the projects. 

  • 37.
    Grönros, Amanda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Holmström Petterson, Sofia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Vargen och vetenskapen: En fallstudie om vetenskapens roll inom vargförvaltningens beslutsfattning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has through its membership of the EU, an obligation to strive that the wolf population should be both long and short time viability. The signed Convention on Biological Diversity means that the wolf population must meet a favorable conservation status, which has required a great need for scientific facts about what a sustainable status is. The relationship between science and decision making can be difficult, especially in complex environmental problems with many uncertainties. The purpose of this study is to examine the various scientific uncertainties and find out how they influence decision-making within the Swedish wolf policy. The focus is on the impact of the scientific advice for decision-makers.

    The study is a case study in which the results are based on five interviews with experts in the field as well as a deeper text analysis of the reports and regulations used in the decision-making process. In conclusion, the study indicates that research and scientific findings have had a major role in the decision-makers in wolf management. To some extent, it has also complicated the issue because of the lack of consensus among researchers. The attitude around Sweden's wolves extends far back in time and the conflict today is a contentious question that seems to act much about values ​​and not just scientific contradictions.

  • 38.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Ecosystem Management Approach: Implications for Marine Governance2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 75-92 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Towards improved environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 112012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving towards sustainable ecosystem governance practices is potentially a complex and time consuming endeavour. The RISKGOV project identified three main governance challenges linked to implementing an ecosystem approach to management in the medium to long term time span (i.e. years to decades), that, if adequately addressed by actors and stakeholders, could help improve the governance of environmental problems and risks in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Firstly, fostering a move towards reflexive and adaptive governance structures and processes by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration and forming spaces for interaction and dialogue. Secondly, strengthening the regional and ecosystem basis of knowledge generation and management is needed, including integration of various forms of scientific knowledge, stakeholder input, and increased attention to interdependencies among environmental problems and risks to better address uncertainties and disagreements. Thirdly, to develop a more integrated system of stakeholder input and communication, e.g. in the form of a “regional marine advisory council”, to face issues of inclusiveness, create a common concern for the Baltic ecosystem, improve the motivation and capacity, and improve coordination across scales and sectors.

  • 40.
    Hansén, Hanna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Odlingsfria skyddszoner i jordbrukslandskapet: En studie av Dyåprojektet i Nynäshamns kommun2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of the most substantial environmental problems in the Baltic sea and is caused by elevated nutrient concentrations in the water. A large part of these nutrients comes from losses in agricultural land (Bernes, 2005, s. 83). A number of measures can be taken to reduce agricultural nutrient loss to water, for example by introducing vegetative buffer zones adjacent to watercourses (Jordbruksverket, 2008). This paper examine such buffer zones and uses a 16 year long project in Nynäshamn municipality as a field study, the Dyå project. The local participation in the project was analyzed to see how this have influenced the nutrient content in the water table of Dyån. The result shows that nutrient content in the Dyå river surface water is still high regarding both total phosphorus and total nitrogen and the nutrient losses from the drainage area is extremely high. The method for analyzing the water samples differ from predominant research on buffer zones, which shall be kept in mind when analyzing the result. The local participation has worked well despite poor contact with the municipal authorities who initiated the project in 1995. The paper discusses other possible reasons for Dyåns high nutrient content, for example the soil quality, drainage tubes and changed land use in the drainage area.

  • 41.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Coping and adaptation in socio-ecological problem structures: Towards an integrated framework for analyzing trans-boundary environmental problems in marine settings2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on governance of socio-ecological systems has been growing fast during the last one or two decades. However, sound theoretical underpinnings to these systems have not been sufficiently articulated and tied to existing theory, it is argued in this working paper. To address this shortcoming, this paper aims to elaborate on how the theoretical constructs  problem structure, collective choice theory and adaptive governance can be brought together to form a coherent analytical framework for analyzing trans-boundary environmental problems in marine settings. The argument that collective action problematiques may inhibit successful adaptation to environmental change among sovereign states is fundamental to this model. Given that governments tend to prefer national coping strategies where expected national rather than joint benefits are maximized, mutually beneficial cooperation often does not evolve and regional adaptation turn out piecemeal. It is concluded that in order to improve trans-national environmental governance, a better understanding of underlying drivers and countries’ incentives to take action is a necessary prerequisite.

  • 42.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Oil Spills from Shipping: a case study of the governance of accidental hazards and intentional pollution in the Baltic Sea2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea: / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 125-146 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Åbo University.
    Kern, Kristine
    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea - A comparison between five key areas: Deliverable number 82011Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Leposa, Neva
    Marine oil transportations in the Baltic Sea area: Deliverable number 62010Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Hedenström, Eva
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Offentlig upphandling av textila produkter – faktorer som kan inverka på en kommun när det gäller att ställa krav på miljö- och social hänsyn: En fallstudie av Örebro kommun2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector is a major purchaser of goods and services. By setting requirements for environmental and social considerations in public procurement, an authority has the possibility to use consumer power to influence the actors in a market. The purpose of this paper is to investigate public procurement of textile products in a municipality, in order to gain knowledge about factors that may be important for the use of environmental and social criteria. Håkan Hydén´s (professor in sociology of law) norm model was used as the basis of the analysis, where the conduct was investigated along three dimensions of the norm – willingness, knowledge and system conditions – in order to identify underlying factors that can influence the process.

    The results – analyzed by using interviews and documents – show that the procurer's willingness, motivation and knowledge are important factors in this context, as well as the political priority of the municipality. Procurers gain knowledge in this area to a large extent through networking with other actors. The possibilities to be able to verify the criteria are important. Verification of requirements is problematic because the municipality, as a public actor, is far from the production in the textile production chain. Lack of knowledge, in the form of mapping the textile production, prevents the development of criteria for best available technique. However, demands on manufacturing can be set indirectly by asking for some eco-labels (or equivalent) as verification. Furthermore, system conditions in terms of rules in the public procurement legislation set the framework for the procurement process.

  • 46.
    Helldorff, Hedvig
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Social acceptance of antimalarial strategies in Uganda2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the World Health Organization(WHO) the most efficient and cost-effective strategies in the global fight of malaria are the Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and the Insecticide Treated Nets ITNs). However, since the strategies include the use of synthetic insecticides, WHO reports that they sometimes meet opposition in the society. In a Global Malaria Programme report from 20061, WHO describes that concerns in the community regarding the safety of the IRS hinder its effective implementation. WHO states that the social acceptability of ITNs2 has to increase. This study aims at investigating if and where in the Ugandan society the antimalarial strategies meet opposition. The study analyzes whether authorities, non-governmental organizations and caretakers in one region in Uganda reject the antimalarial strategies recommended by WHO. The aim is further to investigate where focus should be put in order to meet the

    opposition (if any) to current strategies and thus facilitate the implementation of the strategies. The methodology used is an empirical approach based on interviews with officials at authorities, representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and caretakers in the slum areas in Kawempe Division, which is an area highly exposed to malaria, in Uganda. The results show that the authorities and the NGOs in this study accept the current strategies but believe that they are not fully accepted by caretakers. Further, the authorities and the NGOs point out that current strategies, mainly IRS, meet great resistance among politicians and within the agricultural and environmental sector. Nevertheless, the majority of the caretakers in the interviews does accept the strategies and give other reasons for not having them implemented in their houses. Many of the households do not have the money neither to buy the ITNs nor to have the IRS implemented in their houses. Thus, this study implies that the opposition to the current strategies is not among authorities, NGOs or caretakers but in the political, environmental and agricultural

    sphere. In order to fight malaria in the study area, WHO and stakeholders have to work with the change of attitudes among politicians and stakeholders within the environmental and agricultural sector in Uganda. They also have to provide poor households with ITNs or IRS for free, since lack of money is the reason for the studied group of caretakers not having the recommended strategies implemented in their houses.

  • 47.
    Hillbur, Siri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Farmer's perceptions of agroforestry: A case study about the obstacles and opportunities for agroforestry adoption in Babati, Tanzania2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the perceptions of agroforestry among farmers in Babati, north- central Tanzania. The focus is on which resources farmers perceive that they need to adopt agroforestry and which risks that are connected with agroforestry adoption. It is also to see how farmers perceive that the access to resources changes after agroforestry adoption and how their livelihoods change. The data has been collected through qualitative interviews with agroforestry farmers, conventional farmers and extension officers. After that the data has been analyzed through the sustainable livelihood approach and a risk perception theory. The results show that some of the obstacles or risks that farmers perceive with agroforestry adoption are high input costs, dependency on short-term benefits, competition between trees and crops and lack of education from extension services. Without financial capital and human capital in terms of knowledge there might be too many risks connected with adoption. If agroforestry however is adopted the farmers perceive that the access to firewood, timber and fruits increase which increase their incomes and therefore financial capital. They also perceive that the fruits improve food security and that the timber improves the housing. The firewood is also perceived to improve the situation for women as they do not have to walk as far to collect the firewood. Agroforestry is also perceived to provide environmental services like erosion prevention and increased soil fertility, therefore it increases natural capital. Some trees can also be used as natural pesticides. The increased soil fertility or the access to natural pesticides, however does not seem to affect the use of industrial fertilizers or pesticides. Agroforestry is also not perceived to have any effects on biodiversity or water quality. Even if agroforestry may not be a good choice for all farmers, it can for some farmers increase their ability to cope with stress and shocks like future climate change. This is because the agroforestry system can work as a buffer against increased climatic variability.

  • 48.
    Hjort, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Uppsala University.
    Presti, Ilaria
    University of Insubria.
    Elväng, Annelie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Marinelli, Flavia
    University of Insubria.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Bacterial chitinase with phytopathogen control capacity from suppressive soil revealed by functional metagenomics2014In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 98, no 6, 2819-2828 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant disease caused by fungal pathogens results in vast crop damage globally. Microbial communities of soil that is suppressive to fungal crop disease provide a source for the identification of novel enzymes functioning as bioshields against plant pathogens. In this study, we targeted chitin-degrading enzymes of the uncultured bacterial community through a functional metagenomics approach, using a fosmid library of a suppressive soil metagenome. We identified a novel bacterial chitinase, Chi18H8, with antifungal activity against several important crop pathogens. Sequence analyses show that the chi18H8 gene encodes a 425-amino acid protein of 46 kDa with an N-terminal signal peptide, a catalytic domain with the conserved active site F175DGIDIDWE183, and a chitinase insertion domain. Chi18H8 was expressed (pGEX-6P-3 vector) in Escherichia coli and purified. Enzyme characterization shows that Chi18H8 has a prevalent chitobiosidase activity with a maximum activity at 35 °C at pH lower than 6, suggesting a role as exochitinase on native chitin. To our knowledge, Chi18H8 is the first chitinase isolated from a metagenome library obtained in pure form and which has the potential to be used as a candidate agent for controlling fungal crop diseases. Furthermore, Chi18H8 may also answer to the demand for novel chitin-degrading enzymes for a broad range of other industrial processes and medical purposes.

  • 49.
    Hoflin, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Övergödning i Stavbofjärdens tillrinningsområde: En utvärdering av genomförda insatser för minskad näringsbelastning från enskilda avlopp och jordbruk2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and examine the first period of the unique project Enskilda avlopp i kretslopp and actions implemented in the agriculture sector to reduce nutrient loading in Stavbofjärden. The idea was to provide an overall assessment of the current situation and discuss the possible future effects of the work. Challenges of the project are also discussed to examine the possibility for other communities to follow the initiative. To achieve the purpose, a study of literature and semi-structured interviews were conducted. The work is a case study of the evaluative nature and has been implemented in Stavbofjärdens catchment area. 

    Today several actors in Södertälje kommun are working actively to reduce nutrient loading in Stavbofjärdens catchment area. For the past three years, the project has been carried out in order to reduce eutrophication and enable recycling of nutrients to cropland. Within the project framework toilet water is collected in a closed tank separate from the bath, sink and wash water, the fraction is then processed in a facility and spread on farmland. In connection with this, the agriculture sector tries to close the cycle and reduce nutrient discharges to Stavbofjärden. Several measures have been implemented during the project's first phase, a recycling policy has been adopted, a local treatment facility has been built and nutrients have begun return to arable land. Distinct structural changes have occurred in the first years of the project, in particular, cooperation between different actors in the catchment area strengthened. The prospects for achieving improved water quality in Stavbofjärden increasing with the implemented and planned measures. The project also raises a number of challenges. Interviews and literature studies have shown that the use of sludge on farmland is not an entirely uncontroversial issue, mostly because of a concern about the possible effects of hormones and medicine which may occur in factions. Other challenges are that the replacement of sewer means a high investment cost and that people feel insecure when major changes happens. All actors involved in the project refers to the fact that human waste has to end up somewhere, and that it is much better to put the waste on soil than it leaks out in the water because there are far more degrading bacteria in the soil than in water.

  • 50.
    Holmström, Lisen
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    En rättvisa eller flera?: En studie av rättvisepluralism i samrådet inför bildandet av naturreservatet Gräsö östra skärgård2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our perceptions of what is just and unjust varies depending on our experiences or ideological affiliation. The formation of the nature reserve Gräsö eastern archipelago was preceded by a debate highlighted in the media, where several of the people on Gräsö positioned themselves for and against the marine reserve. The claims of justice in the debate show variations in perceptions of environmental justice aspects of distribution, recognition and participation. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the pluralism in perceptions of justice may have contributed to the conflict by conducting interviews with advocates and opponents who participated in the deliberation that preceded the decision of the reserve. These are compared with the opinions of environmental justice expressed in interviews with employees of the provincial government who handled the deliberation. The results show a variation in ideas of justice in most aspects and many times the opinions of the advocates better with county government persons than the opponents. That the local population must be recognized as one of the parties to take the decision on reserve formation, if the reserve means a restriction of rights and whether compensation should be paid for these losses are aspects which perceptions of justice varies. In order to address conflicts that are rooted in the variations of justice perception attention must be paid to pluralism in interpretations of environmental justice and the rights that should be taken into account.

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