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  • 1.
    Bartonek, Anders
    Södertörn University College, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University College, School of Culture and Communication, Philosophy.
    Arbetets betydelse för individen: en diskussion av arbetsbegreppet med utgångspunkt hos Adam Smith och Hegel2008In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, no 3, 27-44 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bedford, Sofie
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Praying for change: Islamic opposition in Post-Soviet Azerbaijan2008In: L’Azerbaïdjan: Au centre dénjeux globaux / [ed] Makinsky, Michael & Vinatier, Laurent, EurOrient , 2008, no 28, 131-150 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Having over the years failed to deliver any substantial results, the Azerbaijani political opposition is by many observers considered to have lost the support of the general public. Furthermore, the decay of the secular opposition after the last election (2005) has caused observers to speculate on the risk of radical political Islam becoming the preferred alternative in Azerbaijan. However, most of the religious mobilization it is already possible to witness in Azerbaijan has very little to do with what we understand as ‘political Islam’ in for example a Middle Eastern context. Rather, these groups have a lot in common with other, not necessarily religious, social movements aiming to change various aspects of societal life

  • 3.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    ‘Ethnic Division and National Narratives among Romanians and Hungarians in Satu Mare/Szatmárnémeti2008In: Crises and Conflicts in Post-Socialist Societies: The Role of Ethnic, Political and Social Identities / [ed] Sabine Fischer and Heiko Pleines, Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2008, 57-71 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Hungarian Elite Strategy and Discourse in Interwar Romania: [Review of] Ferenc Sz. Horváth: Elutasítás és alkalmazkodás között: A Romániai magyar kisebbségi elit politikai stratégiai (1931-1940). München: Ungarisches Institut, (Studia Hungarica: Schriften des Ungarischen Instituts München, 50), 20072008In: Regio. Regio. Minorities politics, politics, society, ISSN 0865-557X, 265-270 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [Recension av] Björn Kumm: Kalla kriget. Lund: Historiska media, 2006. ISBN 91-88930-93-92008In: Nordisk Østforum, ISSN 0801-7220, E-ISSN 1891-1773, Vol. 22, no 3/4Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    [Review of] Thomas Lundén: On the Boundary: About humans at the end of territory. Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2004, ISBN 91-89315-42-12008In: Eurolimes, ISSN 1841-9259, no 6Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Feldmann, Beate
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Gropen och gettot: om kulturarv, identitet och generation2008In: Malmberget: Strukturella förändringar och kulturarvsprocesser: en fallstudie / [ed] Birgitta Svensson & Ola Wetterberg, Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet , 2008, 28-41 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Feldmann, Beate
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Gränsöverskridare i centrum: Om stadslivsundersökningar i Berlin och Stockholm kring sekelskiftet 19002008In: Om avvikelser, gränser och marginaler: en festskrift till Birgitta Svensson / [ed] Hyltén-Cavallius, Charlotte, Lindelöf, Karin S., Lundahl, Pia, Stockholm: Etnologiska avdelningen, Stockholms universitet , 2008, 28-32 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Feldmann, Beate
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Identitet och tillhörighet i innerstadslandskapet: Chinatown i Stockholm City2008In: Den kalla och varma staden: migration och stadsförändringar i Stockholm efter 1970 / [ed] Håkan Forsell, Stockholm: Stockholmia förlag, 2008, 205-226 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Gerber, Sofi
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Ethnology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Is East Going West – or Is the West moving East?: Renegotiating the East West Boundary in Unified Germany2008In: Ethnologia Europaea, ISSN 0425-4597, E-ISSN 1604-3030, Vol. 38, no 2, 66-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jacobsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    A sociology of scandal and moral transgression: The Swedish ’Nannygate ’ scandal2008In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 51, no 3, 203-216 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jacobsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Noaksson, Niklas
    En expertorganisation ändrar uppfattning:: Om OECDs omsvängning i arbetsmarknadspolitiken2008In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 14, no 3, 31-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I 30 år har OECD trummat ut sitt budskap om behovet av strukturreformer på arbetsmarknaden. Receptet har varit likartat oavsett patient och ofta tycks förskrivningen ha skett enligt devisen ”ju beskare medicin, desto trovärdigare behandling”. Många blev därför förvånade när OECD, efter en ambitiös översyn av sin jobbstrategi, år 2006 gav upp tanken om en enda gyllene reformväg. Artikeln pekar på viktiga förändringar i den reviderade jobbstrategin och analyserar vilka faktorer som låg bakom OECD:s omsvängning i arbetsmarknadspolitiken.

  • 13.
    Jüriado, Rein
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Learning within and between public-private partnerships2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Kaun, Anne
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    [Review of] Citizenship and Consumption”, ed. by Kate Soper & Frank Trentmann. Hampshire, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 20082008In: Politics and Culture. International Review of Books, ISSN 1558-6960, no 4Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Kravchenko, Zhanna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Family (versus) Policy: Combining Work and Care in Russia and Sweden2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Kravchenko, Zhanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Motiejunaite, Akvile
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Zhenschiny i muzhchiny na rabote i doma: gendernoe razdelenie truda v Rossii i Shvetsii [Women and Men in Employment and at Home: Gendered Work patterns in Russia and Sweden]2008In: Journal of Social Policy Studies, ISSN 1727-0634, Vol. 6, no 2, 177-200 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the interaction between the levels and forms of labour force participation and outputs of family policy realisation in Russia and Sweden. The study explores statistical indicators of public social services/assistance for families and labour force structure, as well as survey data obtained from International Social Survey Program, module 'Family and Changing Gender Roles' (1994, 2002). The results show that both Sweden and Russia facilitate the 'dual-earner' family model, but that Sweden places a greater emphasis on dual-caring and f lexible work arrangements for women. The support for traditional gender roles was much higher and more uniform in Russia than in Sweden. The proportion of 'dual-earner' and female led families was nevertheless higher in Russia than Sweden, especially in 1994, when major restructuring in the social and economic sphere was occurring. The findings suggest that family policy is instrumental in facilitating female employment, but does not necessarily bring changes in either family or gender-role attitudes.

  • 17.
    Kunz, Barbara
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political science.
    Les relations polono-américaines depuis 1989: Varsovie, cheval de Troie des Etats-Unis en Europe?2008In: Le Courrier des pays de l'Est, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polish-American Relations since 1989 Is Warsaw the United States’ Trojan Horse? Shortly after the end of the cold war (1989), Poland found itself in a radically modified geopolitical environment which obliged it to redefine its foreign policy. In the beginning of the nineties, Warsaw was busy building an “Atlantic consensus”, moving closer to the United States in order to gain NATO membership (1999). These close links between Washington and Warsaw caused some suspicion in Western Europe to the extent that some readily see Poland as the United States’ Trojan Horse, a role given credence by concrete facts, such as the Polish government’s purchase of 48 fighter planes and, in particular, its unreserved deployment of troops on the side of the Americans at the beginning of the Iraq war (2003). After evoking the development of Polish-American relations since 1989, the author of this article questions the validity of the role attributed to Poland, considering that this might require substantial reconsideration in the wake of Warsaw’s disappointment over its “best friend’s” hesitancy to consider Poland an essential player on the European scene on the same basis as, for example, Great Britain

  • 18.
    Lindén, Tove
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Explaining Civil Society Core Activism in Post-Soviet Latvia2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lundell, Erika
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Crossdressing på Medeltidsveckan i Visby: Om iscensättanden av feminina och maskulina medeltidsgenu2008In: Lambda Nordica: Tidskrift om homosexualitet, ISSN 1100-2573, no 1-2, 97-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    McWilliams, Anna
    Södertörn University College, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Contemporary and historical archaeology in the making: [review of] Mats Burström, Samtidsarkeologi, and Laura McAtackeny, Matthew Palus and Agela Piccini (eds), Contemporary and historical archaeology in theory2008In: European Journal of Archaeology, ISSN 1461-9571, E-ISSN 1741-2722, Vol. 11, no 2-3, 270-273 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Motiejūnaitė, Akvilė
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Female employment, gender roles, and attitudes: The Baltic countries in a broader context2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Att gräva eller att inte gräva - det är frågan: om arkeologi och havererade flygplan2008In: Samtidsarkeologi - varför gräva i det nära förflutna?: rapport från en session vid konferensen IX Nordic TAG i Århus 2007 / [ed] Mats Burström, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2008, 33-39 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Nordström, Anders
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The Interactive Dynamics of Regulation: Exploring the Council of Europe's Monitoring of Ukraine2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a time when a host of new and untested democracies seek membership in international organisations founded on liberal norms, the question of how to include new members without jeopardizing community values has become of growing concern, particularly as the regulation of practices in sovereign states often relies on soft moral or political commitment rather than on hard legal obligation. The Council of Europe’s (CoE) monitoring of new members after entry represents a soft method of socialising newcomers. In the case of Ukraine, this process has been unusually difficult, and full of strife and open confrontation. This experience runs contrary to the belief that soft regulation is either harmonic or impossible. The aim of the thesis is to explore how a regulated process of inclusion develops over time, and to discuss how such a process can safeguard community values.

    The study shows that an interactive dynamic developed between the European and the Ukrainian levels. The political struggle in Ukraine was, through the actions of the political opposition in Ukraine and the CoE’s monitors, transformed into a contest in the CoE over how to interpret Ukraine’s membership promises. European values were protected by the evolution of a mode of governance based on responsiveness to local concerns and on public discussion. In the process, the legal and political systems of the CoE and Ukraine were intertwined in ever more complex webs of dialogue. By being grounded in both the Ukrainian and European political discourses, the process was able to sustain a critical discussion on the terms of the agreement and maintain its relevance for the actors involved. The monitoring process displays how community values and autonomy of a member state can be combined in an unexpected way without resulting in a hierarchical order. This may not fulfil the requirements of the international rule of law, but it is clearly a case of soft and responsive transnational regulation of state practices.

  • 24.
    Philipson, Joakim
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The Purpose of Evolution: the 'struggle for existence' in the Russian-Jewish press 1860-19002008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Decline and revitalization in post-communist urban context: a case of the Polish city d Gdansk2008In: Communist and post-communist studies, ISSN 0967-067X, E-ISSN 1873-6920, Vol. 41, no 3, 359-374 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how different social, economic, historical and physical conditions coincide in the formation of space and processes of decline in the period of transformation in Poland. The focus lies on a specific residential area in the centre of the Polish city of Gdansk and the question why no improvements have been done in this particular area to stop its successive decline. It is among other things argued that clear urban policy together with improved urban planning and clear legislation on ownership are needed in order to improve conditions in this and other deprived areas of the city.

  • 26.
    Rabenschlag, Ann-Judith
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Für eine bessere 'Bevölkerungsqualität': Ein Vergleich bevölkerungspolitischer Konzepte in Schweden 1920-19402008In: NORDEUROPAforum, ISSN 1863-639X, E-ISSN 1863-639X, 47-67 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Having founded the rasbiologiska institutet in Uppsala under the leadership of Herman Lundborg in the 1920s, Sweden took over a leading roll in eugenic discourse. Lundborg’s concept of population policy aimed at measuring the racial value of the Swedish popula-tion and to reduce the number of “inferior population elements”. Only a couple of years later, Alva and Gunnar Myrdal assessed the decline in the Swedish birthrate to be a “population crisis”, thus turning the once volkish-conservatively coloured discourse on population policy into a part of social democratic agitation. In spite of obvious ideologi-cal and political differences between the concepts of Lundborg and the Myrdals, some continuity in the premises of their argumentation can be pointed out. In both cases the argument of “population quality” justifies the subordination of individual interests and needs to the collective of the race or the folkhemmet (the people’s home) respectively

  • 27.
    Rindzeviciute, Egle
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Constructing Soviet Cultural Policy: Cybernetics and Governance in Lithuania after World War II2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Rodin, Johnny
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Rethinking Russian Federalism: Federal Policies and Intergovernmental Relations From Yeltsin to Putin2008 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Semenenko, Aleksei
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Ėstonskij period Sergeja Dovlatova: ot ‘podeščniny’ do mifotvorčestva2008In: Scando-Slavica, ISSN 0080-6765, E-ISSN 1600-082X, Vol. 54, no 1, 32-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aleksei Semenenko: Sergej Dovlatov’s Estonian Period: From “Hackwork” to Myth-Making

    Sergej Dovlatov as journalist is known to the readers as a character in hisbooks, specifically Kompromiss (1981) which is dedicated to his “Estonianperiod.” From 1972 to 1975, Dovlatov had been working as a regular reporterin the Soviet Estonian newspapers in Tallinn – Molodež Ėstonii and SovetskajaĖstonija. However, his actual articles have not been analyzed until now. Thefirst part of this paper is dedicated to the description of Dovlatov’s articlesthat have been published in these newspapers.The second part analyzes the structure of Kompromiss and elucidates themethod of Dovlatov, who constructed his book as a sort of “disclosure of thejournalistic hackwork.” The comparative analysis is used to describe themechanisms of myth-making and the creation of a special type of narrative inDovlatov’s book (“storytelling”). The paper shows how Dovlatov exploits thegenre of anekdot to reveal the phenomena of Soviet reality through grotesqueand ironic discourse.Finally, the paper attempts to elucidate two central strategies in Dovlatov’soeuvre: biography-making by means of literature and mythologization of reality.

  • 30.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Timofeeva, Irina
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Moscow2008In: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 23, 447-456 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines attitudes towards violenceagainst women among the populace in Moscow, Russiausing data drawn from the Moscow Health Survey.Information was obtained from 1,190 subjects (510 menand 680 women) about their perceptions of whetherviolence against women was a serious problem in contemporaryRussia, and under what circumstances they thoughtit was justifiable for a husband to hit his wife. Less thanhalf the respondents thought violence was a seriousproblem, while for a small number of interviewees therewere several scenarios where violence was regarded asbeing permissible against a wife. Being young, divorced orwidowed, having financial difficulties, and regularly consumingalcohol were associated with attitudes moresupportive of violence amongst men; having a loweducational level underpinned supportive attitudes amongboth men and women. Results are discussed in terms of the public reemergence of patriarchal attitudes in Russia in thepost-Soviet period.

  • 31.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Timofeeva, Irina
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Sparén, Pär
    Risk factors for intimate partner violence against women in St. Petersburg, Russia2008In: Violence against Women, ISSN 1077-8012, E-ISSN 1552-8448, Vol. 14, no 4, 483-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study examines which risk factors are associated with intimate partner violence against women in St. Petersburg, Russia. Women attending two crisis centers and a birthing house constituted the study sample. The male partner's frequent alcohol consumption and seeing his father hit his mother in childhood were associated with an increased risk of violence, whereas living in a communal apartment reduced the risk of intimate partner violence. The importance of crisis centers in Russia is highlighted by the study, as the women who turn to them are likely to have experienced more severe forms of violence.

  • 32.
    Stiernstedt, Fredrik
    Södertörn University College, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies. Södertörn University College, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Maximizing the power of entertainment: The audience commodity in contemporary radio2008In: Radio Journal: International Studies in Broadcast and Audio Media, ISSN 1476-4504, E-ISSN 2040-1388, Vol. 6, no 2/3, 113-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the reconfigurations of the control and monitoring of the audience that take place in concert with the digitalization that characterize contemporary radio broadcasting. Three technologies for the automation of audience research and consumer monitoring are analyzed: MediaScore, used for online media research (in this case music tests); the iSelector for customizing music streams online, and the Personal People Meter (PPM) for the production of ratings. Drawing on analysis from an ethnographic fieldwork at eight music radio stations the article concludes that the work of producing the audience commodity within the radio industry is changing. Research is increasingly becoming a way to bond with listeners, turning audience self-disclosure into a part of media consumption as such. At the same time, as shown in the article, the three technologies distributes the responsibility of the research process to the people researched upon, meanwhile facilitating a more generalized surveillance. The expanded surveillance through digital media seems also to have other objectives than the previous production of audience statistics. This could be characterized as a shift from using quantitative to using qualitative data, in producing the audience commodity.

  • 33.
    Söderholm Werkö, Sophie
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Patient Patients?: Achieving Patient Empowerment through active participation, increased knowledge and organisation2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines patient empowerment in two local diabetes branch organisations in Sweden. In particular, the study focuses on the organisations’ membership, participation and influence on external actors. The overall aim of this thesis is to explore patient empowerment in order to discern what influence patient organisations and individual members can have and how they use it.

    This study is based on both quantitative and qualitative empirical data. Interviews with active members from two local diabetes organisations were conducted and a survey was carried out to identify the members’ thoughts and feelings about their membership, motivations, participation and influence, as well as to examine their local organisation, its work and influence.

    The findings form an overall picture of how members experience their organisation, memberships and empowerment. Characteristics of the two local patient branch organisations were identified and the leaders were found to be intensely dedicated people.

    The interviews, survey and participant observations revealed the members’ opinions about their organisation, their reasons for joining, their involvement, participation and influence, as well as their understanding of the local organisation and the Swedish Diabetic Association (SDA) and their possibility to empower them. Without organisations, members felt that they could not have a significant influence on external actors and events.

  • 34.
    Witte, Klemens
    Södertörn University College, Baltic & East European Graduate School. Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences.
    The (Re-) Creation of Latvian Citizenship: Questioning Ethnic and Liberal Democracy2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is foremost dealing with the process and the consequences of the restoration of the Latvian republic after 1991.

    It was examined what liberal and ethnic democracy can tell about the assessment of citizenship in general and about the restoration of Latvia in particular. Further, it was analysed how the Latvian legislation defines the citizenry and if preference to a certain ethnic group is given. The change over time of the relevant legal documents was subject to this study as well.

    It was evaluated, which impact the exclusive approach to citizenship (initially purely based on state-continuity) that in 1991 disfranchised 30% of the population, had for the rights of these people.

    The method of ideational analysis was used to scrutinise the law texts.

    In order to gain information on the effects for the population in question, the method of effect analysis was used. This was enriched with interviews conducted by the author on two occasions with governmental representatives, researchers and members of NGO´s in Riga 2008.

    The legal documents here, encompass the Latvian Constitution (1922), the Resolution on Restoration (1991), the Law on Citizenship (1994, 1995, 1998) and the Law of the Republic of Latvia on the status of former USSR citizens who have neither the Latvian nor another state’s citizenship (1995). The literature read for the purpose of this study spans generally from 1992 to 2006.

    The conclusion drawn here is that the strict application of the state-continuity thesis and the denying of state responsibility for the changes of population in 50 years time are inconsistent with liberal democracy. Rather this citizenship policy resembles features of an ethnic democracy.

    The changes in the Law on Citizenship of 1995, where ethnic Latvians and Livs were given the possibility to come to Latvia and receive citizenship automatically (even if they were not citizens of interwar Latvia), while children born to non-citizen (all of them non-ethnic Latvians) after 1991, were not automatically conferred citizenship, made the preferential treatment for one ethnic group obvious.

    Due to the fact that large parts of the minority population were disenfranchised, they were not able to contest important governmental decisions. As a result, laws directed against the interest of the minority population were introduction.

    As a whole, a marginalisation of the minority population took place.

  • 35.
    Åberg, Pelle
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Translating Popular Education: Civil Society Cooperation between Sweden and Estonia2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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