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  • 1.
    Aidukaite, Jolanta
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Quality Matters?: Public Opinion on Family Benefits in the Baltic StatesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aidukaite, Jolanta
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Reforming Family Policy in the Baltic States: The Views of the Elites2006In: Communist and post-communist studies, ISSN 0967-067X, E-ISSN 1873-6920, Vol. 39, no 1, 1-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Aidukaite, Jolanta
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Social Policy in Transition: The Case of Lithuania2003In: Contemporary change in Lithuania / [ed] Egle Rindzeviciute, Huddinge: Baltic & East European Graduate School, Södertörns högskola , 2003, 19-32 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Aidukaite, Jolanta
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The Formation of Social Insurance Institutions of the Baltic States in the Post-Socialist Era2006In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 16, no 3, 259-270 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bötker, Peter
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Leviatan i arkipelagen: Staten, förvaltningen och samhället. Fallet Estland2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Edberg, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Phasing out or phasing in: Framing the role of nuclear power in the Swedish energy transition2016In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 13, 170-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how members of the Swedish Parliament framed nuclear energy in the 2010 debate on the future of nuclear power in Sweden in order to understand how politicians construct and contextualize their views on the role of nuclear energy in energy transitions. Our findings suggest that four themes could be identified in the debate and that these were formative for politicians in framing nuclear energy. Even though all political actors anticipate an energy transition towards a more sustainable system, different paths to advancing in this process were brought up in the debate, both with and without prolongation of the nuclear energy program. Our analysis suggests that framings of nuclear energy are closely related to the political ideologies of the parties in the Parliament because the two framings of nuclear energy correspond with the division of the Swedish Parliament into two political blocs. However, views on nuclear energy are not inherent to political ideologies but are constructed. This article thus integrates the politics of nuclear energy within the research on energy transitions.

  • 7.
    Jacobsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    A sociology of scandal and moral transgression: The Swedish ’Nannygate ’ scandal2008In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 51, no 3, 203-216 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Jacobsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Ministerskandalen hösten 2006 i moralsociologisk belysning2010In: Känslan för det allmänna: Medborgarnas relation till staten och varandra / [ed] Jacobsson, Kerstin, Umeå: Boréa , 2010, 267-294 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Suicide in Russia: A macro-sociological study2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work constitutes a macro-sociological study of suicide. The empirical focus is on suicide mortality in Russia, which is among the highest in the world and has, moreover, developed in a dramatic manner over the second half of the 20th century. Suicide mortality in contemporary Russia is here placed within the context of development over a longer time period through empirical studies on 1) the general and sex- and age-specific developments in suicide over the period 1870–2007, 2) underlying dynamics of Russian suicide mortality 1956–2005 pertaining to differences between age groups, time periods, and particular generations and 3) the continuity in the aggregate-level relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and suicide mortality from late Tsarist period to post-World War II Russia. In addition, a fourth study explores an alternative to Émile Durkheim’s dominating macro-sociological perspective on suicide by making use of Niklas Luhmann’s theory of social systems. With the help of Luhmann’s macro-sociological perspective it is possible to consider suicide and its causes also in terms of processes at the individual level (i.e. at the level of psychic systems) in a manner that contrasts with the ‘holistic’ perspective of Durkheim. The results of the empirical studies show that Russian suicide mortality, despite its exceptionally high level and dramatic changes in the contemporary period, shares many similarities with the patterns seen in Western countries when examined over a longer time period. Societal modernization in particular seems to have contributed to the increased rate of suicide in Russia in a manner similar to what happened earlier in Western Europe. In addition, the positive relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and suicide mortality proved to be remarkably stable across the past one and a half centuries. These results were interpreted using the Luhmannian perspective on suicide developed in this work. 

  • 10.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). niversity of Tokyo, Japan / European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (ECOHOST), London, United Kingdom.
    The historical development of suicide mortality in Russia, 1870-20072015In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1573-8159, Vol. 19, no 1, 117-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russia has one of the highest suicide mortality rates in the world. This study investigates the development of Russian suicide mortality over a longer time period in order to provide a context within which the contemporary high level might be better understood. Annual sex- and age-specific suicide-mortality data for Russia for the period 1870-2007 were studied, where available. Russian suicide mortality increased 11-fold over the period. Trends in male and female suicide developed similarly, although male suicide rates were consistently much higher. From the 1990s suicide has increased in a relative sense among the young (15-34), while the high suicide mortality among middle-aged males has reduced. Changes in Russian suicide mortality over the study period may be attributable to modernisation processes.

  • 11.
    Jurkane-Hobein, Iveta
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala University.
    Do I Qualify for a Love Relationship?: Social Norms and Long-Distance Relationships in Post-Soviet Latvia2015In: Sexuality & Culture, ISSN 1095-5143, E-ISSN 1936-4822, Vol. 19, no 2, 388-406 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not all couples live together; some partners live far from each other, causing potential challenges to relationship maintenance in terms of keeping the relationship ongoing. In the present study, complications in relationship maintenance experienced by heterosexual long-distance partners in post-Soviet Latvia are analysed. The complications are examined in the light of social norms as conceptualized by Parsons and Shils (Toward a general theory of action. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1962) in their notion of dominant value orientations. The article suggests that the norm conflicts experienced by the long-distance partners are illustrative of the value transitions in societies undergoing rapid social change, such as in Latvia. The analysis is based on 19 in-depth interviews with individuals with long-distance relationship (LDR) experience. The social norms complicating or hindering LDR maintenance were found to be generation-specific and gender-specific. The interviewees born and raised in Soviet Latvia referred to collective-oriented norms while the interviewees born in the independent neo-liberal Latvia referred to their own interests that complicated their LDR maintenance.

  • 12.
    Jurkane-Hobein, Iveta
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    I Imagine You Here Now: Relationship Maintenance Strategies in Long-Distance Intimate Relationships2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, individuals can relatively easily meet and communicate with each other over great distances due to increased mobility and advances in communication technology. This also allows intimate relationships to be maintained over large geographical distances. Despite these developments, long-distance relationships (LDRs), i.e. intimate relationships maintained over geographical distance, remain understudied. The present thesis aims to fill this knowledge gap and investigates how intimate partners who live so far away from each other that they cannot meet every day make their relationship ongoing beyond face-to-face interaction.

    Theoretically, this study departs from a symbolic interactionist viewpoint that invites us to study phenomena from the actor’s perspective. Conceptually, the thesis builds on the recent development in sociology of intimate lives that sees intimacy as a relational quality that has to be worked on to be sustained, and that focuses on the practices that make a relationship a relationship. Empirically, the thesis is based upon 19 in-depth interviews with individuals from Latvia with long-distance relationship experience.

    The thesis consists of four articles. Article I studies the context in which LDRs in Latvia are maintained, focusing on the normative constraints that complicate LDR maintenance. Article II analyses how intimacy is practiced over geographical distance. Article III examines how long-distance partners manage the experience of the time they are together and the time they are geographically apart. Article IV explores the aspect of idealization in LDRs. Overall, the thesis argues for the critical role of imagination in relationship maintenance. The relationship maintenance strategies identified within the articles are imagination-based mediated communication (creating sensual/embodied intimacy, emotional intimacy, daily intimacy and imagined individual intimacy); time-work strategies that enable long-distance partners to deal with the spatiotemporal borders of the time together and the time apart; and creating bi-directional idealization. The thesis is also one of the few works in the field of intimate lives in Eastern Europe and analyses the normative complications that long-distance partners face in their relationship maintenance in Latvia.

  • 13.
    Jurkane-Hobein, Iveta
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    I Know that I Don’t Know: Bi-Directional Idealization in Long-Distance Relationships2015Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Jurkane-Hobein, Iveta
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Imagining the absent partner: Intimacy and imagination in long-distance relationships2015In: Innovative Issues and Approaches in Social Sciences, ISSN 1855-0541, Vol. 8, no 1, 223-241 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Jurkane-Hobein, Iveta
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    When Less is More: On Time Work in Long-Distance Relationships2015In: Qualitative Sociology, ISSN 0162-0436, E-ISSN 1573-7837, Vol. 38, no 2, 185-203 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Kravchenko, Zhanna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Family (versus) Policy: Combining Work and Care in Russia and Sweden2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Kravchenko, Zhanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Motiejunaite, Akvile
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Zhenschiny i muzhchiny na rabote i doma: gendernoe razdelenie truda v Rossii i Shvetsii [Women and Men in Employment and at Home: Gendered Work patterns in Russia and Sweden]2008In: Journal of Social Policy Studies, ISSN 1727-0634, Vol. 6, no 2, 177-200 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the interaction between the levels and forms of labour force participation and outputs of family policy realisation in Russia and Sweden. The study explores statistical indicators of public social services/assistance for families and labour force structure, as well as survey data obtained from International Social Survey Program, module 'Family and Changing Gender Roles' (1994, 2002). The results show that both Sweden and Russia facilitate the 'dual-earner' family model, but that Sweden places a greater emphasis on dual-caring and f lexible work arrangements for women. The support for traditional gender roles was much higher and more uniform in Russia than in Sweden. The proportion of 'dual-earner' and female led families was nevertheless higher in Russia than Sweden, especially in 1994, when major restructuring in the social and economic sphere was occurring. The findings suggest that family policy is instrumental in facilitating female employment, but does not necessarily bring changes in either family or gender-role attitudes.

  • 18.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Brev till statsministern – en väg in i politiken2010In: Känslan för det allmänna: Medborgarnas relation till staten och varandra / [ed] Jacobsson, Kerstin, Umeå: Boréa , 2010, 295-331 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Den hand som föder dig: en studie av risk, mat och moderskap i Sverige och Polen2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of how mothers of young children relate to risk in everyday life, with an emphasis on the in­visible risks associated with modernity in general, and with food in particular. It explores variations and similarities in how mothers deal with risk in two cultural contexts: Sweden and Poland. The study is based on twenty qualitative interviews with university educated mothers of small children in Stockholm and Warsaw. While risks more generally challenge how we “get on” with our lives, mothers of young children in particular have a special relationship to risk. During pregnancy and breastfeeding they are subject to all kinds of risk minimization efforts, and mothers are ultimately held "infinitely responsible" for their children's welfare by society. Women's transition to parenthood then makes for a particularly in­teresting case as to how risks manifest in everyday life. The theoretical framework draws on modernization theory, combined with insights from cultural theory. In addition, various contributions from sociological and psychological risk research, family sociology and research on parenting and motherhood are used to highlight contextual aspects and to inter­pret the empirical results. Two aspects of the mothers’ relationship to risk and food are examined in this study: firstly, their risk constructs, i.e. what they perceive as ‘risky’ with regards to food; and, secondly, their risk management strategies, i.e. how they deal with identified risks on a practical and cognitive level. The overall risk management depicted in this study is characterized by reflexivity, critical thinking, infor­mation retrieval, attention to scientific evidence, purposely transferred trust, confidence and the ability to make fairly sophisticated tradeoffs between risks and other aspects of life. Neither the Swedish nor the Polish mothers then conform to popular notions of ‘security junkies’ or ‘paranoid parenting’. Nonetheless, the comparative approach demonstrates how contextual differences, such as general trust levels and family policy, influence both the risk constructs and the employment of different risk management strategies.

  • 20.
    Motiejūnaitė, Akvilė
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Female employment, gender roles, and attitudes: The Baltic countries in a broader context2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Obrenovic Johansson, Sanja
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Från kombifeminism till rörelse: Kvinnlig serbisk organisering i förändring2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about seven women’s organizations in Belgrade, Serbia and their relations to domestic and international donors during the period 2003-2006. My main research questions focus on their choices of either domestic or international cooperation partners. How and why did the women organize themselves? What factors were essential when selecting donors? In what ways were the organizations influenced by donors?

    Through interviews, with organization representatives’ concepts such as gift and reciprocity, power and dependency, trust and mistrust and collective identity emerged.  These concepts were used as points of departure for developing deeper understanding of women organizations’ choice of cooperation partners.

    The women organizations’ basically had two alternatives for cooperation: cooperation with foreign donors which offered funds, organizational development and social networks. Alternately, cooperation with local donors, which offered the equivalent except for the organizational development. Cooperation with the foreign donor has resulted in more professional attitudes to the work that have been desired by other international donors. A result is that they can compete with other women’s organizations’ for international funding. Cooperation with local donors has led to fewer resources but more independent working practices. For these women organizations’ independence was important so they choose partners who, they felt more respected this allowing them to write articles or discuss gender in the media with little external influence. Regardless of the chosen donor the reciprocity is embedded in the relation between the donor and the receiver of aid, which in various ways is beneficial for both parties.

     

  • 22.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Decline and revitalization in post-communist urban context: a case of the Polish city d Gdansk2008In: Communist and post-communist studies, ISSN 0967-067X, E-ISSN 1873-6920, Vol. 41, no 3, 359-374 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how different social, economic, historical and physical conditions coincide in the formation of space and processes of decline in the period of transformation in Poland. The focus lies on a specific residential area in the centre of the Polish city of Gdansk and the question why no improvements have been done in this particular area to stop its successive decline. It is among other things argued that clear urban policy together with improved urban planning and clear legislation on ownership are needed in order to improve conditions in this and other deprived areas of the city.

  • 23.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Gated Communities and the Construction of Social Class Markers in Postsocialist Societies: The Case of Poland2010In: Space and Culture, ISSN 1206-3312, E-ISSN 1552-8308, Vol. 13, no 4, 421-435 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to analyze how social class markers are constructed in the discourse on gated communities in a postsocialist urban context. The case of Poland is used as an example of apost-Communist country where the number of gated communities is increasing rapidly in urban areas. The material of study consists of 50 articles published in the largest national newspaper.

    This article argues that the discourse on gated communities is constituted by and constitutes class divisions and social class markers prevalent in the country since the fall of Communism. The “new” capitalistic system with its inherent social divisions is described as creating demands for “new” forms of housing where gates function as separators, protectors, and class identifiers. Residential differentiation is a reality in Polish society, and private space has become a symbol of exclusivity and spread throughout the country along with the popularity of gated forms of housing.

  • 24.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The emergence of enclaves of wealth and poverty: A sociological study of residential differentiation in post-communist Poland2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the fall of communism, some crucial political, economic and social changes have been taking place in the former communist societies. The objective of the thesis is to examine the processes of residential differentiation taking place in the urban landscape of the Polish city of Gdańsk after the introduction of the capitalist system. The focus is on different forms of residential differentiation and the social, economic and historical factors behind these forms. The empirical material that forms the basis of the thesis consists of interviews, newspaper articles, a questionnaire, official (national and local) reports and documents. Study I examines the way in which different social, economic, historical and physical conditions coincide in the formation of space and the processes of decline in the period of transformation in Poland. The focus lies on a specific residential area in the center of Gdańsk and the lack of improvements in this particular area, which would stop its successive decline. Study II explains the emergence of gated communities in the post-communist urban context and discusses the reasons for their increasing numbers and popularity. The main argument is that the popularity of gated communities is tightly intertwined with the communist past, emerging in reaction to the housing conditions that prevailed under communism. Study III investigates how social class markers are constructed in the discourse on gated communities in post-socialist Poland. The “new” capitalistic system, with its inherent social divisions, is described in the discourse as creating demands for “new” forms of housing, where gates function as separators, protectors and class identifiers. Study IV concentrates on the support for the formation of gated communities in the legal and regulatory framework in Poland since 1989. The paper asserts that the outcome of liberal politics and legal regulation in the country is the neglect of spatial planning and imprecise urban policies.

  • 25.
    Polanska Vergara, Dominika
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The rise of gated neighborhoods in Poland: legal and regulatory frameworkManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the support for the formation of gated communities in the legal and regulatory framework in Poland established since the fall of Communism in 1989. The focus is on how government policy with regard to spatial planning and housing, together with the law on property and ownership, affects the emergence and development of gated forms of housing in the country. The article argues that the outcome of liberal politics and legal regulation in the country is the result of a disregard for spatial planning and imprecise urban policies. Existing spatial plans are of a consultative nature and bear no regulatory capacity at the same time that spatial planning in the country is strongly in favor of landowners and new construction. In light of the present urban disarray, gated housing is an indirect result of neglected urban politics combined with loopholes in the regulations and pro-construction policies, which create a favorable environment for housing developers.

  • 26.
    Rindzeviciute, Egle
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Discursive Realities: The Construction of National Identity in the Documentation of Lithuanian Cultural Policy2003In: Contemporary change in Lithuania / [ed] Egle Rindzeviciute, Huddinge: Baltic & East European Graduate School, Södertörns högskola , 2003, 53-70 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Saar, Maarja
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Reflexivity beyond lifestyle migration: highly skilled Estonian migrantsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Saar, Maarja
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    The answers you seek will never be found at home: Reflexivity, biographical narratives and lifestyle migration among highly-skilled Estonians2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on issues around reflexivity and highly skilled migration. Reflexivity has been an underused concept in migration studies and incurporating it has been long overdue. By reflexivity this thesis understands the capacity of an actor to evaluate his or her position in relation to social structures, to take action in managing those structures and, finally, to critically revise both the position and action taken.

    There are multiple reasons as to why incorporating reflexivity is a useful endeavor to migration studies. On one hand, using reflexive types in order to understand different migration motivations offers an alternative to otherwise mainly class based explanations behind migration objectives. Migration research has long relied on the idea that migration motivations can be coupled with societal and class background. Similarly, return migration has been described almost unanimously as a result of a homing desire. Both positions, as claimed in this thesis, are oversimplifications. On the other hand, I argue that, reflexivity helps to analyze the importance of class or even society on migration in 21th century. This is why I suggest to analyze all three in concurrence – migration, reflexivity and class.

    In the following pages I analyze how reflexivity can be operationalized for studying migration. So far, reflexivity has been either used as background concept – mobility studies or for explaining particular kind of migration – lifestyle migration. I argue, that with careful operationalization reflexivity could be useful tool for explaining wide-variety of migrations – family, labour, lifestyle etc. Three articles in this thesis focus on providing such operationalizations, analyzing the relationship between migration motivations and reflexivity. Finally, the first article in this thesis analyzes the background of my particular group of migrants – Estonian highly skilled migrants and positions them in relation to other groups in Estonian society. Moreover, the article also underlines that self-development and lifestyle, if you will, is an important motivation for Eastern European migrants as well.

  • 29.
    Saar, Maarja
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Using reflexivity to explain variations in migration among highly-skilledManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University College, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    On Interpersonal Violence in Russia in the Present and the Past: A Sociological Study2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Timofeeva, Irina
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Moscow2008In: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 23, 447-456 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines attitudes towards violenceagainst women among the populace in Moscow, Russiausing data drawn from the Moscow Health Survey.Information was obtained from 1,190 subjects (510 menand 680 women) about their perceptions of whetherviolence against women was a serious problem in contemporaryRussia, and under what circumstances they thoughtit was justifiable for a husband to hit his wife. Less thanhalf the respondents thought violence was a seriousproblem, while for a small number of interviewees therewere several scenarios where violence was regarded asbeing permissible against a wife. Being young, divorced orwidowed, having financial difficulties, and regularly consumingalcohol were associated with attitudes moresupportive of violence amongst men; having a loweducational level underpinned supportive attitudes amongboth men and women. Results are discussed in terms of the public reemergence of patriarchal attitudes in Russia in thepost-Soviet period.

  • 32.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Timofeeva, Irina
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Sparén, Pär
    Risk factors for intimate partner violence against women in St. Petersburg, Russia2008In: Violence against Women, ISSN 1077-8012, E-ISSN 1552-8448, Vol. 14, no 4, 483-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study examines which risk factors are associated with intimate partner violence against women in St. Petersburg, Russia. Women attending two crisis centers and a birthing house constituted the study sample. The male partner's frequent alcohol consumption and seeing his father hit his mother in childhood were associated with an increased risk of violence, whereas living in a communal apartment reduced the risk of intimate partner violence. The importance of crisis centers in Russia is highlighted by the study, as the women who turn to them are likely to have experienced more severe forms of violence.

  • 33.
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Energy projects from the perspective of society: Analyzing responses and actions of environmental organizations2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Tarasova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Edberg, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Large-scale energy projects: Geopolitics, legitimization and emotions2014In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. online, no June 27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Maybe Baby?: Reproductive Behaviour, Fertility Intentions, and Family Policies in Post-communist Countries, with a Special Focus on Ukraine2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies different aspects of reproductive behaviour on the international, national, and local levels in post-communist countries. The main focus is Ukraine, where fertility rates are very low and the population is in severe decline. The studies contribute new knowledge about the applicability of a family policy typology developed on the basis of Western countries’ experience for post-communist countries, and about the influence of family policies on fertility levels in these countries. Moreover, the studies investigate whether and how macro-level influences impact on individuals’ reproductive behaviour. Four articles are included in the thesis:

    Family policies in Ukraine and Russia in comparative perspective analyses the institutional set-up of family policies in both countries and compares the findings to 31 other countries. The results show that Ukrainian family policies support a male-breadwinner type of family, while the benefit levels of Russian family policies are low, compelling families to rely on relatives or the childcare market.

    Family policies and fertility - Examining the link between family policy institutions and fertility rates in 33 countries 1995-2010 comparatively explores whether family policies have an effect on fertility rates across the case-countries. Pooled time-series regression analysis demonstrates that gender-egalitarian family policies are connected to higher fertility rates, but that this effect is smaller at higher rates of female labour force participation.

    To have or not to have a child? Perceived constraints on childbearing in a lowest-low fertility context investigates the influence of the perception of postmodern values, childcare availability and environmental pollution on individuals’ fertility intentions in a city in Eastern Ukraine. It is shown that women who already have a child perceive environmental pollution as a constraint on their fertility intentions.

    Prevalence and correlates of the use of contraceptive methods by women in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007 examines changes in the prevalence and the correlates of the use of contraceptive methods. The use of modern contraceptive methods increased during the period and the use of traditional methods decreased, while the overall prevalence did not change. Higher exposure to messages about family planning in the media is correlated with the use of modern contraceptive methods.

  • 36.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Prevalence and correlates of the use of contraceptive methods by women in Ukraine in 1999 and 20072015In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 67, no 10, 1547-1570 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the prevalence and the correlates of the use of contraceptive methods in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007. Between those years, the overall use of contraceptive methods decreased slightly. However, the use of modern contraceptive methods, and especially the use of condoms, increased considerably, while the use of traditional contraceptive methods decreased. Higher exposure to messages about family planning in the media was correlated with the use of modern contraceptive methods. It is posited that the results suggest that state policies influence individual behaviour in contraception.

  • 37.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala Universitet.
    To Have or Not to Have a Child?: Perceived Constraints on Childbearing in a Lowest-Low Fertility Context2015In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 21, no 1, 86-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of perceived macro-level constraints on childbearing on women’s fertility decision-making on the micro level was analysed in Stakhanov, a city with a shrinking population in Eastern Ukraine. The perceived macro-level constraints employed in the study were related to childcare arrangements, value changes regarding family formation, and pollution of the environment and health concerns. To study the influence of those constraints, logistic regression analyses were conducted whereby first-birth and second-birth intentions were analysed separately. None of the constraints influenced childless women’s first-birth intentions. Instead, sociodemographic factors such as age and civil status appeared as significant predictors. That none of the constraints influenced childless women’s fertility intentions is interpreted to be an indicator of the strong norm of having at least one child in Ukraine.For women with one child, the fact that pollution of the environment and health concerns connected to childbirth were perceived as a constraint on childbearing at the national level was significantly associated with lower second-birth intentions. Women in Ukraine seem to perceive environmental pollution as a constraint on their fertility, possibly influenced by public discourse related to the health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Moreover, the inhabitants of Stakhanov itself have experienced environmental pollution at close range. Those factors together could explain why environmental pollution and poor health were seen as constraints on childbearing at the national level, and the negative influence these had on second-birth intentions.It is argued that environmental pollution should be considered a factor influencing fertility decision-making. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 38.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet.
    Family policies and fertility: Examining the link between family policy institutions and fertility rates in 33 countries 1995-2010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In what ways are family policies related to fertility? Previous studies of OECD countries have arrived at mixed results when analysing the effects of family policy expenditures or formal benefit rates. This study draws on new institutional family policy data from a wider set of 33 countries in a multidimensional analysis of the link between family policy institutions and fertility 1995-2010. Pooled time-series regressions show that more extensive gender-egalitarian family policies, i.e. earner-carer support, are linked to higher fertility, while policies supporting more traditional family patterns show no statistically significant effects. Analyses of the interaction between earner-carer support and female labour force participation indicate that the impact of introducing more gender-egalitarian policies is stronger in countries with lower levels of female labour force participation. Regressions with differenced data sustain ideas of earner-carer support being linked to total fertility increase.

  • 39.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet.
    Family policies in Ukraine and Russia in comparative perspectiveArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the institutional setting of family policies in Ukraine and Russia with 31 countries, including post-communist countries and other EU and OECD countries. Large-scale systematic comparisons of family policies in Ukraine and Russia with longstanding welfare states and other post-communist European countries have so far been lacking. The analyses are based on a comparative institutional approach, which captures the content of legislation multidimensionally instead of focusing only on social expenditure. This enables an evaluation of the structure of Ukrainian and Russian family policies in relation to other countries in 2005. Analyses show that Ukraine and Russia differ considerably in terms of family policy, as do other post-communist countries. Ukraine more actively supports traditional family patterns, while Russia leaves greater room for market forces. The policies in Ukraine and Russia are likely to be insufficient when it comes to addressing work-family conflicts and increasing long-term fertility.

  • 40.
    Zakharov, Nikolay
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Attaining Whiteness: A Sociological Study of Race and Racialization in Russia2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Attaining Whiteness is the first book-length sociological study of how ideas about race resonate in post-Soviet Russia. The book charts how tropes of self, hybridity, and maturity constitute important symbolic vehicles for applying the idea of race to the drawing of differences. A new theoretical framework is developed that casts light on fields of study that have not yet received sufficient attention in Western European and American research concerning racial issues. This study of racialization takes a step towards providing a better understanding of how the discourses of race are extended and transformed through the production of social knowledge and social relations. This volume addresses the resilience of genetic criteria for defining cultures and behaviors in both the sciences and humanities in Russia, and also examines the ongoing and pervasive policy of racialized exclusion. The study argues that the concepts and practices of race, whiteness, and Russianness operate ambivalently insofar as they both hold the social fabric together, organizing the perception of the “Other”, but also undermine the unity of society. Racialization thus fosters, first, the sense that Russia belongs to the core of civilization as opposed to the Third World; second, the formulation of policies towards the internal peripheries that support social control informed by the notion of human material; and, finally, the promotion of exclusionary ethnic self-identifications that employ the discourse of hybridity.

  • 41.
    Zakharov, Nikolay
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Uppsala University.
    The social movement against immigration as the vehicle and the agent of racialization in Russia2013In: Beyond NGO-ization: The Development of Social Movements in Central and Eastern Europe / [ed] Jacobsson Kerstin & Saxonberg Steven, Farnham: Ashgate, 2013, 169-189 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Zakharov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Ivanou, Aleh
    ‘Tolerance' Frame As a Hindrance to Effective Public/Authorities Feedback in Belarus2014In: RC36 Alienation Theory and Research (host committee): Post-colonized Eastern Europe: Overcoming Alienation and Social Fatigue, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report is going to consider ‘tolerance’ as an ideological frame. A critical assessment will be done of tolerance on the part of Belarusian people.

    It is going to be shown that a) tolerance as an invariably beneficent trait of the Belarusian people is quite mistaken, b) that the ‘tolerance’ frame interferes with democratic governance principles as accepted and practiced worldwide, c) that responses to public dissatisfaction (part and parcel of normal governance systems) in Belarus are complicated due to persistence of the ‘tolerance’ frame; and d) that for the more fortunate and sustainable democratic outcomes in Belarus a regular public/authority feedback should be restored by getting rid of ‘tolerance’ as part of the ideological apparatus.

    The idea of this paper concerns ‘tolerance’ as it enters democratic governance schemes and might be leading to their malfunction. The word tolerance is widely used in liberal democracies and is ascribed a positive meaning. However, it appears that tolerance is not necessarily a virtue. The word tolerance has negative connotations as it acknowledges a problem. The danger with the ideological frame ‘tolerance’ is that it might enter democratic governance models where it can effectively block public responses to dissatisfaction. This way, the system is incapable of conveying public dissatisfaction, and the stimulus is removed for the authorities to improve their work. This might be evident in Belarus, where people have little opportunity to convey their dissatisfaction, given that they are considered as well as consider themselves ‘tolerant’. In this case, their tolerance, being mere holding on, is a potential volcano.

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