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  • 1.
    Burfoot, Christopher
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tourism as a tool for communicating complex environmental issues: Applying the ecosystem services framework to nature-based tourism activities across Iceland2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the twenty-first century, the lowering cost and increased availability of travel options has resulted in virtually uninterrupted economic growth of the international tourism sector. While financially beneficial, the increased movement of people has also been shown to have a negative impact on the environment, leading to the growth of a more environmentally-friendly approach to travel called nature-based tourism. One country at the forefront of the nature-based tourism movement is Iceland, and while the sector has grown significantly in the country over the past decade, the way in which information concerning environmental issues is communicated to tourists has not been widely researched. Being the case, the aim of this study was to examine the extent to which environmental issues are communicated to the general public through the use of the ecosystem services framework. Four popular nature-based tourism activities were selected for analysis; a whale watching tour, a horse riding tour, a boat tour of a glacial lagoon and a spa experience in a geothermal hot spring. A literature review concerning how the ecosystem services framework related to each of these tours was carried out and findings were compared to observatory data gathered through participation in said tourism activities. Results showed that while scientific publications could be found for each tour/ecosystem service combination, information concerning environmental issues was not widely communicated to participants in the nature-based tourism activities using the ecosystem services framework.

  • 2.
    Bökmark, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linnala, Laura
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Miljön som handelsvara: en diskursanalys över utsläppsrättssystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Växthusgasnivåerna i atmosfären har nått nivåer som påverkar klimatet på jorden. Det här ställer krav på politiska överenskommelser som effektivt kan verka för en minskning av växthusgaser i atmosfären. Kyotoprotokollet implementerades 1997 och innehåller lagbindande krav på medlemsländerna att minska sina växthusgasutsläpp och presenterar utsläppsrätter som styrmedel för att nå målen. Utsläppsrätter innebär att politiker sätter ett pris på rätten att släppa ut och låter verksamheter som förorenar handla med rätterna, vilket enligt nationalekonomisk marknadsteori är det mest effektiva sättet att gå tillväga. Detta kan däremot kritiseras av ekologiska ekonomer som motsätter sig prissättande av miljön.

    Diskursteori används för att studera vad som har normaliserats med införandet av utsläppsrättssystem och därför inte ifrågasätts. Analysen visade att två diskurser primärt råder i den utvalda empirin; ekonomisk liberalism och teknologisk tilltro. Fokus på vinst, tillväxt, kostnadseffektivitet samt teknikoptimism återkom i alla tre dokumenten och framställs som avgörande för att nå målen för utsläppsreduktion.

    Utsläppsrätter är ett ekonomiskt styrmedel vars styrka ligger i marknadsmekanismer, men ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv finns problematik med prissättande av miljön; framförallt att det vilar på svag hållbarhet. Även marknadens otillräckliga förmåga att ta hänsyn till moraliska angelägenheter, prissättning av miljön och att ansvarsförskjutning mot företag placerar en större klyfta mellan människa och miljö kan tolkas som problematiskt.

  • 3.
    Edlund, Nathalie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gaspar, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jordbruksfåglarnas minskning i Stockholms län: En kvantitativ studie av fåglarna i jordbrukslandskapet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1970s, a breeding bird survey was conducted to see how many birds are breeding in Sweden. This was done because the research at the time pointed out that there was a decrease in the number of bird species. This inventory became known as atlas inventory 1, and an additional inventory was done in the 2000s, which was called atlas inventory 2. The second inventory was carried out in order to see trends in bird population distribution and to be compared with atlas inventory 1. The purpose of this study was to examine if it is possible to compare the inventories with each other to see if there are any changes in the number of breeding birds in Sweden. The study was limited to the Stockholm report area, which includes all municipalities in Stockholm County except for Norrtälje. A limitation was also made to only examine agricultural birds, where six species were selected. The results show that the number of atlas squares with data for breeding birds within the Stockholm report area have decreased between atlas inventory 1 and atlas inventory 2. To obtain these results, information was retrieved from the website Artportalen, and was then compiled and processed in Excel and ArcMap. A comparison between the period 2013-2016 and atlas inventory 2 was also done, which showed a decrease in the number of atlas squares with available data, as well as a reduction in the number of observations of breeding birds.

  • 4.
    Ekblom, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Green Wave: How communication, advocacy andparticipation measures are included indocuments important for increase bicycling inStockholm City and Nacka Municipality2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is becoming increasingly urban. This puts pressure on a number of functions within cities, not the least the transportation system. Motorized traffic is responsible for a number of negative environmental effects, such as carbon dioxide emissions and particle pollution. To halt this development an increased share of bicyclists is needed. Stockholm County is an area with rapid urbanization. Therefore, a comparative study was undertaken to analyse how Stockholm City and Nacka Municipality are including communication, advocacy and participation measures in documents important for increased bicycling. This as those measures are important to increase the number of bicyclists. The analysis was undertaken by using two typologies, a modified version of the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) to understand how the two cases include communication and advocacy measures whereas Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizens Participation was chosen to understand how participation is included in the documents. The findings suggest many similarities between the two cases but Nacka Municipality perform better with their use of social media, and the activities ”bicycle-friendly workplace” and ”winter bicycling”. From the findings three recommendations where provided: create bicycle councils to improve inclusion of bicyclists in the processes. Second, it is important to have different type of role models across the municipality, both in socio-economic strong and weak areas. And third, create dedicated outlets for bicycle issues, tentatively on a social media outlet. This will increase the status of bicycles, it will promote bicycling as a good transportation choice and it open ups channels for citizens interaction.

  • 5.
    Perunicic, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dånvikens algblomning och dess sociala konsekvenser för fastighetsägare i Sjöudden/Gråstena i Salems kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recreational loss due to algal blooms is large even though recreation is important for human health and social cohesion. This study examines the social consequences of the autumn bloom in the lake Dånviken, Sweden, for property owners in close proximity to the lake and how future algal blooms can be prevented. Through sewerage analysis, survey, interview and conflict analysis, one can see that recreational opportunities have been threatened by the bloom through consequences such as bad odors and ruined beaches. Reduced recreation reduces social cohesion among residents as the bloom affected the social hotspots with connection to Dånviken negatively. With the help of conflict theory, we see the existence of different values ​​and uneven distribution of the power property owners have regarding the impact on Dånviken, which means increased risk of conflict in conjunction with algal blooms. The sewage situation looks better today compared to 2006 but still contributes to eutrophication through nutritional emissions. Since 2006, 54.5 % of the properties concerned have fixed their sewerage and the proportion of real estate’s connected to a sewer system has increased by 19.6 %, where the number of mini-treatment plant and soil- and infiltration beds has more than doubled. In order to prevent future blooms in Dånviken, the municipality must continue to demand better sewage and supervision, the water and sewage network also needs to be expanded among other measures. Continued studies in the area are important in order to better understand the social consequences of threatened recreational opportunities due to algal blooms.

  • 6.
    Svensson, Evelina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Conflicting interests in natural resource management: - A case study on mining in northern Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the leading mining country in Europe and the Swedish government intends to retain this position by fostering innovation, investments and cooperation. However, mining is an extractive industry with massive consequences on the surrounding environment and the people living there. In resource abundant northern Sweden mineral extraction is a contested subject, not least in respect to the traditional land use by the Sami population. This study intends to increase the understanding of the current mining trial process in Sweden, the effects on sustainable regional development and the implications for local communities. To do so, this study aims to identify which aspects that are brought forward during the trial for exploitation concession and how different interests are evaluated. For the purpose of this study, the bureaucratic mining trial process is examined and 15 mining cases studied in detail considering the exploitation concession phase. The material indicates that conflicts over the bureaucratic process is based both in what aspects that should be included in the assessment, how these aspects are evaluated and at what stage in the formal process various aspects should be brought up. Guided by the concepts of extractivism and subnational resource curse, the main finding identified is that the mining trial process is state-centred. This is displayed in the limited influence of local actors on the decision and in the use of national interest as a policy tool to evaluate conflicting land use claims. These characteristics can in turn increase the risk of a subnational resource curse in northern Sweden. 

  • 7.
    Viktor, Watz
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The detrimental effect of alcohol on HIV treatment adherence: A systematic review and meta-analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The fight against HIV is addressed in both the Sustainable Development Goals and in the 90-90-90-goals set by the United Nations.Emerging evidence is suggesting a “neglected interface” between alcohol consumption and HIV. Earlier studies has sought out to quantify this relationship, but there are still uncertainties regarding the generalizability of the results and if this also applies to different types of drinking intensities.

    Methods: This study applied a systematic search for articles published between 1990-2017 in Pubmed/Medline. 46 studies was included in the final analysis.

    Results: Alcohol was found to have a significant detrimental effect on treatment adherence on all drinking intensities. All but one analysis showed a significant amount of heterogeneity.

    Conclusion: The findings of this study goes in line with previous research but adds insight on the harm of moderate drinking. The result of this and earlier findings give a clear point of direction of alcohol consumption guidelines in people living with HIV. If global targets of viral suppression should be achieved, a more holistic approach where the prevention of non-communicable diseases and infectious diseases go hand in hand might actually be the only way forward.

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