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  • 1.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Renström, Emma A
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gender bias in assessment of future work ability among pain patients - an experimental vignette study of medical students' assessment2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 407-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims Pain is a prevalent problem in many countries. Women are more often on sick-leave for pain than men. Such gender differences have been explained through biological factors, different demands for on the job market, and home conditions. Fewer studies have focused on how gender stereotypes may bias the medical assessment of pain patients. The aim of the present research was to investigate if a gender bias in medical students' evaluations of chronic pain patients can contribute to explaining the gender differences in sick-leave due to pain. Specifically, we investigated whether medical students' estimates of a patient's accuracy of their own work ability and amount of domestic work differed between female and male patients, and how such estimates influenced the medical students' judgments of the patient's work ability. Methods Medical students (n=137; 60 women; 74 men; three unspecified) read a vignette describing a patient with pain and filled out a questionnaire. The vignette was identical and gender neutral, except for the name of the patient signaling gender. A between-subjects experimental design was used in which participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition. Participants then judged the patient's work ability, the accuracy of the patient's self-assessed work ability, and the amount of domestic work they believed was performed by the patient. All ratings were made on seven-point items. Results The results showed that there was no main effect of gender on perceived future work ability of the patient, F (1,131)=0.867, p=0.353. However, male patients were considered to be more accurate in their self-assessed work ability than female patients F (1,131)=5.925 p=0.016 (Mfemale=4.87, SDfemale=1.22, and Mmale=5.33, SDmale=1.02). Moreover, female patients were thought to perform more domestic work, F (1,131)=25.56, p<0.001 (Mfemale=4.14, SDfemale=1.41, and Mmale=3.07, SDmale=1.16). Finally, perceived amount of domestic work moderated the effects of perceived future work ability for female but not for male patients, B=0.42, p=0.005. Hence, there was a positive effect of amount of domestic work performed on work ability judgments for women, such that the more domestic work they were assumed to perform, the more they were perceived to be able to work. Conclusions Gender stereotypes influenced assessments of future work ability in pain patients, mainly because women were assumed to perform more domestic work which had a positive effect on perceived work ability. Because domestic work should have a negative effect on recovery, expectations from the physician that domestic work is expected by female patients may in fact have the opposite effect prolonging sick-leave. Moreover, the students trusted the male patients' ability to assess their own work capacity more than women's. Implications It is important that medical students receive education about gender biases and how they may influence medical assessment during their training. Such education may alleviate the influence of gender stereotypes.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Eagly, Alice
    Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.
    Sczesny, Sabine
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Of Caring Nurses and Assertive Police Officers: Social Role Information Overrides Gender Stereotypes in Linguistic Behavior2019In: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three studies demonstrated the expression of gender stereotypes in linguistic behavior. In Study 1, participants composed sentences describing a person by freely choosing from female- or male-dominated occupations, female or male pronouns, and communal or agentic traits. In Study 2a, participants chose traits to describe a person identified by a female- or male-dominated occupation and in Study 2b by a female or male pronoun and noun. In Study 3, participants chose traits for a person identified by both a female- or male-dominated occupation and a female or male pronoun. In general, participants chose more communal and fewer agentic traits for sentences containing a female- (vs. male-) dominated occupation and a female (vs. male) pronoun or noun. However, participants described women and men in the same occupation as similarly agentic or communal, demonstrating the primacy of role over sex information as predicted by social role theory.

  • 3.
    Komlenac, Nikola
    et al.
    Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Verdonk, Petra
    Amsterdam UMC-VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hochleitner, Margarethe
    Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Siller, Heidi
    Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Parenthood does not explain the gender difference in clinical position in academic medicine among Swedish, Dutch and Austrian physicians2019In: Advances in Health Sciences Education, ISSN 1382-4996, E-ISSN 1573-1677, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 539-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have continuously shown that fewer women than men achieve leadership positions in academic medicine. In the current study we explored gender differences in clinical position among academic physicians at three university hospitals, each in a different European country. These countries, Sweden, the Netherlands and Austria, differ in terms of gender equality. We analyzed whether the number of children, working hours or publications could explain gender differences in physicians' clinical position. In this cross-sectional questionnaire study 1333 (54% female) physicians participated. Physicians were asked about their gender, age, number of children, working hours and clinical position. We used structural equation models to explore the influence of gender on the physicians' clinical position in each of the three countries. We explored whether the association between gender and clinical position could be explained by number of children, working hours or publication activity. The analyses revealed that at all three university hospitals gender influenced clinical position. These gender differences in clinical position could be partly explained by gender differences in publication activity. Female physicians as compared to male physicians were likely to publish fewer articles, and in turn these lower publication numbers were associated with lower clinical positions. The number of children or working hours did not explain gender differences in publication activity or clinical position. Therefore, factors other than unequal allocation of household labor, such as the academic working environment, may still disproportionately disadvantage women's progress, even at universities in countries with high rates of gender equality such as Sweden.

  • 4.
    Lindqvist, A.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Renström, E. A.
    Gothenburg University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Reducing a Male Bias in Language?: Establishing the Efficiency of Three Different Gender-Fair Language Strategies2019In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different strategies of gender-fair language have been applied to reduce a male bias, which means the implicit belief that a word describing an undefined person describes a man. This male bias might be caused by the words themselves in terms of generic masculine or masculine forms or by androcentrism (the conflation of men with humanity). In two experiments, we tested how different gender-fair strategies used as labels of an unknown social target (an applicant in a recruitment situation) could eliminate the male bias. The three types of gender-fair strategies tested were: (a) paired forms (he/she), (b) traditional neutral words (e.g., singular they, “the applicant”), or (c) gender-neutral third-person pronouns actively created to challenge the binary gender system (ze, Swedish hen). The two experiments were performed in Swedish with 417 undergraduates in Sweden and in English with 411 U.S. participants recruited online. In Swedish, the third-person gender-neutral pronoun singular (hen) was used. In English, several forms of such gender-neutral pronouns have been suggested (e.g., ze). In both experiments, results indicated that paired forms and actively created gender-neutral pronouns eliminated the male bias, whereas traditional neutral words contained a male bias. Thus, gender-fair language strategies should avoid using traditional words. Consequences of using paired forms and creating new gender-neutral words are discussed. We argue that an actively created gender-neutral pronoun is of highest value because it is more inclusive. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 5.
    Pietraszkiewicz, Agnieszka
    et al.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Formanowicz, Magdalena
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Boyd, Ryan L.
    The University of Texas at Austin, USA.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lund University.
    Sczesny, Sabine
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    The Big Two Dictionaries:Capturing Agency and Communion in Natural Language2019In: European Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0046-2772, E-ISSN 1099-0992, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 871-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four studies developed and validated two dictionaries to capture agentic and communal expressions in natural language. Their development followed the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) approach (Study 1) and we tested their validity with frequency-based analyses and semantic similarity measures. The newly developed Agency and Communion dictionaries were aligned with LIWC categories related to agency and communion (Study 2), and corresponded with subjective ratings (Study 3), confirming their convergent validity. Very low or absent correspondence between proposed dictionaries and unrelated LIWC categories demonstrated their discriminant validity (Study 2). Finally, we applied both dictionaries to language used in advertisements. In correspondence to gender stereotypes, male-dominated jobs were advertised with more agentic than communal words, and female-dominated jobs with more communal than agentic words (Study 4). Both dictionaries represent reliable tools for quantifying agentic and communal content in natural language, and will improve and facilitate future research on agency and communion.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Klysing, Amanda
    Lund University.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Lund University.
    Renström, Emma Aurora
    Gothenburg University.
    The (Not So) Changing Man: Dynamic Gender Stereotypes in Sweden2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Social Role Theory gender stereotypes are dynamic constructs influenced by actual and perceived changes in which roles women and men occupy (Wood & Eagly, 2011). Sweden is ranked as one of the most gender equal countries in the world, with a strong national equality discourse, and a relatively high number of men engaging in traditionally communal roles such as parenting and domestic tasks. This would imply a change towards higher communion among men. Therefore, we investigated the dynamics of gender stereotype content in Sweden with a primary interest in the male stereotype and perceptions of gender equality. In Study 1, participants (N = 323) estimated descriptive stereotype content of women and men in Sweden in the past, present or future. They also estimated gender distribution in occupations and domestic roles for each time-point. Results showed that the female stereotype increased in agentic traits from the past to the present, while the male stereotype had not changed. Furthermore, participants estimated no change for the future, and they overestimated how often women and men occupy gender nontraditional roles at present times. In Study 2, we controlled for participants’ actual knowledge about role change by either describing women’s change in agentic roles, or men’s change in communal roles (and a control). Participants (N = 648) were randomised to the three different conditions. Overall, the female stereotype increased in masculine traits, and this change was mediated by perceptions of social role occupation. The male stereotype did not change in femininity but decreased in masculinity when change focused on women’s role change in agentic roles. These results indicate that role change among women also influence perceptions of the male stereotype. Altogether, the results indicate that positive femininity is harder for men to gain, in that the only difference in gender stereotypes at present times occurred for this dimension.

  • 7.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University.
    Hawley, Caitlin B.
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University.
    Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 171091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions.

  • 8.
    Bäck, E. A.
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Bäck, H.
    Lund University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm Univeristy.
    Sikström, S.
    Lund University.
    From I to we: Group formation and linguistic adaption in an online xenophobic forum2018In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 76-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of identity formation processes nowadays takes place online, indicating that intergroup differentiation may be found in online communities. This paper focuses on identity formation processes in an open online xenophobic, anti-immigrant, discussion forum. Open discussion forums provide an excellent opportunity to investigate open interactions that may reveal how identity is formed and how individual users are influenced by other users. Using computational text analysis and Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC), our results show that new users change from an individual identification to a group identification over time as indicated by a decrease in the use of “I” and increase in the use of “we”. The analyses also show increased use of “they” indicating intergroup differentiation. Moreover, the linguistic style of new users became more similar to that of the overall forum over time. Further, the emotional content decreased over time. The results indicate that new users on a forum create a collective identity with the other users and adapt to them linguistically.

  • 9.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholms universitet.
    Hen. Bakgrund, attityder och användande2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2015 infördes det könsneutrala pronomenet hen i Svenska akademins ordlista efter en känslomässig allmän debatt om ordet, dess innebörd och möjliga konsekvenser. Hösten 2015 genomförde vi en större enkätundersökning som besvarades av 1308 personer registrerade i Enkätfabrikens deltagarpanel. Enkäten presenterades som en studie om attityder i aktuella frågor, till exempel attityder till jämställdhet och det svenska språket. Enkäten innehöll frågor om attityder till och användande av det könsneutrala pronomenet hen. Till exempel ställdes frågor om hur ofta och i vilka situationer hen används, och vad deltagaren tycker om ordet. I enkäten fanns också mer generella frågor om jämställdhet och språk.I den här rapporten beskrivs först hur språk och jämställdhet är relaterade till varandra och hur språk antas kunna påverka uppfattningar om kön. Vi beskriver också specifikt hur införandet av hen gick till. Efter det följer resultat från enkäten.Studien är en del av ett större projekt vars huvudsakliga syfte är att studera attityder till och kognitiva effekter av det könsneutrala pronomenet hen. Andra studier i projektet inkluderar experimentella laboratoriestudier med ögonrörelsemätningar, enkät-experiment samt en uppföljande enkät till denna, för att studera förändringar över tid. Projektet är ett samarbete mellan de psykologiska institutionerna vid Stockholms, Lunds och Göteborgs universitet och har sin hemvist vid Stockholms universitet.

  • 10.
    Steen Rostad, Ingrid
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology; St Olavs University Hospital, Norway.
    Danielsen Tvedt, Sturle
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Tevik Løvseth, Lise
    St Olavs University Hospital, Norway.
    Physicians' Mental Health and Nationality Affect how Work Characteristics Influence Presenteeism2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 3, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Steen Rostad, Ingrid
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Lovseth, Lise Tevik
    St Olavs University Hospital, Norway.
    Paid Sick Leave as a Means to Reduce Sickness Presenteeism Among Physicians2017In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 71-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurrent international data show that physicians often attend work while ill, termed sickness presenteeism. The current study investigated if sickness presenteeism scores among European physicians varied according to national paid sick leave legislation. We hypothesized that prevalence of presenteeism was higher in countries with lower levels of paid sick leave. We used repeated cross-sectional survey data, phase I (2004/2005, N = 1326) and phase II (2012/2013, N = 1403), among senior consultants at university hospitals in Sweden, Norway, and Italy. Analyses of variances assessed cross-country differences in presenteeism. To assess the impact of country on presenteeism, we used multiple regression analyses controlled for sex, age, family status, work hours, and work content. The results from phase I supported the initial hypothesis. At phase II, presenteeism scores had decreased among the Italian and Swedish sample. The results are discussed with regard to changes in legislation on workhours and medical liability in Italy and Sweden between phase I and II.

  • 12.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hawley, Caitlin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS): Development and Validation of a Novel Olfactory Disgust Assessment2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 499-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors. Collected data from 3 studies (total n = 528) show that the scale can be used either as a unidimensional scale or as a scale that reflects two hypothesized factors: sensitivity to one's own body odors versus those of others. Guided by our results, we reduced the scale to 12 items that capture the essence of these 2 factors. The final version of the BODS shows an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha s > 0.9). The BODS subscales show convergent validity with other general disgust scales, as well as with other olfactory functions measures and with aspects of personality that are related to pathogen avoidance. A fourth study confirmed the construct validity of the BODS and its measurement invariance to gender. Moreover, we found that, compared with other general disgust scales, the BODS is more strongly related to perceived vulnerability to disease. The BODS is a brief and valid assessment of trait body odor disgust sensitivity.

  • 13.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Schenck Gustafsson, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm Univeristy.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm Univeristy / Karolinska Institutet.
    Threats or violence from patients was associated with turnover intention among foreign-born GPs - a comparison of four workplace factors associated with attitudes of wanting to quit one's job as a GP2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 208-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: General practitioners (GPs) are crucial in medical healthcare, but there is currently a shortage of GPs in Sweden and elsewhere. Recruitment of GPs from abroad is essential, but foreign-born physicians face difficulties at work that may be related to turnover intention, i.e. wanting to quit one's job. The study aims to explore the reasons to why foreign-born GPs may intend to quit their job. Design: Survey data were used to compare four work-related factors that can be associated with turnover intentions; patient-related stress, threats or violence from patients, control of work pace, and empowering leadership, among native-born and foreign-born GPs. These work-related factors were subsequently examined in relation to turnover intention among the foreign-born GPs by means of linear hierarchical regression analyses. The questionnaire consisted of items from the QPS Nordic and items constructed by the authors. Setting: A primary care setting in a central area of Sweden. Subjects: Native-born (n = 208) and foreign-born GPs (n = 73). Results: Turnover intention was more common among foreign-born GPs (19.2% compared with 14.9%), as was the experience of threats or violence from patients (22% compared with 3% of the native-born GPs). Threats or violence was also associated with increased turnover intention. Control of work pace and an empowering leadership was associated with reduced turnover intention.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Karolinska Institute.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University.
    Gender differences in Reasons for Sickness Presenteeism - a study among GPs in a Swedish health care organization2016In: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 2052-4374, Vol. 28, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is common that physicians go to work while sick and therefore it is important to understand the reasons behind. Previous research has shown that women and men differ in health and health related behavior. In this study, we examine gender differences among general practitioners who work while sick. Methods: General practitioners (GP's) working in outpatient care in a Swedish city participated in the study (n = 283; women = 63 %; response rate = 41 %). Data were obtained from a large web-based questionnaire about health and organization within primary care. Two questions about sickness presenteeism (going to work while sick) were included; life-long and during the past 12 months, and five questions about reasons. We controlled for general health, work-family conflict and demographic variables. Results: Female physicians reported sickness presenteeism more often than male physicians. Work-family conflict mediated the association between gender and sickness presenteeism. Women reported reasons related with "concern for others" and "workload" more strongly than men. Men reported reasons related with "capacity" and "money" more strongly than women. These differences are likely effects of gender stereotyping and different family-responsibilities. Conclusions: Gender socialization and gender stereotypes may influence work and health-related behavior. Because sickness presenteeism is related with negative effects both on individuals and at organizational levels, it is important that managers of health organizations understand the reasons for this, and how gender roles may influence the prevalence of sickness presenteeism and the reasons that female and male GPs give for their behavior.

  • 15.
    Lindqvist, A.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Bäck, E.
    Gothenburg University.
    Vem tycker om hen?2016In: Språk och stil, ISSN 1101-1165, E-ISSN 2002-4010, Vol. 26, p. 101-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish is the first language that has a gender-neutral third-person singular pronoun, hen, that has spread from transgender and queer communities to the broader society and now exists in parallel with the two traditional gendered pronouns representing 'she' and 'he'. Many strong emotions have arisen during this process, both for and against hen. This study aims at analyzing what background factors may explain the attitudes towards hen. In total, 240 individuals participated in our online questionnaire where they indicated their attitude towards hen, as well as responded to questions assessing attitudes towards sexist language (i.e. gender discriminating language), modern sexism (i.e. the belief that gender-discrimination is no longer an issue), political views (from left to right), interest in gender issues and their identification with their own gender identity. The results show no gender difference in attitudes towards hen, but participants strongly identifying themselves with their gender identity had a tendency to be more negative towards the word. Political view was not a significant predictor. However, participants with sexist attitudes had a tendency to dislike hen, whereas those who were interested in gender issues and were negative towards sexist language had a tendency to like the word. Finally, younger age implied a stronger tendency to like hen.

  • 16. Yourstone, Jenny
    et al.
    Alberth, Johan
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Bedömningsgrunder och kön i kriminalvårdens frivårdsarbete2015Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms univeristet.
    Hen can do it!: Effects of using a gender-neutral pronoun in recruitment2015In: Könskonstruktioner och språkförändringar: Rapport från den åttonde nordiska konferensen om språk och kön / [ed] Magnusson, Jenny; Milles, Karin; Nikolaidou, Zoe, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2015, p. 71-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    Gothenburg University.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Lund University.
    Introducing a gender-neutral pronoun in a natural gender language: the influence of time on attitudes and behavior2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of gender fair language is often associated with negative reactions and hostile attacks on people who propose a change. This was also the case in Sweden in 2012 when a third gender-neutral pronoun hen was proposed as an addition to the already existing Swedish pronouns for she (hon) and he (han). The pronoun hen can be used both generically, when gender is unknown or irrelevant, and as a transgender pronoun for people who categorize themselves outside the gender dichotomy. In this article we review the process from 2012 to 2015. No other language has so far added a third gender-neutral pronoun, existing parallel with two gendered pronouns, that actually have reached the broader population of language users. This makes the situation in Sweden unique. We present data on attitudes toward hen during the past 4 years and analyze how time is associated with the attitudes in the process of introducing hen to the Swedish language. In 2012 the majority of the Swedish population was negative to the word, but already in 2014 there was a significant shift to more positive attitudes. Time was one of the strongest predictors for attitudes also when other relevant factors were controlled for. The actual use of the word also increased, although to a lesser extent than the attitudes shifted. We conclude that new words challenging the binary gender system evoke hostile and negative reactions, but also that attitudes can normalize rather quickly. We see this finding very positive and hope it could motivate language amendments and initiatives for gender-fair language, although the first responses may be negative.

  • 19.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Norell, Alexandra
    Stockholm University.
    Åkesson, Gertrud
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Lovseth, Lise Tevik
    St. Olav’s University Hospital, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Possible reasons why female physicians publish fewer scientific articles than male physicians - a cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 15, article id 67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The proportion of women in medicine is approaching that of men, but female physicians are still in the minority as regards positions of power. Female physicians are struggling to reach the highest positions in academic medicine. One reason for the disparities between the genders in academic medicine is the fact that female physicians, in comparison to their male colleagues, have a lower rate of scientific publishing, which is an important factor affecting promotion in academic medicine. Clinical physicians work in a stressful environment, and the extent to which they can control their work conditions varies. The aim of this paper was to examine potential impeding and supportive work factors affecting the frequency with which clinical physicians publish scientific papers on academic medicine. Methods: Cross-sectional multivariate analysis was performed among 198 female and 305 male Swedish MD/PhD graduates. The main outcome variable was the number of published scientific articles. Results: Male physicians published significantly more articles than female physicians p<.001. In respective multivariate models for female and male physicians, age and academic positions were significantly related to a higher number of published articles, as was collaborating with a former PhD advisor for both female physicians (OR = 2.97; 95% CI 1.22-7.20) and male physicians (OR = 2.10; 95% CI 1.08-4.10). Control at work was significantly associated with a higher number of published articles for male physicians only (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.08-2.09). Exhaustion had a significant negative impact on number of published articles among female physicians (OR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12-0.70) whilst the publishing rate among male physicians was not affected by exhaustion. Conclusions: Women physicians represent an expanding sector of the physician work force; it is essential that they are represented in future fields of research, and in academic publications. This is necessary from a gender perspective, and to ensure that physicians are among the research staff in biomedical research in the future.

  • 20. Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    "She" and "He" in News Media Messages: Pronoun Use Reflects Gender Biases in Semantic Contexts2015In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 72, no 1-2, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a male bias in the media. This study tests this statement by examining how the pronouns She and He are used in a news media context. More specifically, the study tests whether He occurs more often and in more positive semantic contexts than She, as well as whether She is associated with more stereotypically and essential labels than He is. Latent semantic analysis (LSA) was applied to 400 000 Reuters' news messages, written in English, published in 1996-1997. LSA is a completely data-driven method, extracting statistics of words from how they are used throughout a corpus. As such, no human coders are involved in the assessment of how pronouns occur in their contexts. The results showed that He pronouns were about 9 times more frequent than She pronouns. In addition, the semantic contexts of He were more positive than the contexts of She. Moreover, words associated with She-contexts included more words denoting gender, and were more homogeneous than the words associated with He-contexts. Altogether, these results indicate that men are represented as the norm in these media. Since these news messages are distributed on a daily basis all over the world, in printed newspapers, and on the internet, it seems likely that this presentation maintains, and reinforces prevalent gender stereotypes, hence contributing to gender inequities.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms univeristet.
    "She" and "He" in news media messages: Pronoun use reflects gender stereotypes2015In: Könskonstruktioner och språkförändringar: Rapport från den åttonde nordiska konferensen om språk och kön / [ed] Magnusson, Jenny; Milles, Karin; Nikolaidou, Zoe, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2015, p. 91-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Lovseth, Lise T.
    St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm Univeristy / Karolinska Institutet.
    A comparison of risk and protective factors related to suicide ideation among residents and specialists in academic medicine2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physicians have an elevated risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts, which might be due to work-related factors. However, the hierarchical work positions as well as work-related health differ among resident and specialist physicians. As such, the correlates of suicide ideation may also vary between these two groups. Methods: In the present study, work- and health-related factors and their association with suicidal thoughts among residents (n=234) and specialists (n=813) working at a university hospital were examined using cross-sectional data. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that having supportive meetings was associated with a lower level of suicide ideation among specialists (OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94), while an empowering leadership was related to a lower level of suicide ideation among residents (OR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.94). Having been harassed at work was associated with suicidal ideation among specialists (OR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.31-3.91). In addition, sickness presenteeism and work disengagement were associated with suicide ideation in both groups of physicians. Conclusions: These findings suggest that different workplace interventions are needed to prevent suicide ideation in residents and specialists.

  • 23. Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Lindholm, T.
    Uppsala University.
    Sikström, S.
    Lund University.
    Biases in news media as reflected by personal pronouns in evaluative contexts2014In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether pronouns in news media occurred in evaluative contexts reflecting psychological biases. Contexts of pronouns were measured by computerized semantic analysis. Results showed that self-inclusive personal pronouns (We, I) occurred in more positive contexts than self-exclusive pronouns (He/She, They), reflecting self- and group-serving biases. Contexts of collective versus individual pronouns varied; We occurred in more positive contexts than I, and He/She in more positive contexts than They. The enhancement of collective relative to individual self-inclusive pronouns may reflect that media news is a public rather than private domain. The reversed pattern among self-exclusive pronouns corroborates suggestions that outgroup derogation is most pronounced at the category level. Implications for research on language and social psychology are discussed.

  • 24.
    Wall, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Minucci, Daria
    Padua University Hospital, Padua, Italy.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Løvseth, Lise Tevik
    St. Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Suicidal ideation among surgeons in Italy and Sweden - a cross-sectional study2014In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation is more prevalent among physicians, compared to the population in general, but little is known about the factors behind surgeons' suicidal ideation. A surgeon's work environment can be competitive and characterised by degrading experiences, which could contribute to burnout, depression and even thoughts of suicide. Being a surgeon has been reported to be predictor for not seeking help when psychological distressed. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent surgeons in Italy and Sweden are affected by suicidal ideation, and how suicidal ideation can be associated with psychosocial work conditions.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study of surgeons was performed in Italy (N = 149) and Sweden (N = 272), where having suicidal ideation was the outcome variable. Work-related factors, such as harassment, depression and social support, were also measured.

    RESULTS: Suicidal ideation within the previous twelve months was affirmatively reported by 18% of the Italian surgeons, and by 12% of the Swedish surgeons in the present study. The strongest association with having recent suicidal ideation for both countries was being subjected to degrading experiences/harassment at work by a senior physician. Sickness presenteeism, exhaustion and disengagement were related to recent suicidal ideation among Italian surgeons, while role conflicts and sickness presenteeism were associated with recent suicidal ideation in the Swedish group. For both countries, regular meetings to discuss situations at work were found to be protective.

    CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of surgeons at two university hospitals in Italy and Sweden reported suicidal ideation during the year before the investigation. This reflects a tough workload, including sickness presenteeism, harassment at work, exhaustion/disengagement and role conflicts. Regular meetings to discuss work situations might be protective.

  • 25.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet.
    Personal Pronouns in Evaluative Communication2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal pronouns represent important social categories; they are among the most common words in communication and are therefore highly interesting in studying psychological perspectives and relations. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether pronouns are used in semantic contexts in a way that reflect psychological biases. Specifically, I have tested whether self-, group-serving- and gender biases occur when pronouns are used in natural language. To study this, I developed a structure for pronouns in social categorization where the pronouns are categorized in a self-inclusive/exclusive, an individual/collective, and a gender dimension. New methods for examining pronouns usage in language were developed in the thesis, for use in experiments and in computerized studies of large data corpora of media news. The results of this thesis showed that self-inclusive pronouns (I, We) consistently were used in more positive contexts than self-exclusive pronouns (He, She, They) by participants who generated messages in the lab (Study I), and by journalists in written media news (Study II). Study I revealed that the evaluative context surrounding I and We varied according to the specific communicative situation. When individuals generated messages individually, more positive contexts were selected for I than We. However in a collaborative setting, We occurred in contexts of similar valence as I. An intergroup setting magnified the differences between self-inclusive and self-exclusive pronouns (e.g., between We and They and between I and He/She). In an analysis of 400 000 news media messages, We occurred in more positive context than I (Study II). In Study III, the contexts of He and She in these media news were examined. The results showed that He occurred nine times more often, and in more positive contexts than She. Moreover, words associated with She included more labels denoting gender, and were more uniform than words associated with He. In sum, this thesis shows that studying the use of pronouns is a fruitful way to investigate social psychology phenomena. The thesis contributes to the understanding of how pronoun use convey knowledge about social cognition, attitudes, gender stereotypes, as well as interpersonal and intergroup relations.

  • 26.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lund University.
    Selection Bias in Choice of Words: Evaluations of “I” and “We” Differ Between Contexts, but “They” Are Always Worse2013In: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, E-ISSN 1552-6526, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, people use language to communicate evaluative messages about social categories. A selection bias in language across two social dimensions not previously integrated was examined: a self-inclusive/self-exclusive dimension and an individual/collective dimension. Pronouns as markers for social categories were adopted (I, We, He/She, and They), and a new measure was developed (the Evaluative Sentence Generating task) to investigate the evaluative context selected for the pronouns. Results demonstrate that individuals select a more positive context for self-inclusive than self-exclusive pronouns and a more positive context for individual than collective pronouns. However, in an interpersonal context, evaluative differences between I and We diminished, whereas in an intergroup condition the evaluative gap between self-inclusive and self-exclusive pronouns was magnified.

  • 27.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Løvseth, L. T.
    St Olav’s University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fridner, A.
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    What makes physicians go to work while sick: A comparative STUDY of Sickness presenteeism in four European countries (HOUPE)2013In: Swiss Medical Weekly, ISSN 1424-7860, E-ISSN 1424-3997, Vol. 143, article id 13840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: Sickness presenteeism is common in the health sector, especially among physicians, leading to high costs in terms of medical errors and loss in productivity. This study investigates predictors of sickness presenteeism in university hospitals, which might be especially exposed to competitive presenteeism. The study included comparisons of university hospitals in four European countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey analysis of factors related to sickness behaviour and work patterns in the field of academic medicine was performed among permanently employed physicians from the HOUPE (Health and Organisation among University Physicians Europe) study: (Sweden n = 1,031, Norway n= 354, Iceland n = 242, Italy n = 369). The outcome measure was sickness presenteeism. RESULTS: Sickness presence was more common among Italian physicians (86%) compared with physicians in other countries (70%-76%). Country-stratified analyses showed that sickness presenteeism was associated with sickness behaviour and role conflicts in all countries. Competition in the form of publishing articles was a predictor in Italy and Sweden. Organisational care for physician well-being reduced sickness presenteeism in all countries. CONCLUSION: Sickness presenteeism in university hospitals is part of a larger behavioural pattern where physicians seem to neglect or hide their own illness. Factors associated with competitive climate and myths about a healthy doctor might contribute to these behaviours. Importantly, it is suggested that managers and organisations should work actively to address these questions since organisational care might reduce the extent of these behaviours.

  • 28.
    Calmfors, L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Dimdins, G.
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Montgomery, H.
    Stockholm University.
    Stavlöt, U.
    Fores, Stockholm.
    Why do people dislike low-wage trade competition with posted workers in the service sector?2013In: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 47, p. 82-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of low-wage competition in services trade involving posted workers is controversial in the EU. Using Swedish survey data, people's attitudes are found to be more negative to such trade than to goods trade. The differences depend on both a preference for favouring social groups to which individuals belong (the domestic population) and altruistic justice concerns for foreign workers. In small-group experiments, we find a tendency for people to adjust their evaluations of various aspects of trade to their general attitude. This tendency is stronger for those opposed to than those in favour of low-wage trade competition. This may indicate that the former group forms its attitudes in a less rational way than the latter group.

  • 29.
    Fridner, A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Belkić, K.
    Karolinska Institutet / Claremont Graduate University, USA / University of Southern California, USA.
    Marini, M.
    Padua University Hospital, Italy.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, K.
    Karolinska Institutiet / Karolinska University Hospital.
    Why don't academic physicians seek needed professional help for psychological distress?2012In: Swiss Medical Weekly, ISSN 1424-7860, E-ISSN 1424-3997, Vol. 142, no JULY, article id w13626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Suicidal thoughts, burnout and other signs of psychological distress are prevalent among physicians. There are no studies concerning help-seeking for psychological distress among university hospital physicians, who face a particularly challenging, competitive work environment. We compare psychologically-distressed university hospital physicians who have not sought needed help with those who have sought such help. We thereby aim to identify factors that may hinder help-seeking and factors that may trigger seeking help. METHODS: Analysis was performed among university hospital physicians reporting recent suicidal thoughts and/or showing other indications of current psychological illhealth. These distressed physicians were a subgroup (42.7%) from the cross-sectional phase I HOUPE study (Health and Organization among University Hospital Physicians in Europe): 366 from Sweden and 150 from Italy. Having sought professional help for depression or burnout was the outcome variable. Multiple logistic regression was performed with socio-demographic factors as covariates. RESULTS: Altogether 404 (78.3%) of these distressed physicians had never sought professional help for depression/burnout. Physicians who were currently involved in medical research, taking night call, surgical specialists, male, or Italian were least likely to have sought help. Physicians who faced harassment at work or who self-diagnosed and self-treated were more likely to have sought help. CONCLUSION: Very few of these university hospital physicians with signs of psychological distress sought help from a mental-health professional. This has implications for physicians themselves and for patient care, clinical research, and education of future physicians. More study, preferably of interventional design, is warranted concerning help-seeking among these physicians in need.

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