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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Conceptualizing the European military-civilian-industrial complex: The need for a helicopter perspective2023Ingår i: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 561-588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In his 1961 farewell address, US President Eisenhower coined the term “military-industrial complex,” referring to the coalescing of military, industrial, and political interest groups. In contemporary Europe, the military-industrial complex is arguably transforming into a complex with a noteworthy commercial civilian dimension, blurring traditional military and arms-focused understandings of European defence and security. Our emphasis on an added corporate civilian component captures the expansion of defence and security beyond the traditional military domain. Coalescing of industry and politics is observed in Europe, blurring the military-civilian divide, technologically as well as in organization and governance, particularly through public-private partnerships. Eisenhower, himself a decorated WWII general, warned of how the US military-industrial complex could lead to “disastrous use of misplaced power.” Rather than reiterating such a conclusion in the European context, our paper examines how the European military-civilian-industrial complex is emerging, looking at how elite participants shape the public-private structure of the complex, and specifically how policies on dual-use and emerging technologies influence developments in Europe. The focus herein is on novel actors, characteristics, and the European Union and charts out defining conceptual features of the defence and security industry in Europe

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    fulltext
  • 2.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Den nya rymdkapplöpningen: Diktaturer och entreprenörer på frammarsch2023Ingår i: Ikaros - Tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 36-40Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy M.
    Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Outsourcing the American Space Dream: SpaceX and the Race to the Stars2023Ingår i: Astropolitics: The International Journal of Space Politics and Policy, ISSN 1477-7622, E-ISSN 1557-2943, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 46-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the rise of private space entrepreneurship is indisputable, we contend that contrary to the “NewSpace” narrative, the development of privately owned and operated human spacefaring does not dispel or fundamentally alter the American space dream, but rather implies continuity of the narrative of America as the dominant global space power, specifically regarding a return to the Moon and with the explicit aim of colonizing Mars. Herein, we analyze the continuity of the American space dream and how it is expressed by public and private space actors, as well as being supported by popular culture, entertainment, and an active space enthusiast community. We maintain that the continuity of the American space dream as a unifying national narrative is facilitated by how private spacefaring is dependent on the U.S. Government’s emphasis on the pivotal role of private space industry for space exploration. This dependent relationship provides incentives for private space entrepreneurs to share and leverage the established American space dream. The continuity of the American space dream is achieved through a prevailing, yet reconfigured, government-industrial complex.

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    fulltext
  • 4.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Rise of the Nerd: Knowledge, Power and International Relations in a Digital World2023Ingår i: Digital International Relations: Technology, Agency and Order / [ed] Corneliu Bjola; Markus Kornprobst, London: Routledge, 2023Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the rise of the ‘computer nerd’ – a powerful yet under-researched actor in International Relations (IR). Software programmers, algorithm writers, Artificial Intelligence (AI) designers, digital network engineers, computer system administrators and other ‘computer nerds’ have tremendous power in the global information society. These types of experts and epistemic communities design, build, develop, monitor, augment and analyse computer networks, algorithms and ‘Big Data’ upon which contemporary politics, civil society and economies depend. We contend that the computer nerd stereotype – variously anchored to some degree in empirics, reputation and celebration as stereotypes typically are – has significant power in shaping global information society, something which begs scrutiny of this type of actor in IR. The type of expert power maintained by computer nerds is primarily of a system-shaping rather than relational kind. This system-shaping power consists of three subsets of nerd power: ‘design power’ that shapes the digital platforms and applications used by individuals and organisations; ‘connecting power’ that shapes the networks which allow real-time communication and digitalisation of infrastructure; and ‘analytical power’ which controls and produces knowledge of the digital world, including the increasing use of ‘Big Data’.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Privalov, Roman
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Ryssland i rymden: Nostalgi, futurism och stormaktspolitik2023Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 125, nr 1, s. 99-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How is outer space perceived in contemporary Russian politics and popular cul-ture? This question is addressed through an analysis of post-Soviet Russian space policy and Russian popular culture, the latter concerning e.g. space museums, movies and literature. By looking both at Russian space policy (operated mainly through the Russian state corporation Roscosmos) and at expressions in popular culture, a wide plethora of ideas and visions of cosmos and Russia’s place in space is observed. Patterns of continuity and change are observed in both realms, and link-ages between politics and popular culture are noted. Expressions of Soviet nostal-gia exists, but there is also a widespread perception of Russia as a weakened space power, seeking to maintain space exploration capacity rather than to take a global lead. In contemporary popular culture, there is also a new diversity of space visions, ranging from postcolonial critique of Soviet and contemporary Russian space policy to global liberal notions and new imperial visions.

  • 6.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Giumelli, Francesco
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Sources of strength: the European defence industry in a disorderly world2023Ingår i: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 527-530Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Cyberspace in Space: Fragmentation, Vulnerability, and Uncertainty2022Ingår i: Cyber Security Politics: Socio-Technological Transformations and Political Fragmentation / [ed] Myriam Dunn Cavelty; Andreas Wenger, London: Routledge, 2022, s. 95-107Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the consequences of making cyberspace increasingly reliant on satellites and other types of space infrastructure? And what is the meaning and significance of an interplanetary cyberspace? The chapter addresses these developments specifically concerning infrastructure, militarization, and privatization. The consequences observed are summed up as fragmentation, vulnerability, and uncertainty. Cyberspace in space implies fragmentation in terms of stakeholders and governance, and ultimately in terms of power and accountability. Vulnerability increases as cyberspace becomes satellite-based (space is certainly not a safe environment, and satellites can be attacked by anti-satellite weapons as well as new forms of hacking and denial of service. Uncertainty of is tremendous particularly both in terms of what norms and principles will apply (compare the debate on Internet freedom vs. Internet sovereignty), and whether militarization or civilian and even utopian ideas will prevail.

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    Cyber Security Politics
  • 8.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Centrum för studier av politikens organisering.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Democracy and technocracy in Sweden's Experience of the COVID-19 Pandemic2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Political Science, E-ISSN 2673-3145, Vol. 4, s. 1-13, artikel-id 832518Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s management of the coronavirus pandemic, beginning in early 2020, hasbeen much discussed because it deviated from other countries’ equivalents. Set inthe context of scholarly debate about the balance between politicians and experts inpolitical decision-making, we argue that a necessary condition for this case of Swedishexceptionalism was the manner of policy-making adopted by the Swedish authorities. Inthis article, we describe this policy-making procedure, which involved a radical form ofdelegation by elected politicians to appointed experts, and seek to explain how it cameabout. We focus on the 1st year of the pandemic, and use media reports and other publicdocuments, including parts of a public inquiry, as our empirical material.

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    Democracy and Technocracy Covid-19
  • 9.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    Swedish Defence University, Sweden; Royal InsƟtute of Technology, Sweden.
    Outsourcing the American Space Dream?: SpaceX and the Race to the Stars2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the rise of private space entrepreneurship is indisputable, this paper contends that contrary to the “NewSpace” narrative, the development of privately owned and operated human spacefaring  does not dispel or fundamentally alter the American space dream but rather implies continuity of the narrative of America as the dominant global space power, specifically regarding a return to the Moon and with the explicit aim of colonizing Mars. The present paper analyzes the continuity of the American space dream and how it is expressed by public and private space actors as well as being supported by popular culture, entertainment, and an active space enthusiast community. The paper maintains that the continuity of the American space dream as a unifying national narrative is facilitated by how private spacefaring is heavily dependent on the US government’s emphasis on the pivotal role of private space industry for US-led space exploration. This dependent relationship provides incentives for private space entrepreneurs to share and tap into the established American space dream. The continuity of the American space dream is achieved through a prevailing yet reconfigured government-industrial complex.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Space and the New Iron Curtain2022Ingår i: Crisis Response Journal, ISSN 1745-8633, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 84-85Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Utrikespolitiska institutet, Sverige.
    Konstruktivism2021Ingår i: Internationella relationer / [ed] Jakob Gustavsson; Jonas Tallberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, 4, s. 131-138Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Privalov, Roman
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Russian space policy and identity: visionary or reactionary?2021Ingår i: Journal of International Relations and Development, ISSN 1408-6980, E-ISSN 1581-1980, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 381-407Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Why is there a lack of grand, forward-looking vision in contemporary Russian space policy? Our study reveals nothing that compares with either ambitious Soviet goals or contemporary American goals of being first, reaching farthest, and being a dominant power in space; nor are there any clear explanations available of what goals Russia pursues in space. Notwithstanding the celebrational rhetoric on Russia being an ‘acknowledged leader’ which recurrently refers to its superpower past, the substance of contemporary Russian space policy is not focused on hegemony but rather on reaching equal status, catching up, being competitive, and strengthening independent access to space. Whether motivated by a shift to a less ambitious great power identity seeking equal status rather than dominance or departing from a perception of inferiority in comparison with the West, Russian space policy simultaneously seeks lasting space cooperation with the US and criticises the US for militarisation of space. This may seem paradoxical from a geopolitical perspective, but it makes sense from an identity perspective; for better or worse, the US remains Russia’s ‘significant other’ in space.

  • 13.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy M:
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan; KTH.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Technological Megashift and the EU: Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Fragmented Responsibilities2021Ingår i: The European Union and the Technological Shift / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva-Engelbrekt; Karin Leijon; Anna Michalski; Lars Oxelheim, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, 1, s. 27-55Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the technological megashift and implications for security and accountability within the EU. Digitalised interconnectivity of increasingly ‘embedded’ systems, infrastructures and societal functions are megashift features. Although the EU hardly lacks technological strategies, accountability structures beg improvement, and there are multiple expert groups with insufficient coordination and societal focus. The EU suffers from techno-optimism—coupled to powerful objectives of fuelling economic growth—which can lead to broadly conceived and represented security issues falling in shadow and struggles between interests being inadequately addressed. This chapter analyses how the EU deals with the megashift with respect to threats, surveillance systems, infrastructural vulnerability and public-private accountability. It is suggested that the EU take (i) a holistic grip on the megashift and implications, (ii) abandon optimistic techno-determinism for nuanced and contextual understanding and (iii) avoid outsourcing management of sensitive data and critical infrastructures.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy M:
    Försvarshögskolan; KTH.
    Theorizing Technology in International Relations: Prevailing Perspectives and New Horizons2021Ingår i: Technology and International Relations: The New Horizon in Global Power / [ed] Giampiero Giacomello; Franscesco Niccolò Moro; Marco Valigi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021, s. 1-21Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents an introduction to and brief overview of the study of technology and international relations, including a discussion of research gaps and new horizons. In particular, this contribution addresses whether and how prevailing theoretical approaches have been able to analyze the relationship between technological and international political change. This includes how the personal, social, societal, and, to an extent, also biological worlds are becoming increasingly interconnected through new technologies – what has been referred to as the ‘fourth industrial revolution’ (Newlove-Eriksson and Eriksson, 2021; Schwab, 2017). How then is technology addressed within the field of international relations (IR)? Given the considerable attention IR literature pays to globalization and global structural change – core themes of contemporary IR – it might be expected that the role of technology in world politics would be a major focus. What would global politics and globalization be if the rapid development and diffusion of global information and communications technologies (ICTs) were not taken into account? It would seem, nonetheless, that technology has received rather mixed and selective attention within IR.

  • 15.
    Demirel, Cagla
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Competitive victimhood and reconciliation: the case of Turkish–Armenian relations2020Ingår i: Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, ISSN 1070-289X, E-ISSN 1547-3384, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 537-556Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that conflicts tend to be intractable if collective victimhood has become a component of national identity, and when conflicting communities claim to be the ‘real’ or ‘only’ victims, and that their suffering justifies crimes past and present. Turkish and Armenian narratives of competitive victimhood are analysed drawing on public opinion polls from Turkey and Armenia, and personal interviews with Turks and Armenians. The study corroborates past theory and research that competitive victimhood prevents reconciliation, particularly if it has become an essential part of national identity. The paper also shows that Turkish–Armenian relations remain at the bottom stage of the reconciliation ladder. Yet, some of our empirical observations suggest that when grass-roots level interaction between Turks and Armenians is facilitated (which has been prevented not least because of the closed border), there is room for the abandonment of competitive victimhood at least on an interpersonal level, if not on a general societal or political level. 

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy M.
    Försvarshögskolan; KTH.
    EU och det teknologiska megaskiftet: Hot, sårbarhet och fragmenterat ansvar2020Ingår i: EU och teknologiskiftet / [ed] A. Bakardjieva Engelbrekt; A. Michalski; L. Oxelheim, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2020, s. 35-61Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Sweden: Small State, Middle Power or, Moral Superpower?2020Ingår i: Middle Powers in Asia and Europe in the 21st-Century / [ed] Giampiero Giacomello; Bertjan Verbeek, London: Lexington Books, 2020, s. 181-201Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Threat framing2020Ingår i: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What is “threat framing”? It concerns how something or someone is perceived, labeled, and communicated as a threat to something or someone. The designation “threat,” notably, belongs to the wider family of negative concerns such as danger, risk, or hazard. Research on threat framing is not anchored in a single or specific field but rather is scattered across three separate and largely disconnected bodies of literature: framing theory, security studies, and crisis studies. It is noteworthy that whereas these literatures have contributed observations on how and under what consequences something is framed as a threat, none of them have sufficiently problematized the concept of threat. Crisis analysis considers the existence or perception of threat essential for a crisis to emerge, along with a perception of urgency and uncertainty, yet crisis studies focus on the meaning of “crisis” without problematizing the concept of threat. Likewise, security studies have spent a lot of ink defining “security,” typically understood as the “absence of threat,” but leave the notion of “threat” undefined. Further, framing theory is concerned with “problem definition” as a main or first function of framing but generally pays little or no attention to the meaning of “threat.” Moreover, cutting across these bodies of literature is the distinction between constructivist and rationalist approaches, both of which have contributed to the understanding of threat framing. Constructivist analyses have emphasized how threat framing can be embedded in a process of socialization and acculturation, making some frames appear normal and others highly contested. Rationalist approaches, on the other hand, have shown how threat framing can be a conscious strategic choice, intended to accomplish certain political effects such as the legitimization of extraordinary means, allocation of resources, or putting issues high on the political agenda. Although there are only a handful of studies explicitly combining insights across these fields, they have made some noteworthy observations. These studies have shown for example how different types of framing may fuel amity or enmity, cooperation, or conflict. These studies have also found that antagonistic threat frames are more likely to result in a securitizing or militarizing logic than do structural threat frames. Institutionalized threat frames are more likely to gain and maintain saliency, particularly if they are associated with policy monopolies. In the post-truth era, however, the link between evidence and saliency of frames is weakened, leaving room for a much more unpredictable politics of framing.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Reischl, Gunilla
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Worlds apart, worlds together: Converging and diverging frames in climate and energy governance2019Ingår i: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 67-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that past research has overlooked how the way problems and solutions are framed contribute to a prevailing gap in the global governance of climate and energy. Empirically, this paper investigates the frames of energy and climate change as expressed in key documents from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and International Energy Agency (IEA). Partly in contrast to past research, this paper finds (1) that there is a growing similarity in how the IPCC and IEA frame climate and energy; (2) that the IEA has gone from ignoring to acknowledging climate change and the transformation to a low-carbon energy system; and (3) that there is a prevailing difference in emphasis, whereas the IPCC only marginally discuss energy, while the IEA is still mainly talking about energy needs and fossil fuels even if climate change and renewables have entered their agenda.

  • 20.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology / Swedish Defence University.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    The Invisible Hand? Critical Information Infrastructures, Commercialisation and National Security2018Ingår i: The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs, ISSN 0393-2729, E-ISSN 1751-9721, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 124-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporatisation of critical information infrastructure (CII) is rooted in the ‘privatisation wave’ of the 1980s-90s, when ground was laid for outsourcing public utilities. Despite well-known risks relating to reliability, resilience, and accountability, commitment to efficiency imperatives have driven governments to outsource key public services and infrastructures. A recent illustrative case with enormous implications is the 2017 Swedish ICT scandal, where outsourcing of CII caused major security breaches. With the transfer of the Swedish Transport Agency’s ICT system to IBM and subcontractors, classified data and protected identities were made accessible to non-vetted foreign private employees – the sensitive data could thus now be anywhere. This case clearly demonstrates accountability gaps that can arise in public-private governance of CII.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Rymdkolonier - från fantasi till verklighet?2017Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Lagerkvist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cyber security in Sweden and China: Going on the Attack?2016Ingår i: Conflict in Cyberspace: Theoretical, Strategic and Legal Perspectives / [ed] Kristian Friis; Jens Ringsmose, London: Routledge, 2016, s. 83-94Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction In recent years Western pundits and politicians have played up the specter of a new digital divide, between opposing democratic and authoritarian information orders, by at times even labeled an Internet cold war 2.0. The term digital divide originally explained unequal access to the Internet and digital information resources inside and between countries (Norris 2001). The new digital divide was not about unequal access to the Internet and digital information resources. It was political in nature due to different conceptions of liberties, freedom of expression, and how information flows should be governed nationally and internationally. Most notably, former US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, in her by now well-known talk in Washington DC on January 21, 2010, emphasized that an “information curtain” had descended between free and closed nations of the world (Clinton 2010). Clinton, invoked and echoed Winston Churchill’s famous words on the iron curtain that came to divide Europe for more than fifty years when she in Washington DC said: “an information curtain now separates the free from the unfree.” Two years later, the International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU) World Conference on International Communications (WCIT-12) meeting, which negotiated a revision to the 1988 international telecommunications regulations (ITR), broke down on vague wordings on Internet governance in the final resolution on December 14, 2012. Subsequently, The Economist magazine ran the headline “A digital cold war?” (Dubai 2012). However, the leaks by Edward Snowden in June 2013 radically changed the nature of the debate on Internet freedom and Internet security, although black-and-white dichotomies between the “free world” and the “unfree world” remain remarkably persistent, even after Snowden, a former employee with a contractor of the National Security Agency of the United States, revealed the enormous extent of surveillance and monitoring of individual citizens worldwide and in the USA. As statements by US congressmen about Chinese spyware infiltrating the mobile phones of Hong Kong activists illustrate, hypocrisy and myth making about “good” and “evil” surveillance is very much alive (Farrell and Finnemore 2013). Internet governance issues, however, are not black-and-white uncomplicated issues on either side of the imagined cyber curtain separating the free from the unfree (cf. Stalla-Bourdin et al. 2014). Russia, China and Iran are autocratic but not totalitarian countries. They showcase complex authoritarian-capitalist settings, which in the cases of Russia and Iran entail constrained but, nevertheless, electoral politics. Unlike totalitarian North Korea, these countries are not isolated from the rest of the world, but are deeply involved in social and economic globalization. And in China, interestingly, the state cannot fully trust private commercial companies to fully comply with the party-state’s intent to censor and monitor citizens’ communication over social networks. The remainder of this chapter discusses Swedish and Chinese cyber-security strategy, focusing on threat perceptions, cyber-security methods and organization. Why compare Sweden and China? The main reason is that while both have relatively advanced information societies and cyber-security measures, they represent on the one hand a parliamentary democracy, and on the other an autocratic political system. While many other democracies and autocracies could have been chosen, Sweden and China are particularly interesting given their difference in size and position in the global system. Also, while the USA is a leading cyber power, and thus in a sense a major geopolitical counterpart of China, we are not here analyzing the balance of cyber power, but are mainly interested in differences and similarities between democracy and autocracy concerning cyber security. And while US cyber-security policies have been extensively discussed elsewhere (Mueller and Kuehn 2013; Dunn Cavelty 2008), there is hardly any studies on Swedish cyber security (for exceptions, see Eriksson 2001a, 2001b, 2004). Moreover, our particular expertise on Swedish and Chinese cyber politics is a pragmatic reason for studying these rather than any other countries. It should also be made clear that we conceive of cyber security in a broad sense. Cyber security, as we understand it, includes defensive measures against cyber attacks such as firewalls and CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) functions, offensive measures such as computer hacking and denial of service attacks, and cyber surveillance and cyber espionage (Andreasson 2012; Dunn Cavelty 2008).

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Forskarrollen - att bli publicerad, befordrad och få anslag2016Ingår i: Att forska: Praktiker och roller / [ed] Linus Hagström, Niklas Bremberg och Arita Holmberg, Carlsson Bokförlag, 2016, s. 183-205Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 24. Eriksson, Johan Emil
    [Review of] The Politics of Information: The Case of the European Union, edited by T. Blom and S. Vanhoonacker (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 20142016Ingår i: Journal of Common Market Studies, ISSN 0021-9886, E-ISSN 1468-5965, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 204-204Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Frontier politics: The realm of dreamers2015Ingår i: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0460, E-ISSN 2334-0479, Vol. 1, nr 4-5, s. 365-367Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Think tanks and European foreign policy: Transnational politics of expertise2015Ingår i: The SAGE Handbook of European Foreign Policy / [ed] Knud Erik Jrgensen, Åsne Kalland Aarstad, Edith Drieskens, Katie Laatikainen & Ben Tonra, Sage Publications, 2015, s. 442-457Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    International Relations, Digital Security, and Content Analysis: A Constructivist Approach2014Ingår i: International Relations and the Global Politics of Science and Technology / [ed] Maximilian Mayer, Mariana Carpes, Ruth Knoblich, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, s. 205-219Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and global diffusion of access to the Internet has—as is the case with most new and game-changing technologies—been accompanied with fears and threat perceptions. This chapter argues, on the one hand, that Constructivist IR theory is particularly suited for addressing and interpreting the threat discourses and identity issues which come in focus in cybersecurity. The ease with which cyber-culprits can hide their identity and location, operating through networks of hijacked computers across the world, makes fear-mongering threat and identity discourses a key issue in cybersecurity. On the other hand, this chapter presents content analysis—a set of quantitative methods focusing on key word searches—as a pertinent or even ubiquitous method for both the study and practice of cybersecurity. Through simple and globally accessible interfaces, the entire Web can be scrutinized using content analysis. Equipped with Constructivist theory and content analysis methods, the IR scholar stands prepared to uncover and better understand the massive discursive world of the Internet.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    On the Policy Relevance of Grand Theory2014Ingår i: International Studies Perspectives, ISSN 1528-3577, E-ISSN 1528-3585, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 94-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper challenges the commonly held perception that grand theory is irrelevant for policy. Policy, it is often argued, is in need of detailed case-oriented empirical analysis and instrumental policy recommendations rather than any sweeping generalizations or lofty ideas emanating from grand theory. Notwithstanding, this paper argues that grand theory has an underestimated relevance for policy. To be able to see and appreciate this, the notion of policy relevance must be expanded. Whereas grand theory and grand concepts such as Realism, Liberalism, Constructivism, or Marxism do not provide case-specific knowledge or recommendations, they provide general roadmaps, conceptualization of world affairs, and also have a symbolic function, legitimating or challenging established policy paradigms. Policymakers, akin to grand theorists, arguably like to make sweeping statements and generalizations. Drawing on theory and findings in public policy studies, here applied to international relations and foreign policy, this paper suggests conditions under which grand theory can be relevant for policy.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Content analysis in the digital age: Tools, functions, and implications for security2013Ingår i: The Secure Information Society: Ethical, Legal and Political Challenges / [ed] Jörg Krüger, Bertram Nickolay, Sandro Gaycken, Springer London, 2013, s. 137-148Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Content analysis is an established and effective method for research in the social science and, despite what many think, it has been around for quite some time. It has also tremendously benefited from ICT and the growth of computing power, as computers have proved to excel in the dull routine of scanning texts for keywords. But content analysis has become ubiquitous with the advent of the Internet, particularly emails and Web sites. Keyword search, a pivotal element of content analysis, is the most widespread feature of many Internet applications, from search engines to password-cracking programs. Consequently, it has become a central concern for cybersecurity. This chapter investigates some of the most important applications of content analysis on the Net and discusses its increasing essential position in many areas of cybersecurity.

  • 30.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    et al.
    KTH och FHS.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Utrikespolitiska institutet.
    Governance Beyond the Global: Who Controls the Extraterrestrial?2013Ingår i: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 277-292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How is outer space governed? This article argues that private authority is gaining salience in space politics, even with respect to the traditionally state-centric security and military aspects of space. Further, while commercial actors have always played a role in space programs, three significant changes can be detected: transnational conglomerates and consortia as opposed to individual corporations are emerging as key partners in space politics; private partners are gaining stronger and wider responsibilities for the development and management of space programs (including manned spaceflights); and public accountability is increasingly at stake due to a widening of security in space policy. The latter development includes a blurring of key distinctions between military and civilian usage (also referred to as dual-use or dual-role application), as well as between the public and private realms.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Peter Håkansson's United Nations Reformed2012Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 114, nr 1, s. 166-171Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Political Territories in a Global Era2011Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 37-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Norman, Ludvig
    Uppsala University.
    Political Utilization of Scholarly Ideas: “The Clash of Civilizations” vs. “Soft Power” in US Foreign Policy2011Ingår i: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 417-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses how and under what conditions ideas coming from International Relations (IR) scholarship are used in foreign policy. We argue that the focus on policy relevance, which dominates the IR literature on the research-policy interface, is limited. Focusing instead on political utilisation highlights types and mechanisms of political impact, which are overlooked in studies on policy relevance. The fruitfulness of this change in focus is showed in an analysis of how Samuel Huntington's ‘clash of civilizations’ notion and Joseph Nye's ‘soft power’ concept have been used in US foreign policy. George W. Bush's explicit critique and reframing of ‘the clash’ thesis should not be interpreted as absence of impact, but as a significant symbolic utilisation, which has helped legitimate US foreign policy. Likewise, in the few instances in which the notion of ‘soft power’ has been used explicitly, it has played a conceptual and symbolical rather than instrumental role. More generally, this article argues that accessible framing and paradigm compatibility are essential for political utilisation of ideas.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Gilek, MichaelSödertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.Rudén, Christina
    Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Reuter, Marta
    Scientific Committees and EU Policy: The Case of SCHER2010Ingår i: Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges / [ed] Johan Eriksson, Michael Gilek, Christina Rudén, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, s. 301-317Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Reuter, Marta
    Stockholm University.
    Technocracy, Politicization and Non-Involvement: Politics of Expertise in the European Regulation of Chemicals2010Ingår i: Review of Policy Research, ISSN 1541-132X, E-ISSN 1541-1338, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 167-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the relationship between scientific expertise and policy in European chemicals regulation. We argue that the role of scientific expertise in the European regulation of chemicals varies across decision-making levels, countries, and stages of the policy process. Our case study of the role of scientific expertise in the regulation of brominated flame retardants illustrates considerably different manifestations of this interconnected process across regulatory arenas, even though this case concerns a single group of substances. On the European Union level, we find a mix of technocracy and politicization; in Sweden, a clear-cut politicization; and in Poland, noninvolvement. Such differences can be explained by a combination of factors, in particular frame dominance, and mobilization of advocacy coalitions.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Jones, Christopher
    Security Concepts in the European North: Swedish and Finnish Security Policy in Comparative Perspective2009Ingår i: Security in the West: evolution of a concept / [ed] Giampiero Giacomello, R Craig Nation, Milano: Vita e Pensiero , 2009, s. 141-184Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Rhinard, Mark
    The Internal-External Security Nexus: Notes on an Emerging Research Agenda2009Ingår i: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 243-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The central contention of this article holds that scholars do not adequately assess and explain the influence of transboundary security issues on government behaviour. Their assessment is not adequate because they do not fully conceptualize the relationship between internal and external security concerns. Their explanations are not adequate because existing theories cannot fully explain how and why states respond to transboundary security issues. To rectify these concerns, stimulate and structure further research, and encourage scholarly dialogue, we build an analytical framework for (a) understanding what we describe as the ‘nexus’ of internal and external security matters, and (b) explaining why that nexus may change state behaviour on transboundary security issues. The resulting framework encourages a strong focus on the nature of transboundary problems before studying their implications for changes in perceptions, policies, politics and polity.

  • 39.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    Universita` di Bologna.
    Who controls the Internet?: Beyond the obstinacy or obsolescence of the state2009Ingår i: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 206-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the Internet being a truly global phenomenon, understanding how this is controlled should yield observations of relevance for the study of global governance more generally. The Internet, and how it is controlled, should therefore be a concern for all students of world politics, and not only for the smaller albeit multidisciplinary community of scholars engaging in ‘‘Internet studies.’’ A first step is to acknowledge that Internet control varies across time, space, and issue-areas. To better understand such complex patterns of governance, we need to go beyond universal generalizations. In an attempt to support the middle-range theorizing, which arguably is needed, this essay introduces and briefly unpacks three analytical questions: What are the key aspects of Internet control? What actors might control what aspects of the Internet? And, finally, under what conditions are different types of actors likely to control various aspects of the Internet?

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  • 40.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Closing the Gap Between International Relations Theory and Studies of Digital Age Security2007Ingår i: International relations and security in the digital age / [ed] Johan Eriksson and Giampiero Giacomello, London: Routledge, 2007, s. 1-36Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Digital-Age Security in Theory and Practice2007Ingår i: International Relations and Security in the Digital Age / [ed] Johan Eriksson and Giampiero Giacomello, London: Routledge, 2007, s. 173-184Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Bendrath, Ralf
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    From Cyberterrorism to Cyberwar, Back and Forth: How the United States Securitized Cyberspace2007Ingår i: International relations and security in the digital age / [ed] Johan Eriksson and Giampiero Giacomello, London: Routledge, 2007, s. 57-82Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Hur och när påverkar forskning utrikespolitik?2007Ingår i: Internationella Studier, ISSN 0020-952X, nr 1, s. 64-76Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Hosein, Ian
    et al.
    London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), United Kingdom.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    International Policy Dynamics and the Regulation of Dataflows: Bypassing Domestic Restrictions2007Ingår i: International relations and security in the digital age / [ed] Johan Eriksson and Giampiero Giacomello, London: Routledge, 2007, s. 158-172Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Giacomello, GiampieroUniversity of Bologna, Italy.
    International Relations and Security in the Digital Age2007Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap. Institute of International Affairs.
    Power Disparity in the Digital Age2007Ingår i: Security strategies, power disparity and identity: the Baltic Sea region / [ed] Olav F. Knudsen, Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 2007, s. 123-147Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Noreen, Erik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Hotbildsentreprenörens verktygslåda2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Noreen, Erik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Hur man säljer hot2006Ingår i: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, nr 8, s. 6-7Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 49.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för statsvetenskap, nationalekonomi och juridik, Statsvetenskap.
    Konstruktivism2006Ingår i: Internationella relationer / [ed] Jakob Gustavsson & Jonas Tallberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2006, 1, s. 87-102Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Statsvetenskap.
    Nationell nyhetskultur i globaliseringens tidevarv2006Ingår i: Internationella studier, ISSN 0020-952X, nr 4, s. 80-83Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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