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  • 1.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Ertl, D
    Falb, J
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Kaindl, H
    A Case Study of Remote Interdisciplinary Designing through Video Prototypes2012In: Proceedings of the 45th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-45), 2012, p. 504-513Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Ertl, Dominik
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology. KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Göller, Michael
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Falb, Jürgen
    Kaindl, Hermann
    Evaluation of robot body movements supporting communication: Towards HRI on the move2011In: New Frontiers in Human–Robot Interaction / [ed] Kerstin Dautenhahn, Joe Saunders, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company , 2011, p. 185-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In designing socially interactive robots we have focused on robot movement and its role in multi-modal human-robot communication. In this chapter we describe design and evaluation of robot body movements supporting communication, investigating the idea of using speed and orientation adjustments as design elements in human-robot interaction. The scenario studied includes a robotic shopping trolley that offers products via speech and GUI to the user while both are moving in a supermarket-like environment. Our results show that if the robot slows down while making such offers, users are more prone to react upon them and to take the product. However, even from our early pre-study with mock-up robots we observed that users tended not to mention the robot’s slow-down movements, even if these movements were shown several times to them during a video-based debriefing. This phenomenon, that users react implicitly on the robot’s movements without being consciously aware of them, was confirmed during an experimental study with a fully integrated robot prototype. We discuss our results by reflecting on human-robot interaction design methods, and we draw implications from the lessons learned in the study of the design of robot behaviours. In particular, we list a whole set of challenges for HRI when both the user and the robot are moving.

  • 3.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Ertl, Dominik
    Falb, Jürgen
    Kaindl, Hermann
    Göller, Michael
    Evaluation of Robot Body Movements Supporting Communication2010In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on New Frontiers in Human-Robot Interaction - A Symposium at the AISB 2010 Convention, 2010, p. 42-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In designing socially interactive robotswe have focused on robot movement and its role in multi-modal human-robot communication. In this paper we describe a user-centred design and evaluation process, investigating the idea of using speed and orientation adjustments as design elements in human-robot interaction. The scenario studied includes a robotic shopping trolley that offers products to the user while both are moving in a supermarket-like environment. Our results show that if the robot slows down while making such offers, users are more prone to react upon them. However, in an early pre-study, performed only with a robot mock-up, we observed that users tended not to notice the robot's slow-down movements while offers are made, even if these movements were shown several times to them during a video-based debriefing. This phenomenon, that users react implicitly on the robot'smovements without being consciously aware of them, was confirmed during an experimental study with a fully integrated robot prototype.We discuss our results by reflecting on human-robot interaction design methods, and we propose implications from the lessons learnt in the study of the design of robot behaviours.

  • 4. Kaindl, H.
    et al.
    Ertl, D.
    Falb, J.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Göller, M.
    Multimodal communication involving 2D-space movement2010In: 4th International Conference on Cognitive Systems, CogSys 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Ertl, D.
    Goller, M.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Towards HRI on the Move with Mixed Initiative2010In: Proceeding of New Frontiers in Human-Robot Interaction Symposium of the Convention Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour (AISB) 2010, 2010, p. 22-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Groth, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI / Karolinska Institutet.
    Lantz, Ann
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Sallnäs, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Frykholm, Oscar
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Team Meetings within Clinical Domains: Exploring the Use of Routines and Technical Support for Communication2009In: HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION - INTERACT 2009, PT II, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Gross T; Gulliksen J; Kotze P; Oestreicher L; Palanque P; Prates RO; Winckler M, 2009, p. 975-976Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, it is common that a team of clinicians, from different disciplines, instead of one single doctor, care for a patient. This is especially true when it concerns more complicated diseases in highly specialised health care. Going from one doctor to a team of doctors raises new dimensions/problems/issues when deciding about the diagnosis and how to treat the patient. Instead of one person deciding, based on the information given from others, a group of people need to agree on a decision. How do the participants during such decision meetings argue for their experience and skill? What kind of technologies are available and how do they support the communication in the meeting? Måseide (2006), for example, focuses on how different forms of evidence influence and regulate the judgements and decisions of medical practitioners during such meetings. Groth et al. (2008), for example, focuses on the technology used during such meetings, with a focus on audio, video, and images.

  • 7.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Towards a Minimal Interaction Scheme: Initial Observations on Gesture Repertoire and Communication Strategies2009In: RO-MAN 2009: THE 18TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ROBOT AND HUMAN INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION, VOLS 1 AND 2, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 903-908Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates a prototype of an interaction design for a flexible natural language user interface with a minimal set of gestures and natural language commands. The prototype is evaluated using a Hi-Fi simulation approach that allows the enactment of an interfaces that accommodates gesture and speech input for directive commands. In the scenario users were guiding a robot equipped with a camera and microphone through a simple maze. The data from six users were collected and subsequently analysed with respect to the users' communicative behavior. In the analysis of the data special consideration was given to the gesture repertoire. It was found that users, when presented with static images of gestures, added their own dynamic patterns. Furthermore the users appeared to give precedence to the deictic component of gestures that meant left/right. Users were also opportunistic meaning that when they could they used predefined goal points and let the robot use its autonomous navigation to find its way.

  • 8.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    With a new helper comes new tasks mixed-initiative interaction for robot-assisted shopping2009In: IHRCMICA-2009 Improving Human-Robot Communication with Mixed-Initiative and Context-Awareness: Proceedings of the Workshop on Improving Human-Robot Communication with Mixed-Initiative and Context-Awareness co-located with Ro-Man 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the CommRob project1 we are investigating Robot Assisted Shopping. We are considering the effects on usability when allowing for mixed-initiative dialogue. It is noted that when adding a robotic assistant to a scenario that was previously involving only one agent, two new tasks are created: collaborative interaction, and learning an interface. Evaluation of mixed-initiative dialogue becomes complicated because it is not straightforward to separate the overall task performance from the attributes brought by mixed-initiative interaction.

  • 9.
    Räsänen, Minna
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Bogdan, Cristian
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Report on User and Stakeholder Requirements: CommRob Project : Deliverable D7.12008Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Characterising dimensions of use for designing adaptive dialogues for human-robot communication2007In: 2007 RO-MAN: 16TH IEEE  International Symposium On Robot And Human Interactive Communication, Vols 1-3, 2007, p. 1071-1076Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide a possible characterisation of user behaviour based on an analysis of a corpus of human-robot communication, collected by using the Wizard-of-Oz technique to elicit communicative behaviour. We distinguish between three general types of user behaviour: uniform user behaviour, idiosyncratic user behaviour and distinguishing user behaviour. We also present an analysis of user behaviour that can be characterized in terms of overall task organisation (i.e., interaction episodes) and behaviour that is intimately connected to communicative behaviour. We also discuss to what extent manipulation of objects to prepare the environment can be used to group users along the dimensions: task- vs. interaction-orientation and control vs. monitoring. Using this typology we discuss categorisation into four dimensions of use: Directors, Manipulators, Pointers and Players. To support these use dimensions we propose a set of adaptation foci (Focus on Feedback or Action, and on Proactive or Reactive behaviour).

  • 11.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    The need for a model of contact and perception to support natural interactivity in human-robot communication2007In: 2007 RO-MAN: 16TH IEEE International Symposium On Robot And Human Interactive Communication , Vols 1-3, 2007, p. 551-556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In studies of human-robot communication we have observed that the robot's inability to give appropriate communicative feedback for contact and perception causes miscommunication [2]. The purpose of this paper is to motivate the need for and give air initial characterisation of a model for communicative contact and perception feedback. One component of a such a model could be a kind of low-level user model aiming to decide the perceptual status of the user. We have analysed an example of inter-action that shows signs of miscommunication that is related to feedback problems concerning contact and perception. Using the analysis to pinpoint the source. of these problem,,; we provide tin initial account for the type of information sources that a low-level user that handles communicative contact and perception feedback should comprise. We also provide two design examples that in our view motivates this explorative effort.

  • 12.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Topp, Elin Anna
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI (stängd 20111231).
    Severinsson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Developing a Contextualized Multimodal Corpus for Human-Robot Interaction2006In: Proceedings of the fifth international conference on language resources and evaluation, 2006, p. 401-406Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development process of a contextualized corpus for research on Human-Robot Communication. The data have been collected in two Wizard-of-Oz user studies performedwith 22 and 5 users respectively in a scenario that is called the HomeTour. In this scenario the users show the environment (a single room, or a whole floor) to the robot using a combination of speech and gestures. The corpus has been transcribed and annotated with respect to gestures and conversational acts, thus forming a core annotation. We have also annotated or linked other types of data, e.g., laser range finder readings, positioning analysis, questionnaire data and task descriptions that form the annotated context of the scenario. By providing a rich set of different annotated data, thecorpus is thus an important resource both for research on natural language speech interfaces for robots and for research on human-robot communication in general.

  • 13.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Eklundh, Kerstin Severinson
    KTH, Numerisk Analys och Datalogi, NADA.
    Wrede, Britta
    Li, Shuyin
    Integrating miscommunication analysis in natural language interface design for a service robot2006In: 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vols 1-12, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2006, p. 4678-4683Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural language user interfaces for robots with cognitive capabilities should be designed to reduce the occurrence of miscommunication in order to be perceived as providing a smooth and intuitive interaction to its users. This paper describes how miscommunication analysis is integrated in the design process. Observations from 12 user sessions revealed that users misunderstand the robot's functionality; and that feedback sometimes is ill-timed with respect to the situation. We provide a set of design implications to prevent errors from occurring, to influence or adapt to users' behavior.

  • 14.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Green, Anders
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Numerisk Analys och Datalogi, NADA.
    Report on user study on the role of posture and postioning in HRI2006Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Eklundh, Kerstin Severinsson
    KTH, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Applying the wizard-of-oz framework to cooperative service discovery and configuration2004In: RO-MAN 2004: 13TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ROBOT AND HUMAN INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION, PROCEEDINGS, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2004, p. 575-580Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how the Wizard-of-Oz framework can be applied to a service robotics scenario. A scenario the Home Tour Scenario - involving a collaborative service discovery and configuration multimodal dialogue for the robot is described. The role of the wizard operators producing dialogue and robot movements is discussed as well as the specific simulation tools used: the Dialogue Production Tool and the Joystick Navigation Tool. Some attention will be paid to the pilot studies performed as a preparation for the unified Home Tour Scenario.

  • 16.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Designing for learnability in human-robot communication2003In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 644-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a future scenario where many devices can be controlled using the voice, easy and intuitive access will be crucial for avoiding cognitive overload when users are faced with many different systems and interaction models. We propose a model for interaction with spoken language interfaces applied to heterogeneous tasks for service robots, based on the idea of using a family of lifelike characters,, We argue that we can signal important features of the speech interface by using certain visual cues. The aim is to facilitate learning and transfer between interfaces. We discuss challenges for dialogue design affecting learnability in the light of the speech interface constructed for our full-scale robot prototype CERO.

  • 17.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI (stängd 20111231).
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    Task-oriented dialogues for CERO: A user-centered approach2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a user-centered approach to the process of designing spoken dialogues for commanding robots. Using scenarios and synthetic dialogues followed by simulated trials with real users we built a spoken language interface for commanding an office robot. Initial evaluation with the implemented system has brought interesting questions concerning the feedback necessary for interacting with a robot that has no screen. We are using a small life-like character placed upon the robot who is able of displaying conversational gestures. We have performed initial evaluations on video recorded material which have raised issues concerning low-level feedback, timing and sequencing of commands in dialogue

  • 18.
    Green, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    KTH, Människa-datorinteraktion, MDI.
    Oestreicher, Lars
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    Norman, Michael
    User centered design for intelligent service robots2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a fetch-and-carry robot to assist physically impaired people in an office environment. Different methods involving users are employed in the project, including the task analysis, Hi-Fi simulation trials and focus group sessions. Through an iterative design process, a prototype robot system has been developed, with an enhanced robot platform including a graphical user interface and natural language interface. The users' need for continuous feedback from the robot has led to the development of an animated character (CERO), which relates the two interface components and indicates the robot's current state by using simple gestures

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