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  • 1.
    Winroth, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Co-authors of branding processes intertwined with entrepreneurial processes: cases from the digital world2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technological development in the last decades and the practice of digital consumption are shifting the conditions of contemporary branding (Denegri-Knott and Molesworth 2010; Sanz 2014). The Internet enriches the possibility of communication around brands as it opens an autonomous arena still very accessible in everyday life. The net is not so much about transactions as about offering an arena for dialogue and relations. But as consumption has become a central lotus for community in our society, the conversation often shifts into a dialogue of transactions. 

    The Internet offers a ‘third space’ where social relations can be playfully constructed, creating a perfect arena for the shaping of a persona. It offers a space for exchange of information and for constituting an audience as members of a community. So participation in the Internet can be both ‘a formal social enterprise’ and ‘an organized public’ involving various forms of interaction between these two (Fish, Murillo, Nguyen, Panofsky and Kelty, 2011). The Internet opens possibilities for consumers to exchange information and sometimes build their own brands, as for instance bloggers, creating a public arena for their taste, suggestions and knowledge. As a consequence, for being an opportunity to building brands, the arena become a platform for these brand builders to develop their entrepreneurial talents.

    Even though many theories and models concerned with strategic branding suggest that brand managers seduce their consumers into consuming products and services, this point of view has been seriously questioned. Instead branding has become understood as a process where several actors contribute imbedded in socio-spatial interactions (Holt, 2004; Lury 2004; Power and Hauge, 2007). When trying to understand how a brand emerges out of the various voices that give meaning and significance to it, Holt (2004) introduces the concept of ‘co-authors’. By this, Holt means that several possible actors influence the symbolic message that is conveyed by a brand. Corporations, consumers, mediators (e.g. critics and agents) and the cultural industry are suggested to be the so-called ‘co-authors of significance’. Following Lury’s (2004, 1) suggestion brand is here understood not as a commodity set but ‘a set of relations between production and services’, emerging out of a network of relationships.

    Researchers in marketing and entrepreneurship (Hills & Hultman 2011, Whalen & Akala 2016) have increasingly incorporated the concepts of effectuation(Sarasvathy 2001) to emphasize the role of stakeholders in the processes of co-creating opportunities, values and markets. Sarasvathy’s (2001) critical view of the traditional marketing approach highlight the role of uncertainty and ambiguity in the marketing process of a new venture start-ups (Read et al 2009; Read & Sarasvathy 2012) and have opened up for compelling new research perspectives and questions in the area of marketing and entrepreneurship. However, the role of the brands and the process of branding in effectuation processes are still undeveloped topics. A proposed research contribution is to incorporate the concept of ‘co-authors’ in the effectuation literature.

    With a focus on how brands emerge out of a network of relations, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to illustrate brands as emerging out of a network of co-authors; and (2) to demonstrate how this process can be integrated into the idea of entrepreneurship as effectuation (Sarasvathy, 2001). The discussion will be illustrated by using two examples of branding processes intertwined with entrepreneurial processes in the digital world.

    One example of this is how the Internet can be, and often is, used for creating ‘celebrity’ (Hackley and Hackley, 2015) or in other words using the possibility offered by the web for ordinary consumers to reach a mass audience. The cause of this celebrity are shifting and sometimes only about somebody making themselves visible on the Internet, like for instance on Youtube, or a fashion blogger building a blog that has turned out to attract consumers.The phenomenon of fashion bloggers initially developing personal brands on the ‘labour market’ and later developing their brands into various entrepreneurial ventures has been acknowledged (Phil 2013). Bloggers’ personal brands have a possible competitive advantage, as their names are already known and established with an audience.Also, the visual economy assemble access through a screen, and it needs celebrities to give visual resonance and market definition to images of consumption (Schroeder, 2005). The cases illustrate how a fashion-blogger and a digital media-entrepreneur build and evolve their initial brand to expand into several well-established ventures. 

  • 2.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rafferty, Michael
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    External finance and ‘transition’: A  review of market developments in Central Europe and the Baltics in the run-up to EU membership2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transtition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 59-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 3.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rafferty, Michael
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Foreign Direct Investment and Post-Communist Banking: The Case of the Baltic States2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 177-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Omvandlingar: Försäkringsbolaget Skandia 1990-20162019 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skandia har stått i centrum för försäkringsbranschens utveckling sedan bolaget bildades 1855. Dessutom har bolaget omvandlat sig själv vid upprepade tillfällen – inte minst under 1900-talets slut. Den här boken handlar främst om de senaste 30 åren i Skandias historia. En tid då omvandlingarna varit större än tidigare. Skandia gick in i 1990-talet som ett starkt inhemskt bolag med omfattande verksamhet på den nordiska marknaden och en bred närvaro internationellt. Under de följande decennierna genomgick Skandia flera grundläggande förändringar som omvandlade bolagets produkter, ägande, kundkrets och ekonomiska situation. Det är denna historia som författarna Mats Larsson och Mikael Lönnborg berättar, med utgångspunkt i ett omfattande och unikt arkivmaterial på Centrum för Näringslivshistoria och ett stort antal intervjuer med de personer som spelat en betydande roll i omvandlingarna.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History (UCBH).
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Omvandlingarnas bolag: Skandias utveckling 1990-20162019In: Nordisk Försäkringstidsrift, ISSN 0348-6516, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    ‘Same same but different’: Trust, Confidence and Governance Among Swedish Mutual Insurers2019In: Managing Hybrid Organizations: Governance, Professionalism and Regulation / [ed] Alexius, Susanna; Furusten, Staffan, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 49-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For more than a century, mutual insurers have dominated the Swedish insurance market. Independent of the historical roots and traditions, companies that sell life and other (non-life) forms of insurance have chosen the mutual organizational form. We focus on two different mutual insurers—Folksam and Länsförsäkringar—in decoding their historical roots, governance and management structure. Our focus is on the differences and similarities with special attention to customer’s participation in governance. The chapter shows that it is indeed possible to organize successful hybrid organizations with longevity and that the state’s role in the process is vital but not always a precondition for successful development of hybrid firms. In addition, the chapter also shows that it is difficult to include customers/owners in the governance of these firms and that there exist many different options for creating such systems.

  • 7.
    Hedberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Uppsala University.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Swedish Insurance, Legislation and Efficiency2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Rafferty, Michael
    et al.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Toward a Post-Transition Political Economy Theory of Transformation: The Case of Financial Services2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 29-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Rafferty, Michael
    et al.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Unplanned from Plan to Market: A Concluding Analysis2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 281-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 10.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rafferty, Michael
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Unplanned: Introduction of the Key Themes2019In: Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries / [ed] Mikael Olsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Michael Rafferty, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, 1, p. 11-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 11.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.Rafferty, MichaelRMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Unplanned: The Transformation of States and Financial Markets in 'Transition' Countries2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of the Berlin Wall began a new, and unexpected, period of European political and economic history. For some, this event proved the historical victory of liberal democratic capitalism over socialism. But three decades on, we now know that democratic market economies do not emerge not spontaneously, and are indeed fragile in their own ways. History has not ended, but taken a new and interesting turn. This book provides a historically and conceptually grounded analysis of the transformation of fi nance and business in several countries in Central Europe and the Baltic states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The essays in this book seek to foreground the continuities and ruptures that the experience of these ‘transition’ countries has revealed. It will be of interest to economic historians, sociologists, political science scholars, fi nancial economists, policy makers, and of course to those who have lived through the period.

  • 12.
    Hedberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska instituitonen.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ett liv som handledare2018In: Ett liv som handledare: Mats Larsson 65 år / [ed] Peter Hedberg och Mikael Lönnborg, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2018, p. 5-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hedberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen.
    Lönnborg, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ett liv som handledare: Mats Larsson 65 år2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History (UCBH).
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Förtroende och lojalitet i försäkring2018In: Nordisk Försäkringstidskrift, ISSN 0348-6516, E-ISSN 2001-1741, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Svenska försäkringsbolags internationella verksamhet2018In: Ett liv som handledare: Mats Larsson 65 år / [ed] Peter Hedbergoch Mikael Lönnborg, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2018, no 23, p. 17-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Swedish Reinsurers in the Non-Life Sector2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Trade and Investment in the Baltic Sea Region, 1990-2015: Lessons and Implications for Region-Building2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Waves of Globalization: Swedish Insurers on Foreign Markets2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Waves of Internationalization: Swedish Insurers on Foreign Markets2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska insititutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ömsesidig försäkring: Bolag, kunder och marknad2018 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan den moderna försäkringsbranschen började utvecklas vid mitten av 1800-talet har den ömsesidiga bolagsformen haft en stark position i Sverige. I dag dominerar ömsesidiga företag på såväl liv- som skadeförsäkringsmarknaden, och under de senaste decennierna har de dessutom stärkt sin position.I boken diskuteras skillnaderna mellan ömsesidiga och aktiebolagsgrundade bolag, liksom orsakerna till den ömsesidiga bolags formens framgångar i Sverige. Har det att göra med nationell tradition, lagstiftning eller konkurrenstryck?Boken är uppdelad i tematiska kapitel som behandlar olika aspekter av försäkring i allmänhet och ömsesidig försäkring i synnerhet. Bland dessa teman finns frågor om regelverk och marknad, men också kundernas medbestämmande och lojalitet.

  • 21.
    Castillo, Daniel
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Ljung, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Arbetsdelning i praktiken: Satsning på nya avlastande tjänster i Skövde kommun2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknadsmodellen Breddad kompetensförsörjning i Skövde kommun syftar till att avlasta ordinarie kommunal personal och förbättra deras arbetssituation. Genom en ökad arbetsdelning övertar arbetslösa arbetsuppgifter som inte kräver någon formell kompetens, vilket gör att ordinarie personal kan fokusera på sitt kärnarbete.

    Detta forskningsprojekt har undersökt praktiska förutsättningar för arbetsdelning vid fyra kommunala enheter. Studien visar att det överlag behövs mer personal och att förutsättningarna för arbetsdelning skiljer sig mellan verksamheterna. Avlastningen har trots detta främjat verksamhetens kvalitet, personalens arbetstillfredsställelse och minskat stressen. En framtida utmaning är dock finansieringen av de nya tjänsterna.

    Daniel Castillo är fil. dr i sociologi och forskningsassistent Mikael Ljung är fil. master i sociologi, båda verksamma vid Förvaltningsakademin, Södertörns högskola.

  • 22.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Nakamura, Richard
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Building the Baltic Sea Region through investment and trade, 1989-20092017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some twenty years after the fall of the communist dictatorships that divided the European continent the European Union in late 2009 adopted its first ever macroregional strategy – the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. The strategy was a symbolic second milestone with regard to the political endeavours to reintegrate the continent; the first being the 2004 enlargement. Having transformed the Baltic Sea from a Mare Dividum to a European Mare Nostrum is indeed also a sign of the success of such integrative political processes. However, at the same time the perceived need for a specific strategy in order to further and deepen the integration and reduce the economic gaps within the European Union gives an indication that there is more to be wished for with regard to this region.

    It has been suggested that regionalism is defined “as an economic process whereby economic flows grow more rapidly among a given group of states [in the same region] than between these states and those located elsewhere”. In this paper we thus approach the economic underpinnings for the Baltic Sea Region by analysing the developments with regard to investment and trade flows during the last twenty years.

    We ask ourselves whether these developments are in congruence with the notion of the building of one integrated region and whether it makes economic sense to talk about a Baltic Sea Region? For example, to what extent have the developments with regard to foreign direct investments proved sustainable? What sectors are leading the way and which are lagging? What divisions remain to be tackled? These are some of the questions that this paper attempts to address based upon a thorough analysis of the existing sources with regard to trade and investment flows.

  • 23.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    From the Baltic rim to growth markets: Contextual issues and market strategies of dairy companies in the Baltic rim – the case of Arla2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ljung, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    Ivarsson Westerberg, Anders
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Academy of Public Administration.
    När målstyrning blev detaljstyrning: Arbetsvillkor och administrativa rutiner i hemtjänsten2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom en rad reformer har hemtjänsten förändrats från att vara en kommunal verksamhet till att idag omfatta både privata bolag och olika kommunala enheter. Grundidén med förändringarna var att verksamheten skulle målstyras och effektiviseras.

    Denna studie visar att det administrativa arbetet ökat avsevärt, främst högre upp i organisationen. För vårdbiträdena har däremot tidspressen och detaljstyrningen ökat och det finns skäl att ifrågasätta om verksamheten har kostnadseffektiviserats.

    Slutsatsen blir att ekonomi prioriteras framför omsorg. Sättet som hemtjänsten är organiserad på har lett till tidsbrist, bristande kontinuitet och att omsorgsarbetet med de äldre får stå tillbaka.

    Mikael Ljung är masterstudent och forskningsassistent och Anders Ivarsson Westerberg är docent i företagsekonomi och verksam vid Förvaltningsakademin, Södertörns högskola.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Swedish Life Reinsurance and Risk Management2017In: Highlights on Reinsurance History / [ed] André Straus & Leonardo Caruana de las Cagigas, Bruxelles: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 93-112Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Law and Governance, Centre for Business History, Oslo, Norway.
    Rafferty, Michael
    The Royal Melbourne Technical Institute (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    The Rationality and Effects of Lender of Last Resort Policy in Scandinavia2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Law and Governance, Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    The rise and fall of the Baltic Sea Region?: The economic and political underpinnings of a northern European macroregion, 1990-20152017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that regionalism is defined “as an economic process whereby economic flows grow more rapidly among a given group of states [in the same region] than between these states and those located elsewhere”. In this paper we approach the economic underpinnings for the Baltic Sea Region by analysing the developments with regard to trade and investment in the quarter of a century that has passed since the fall of the communist regimes that divided the European continent At the same time we look into the political developments that brought the 2009 adoption of the European Union’s first macroregional strategy, the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. The strategy was a symbolic second milestone with regard to the political endeavours to reintegrate the continent; the first being the 2004 enlargement. Having transformed the Baltic Sea from a ‘Mare Dividum’ to a European ‘Mare Nostrum’ was indeed also a sign of the success of such integrative political processes.

    However, it may also be argued that the perceived need for a specific strategy in order to further and deepen the integration and reduce the economic gaps within the European Union gives an indication that there was more to be wished for with regard to this region. Further, more recent political developments in Europe as such as well as the constituent countries of this macroregion has cast some doubts on the future. In this paper we ask ourselves whether developments with regard to investments and trade are in congruence with the notion of the building of one integrated region; does it make economic sense to talk about a Baltic Sea Region or is the eastwest divide still present? For example, to what extent have the developments with regard to foreign direct investments proved sustainable? What sectors are leading the way and which are lagging? What divisions remain to be tackled? These are some of the questions that this paper attempts to address based upon a thorough analysis of the existing sources with regard to foreign direct investment and trade flows. In addition, in a concluding section, we open up an analysis on whether recent political development risk nullifying the progress made on the economic arena – or whether Brexit and connected developments are actually reinforcing the European macroregional agenda?

  • 28.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    The Swedish insurance distribution system, different ownership forms and cartels2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish insurance companies developed – in line with other Scandinavian countries – an unique kind of distribution system for selling insurance products. The origin of the Swedish insurance market was built on inspiration from in particular from United Kingdom and Germany when the first joint-stock company Skandia was founded in the 1850s. Swedish insurers copied among other things, insurance contracts, premium calculation schemes and organising agent networks. In line with these corporations, each insurance company established regionally based networks of agents with a general agent and a large number of subordinated agents. However, in the Scandinavian setting, the emergency of independent brokers was haltered by an interesting dilemma. Early on, agents used something called ‘returned commission’ where they offered potential customers to get a portion of the agents’s commission. This often led to that customers signed life insurance contracts with higher insurance sums and after some time the could not keep on paying the premium and had to cancel the contract. Due to the social element of life insurance, and the existence of so-called returned commission, cancelled contracts could jeopardize the legitimacy of the entire market. The only measure – according to the trade organizations – to control the agentswas to keep the system with that each insurers had their own employed agents. Thereby, the emergency of independent brokers did not developed on the Swedish insurance market.

    In this paper we will follow the distribution system for the insurance industry during the 19th and 20th centuries until today and describe how the system was relative stable until the 1980s through legislation but also supported by formal cartelization and gentlemen’s agreement on the market. In particular one cartel agreement, that was implemented in the 1910s that focused on the agent system that changed repeatedly until the 1980s – and fundament of the entire distribution system – will be discussed. The paper will focus on the major changes that occurred from the 1980s and onwards, in particular in connection of the accession to the European Union in the 1990s that entirely changed the distribution system on the market.

  • 29.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Trade and Foreign Direct Investment in the Baltic Sea Region, 1990-2015: Lessons from attempts at regional integration in post-communist Europe2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business HIstory.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Är svensk ömsesidig försäkring unik?2017In: Nordisk Försäkringstidskrift, ISSN 0348-6516, E-ISSN 2001-1741, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation.
    An Innovator and an Entrepreneur: Carl Gustaf von Koch and the Introduction of Modern Risk Management in Sweden2016In: Proceedings of the International Sessions of the 52nd Japanese Business History Society of Japan (BHSJ), Chuo University, Japan, 8-9 October, 2016, 2016, p. 135-152Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Centre for Business History.
    Kundägda svenska försäkringsbolag: Ett framgångsrecept?2016In: Historikere i oppdrag: Festskrift til Trond Bergh, Sverre Knutsen og Lars Thue i anledning 70-årsdagene i 2015 og 2016 / [ed] Harald Espeli og Finn Erhard Johannessen, Oslo: Novus Forlag, 2016, 1, p. 117-140Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School,Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Oslo, Norway.
    Regulation competition of Swedish Insurance Business: The Role of the Insurance Cartel Registry2016In: Regulating Competition: Cartel Registers in the Twentieth Century World / [ed] Susanna Fellman & Martin Shanahan, Abingdon & New York: Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 248-267Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Hedberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Uppsala Universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen.
    Regulatory change and market efficiency in the Swedish Insurance Industry during a half century2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    State Ownership and Privatization in Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    The Internationalization of the Swedish Dairy Industry2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Oslo .
    Försäkringsvärlden i gungning2015In: Företagshistoria, ISSN 2001-7936, no 1, p. 47-51Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Center for Business HIstory.
    Organising Risk Management in Sweden: The Life Reinsurance Market2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the reinsurance industry is to provide insurance for primary insurers. Primary insurers have fairly standardised policies, whereas those of reinsurers are often less so, more internationally oriented and likely to cover very large risks. There is little doubt that primary insurance policies, as well as an insurance market based on fixed premiums, would be difficult to sustain over the long run without reinsurance. Reinsurance enables portfolio diversification by the primary insurer in order to avoid the kinds of devastating losses that could threaten its survival (Kopf 1929; Golding 1930; Doherty & Smetters 2005; James et al. 2014; Borsheid & Haueter 2012).

    This paper discusses the emergency of the Swedish life reinsurance market from the mid 19th century and describe the development until the 2010s. In the wake of the founding of the first joint stock corporations in the middle of the 1850s, insurers set rather limited risk maximums and signed reciprocal treaties with mainly foreign insurers to limit their risks. During the following six decades the life reinsurance was handled by individual corporations but in 1914 a commonly owned life reinsurance company was organised to deal with the issue for reinsurance for the entire market. This continued until the end of the 1980s when most of the individual insurers preferred to set up their own corporations for dealing with the issue of life reinsurance and Sweden Re was transformed into a completely different organisation. 

  • 39. Kleverman, Anders
    et al.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Senter for Business History.
    Svenska Försäkringsföreningen ur ett historiskt perspektiv2015In: Nordisk Försäkringstidskrift, ISSN 0348-6516, E-ISSN 2001-1741, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Centre for Business History.
    Swedish Life Reinsurance and Risk Management2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Hedberg, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Centre for Business History.
    The impact of market regulation on the Swedish insurance industry, 1930- 19802015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business HIstory.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Center for Business History.
    The Survival and Success of Swedish Mutual Insurers2015In: Corporate Forms and Organisational Choice in International Insurance / [ed] Robin Pearson & Takau Yoneyama, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, 1, p. 93-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates that the presence of diversified corporate forms within the insurance industry does not always lead to the dominance of what is, according to theory, the most efficient business form, the joint-stock corporation. Swedish mutual insurance companies have often been connected to various popular movements, and have thus obtained quasi-monopoly rights for writing certain kinds of insurance. This has been important as a means of obtaining economies of scale and creating efficient organisations, and has allowed them to compete with their joint-stock rivals. Mutuals have also remained important players in the insurance market by keeping policyholders’ interests in focus through creative product diversification and by expanding nationally to reach customers outside of their original base. Mutuality also protected them against hostile take-overs that weakened the stock corporations. Mutual insurers not only survived as independent companies but also were a success. 

  • 43.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Oslo .
    Rafferty, Michael
    Sydney University.
    Winners and Losers in Times of Financial Crises2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we take the current global financial crisis as a point of departure for a comparative and longitudinal study of such crises in Sweden during the last 100 years. A focus of our attention is how the state (or entities close to the state) chooses to manage the financial crises and thus how they distribute the direct and indirect costs connected to these crises, i.e. how the state in attempting to resolve crises effectively also helps pick the winners and losers of these recurring phenomena. However, this is only a pilot study of a new research project and here we will focus on how Scandinavian countries have dealt with financial crises, and particular how the state have acted in connections with financial crises.

  • 44.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Senter for Business History.
    Elden är lös!2014In: Företagshistoria, ISSN 2001-7936, no 3, p. 41-44Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Centre for Business History.
    Finanskriser i Sverige2014 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Finanskriser i sverige 

    Den 15 september 2008 tvingades Lehman Brothers ställa in sina betalningar, vilket startade den mest omfattande internationella finansiella krisen sedan depressionen på 1930-talet. Krisens orsaker, bankernas agerade och statens roll i det finansiella systemet har diskuterats livligt. Men finansiella kriser är inte unika för vår tid utan har varit en del av ekonomins utveckling under de senaste århundradena. 

    Denna bok fokuserar främst på de finansiella kriser som drabbat Sverige under de senaste 150 åren, det vill säga sedan landet började industrialiseras och den ekonomiska tillväxten ta fart. Finansiella kriser har ofta inträffat i samband med perioder med snabb tillväxt och ändrade förutsättningar för näringsliv och finansmarknad. I framställningen analyseras krisernas bakgrundsfaktorer, utveckling hur kriserna har lösts och framför allt vilken roll staten har spelat i denna process. Interaktionen mellan stat, marknad och aktörer har varit viktiga för framväxten men även för att lösa finansiella kriser. Boken ger en överblick över svenska finanskrisers drivkrafter, utveckling, räddningsaktioner och konsekvenser. 

  • 46.
    Ekberg, Espen
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business School.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School.
    Myrvang, Christine
    BI Norwegian Business School.
    Innledning: Mellom næaringsliv og historie2014In: Næringsliv og historia / [ed] Espen Ekberg, Mikael Lönnborg & Christine Myrvang, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2014, 1, p. 7-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Ekberg, Espen
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business School.
    Lönnborg, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School.Myrvang, ChristineBI Norwegian Business School.
    Næringsliv og historie2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History (UCBH).
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    SCOR Sweden Re: 100 years of Swedish (Re)Insurance History2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History (UCBH).
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    SCOR Sweden Re 100 år2014In: The SCOR Sweden Re Nordic Life Insurance Conference 2014, Stockholm: SCOR , 2014, p. 103-116Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. BI Norwegian Business School, Department of Innovation and Economic Organisation, Centre for Business History.
    SCOR Sweden Re: A Century of Reinsurance2014In: Nordisk Försäkringstidskrift, ISSN 0348-6516, E-ISSN 2001-1741, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
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